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Sample records for affinity purified polyclonal

  1. Therapeutic effects of antigen affinity-purified polyclonal anti-receptor of advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) antibodies on cholestasis-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Deng, Qing; Gao, Jin; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Wen; Hu, Jianjun; Tan, Quanhui; Zhou, Liang; Han, Wei; Yuan, Yunsheng; Yu, Yan

    2016-05-15

    Cholestasis leads to acute hepatic injury, fibrosis/cirrhosis, inflammation, and duct proliferation. We investigated whether blocking receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with polyclonal anti-RAGE antibodies (anti-RAGE) could regulate acute liver injury and fibrosis in a rat bile duct ligation (BDL) model. Male Wister rats received 0.5mg/kg rabbit anti-RAGE or an equal amount of rabbit IgG by subcutaneous injection twice a week after BDL. Samples of liver tissue and peripheral blood were collected at 14 days after BDL. Serum biochemistry and histology were used to analyze the degree of liver injury. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining were used to further analyze liver injury. Anti-RAGE improved the gross appearance of the liver and the rat survival rate. Liver tissue histology and relevant serum biochemistry indicated that anti-RAGE attenuated liver necrosis, inflammation, liver fibrosis, and duct proliferation in the BDL model. qPCR and western blotting showed significant reductions in interleukin-1β expression levels in the liver by treatment with anti-RAGE. Anti-RAGE also significantly reduced the mRNA levels of α1(1) collagen (Col1α1) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and the ratio of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the liver. In addition, anti-RAGE regulated the transcriptional level of Col1α1 and MMP-9 in transforming growth factor-β-induced activated LX-2 cells in vitro. Anti-RAGE was found to inhibit hepatic stellate cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, anti-RAGE can protect the liver from injury induced by BDL in rats. PMID:26970185

  2. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of affinity-purified Plasmodium falciparum exoantigens in Aotus nancymai monkeys.

    PubMed

    James, M A; Fajfar-Whetstone, C J; Kakoma, I; Buese, M M; Clabaugh, G W; Hansen, R; Ristic, M

    1991-03-01

    Soluble Plasmodium falciparum polypeptides, affinity-purified from culture supernatant fluids using sequential immunoadsorptions employing both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, induced protective immunity against experimental falciparum malaria in Peruvian Aotus nancymai monkeys. Susceptible monkeys were vaccinated with polypeptides affinity-purified from supernatant fluids of P. falciparum Indochina I/CDC cultures. Eighteen animals (6 immunized with purified antigens plus adjuvants, 6 injected with only the adjuvant preparation, and 6 untreated) were challenged with whole blood containing monkey-adapted virulent organisms of the Indochina I/CDC strain. Selected hematologic, serologic and parasitologic profiles served as potential indicators of protection. This immunogen, when fortified with an aluminum hydroxide/Quil-A saponin adjuvant combination, elicited good antibody responses to major P. falciparum antigens. Protection in vaccinated animals was evidenced by a significantly limited reduction in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and a relatively moderate course of infection after homologous needle-challenge with Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum parasites.

  3. Dimerization Capacities of FGF2 Purified with or without Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Liang-Yuan; Taouji, Said; Moroni, Elisabetta; Colombo, Giorgio; Chevet, Eric; Sue, Shih-Che; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a pleiotropic growth factor exhibiting a variety of biological activities. In this article, we studied the capacity of FGF2 purified with or without heparin affinity chromatography to self-associate. Analyzing the NMR HSQC spectra for different FGF2 concentrations, heparin-affinity purified FGF2 showed perturbations that indicate dimerization and are a higher-order oligomerization state. HSQC perturbation observed with different FGF2 concentrations revealed a heparin-binding site and two dimer interfaces. Thus, with increasing protein concentrations, FGF2 monomers make contacts with each other and form dimers or higher order oligomers. On the contrary, FGF2 purified with ion-exchange chromatography did not show similar perturbation indicating that self-association of FGF2 is eliminated if purification is done without heparin-affinity chromatography. The HSQC spectra of heparin-affinity purified FGF2 can be reproduced to some extent by adding heparin tetra-saccharide to ion exchange chromatography purified FGF2. Heparin-affinity purified FGF2 bound to acceptor and donor beads in a tagged form using His-tagged or GST-tagged proteins, also dimerized in the AlphaScreen™ assay. This assay was further validated using different experimental conditions and competitors. The assay constitutes an interesting tool to study dimerization of other FGF forms as well. PMID:25299071

  4. Quantitation of tyrosine hydroxylase, protein levels: Spot immunolabeling with an affinity-purified antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Haycock, J.W. )

    1989-09-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase was purified from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and rat pheochromocytoma using a rapid (less than 2 days) procedure performed at room temperature. Rabbits were immunized with purified enzyme that was denatured with sodium dodecylsulfate, and antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase were affinity-purified from immune sera. A Western blot procedure using the affinity-purified antibodies and {sup 125}I-protein A demonstrated a selective labeling of a single Mr approximately 62,000 band in samples from a number of different tissues. The relative lack of background {sup 125}I-protein A binding permitted the development of a quantitative spot immunolabeling procedure for tyrosine hydroxylase protein. The sensitivity of the assay is 1-2 ng of enzyme. Essentially identical standard curves were obtained with tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromocytoma, rat corpus striatum, and bovine adrenal medulla. An extract of PC 12 cells (clonal rat pheochromocytoma cells) was calibrated against purified rat pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase and used as an external standard against which levels of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells and other tissue were quantified. With this procedure, qualitative assessment of tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels can be obtained in a few hours and quantitative assessment can be obtained in less than a day.

  5. Aspergillus carbonarius polygalacturonases purified by integrated membrane process and affinity precipitation for apple juice production.

    PubMed

    Nakkeeran, Ekambaram; Umesh-Kumar, Sukumaran; Subramanian, Rangaswamy

    2011-02-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius, when grown by submerged and solid-state fermentation, produces different molecular forms of polygalacturonase (PG; EC 3.2.1.15), among them a 42 kDa PG with a high specific activity of 7000 U/mg protein. When the enzymes were purified by integrated membrane process (IMP) and alginate affinity precipitation (AAP), the two processes concentrated different forms of the enzyme. The AAP process selectively purified and concentrated the high active PG whereas the IMP yielded different PGs and also amylase and protease. Evaluation of the AAP enzyme preparations for apple juice preparation under conditions usually employed commercially demonstrated that the high activity PG did not result in good juice clarity. With IMP processed enzymes, juice yields and clarity were similar to that obtained with commercial PG from A. niger.

  6. Protein Affinity Chromatography with Purified Yeast DNA Polymerase α Detects Proteins that Bind to DNA Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jeff; Formosa, Tim

    1992-02-01

    We have overexpressed the POL1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified the resulting DNA polymerase α polypeptide in an apparently intact form. We attached the purified DNA polymerase covalently to an agarose matrix and used this matrix to chromatograph extracts prepared from yeast cells. At least six proteins bound to the yeast DNA polymerase α matrix that did not bind to a control matrix. We speculate that these proteins might be DNA polymerase α accessory proteins. Consistent with this interpretation, one of the binding proteins, which we have named POB1 (polymerase one binding), is required for normal chromosome transmission. Mutations in this gene cause increased chromosome loss and an abnormal cell morphology, phenotypes that also occur in the presence of mutations in the yeast α or δ polymerase genes. These results suggest that the interactions detected by polymerase affinity chromatography are biologically relevant and may help to illuminate the architecture of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery.

  7. Development of DNA affinity techniques for the functional characterization of purified RNA polymerase II transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkel, S.; Thompson, J.A.; Cohen, R.B.; Brendler, T.; Safer, B.

    1987-05-01

    Affinity adsorption, precipitation, and partitioning techniques have been developed to purify and characterize RNA Pol II transcription components from whole cell extracts (WCE) (HeLa) and nuclear extracts (K562). The titration of these extracts with multicopy constructs of the Ad2 MLP but not pUC8, inhibits transcriptional activity. DNA-binding factors precipitated by this technique are greatly enriched by centrifugation. Using this approach, factors binding to the upstream promoter sequence (UPS) of the Ad2 MLP have been rapidly isolated by Mono Q, Mono S, and DNA affinity chromatography. By U.V. crosslinking to nucleotides containing specific TSP-phosphodiester bonds within the recognition sequence, this factor is identified as a M/sub r/ = 45,000 polypeptide. To generate an assay system for the functional evaluation of single transcription components, a similar approach using synthetic oligonucleotide sequences spanning single promoter binding sites has been developed. The addition of a synthetic 63-mer containing the UPS element of the Ad2 MLP to HeLa WCE inhibited transcription by 60%. The addition of partially purified UPS binding protein, but not RNA Pol II, restored transcriptional activity. The addition of synthetic oligonucleotides containing other regulatory sequences not present in the Ad2 MLP was without effect.

  8. Characterization of affinity-purified isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively.

  9. [Preparation of novel magnetic dextran affinity adsorbents and their application to purify urokinase].

    PubMed

    Dong, Y S; Liang, F; Yu, X Y; Guo, L A; Chang, J H

    2001-01-01

    The reverse phase suspension and embedment technique were adopted to prepare magnetic dextran microsphere (MDMS). The dispersion medium was mixture of some organic solvents. Span-80 was used as stabilizer. The aqueous dextran with magnetic fluid was suspended in dispersion medium with epichlorohydrin as cross-linking reagent. The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature and then heated at 70 degrees C for 4 hours, MDMS was thus obtained. MDMS was activated by epichlorohydrin on which 6-aminohexanoic acid, glycine or ethylene diamine was bonded as spacers. Then it was coupled with p-aminobenzamide, L-arginine methyl ester or guanidohexanoic acid and five magnetic affinity adsorbents were prepared. The MDMS was polydisperse particles with the size of 50-300 meshes and the content of Fe3O4 was about 6.2 per cent in the MDMS. Influence of some parameters such as viscosity and density of organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phase, the quantity of surfactant and stirring speed on preparing MDMS was studied. Magnetic affinity adsorbents were used to purify crude urokinase in a bath mode and the effect of coupling reagents and ligands on results of purification was discussed. The bioactivity recovery was 40.0 to 60.7 per cent, the purification-fold was between 14.9 and 32.8, and the adsorptive capacity varies from 89 mg to 121 mg per milliliter of adsorbent. PMID:12541840

  10. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL−1, Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL−1. The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye. PMID:27092514

  11. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-04-15

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL(-1), Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL(-1). The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye.

  12. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-zhen; Chu, Zhi-zhan; Chen, Chang-chao; Cao, Ao-cheng; Tong, Xin; Ouyang, Can-bin; Yuan, Qi-hang; Wang, Mi-nan; Wu, Zhong-kun; Wang, Hai-hong; Wang, Sheng-bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP) could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK), α-Amylase (Amy) and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases. PMID:26641240

  13. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-zhen; Chu, Zhi-zhan; Chen, Chang-chao; Cao, Ao-cheng; Tong, Xin; Ouyang, Can-bin; Yuan, Qi-hang; Wang, Mi-nan; Wu, Zhong-kun; Wang, Hai-hong; Wang, Sheng-bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP) could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK), α-Amylase (Amy) and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases. PMID:26641240

  14. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL(-1), Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL(-1). The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye. PMID:27092514

  15. Development of supermacroporous monolithic adsorbents for purifying lectins by affinity with sugars.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Ramos Ferreira; Gandolfi, Olga Reinert Ramos; Santos, Carilan Moreira Souza; Bonomo, Renata Cristina Ferreira; Veloso, Cristiane Martins; Fontan, Rafael da Costa Ilhéu

    2016-10-15

    Affinity techniques are frequently used to purify biocompounds, because of specific interactions observed in many cases. One example are the lectins, proteins connected in a reversible manner and specific to carbohydrates or sugar-containing molecules. Four different methods were investigated (epoxy, Schiff base, glutaraldehyde and ethylenediamine) to immobilize the carbohydrate N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (d-GlcNAc) on the surface of supermacroporous cryogels made for lectin purification. The glutaraldehyde method presented the highest immobilization capacity of d-GlcNAc (147.77mg/g), while the ethylenediamine method presented the lowest capacity (32.47mg/g). FTIR spectra analysis confirmed the presence of the immobilized carbohydrate. The cryogels containing d-GlcNAc immobilized by the different methods were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, degree of expansion, porosity and constituent fractions. Results showed that the activation methods did not affect the macroporous structure. Images obtained from scanning electron microscopy evidenced the presence of interconnected macropores in the structure of the cryogels produced. The cryogels presented even lower flow resistance in the permeability analysis. Finally, the cryogel modified by the glutaraldehyde method was used in the Concanavalin A lectin adsorption process, presenting an adsorptive capacity of 44.49mg/g and high stability after five cycles of use. PMID:27643576

  16. A novel affinity-based method for the isolation of highly purified extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Wataru; Yoshida, Takeshi; Diez, Diego; Miyatake, Yuji; Nishibu, Takahiro; Imawaka, Naoko; Naruse, Ken; Sadamura, Yoshifusa; Hanayama, Rikinari

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and microvesicles serve as messengers of intercellular network, allowing exchange of cellular components between cells. EVs carry lipids, proteins, and RNAs derived from their producing cells, and have potential as biomarkers specific to cell types and even cellular states. However, conventional methods (such as ultracentrifugation or polymeric precipitation) for isolating EVs have disadvantages regarding purity and feasibility. Here, we have developed a novel method for EV purification by using Tim4 protein, which specifically binds the phosphatidylserine displayed on the surface of EVs. Because the binding is Ca2+-dependent, intact EVs can be easily released from Tim4 by adding Ca2+ chelators. Tim4 purification, which we have applied to cell conditioned media and biofluids, is capable of yielding EVs of a higher purity than those obtained using conventional methods. The lower contamination found in Tim4-purified EV preparations allows more EV-specific proteins to be detected by mass spectrometry, enabling better characterization and quantification of different EV populations’ proteomes. Tim4 protein can also be used as a powerful tool for quantification of EVs in both ELISA and flow cytometry formats. Thus, the affinity of Tim4 for EVs will find abundant applications in EV studies. PMID:27659060

  17. Proteomic profiling of tandem affinity purified 14-3-3 protein complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ing-Feng; Curran, Amy; Woolsey, Rebekah; Quilici, David; Cushman, John C; Mittler, Ron; Harmon, Alice; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2009-06-01

    In eukaryotes, 14-3-3 dimers regulate hundreds of functionally diverse proteins (clients), typically in phosphorylation-dependent interactions. To uncover new clients, 14-3-3 omega (At1g78300) from Arabidopsis was engineered with a "tandem affinity purification" tag and expressed in transgenic plants. Purified complexes were analyzed by tandem MS. Results indicate that 14-3-3 omega can dimerize with at least 10 of the 12 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in Arabidopsis. The identification here of 121 putative clients provides support for in vivo 14-3-3 interactions with a diverse array of proteins, including those involved in: (i) Ion transport, such as a K(+) channel (GORK), a Cl(-) channel (CLCg), Ca(2+) channels belonging to the glutamate receptor family (1.2, 2.1, 2.9, 3.4, 3.7); (ii) hormone signaling, such as ACC synthase (isoforms ACS-6, -7 and -8 involved in ethylene synthesis) and the brassinolide receptors BRI1 and BAK1; (iii) transcription, such as 7 WRKY family transcription factors; (iv) metabolism, such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase; and (v) lipid signaling, such as phospholipase D (beta and gamma). More than 80% (101) of these putative clients represent previously unidentified 14-3-3 interactors. These results raise the number of putative 14-3-3 clients identified in plants to over 300.

  18. Evidence for monomeric and oligomeric hormone-binding domains in affinity-purified gonadotropin receptor from rat ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.Y.; Menon, K.M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Rat ovarian lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor was purified from a Triton X-100-solubilized membrane preparation by affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel 10 coupled to purified human choriogonadotropin. The affinity-purified receptor preparations contained a single class of high-affinity binding sites for {sup 125}I-labeled human choriogonadotropin, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} M, which is comparable to the K{sub d} values for membrane-bound and solubilized receptors. The purified receptor appeared as two dominant bands with molecular weights of 135,000 and 92,000 after sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) under nonreducing conditions. When the individual affinity-purified receptor bands were electroeluted from the gel and analyzed again by SDS/PAGE under nonreducing conditions, both the M{sub r} 92,000 and the 135,000 proteins retained their original molecular form even when 8 M urea was included in the gel. However, when the electrophoretically purified M{sub r} 92,000 and 135,000 bands were subjected to SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, the M{sub r} 135,000 species was almost completely converted to a M{sub r} 92,000 band, but the M{sub r} 92,000 species did not undergo any alteration in molecular weight. The results suggest that the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor from rat ovary exists in two molecular forms, and the higher molecular weight form appears to be composed of disulfide-linked M{sup r} 92,000 subunit, which comprises the hormone-binding domain.

  19. A Lectin Purified from Blood Red Bracket Mushroom, Pycnoporus sanguineus (Agaricomycetidae), Mycelium Displayed Affinity Toward Bovine Transferrin.

    PubMed

    Albores, Silvana; Moros, Maria; Cerdeiras, Maria Pia; de la Fuente, Jesus Martinez; Grazu, Valeria; Fraguas, Laura Franco

    2016-01-01

    Fungal lectins constitute excellent ligands for development of affinity adsorbents useful in affinity chromatography. In this work, a lectin was purified from Pycnoporus sanguineus (PSL) mycelium using 3 procedures: by affinity chromatography, using magnetic galactosyl-nanoparticles or galactose coupled to Sepharose, and by ionic exchange chromatography (IEC). The highest lectin yield was achieved by IEC (55%); SDS-PAGE of PSL showed 2 bands with molecular mass of 68.7 and 55.2 kDa and IEC displayed 2 bands at pi 5.5 and 5.2. The lectin agglutinates rat erythrocytes, exhibiting broad specificity toward several monosaccharides, including galactose. The agglutination was also inhibited by the glycoproteins fetal calf fetuin, bovine lactoferrin, bovine transferrin, and horseradish peroxidase. The lectin was then used to synthesize an affinity adsorbent (PSL-Sepharose) and the interaction with glycoproteins was evaluated by analyzing their chromatographic behaviors. The strongest interaction with the PSL-derivative was observed with transferrin, although lower interactions were also displayed toward fetuin and lactoferrin. These results indicate that the purified PSL constitutes an interesting ligand for the design of affinity adsorbents to be used (i.e., in glycoprotein purification). PMID:27279446

  20. DNA-affinity-purified chip (DAP-chip) method to determine gene targets for bacterial two component regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric G; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-07-21

    In vivo methods such as ChIP-chip are well-established techniques used to determine global gene targets for transcription factors. However, they are of limited use in exploring bacterial two component regulatory systems with uncharacterized activation conditions. Such systems regulate transcription only when activated in the presence of unique signals. Since these signals are often unknown, the in vitro microarray based method described in this video article can be used to determine gene targets and binding sites for response regulators. This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. The protocol involves allowing the purified tagged protein to bind to sheared genomic DNA and then affinity purifying the protein-bound DNA, followed by fluorescent labeling of the DNA and hybridization to a custom tiling array. Preceding steps that may be used to optimize the assay for specific regulators are also described. The peaks generated by the array data analysis are used to predict binding site motifs, which are then experimentally validated. The motif predictions can be further used to determine gene targets of orthologous response regulators in closely related species. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by determining the gene targets and binding site motifs and thus predicting the function for a sigma54-dependent response regulator DVU3023 in the environmental bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

  1. The Plasma Membrane Ca(2+) ATPase: Purification by Calmodulin Affinity Chromatography, and Reconstitution of the Purified Protein.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Verena; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCA pumps) are key regulators of cytosolic Ca(2+) in eukaryotes. They extrude Ca(2+) from the cytosol, using the energy of ATP hydrolysis and operate as Ca(2+)-H(+) exchangers. They are activated by the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin, by acidic phospholipids and by other mechanisms, among them kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Isolation of the PMCA in pure and active form is essential for the analysis of its structure and function. In this chapter, the purification of the pump, as first achieved from erythrocyte plasma membranes by calmodulin-affinity chromatography, is described in detail. The reversible, high-affinity, Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of the pump with calmodulin is the basis of the procedure. Either phospholipids or glycerol have to be present in the isolation buffers to keep the pump active during the isolation procedure. After the isolation of the PMCA pump from human erythrocytes the pump was purified from other cell types, e.g., heart sarcolemma, plant microsomal fractions, and cells that express it ectopically. The reconstitution of the purified pump into phospholipid vesicles using the cholate dialysis method will also be described. It allows studies of transport mechanism and of regulation of pump activity. The purified pump can be stored in the reconstituted form for several days at 4 °C with little loss of activity, but it rapidly loses activity when stored in the detergent-solubilized form. PMID:26695022

  2. Myogenic Growth Factor Present in Skeletal Muscle is Purified by Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardami, Elissavet; Spector, Dennis; Strohman, Richard C.

    1985-12-01

    A myogenic growth factor has been purified from a skeletal muscle, the anterior latissimus dorsi, of adult chickens. In the range of 1-10 ng, this factor stimulates DNA synthesis as well as protein and muscle-specific myosin accumulation in myogenic cell cultures. Purification is achieved through binding of the factor to heparin. The factor is distinct from transferrin and works synergistically with transferrin in stimulating myogenesis in vitro.

  3. Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography Co-Purifies TGF-β1 with Histidine-Tagged Recombinant Extracellular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasvir; Reinhardt, Dieter P.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular recombinant proteins are commonly produced using HEK293 cells as histidine-tagged proteins facilitating purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Based on gel analyses, this one-step purification typically produces proteins of high purity. Here, we analyzed the presence of TGF-β1 in such IMAC purifications using recombinant extracellular fibrillin-1 fragments as examples. Analysis of various purified recombinant fibrillin-1 fragments by ELISA consistently revealed the presence of picomolar concentrations of active and latent TGF-β1, but not of BMP-2. These quantities of TGF-β1 were not detectable by Western blotting and mass spectrometry. However, the amounts of TGF-β1 were sufficient to consistently trigger Smad2 phosphorylation in fibroblasts. The purification mechanism was analyzed to determine whether the presence of TGF-β1 in these protein preparations represents a specific or non-specific co-purification of TGF-β1 with fibrillin-1 fragments. Control purifications using conditioned medium from non-transfected 293 cells yielded similar amounts of TGF-β1 after IMAC. IMAC of purified TGF-β1 and the latency associated peptide showed that these proteins bound to the immobilized nickel ions. These data clearly demonstrate that TGF-β1 was co-purified by specific interactions with nickel, and not by specific interactions with fibrillin-1 fragments. Among various chromatographic methods tested for their ability to eliminate TGF-β1 from fibrillin-1 preparations, gel filtration under high salt conditions was highly effective. As various recombinant extracellular proteins purified in this fashion are frequently used for experiments that can be influenced by the presence of TGF-β1, these findings have far-reaching implications for the required chromatographic schemes and quality controls. PMID:23119075

  4. Rapid screening of textile dyes employed as affinity ligands to purify enzymes from yeast.

    PubMed

    Raya-Tonetti, G; Perotti, N

    1999-04-01

    A rapid method for screening potential dye ligands for use in affinity chromatography is described. Textile dyes were non-covalently coupled to a cross-linked polysaccharide Sepharose(R) matrix. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was used as the model protein for evaluating the screening system. A homogenate from baker's yeast was used as the crude source of enzyme. Batchwise adsorption and elution were used to evaluate the individual dyes. The influence of pH and ionic strength in the binding and elution steps was evaluated. Batch isotherms were used to evaluate parameter characteristics. Experimental data obtained were fitted to Langmuir isotherms to determine the maximum binding capacity and the dissociation constant for each dye evaluated in this study. A dynamic binding capacity of 107.6 units of ADH/g of resin was determined for Procion Turquoise MXG dye by frontal analysis. Specific elution with NAD+ and non-specific elution with 50 mM Tris/HCl buffer, pH 8.5, were tested when Procion Turquoise MXG was used, giving purification factors of 53.5 and 4.4 respectively. This screening technique is inexpensive and can be performed in a few hours. It was possible to predict the performance of different reactive dyes in this way, and the influence of pH and salt on the binding behaviour was demonstrated. PMID:10075911

  5. Rapid screening of textile dyes employed as affinity ligands to purify enzymes from yeast.

    PubMed

    Raya-Tonetti, G; Perotti, N

    1999-04-01

    A rapid method for screening potential dye ligands for use in affinity chromatography is described. Textile dyes were non-covalently coupled to a cross-linked polysaccharide Sepharose(R) matrix. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was used as the model protein for evaluating the screening system. A homogenate from baker's yeast was used as the crude source of enzyme. Batchwise adsorption and elution were used to evaluate the individual dyes. The influence of pH and ionic strength in the binding and elution steps was evaluated. Batch isotherms were used to evaluate parameter characteristics. Experimental data obtained were fitted to Langmuir isotherms to determine the maximum binding capacity and the dissociation constant for each dye evaluated in this study. A dynamic binding capacity of 107.6 units of ADH/g of resin was determined for Procion Turquoise MXG dye by frontal analysis. Specific elution with NAD+ and non-specific elution with 50 mM Tris/HCl buffer, pH 8.5, were tested when Procion Turquoise MXG was used, giving purification factors of 53.5 and 4.4 respectively. This screening technique is inexpensive and can be performed in a few hours. It was possible to predict the performance of different reactive dyes in this way, and the influence of pH and salt on the binding behaviour was demonstrated.

  6. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  7. Affinity for MgADP and force of unbinding from actin of myosin purified from tonic and phasic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Govindaraju, Karuthapillai; Fong, Laura M.; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Smooth muscle is unique in its ability to maintain force at low MgATP consumption. This property, called the latch state, is more prominent in tonic than phasic smooth muscle. Studies performed at the muscle strip level have suggested that myosin from tonic muscle has a greater affinity for MgADP and therefore remains attached to actin longer than myosin from phasic muscle, allowing for cross-bridge dephosphorylation and latch-bridge formation. An alternative hypothesis is that after dephosphorylation, myosin reattaches to actin and maintains force. We investigated these fundamental properties of smooth muscle at the molecular level. We used an in vitro motility assay to measure actin filament velocity (νmax) when propelled by myosin purified from phasic or tonic muscle at increasing [MgADP]. Myosin was 25% thiophosphorylated and 75% unphosphorylated to approximate in vivo conditions. The slope of νmax versus [MgADP] was significantly greater for tonic (−0.51 ± 0.04) than phasic muscle myosin (−0.15 ± 0.04), demonstrating the greater MgADP affinity of myosin from tonic muscle. We then used a laser trap assay to measure the unbinding force from actin of populations of unphosphorylated tonic and phasic muscle myosin. Both myosin types attached to actin, and their unbinding force (0.092 ± 0.022 pN for phasic muscle and 0.084 ± 0.017 pN for tonic muscle) was not statistically different. We conclude that the greater affinity for MgADP of tonic muscle myosin and the reattachment of dephosphorylated myosin to actin may both contribute to the latch state. PMID:18614813

  8. Diacylglycerol-induced translocation of diacylglycerol kinase: use of affinity-purified enzyme in a reconstitution system.

    PubMed

    Besterman, J M; Pollenz, R S; Booker, E L; Cuatrecasas, P

    1986-12-01

    Diacylglycerol-induced translocation of diacylglycerol kinase (ATP:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.107) from the soluble to the membrane-bound compartments was demonstrated both in crude tissue homogenates and in a reconstituted enzyme-membrane model system. In homogenates of either rat brain or liver, incubation with diacylglycerol or phospholipase C, but not phospholipase A2 or phospholipase D, resulted in the translocation of diacylglycerol kinase activity from the soluble to the particulate fraction. This observation formed the basis for the first step in a two-step purification of diacylglycerol kinase. Enzyme extracted in 1 M salt from membranes of rat brain homogenates made in the presence of phospholipase C was purified further by affinity chromatography on a column containing phosphatidylserine, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol immobilized in polyacrylamide. This step yielded an enzyme preparation (step 2 enzyme) that was 500- to 750-fold purified (relative to the tissue homogenate) and required phosphatidylserine for stability. All other lipids tested failed to stabilize the enzyme. The properties of the enzyme preparation were similar to those of mammalian diacylglycerol kinases described by others. Reconstitution experiments showed that the soluble step 2 enzyme bound to inside-out vesicles of human erythrocytes only in the presence of diacylglycerol or phospholipase C but not phospholipase A2 or D. Redistribution of the kinase from soluble to vesicle-bound forms occurred rapidly and was dependent on the concentration of phospholipase C used to treat the vesicles. Physiological concentrations of calcium (50-1000 nM) did not enhance the phospholipase C-mediated translocation of the kinase. Thus, diacylglycerol kinase can translocate from cytosol to membranes in a manner dependent on the content of membrane-bound diacylglycerol but independent of the ambient concentration of calcium.

  9. Affinity-purified tetanus neurotoxin interaction with synaptic membranes: properties of a protease-sensitive receptor component

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarovici, P.; Yavin, E.

    1986-11-04

    The pharmacokinetic interaction of an affinity-purified /sup 125/I-labeled tetanotoxin fraction with guinea pig brain synaptosomal preparations was investigated. Binding of tetanotoxin was time- and temperature-dependent, was proportional to protein concentration, and was saturable at about 8 x 10/sup -9/ M as estimated by a solid-surface binding assay. Binding was optimal at pH 6.5 under low ionic strength buffer and was almost entirely blocked by gangliosides or antitoxin. In analogy to intact nerve cells, binding of toxin to membranes resulted in a tight association operationally defined as sequestration. Binding and sequestration were abolished after membrane pretreatment with sialidase. The enzyme could not dissociate the membrane-bound toxin formed at 4 or 37/sup 0/C under low ionic strength conditions, which is in part compatible with internalization as defined in nerve cell cultures. In the latter system the toxin could be removed at 4/sup 0/C but not at 37/sup 0/C. Binding was significantly reduced upon pretreatment of guinea pig brain membranes by a variety of hydrolytic enzymes. It is proposed that, in addition to a ganglioside, interaction of tetanotoxin with synaptic membranes is facilitated by a protein and may also require an appropriate lipid environment. These latter membrane constituents may play a pivotal role in the sequestration of the toxin.

  10. Dephosphorylation and quantification of organic phosphorus in poultry litter by purified phytic-acid high affinity Aspergillus phosphohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh H; Hoang, Khanh Q

    2008-08-01

    Extracellular phosphohydrolases mediate the dephosphorylation of phosphoesters and influence bioavailability and loss of agricultural P to the environment to pose risks of impairment of sensitive aquatic ecosystems. Induction and culture of five strains of Aspergillus were conducted to develop a source of high-affinity and robust phosphohydrolases for detecting environmental P and quantifying bioactive P pools in heterogeneous environmental specimens. Enzyme stability and activity against organic P in poultry litter were evaluated in 71 samples collected across poultry producing regions of Arkansas, Maryland, and Oklahoma of the US Differences existed in strains' adaptability to fermentation medium as they showed a wide range of phytate-degrading activity. Phosphohydrolases from Aspergillus ficuum had highest activity when the strain was cultured on a primarily chemical medium, compared to Aspergillus oryzae which preferred a wheat bran-based organic medium. Kinetics parameters of A. ficuum enzymes (K(m)=210 microM; V(max) of 407 nmol s(-1)) indicated phytic acid-degrading potential equivalent to that of commercial preparations. Purified A. ficuum phosphohydrolases effectively quantified litter bioactive P pools, showing that organic P occurred at an average of 54 (+/-14)% of total P, compared to inorganic phosphates, which averaged 41 (+/-12)%. Litter management and land application options must consider the high water-extractable and organic P concentrations and the biological availability of the organic enzyme-labile P pool. Robustness of A. ficuum enzymes and simplicity of the in situ ligand-based enzyme assay may thus increase routine assessment of litter bioactive P composition to sense for on-farm accumulation of such environmentally-sensitive P forms. PMID:18555509

  11. Detection and estimation of avian infectious bronchitis virus antigen by a novel indirect liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken and rabbit affinity purified immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lougovskaia, Natalia N; Lougovskoi, Andrei A; Bochkov, Yuri A; Batchenko, Galina V; Mudrak, Natalia S; Drygin, Vladimir V; Borisov, Alexander V; Borisov, Vladimir V; Gusev, Anatoly A

    2002-12-01

    An indirect liquid-phase blocking (LPB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using chicken and rabbit affinity purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been developed to detect and estimate avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) antigen concentration directly in infected allantoic fluid. The method is based on the principle of binding of specific IgG to the test IBV antigen and the assay of unbound IgG on an antigen-coated ELISA plate. The immunoglobulins are chicken N-terminal S2 peplomeric protein-specific IgG isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography on synthetic peptide coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B or rabbit polyclonal IgG purified from the serum using Protein A Sepharose 4B. The assay detected all tested IBV strains and field isolates propagated in chicken embryos. Signal to noise ratios were calculated from LPB ELISA absorbance units and a diagnostic threshold was established from the signal to noise ratio frequency distribution of samples positive or negative for IBV by virus titration or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative sensitivity of the test ranged between 10(5) and 10(6) median egg infectious doses (EID(50)) for chicken IgG and between 10(3) and 10(4) EID(50) for rabbit IgG, depending on the test strain. The assay is simple and takes less than 3 h to perform. It does not require expensive reagents and can be readily adapted to monitor the IBV antigen concentration in allantoic fluids during propagation of vaccine strains or in samples of freeze-dried, live-attenuated IBV vaccines.

  12. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    PubMed

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy.

  13. Purified murine granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells express a high-affinity receptor for recombinant murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.E.; Bicknell, D.C.; Park, L.S.; Straneva, J.E.; Cooper, S.; Broxmeyer, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Purified recombinant murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was labeled with /sup 125/I and used to examine the GM-CSF receptor on unfractionated normal murine bone marrow cells, casein-induced peritoneal exudate cells, and highly purified murine granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM). CFU-GM were isolated from cyclophosphamide-treated mice by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation followed by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. The resulting population had a cloning efficiency of 62-99% in cultures containing conditioned medium from pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cells and 55-86% in the presence of a plateau concentration of purified recombinant murine GM-CSF. Equilibrium binding studies with /sup 125/I-labeled GM-CSF showed that normal bone marrow cells, casein-induced peritoneal exudate cells, and purified CFU-GM had a single class of high-affinity receptor. Affinity crosslinking studies demonstrated that /sup 125/I-labeled GM-CSF bound specifically to two species of M/sub r/ 180,000 and 70,000 on CFU-GM, normal bone marrow cells, and peritoneal exudate cells. The M/sub r/ 70,000 species is thought to be a proteolytic fragment of the intact M/sub r/ 180,000 receptor. The present studies indicate that the GM-CSF receptor expressed on CFU-GM and mature myeloid cells are structurally similar. In addition, the number of GM-CSF receptors on CFU-GM is twice the average number of receptors on casein-induced mature myeloid cells, suggesting that receptor number may decrease as CFU-GM mature.

  14. The effects of affinity-purified anti-DNA antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on the fluorescent antinuclear antibody assay using HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Kawamura, Masahide; Mineo, Midori; Shinohara, Tadashi; Kataharada, Koji; Okada, Makoto; Takada, Kunio; Miyawaki, Shoji; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of anti-dsDNA antibodies on the titer and the nuclear staining pattern(s) in a fluorescent antinuclear antibody (FANA) assay using HEp-2 cells. Anti-dsDNA derived from 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was individually affinity-purified. The anti-dsDNA titer of the purified anti-dsDNA solution was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the FANA assay, the anti-dsDNA solution was diluted in a stepwise manner and its titer was expressed by the endpoint dilution. The nuclear staining pattern in the anti-dsDNA solution was examined at the 1:5 and 1:20 dilutions and at the endpoint dilution. The anti-dsDNA titers of the affinity-purified anti-dsDNA solution were high enough (13 to 126 IU/ml) to be measured by RIA. However, the antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers of this solution were relatively low: 1:20 to 1:320. In the study of nuclear staining the peripheral pattern was observed in nine of the 14 cases at a 1:5 dilution. However, at the endpoint dilution, all cases exhibited the homogeneous pattern. These findings indicate that in the FANA assay using HEp-2 cells, 1) although serum samples show high anti-dsDNA titers by RIA or by ELISA, the antibodies' direct contribution to ANA titers is limited, and 2) when samples reveal a homogeneous staining pattern at the endpoint dilution, this suggests the presence of anti-dsDNA.

  15. Affinity-purified antibodies of defined specificity for use in a solid-phase microplate radioimmunoassay of human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein in urine.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J S; McGiven, A R; Groufsky, A; Lynn, K L; Taylor, M C

    1985-05-01

    Rabbit antibodies to human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (prepared by salt precipitation from normal urine) were purified by affinity chromatography using columns containing Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein linked to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. The specificity of these antibodies was determined by analysis of their binding characteristics on Western blots of Tamm-Horsfall protein from sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gradient gels and comparison with the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to this glycoprotein. Optimal conditions of adsorption to poly(vinyl chloride) microtitre plates were established such that these purified antibodies could be used in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the determination of urinary Tamm-Horsfall-glycoprotein concentration. The specificity of the immunoassay was confirmed by competitive inhibition of the urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein by purified freeze-dried material in solution. A standard curve obtained with this material showed the radioimmunoassay to have a sensitivity of at least 5 ng/ml, with linearity between 30 and 600 ng/ml. The mean coefficient of variation over the linear section of the curve was 11.3 +/- 2.2% (n = 13). The effects of dialysis and freezing of urine samples before determination of Tamm-Horsfall-glycoprotein concentrations were investigated and the mean 24 h urinary excretion rate in 60 normal donors was shown to be 84.9 +/- 44.1 mg.

  16. Protein Delivery System Containing a Nickel-Immobilized Polymer for Multimerization of Affinity-Purified His-Tagged Proteins Enhances Cytosolic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Postupalenko, Viktoriia; Desplancq, Dominique; Orlov, Igor; Arntz, Youri; Spehner, Danièle; Mely, Yves; Klaholz, Bruno P; Schultz, Patrick; Weiss, Etienne; Zuber, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Recombinant proteins with cytosolic or nuclear activities are emerging as tools for interfering with cellular functions. Because such tools rely on vehicles for crossing the plasma membrane we developed a protein delivery system consisting in the assembly of pyridylthiourea-grafted polyethylenimine (πPEI) with affinity-purified His-tagged proteins pre-organized onto a nickel-immobilized polymeric guide. The guide was prepared by functionalization of an ornithine polymer with nitrilotriacetic acid groups and shown to bind several His-tagged proteins. Superstructures were visualized by electron and atomic force microscopy using 2 nm His-tagged gold nanoparticles as probes. The whole system efficiently carried the green fluorescent protein, single-chain antibodies or caspase 3, into the cytosol of living cells. Transduction of the protease caspase 3 induced apoptosis in two cancer cell lines, demonstrating that this new protein delivery method could be used to interfere with cellular functions.

  17. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  18. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  19. Estimation of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum

    PubMed Central

    Young, Elizabeth; Lock, Emma; Ward, Douglas G; Cook, Alexander; Harding, Stephen; Wallis, Gregg L F

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo or in vitro formation of IgG4 hybrid molecules, wherein the immunoglobulins have exchanged half molecules, has previously been reported under experimental conditions. Here we estimate the incidence of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum and comment on the existence of IgG4 molecules with different immunoglobulin light chains. Polyclonal IgG4 was purified from pooled or individual donor human sera and sequentially fractionated using light-chain affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions were analysed by SDS–PAGE, immunoblotting, ELISA, immunodiffusion and matrix-assisted laser-desorption mass spectrometry. Polyclonal IgG4 purified from normal serum contained IgG4κ, IgG4λ and IgG4κ/λ molecules. Size exclusion chromatography showed that IgG4 was principally present in monomeric form (150 000 MW). SDS–PAGE, immunoblotting and ELISA showed the purity of the three IgG4 samples. Immunodiffusion, light-chain sandwich ELISA and mass spectrometry demonstrated that both κ and λ light chains were present on only the IgG4κ/λ molecules. The amounts of IgG4κ/λ hybrid molecules ranged from 21 to 33% from the five sera analysed. Based on the molecular weight these molecules were formed of two IgG4 heavy chains plus one κ and one λ light chain. Polyclonal IgG (IgG4-depleted) was similarly fractionated according to light-chain specificity. No evidence of hybrid IgG κ/λ antibodies was observed. These results indicate that hybrid IgG4κ/λ antibodies compose a substantial portion of IgG4 from normal human serum. PMID:24512211

  20. Purified hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptors bind insulin-like growth factor-I, but not insulin, with high affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Soos, M A; Field, C E; Siddle, K

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors have previously been described in human placenta, but it has not been possible to study their properties in the presence of classical insulin receptors and type I IGF receptors. To facilitate the purification of hybrids, we produced an anti-peptide monoclonal antibody IGFR 1-2, directed against the C-terminal peptide of the type I IGF receptor beta-subunit. The antibody bound native human and rat type I IGF receptors, and reacted specifically with the beta-subunit on immunoblots. Solubilized placental microsomal membranes were depleted of classical type I IGF receptors by incubation with an immobilized monoclonal antibody IGFR 24-55, which reacts well with type I receptors but very poorly with hybrid receptors. Residual hybrid receptors were then isolated by incubation with immobilized antibody IGFR 1-2, and recovered by elution with excess of synthetic peptide antigen. Binding properties of hybrids were compared with those of immuno-affinity-purified insulin receptors and type I IGF receptors, by using the radioligands 125I-IGF-I and 125I-insulin. Hybrids bound approx. 20 times as much 125I-IGF-I as 125I-insulin at tracer concentrations (approx. 0.1 nM). The binding of 125I-insulin, but not 125I-IGF-I, to hybrids increased after treatment with dithiothreitol to reduce disulphide bonds between the alpha-subunits. Hybrids behaved very similarly to type I receptors with respect to the inhibition of 125I-IGF-I binding by unlabelled IGF-I and insulin. By contrast, the affinity of hybrids for insulin was approx. 10-fold lower than that of classical insulin receptors, as assessed by inhibition of 125I-insulin binding by unlabelled hormone. It is concluded that the properties of insulin receptors, but not IGF receptors, are markedly affected by assembly as hybrid compared with classical structures, and that hybrids are more likely to be responsive to IGF-I than insulin under physiological conditions. Images

  1. Expression, purification of IL-38 in Escherichia coli and production of polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonglan; Chen, Zhenyu; Huang, Nongyu; Teng, Xiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Xiaoqiong; Qin, Ke; Liu, Xiao; Wu, Xueping; Tang, Huan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cui, Kaijun; Li, Jiong

    2015-03-01

    Members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family play important roles in inflammation and host defense against pathogens. Here, we describe a novel member of the IL-1 family, interleukin-38 (IL-38, IL-1F10, or IL-1HY2), which was discovered in 2001. Although the functional role of IL-38 remains unclear, recent reports show that IL-38 binds to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) which is also targeted by the IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Consequently, these two molecules have similar effects on immune cells. Here, we describe the expression of soluble and active recombinant IL-38 in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The IL-38 gene sequence was optimized for expression in E. coli and then cloned into a pEHISTEV expression vector, which has an N-terminal 6-His affinity tag under control of the T7 lac strong promoter. Optimization of culture conditions allowed induction of the recombinant fusion protein with 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thio galactoside (IPTG) at 37°C for 4h. The recombinant fusion protein was purified using an Ni affinity column and was further digested with TEV protease; the cleaved protein was purified by molecular-exclusion chromatography. Next, we measured IL-38 binding ability using functional ELISA. The purified proteins were used to immunize a New Zealand white rabbit four times to enable the production of polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the prepared polyclonal antibodies was determined using Western blot, and the results showed they have high specificity against IL-38. Here, we describe the development of an effective and reliable method to express and purify IL-38 and anti-IL-38 antibodies. This will enable the function and structure of IL-38 to be determined.

  2. Generation and characterization of polyclonal antibody against part of immunoglobulin constant heavy υ chain of goose.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Yongli; Ma, Bo; Xing, Mingwei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-08-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin that is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. IgY consists of two light (λ) and two heavy (υ) chains. In the present study, polyclonal antibody against IgYFc was generated and evaluated. rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and utilized to raise polyclonal antibody in rabbit. High affinity antisera were obtained, which successfully detected the antigen at a dilution of 1:204,800 for ELISA assay. The antibody can specifically recognize both rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 and native IgY by Western bolt analysis. Furthermore, the serum of Grus japonensis or immunoglobulin of chicken, duck, turkey, and silkie samples and dynamic changes of serum GoIgY after immunogenicity with GPV-VP3-virus-like particles (GPV-VP3-VLPs) can be detected with the anti-GoIgYFc polyclonal antibody. These results suggested that the antibody is valuable for the investigation of biochemical properties and biological functions of GoIgY.

  3. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Koolivand, Davoud; Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Behjatnia, Seyed Aliakbar; Joozani, Raziallah Jafari

    2016-01-01

    The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) encoding the movement protein (MP) was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM) each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA) before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs) and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection. PMID:27721695

  4. ETRAP (efficient trapping and purification) of target protein polyclonal antibodies from GST-protein immune sera.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Dan L; Brada, Nancy A; Lockwood, Christina M; Griest, Terry A; Waldemer, Rachel J; Cervinski, Mark A; Ohlendorf, Matthew F; McQuillan, Jay J; Ladenson, Jack H

    2010-12-01

    Recombinant GST (glutathione transferase) proteins are widely used as immunogens to generate polyclonal antibodies. Advantages of using GST proteins include: commercially available cloning vectors, vast literature for protein expression in Escherichia coli, the ease of protein purification, immunogen can be used as an ELISA standard and GST can be removed in some systems. However, there are disadvantages: GST oligomerization, inclusion body formation and target protein insolubility after GST removal. Perhaps the most detrimental is the significant generation of anti-GST antibodies by the host animal. A two-column procedure using a glutathione-GST column and a glutathione-(GST-protein) column can yield affinity-purified anti-(GST-protein) polyclonal antibody. Several passes over the first column are often required, though, to completely extract the anti-GST antibodies from the immune sera. We reasoned that knowledge of the target protein linear epitope(s) would allow construction of a peptide affinity resin for a single-pass 'one and done' purification termed ETRAP (efficient trapping and purification). In the present paper, we describe our efforts and present data on rabbits and sheep immunized with GST proteins having target protein molecular masses of ~8, 21 and 33 kDa. The titre and purity of the target antibodies using the ETRAP protocol were comparable to the more laborious multi-column purifications but with a considerable saving in time. PMID:21054278

  5. Polyclonal antibody to soman-tyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Duysen, Ellen G.; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Masson, Patrick; Nachon, Florian; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Klassen, Lynell W.; Cashman, John; Williams, Gareth R.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Soman forms a stable, covalent bond with tyrosine 411 of human albumin, with tyrosines 257 and 593 in human transferrin, and with tyrosine in many other proteins. The pinacolyl group of soman is retained, suggesting that pinacolyl methylphosphonate bound to tyrosine could generate specific antibodies. Tyrosine in the pentapeptide RYGRK was covalently modified with soman simply by adding soman to the peptide. The phosphonylated-peptide was linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and the conjugate was injected into rabbits. The polyclonal antiserum recognized soman-labeled human albumin, soman-mouse albumin, and soman human transferrin, but not non-phosphonylated control proteins. The soman-labeled tyrosines in these proteins are surrounded by different amino acid sequences, suggesting that the polyclonal recognizes soman-tyrosine independent of the amino acid sequence. Antiserum obtained after 4 antigen injections over a period of 18 weeks was tested in a competition ELISA where it had an IC50 of 10−11 M. The limit of detection on Western blots was 0.01 μg (15 picomoles) of soman-labeled albumin. In conclusion, a high-affinity, polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes soman adducts on tyrosine in a variety of proteins has been produced. Such an antibody could be useful for identifying secondary targets of soman toxicity. PMID:23469927

  6. Purifying Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of Citrus leprosis virus C using a polyclonal antibody to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Guillermo, Leon M; Picton, D D; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2013-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent for citrus leprosis disease, is present in South and Central America and is a threat for introduction into the U.S. citrus industry. A specific, inexpensive and reliable antibody based detection system is needed for the rapid identification of CiLV-C. The CiLV-C is very labile and has not been purified in sufficient amount for antibody production. The p29 gene of CiLV-C genome that codes for the putative coat protein (PCP) was codon optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and synthesized in vitro. The optimized gene was sub-cloned into the bacterial expression vector pDEST17 and transferred into E. coli BL21AI competent cells. The expression of PCP containing N-terminal His-tag was optimized by induction with l-arabinose. Induced cells were disrupted by sonication and expressed PCP was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose. The purified expressed PCP was then used as an immunogen for injections into rabbits to produce polyclonal antibody (PAb). The PAb specific to the expressed PCP was identified using Western blotting. The antibody was successfully used to detect CiLV-C in the symptomatic CiLV-C infected tissues using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent (DAS-ELISA), indirect ELISA and dot-blot immunoassay (DBIA) formats.

  8. Methods for Purifying Enzymes for Mycoremediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Kenneth W. (Inventor); DeSimone, Julia C. (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for purifying laccase from an ectomycorrhizal fruiting body is disclosed. The process includes steps of homogenization, sonication, centrifugation, filtration, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Purified laccase can also be separated into isomers.

  9. [Preparation and detection of anti-influenza A virus polymerase basic protein 1 polyclonal antibody].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yujie; Zhang, Tinghong; Ye, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. It has 8 negative RNA segments that encode 16 viral proteins. The viral polymerase consists of 3 proteins (PB 1, PB2 and PA) which plays an important role in the transcription and replication of the influenza A virus. Polymerase basic protein 1 (PB 1) is a critical member of viral polymerase complex. In order to further study the function of PB1, we need to prepare the PB1 antibody with good quality. Therefore, we amplified PB1 conserved region (nt1648-2265) by PCR and cloned it into pET-30a vector, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL2 1. The expression of His tagged PB 1 protein was induced by IPTG, and His-PB 1 proteins were purified by Ni-NTA resin. For preparation of PB 1 protein antiserum, rabbits were immunized with His-PB 1 fusion protein 3 times. Then the titer of PB 1 polyclonal antibody was measured by indirect ELISA. The antibody was purified by membrane affinity purification and subjected to immunoblotting analysis. Data showed that PB1 antibody can recognize PB 1 protein from WSN virus infected or pCMV FLAG-PB 1 transfected cells. Meanwhile, PB 1 antibody can also recognize specifically other subtype strains of influenza A virus such as H9N2 and H3N2. PB 1 polyclonal antibody we generated will be a useful tool to study the biological function of PB1. PMID:27363203

  10. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  11. Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

    2012-12-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein. PMID:24293828

  12. Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

    2012-12-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein.

  13. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  14. Special Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Indu; Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    Describes the nature of affinity chromatography and its use in purifying enzymes, studying cell interactions, exploring hormone receptors, and other areas. The potential the technique may have in treating disease is also considered. (JN)

  15. CD4 T cell epitope specificity determines follicular versus non-follicular helper differentiation in the polyclonal response to influenza infection or vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Knowlden, Zackery A. G.; Sant, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are essential for B cell production of high-affinity, class-switched antibodies. Much interest in Tfh development focuses on the priming environment of CD4 T cells. Here we explored the role that peptide specificity plays in the partitioning of the polyclonal CD4 T cell repertoire between Tfh and NonTfh lineages during the response to influenza. Surprisingly, we found that CD4 T cells specific for different epitopes exhibited distinct tendencies to segregate into Tfh or NonTfh. To alter the microenvironment and abundance, viral antigens were introduced as purified recombinant proteins in adjuvant as native proteins. Also, the most prototypical epitopes were expressed in a completely foreign protein. In many cases, the epitope-specific response patterns of Tfh vs. NonTfh persisted. The functional TcR avidity of only a subset of epitope-specific cells correlated with the tendency to drive a Tfh response. Thus, we conclude that in a polyclonal CD4 T cell repertoire, features of TcR-peptide:MHC class II complex have a strong deterministic influence on the ability of CD4 T cells to become a Tfh or a NonTfh. Our data is most consistent with at least 2 checkpoints of Tfh selection that include both TcR affinity and B cell presentation. PMID:27329272

  16. Production, Characterization and Applications for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Polyclonal Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Flávia B.; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G.; Mota, Caroline M.; Faria, Matheus S.; Filho, Hercílio H. Silva; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Conclusions/Significance Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii. PMID:22808150

  17. Immunoreactivity of polyclonal antibodies generated against the carboxy terminus of the predicted amino acid sequence of the Huntington disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Alkatib, G.; Graham, R.; Pelmear-Telenius, A.

    1994-09-01

    A cDNA fragment spanning the 3{prime}-end of the Huntington disease gene (from 8052 to 9252) was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector containing the E. Coli lac promoter and a portion of the coding sequence for {beta}-galactosidase. The truncated {beta}-galactosidase gene was cleaved with BamHl and fused in frame to the BamHl fragment of the Huntington disease gene 3{prime}-end. Expression analysis of proteins made in E. Coli revealed that 20-30% of the total cellular proteins was represented by the {beta}-galactosidase-huntingtin fusion protein. The identity of the Huntington disease protein amino acid sequences was confirmed by protein sequence analysis. Affinity chromatography was used to purify large quantities of the fusion protein from bacterial cell lysates. Affinity-purified proteins were used to immunize New Zealand white rabbits for antibody production. The generated polyclonal antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate the Huntington disease gene product expressed in a neuroblastoma cell line. In this cell line the antibodies precipitated two protein bands of apparent gel migrations of 200 and 150 kd which together, correspond to the calculated molecular weight of the Huntington disease gene product (350 kd). Immunoblotting experiments revealed the presence of a large precursor protein in the range of 350-750 kd which is in agreement with the predicted molecular weight of the protein without post-translational modifications. These results indicate that the huntingtin protein is cleaved into two subunits in this neuroblastoma cell line and implicate that cleavage of a large precursor protein may contribute to its biological activity. Experiments are ongoing to determine the precursor-product relationship and to examine the synthesis of the huntingtin protein in freshly isolated rat brains, and to determine cellular and subcellular distribution of the gene product.

  18. Development of polyclonal antibodies for detection of aflatoxigenic molds involving culture filtrate and chimeric proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shapira, R; Paster, N; Menasherov, M; Eyal, O; Mett, A; Meiron, T; Kuttin, E; Salomon, R

    1997-03-01

    Polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were raised against an aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus parasiticus by using two different sources for antibody elicitation: (i) filtrate of a culture on which the fungus had been grown (ii) and two chimeric proteins, expressed in Escherichia coli as separate products, of the genes ver-1 and apa-2, which are involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. The gene products were amplified by PCR, and each was cloned into the E. coli expression vector pGEX2T. Upon induction, the bacteria overexpressed 38- and 33-kDa chimeric proteins corresponding to the N-terminal domains of the genes ver-1 and apa-2, respectively. The chimeric proteins were isolated and affinity purified for use as antigens. The specificity of the raised antibodies was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The PAbs raised against the culture filtrate reacted with all the species of Aspergillus and Penicillium tested but not with Fusarium species or corn gain. However, the PAbs elicited against the chimeric proteins were highly specific, showing significantly higher ELISA absorbance values (A405) against A. parasiticus and A. flavus than against the other fungi tested and the corn grain. The approach of utilizing gene products associated with aflatoxin biosynthesis for antibody production therefore appears to be feasible. Such a multiantibody system combined with the PCR technique, could provide a useful tool for the rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection of aflatoxin producers present in grains and foods. PMID:9055416

  19. Cloning, expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of the asialoglycoprotein receptor of Marmota himalayan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Zhenghua; Wang, Baoju; Tian, Yongjun; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to express the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) H1 and H2 subunits of Marmota himalayan in vitro, and develop polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant proteins. RT-PCR was used to amplify ASGPR CRDH1 and CRDH2 from the liver tissue of Marmota himalayan. The products of amplification were subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pRSET-B, and expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3)plysS. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA spin column. The purified proteins were inoculated into BALB/c mice to develop polyclonal antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The polyclonal antibodies showed high sensitivity and specificity against both denaturated and native ASGPR proteins. We successfully amplified and expressed the ASGPR CRDs of Marmota himalayan. The nucleic sequences of ASGPR CRDH1 and CRDH2 of Marmota himalayan have been submitted to Genbank and the sequence ID are DQ 845465 and DQ845466, respectively. The proteins and antibodies prepared can be used for targeting gene therapy in a new animal model-Marmota Himalayan-for the research of infectious diseases of hepatitis viruses and liver cancer treatment.

  20. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody and Expression Analysis of GR in Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhu, Benzhong; Luo, Yunbo; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxing

    The fruit ripening of Green-ripe (Gr) mutant tomato was inhibited dramatically. To determine the expression patterns of Gr in tomato, we first produced the polyclonal antibody of Gr protein. RT-PCR was used to amplify the Gr gene from green ripe tomato fruit. And the PCR product was subcloned into prokaryotic protein expression vectors pET-30a to generate recombinant plasmid. The Gr protein was induced by IPTG in BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. The anti-Gr serum was produced by immunizing rabbits, and the titer of the anti-Gr serum was above 5000 by ELISA analysis. Purified by the DEAE-52 ion-column, the high purification level of anti-Gr polyclonal antibody was obtained. Furthermore, RT-CPR was used in the RNA level to demonstrate that the expression of Gr gene was specialized in some cultures of tomato. For example, the expressions of Gr were higher in seed, flower and green ripe fruit than others, and the expression level were reduced by exogenous ethylene treatment in the flower and green ripe fruit. Moreover, Polyclonal antibody of Gr was used to investigate the expression pattern of Gr in protein level by the Western blotting. Our results show that the expression level of Gr in protein level was complied with the expressions in RNA. So, we suggested that the regulation of Gr was transcriptional.

  1. Gas stream purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

  2. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  3. Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gary R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents selected recent advances in immobilization chemistry which have important connections to affinity chromatography. Discusses ligand immobilization and support modification. Cites 51 references. (CS)

  4. Antigen-specific human polyclonal antibodies from hyperimmunized cattle.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Yoshimi; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sathiyaseelan, Thillainayagen; Jiao, Jin-an; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Mellquist, Jenny; Hammitt, Melissa; Koster, Julie; Kamoda, Satoru; Tachibana, Katsumi; Ishida, Isao; Robl, James M

    2009-02-01

    Antigen-specific human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs), produced by hyperimmunization, could be useful for treating many human diseases. However, yields from available transgenic mice and transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying human immunoglobulin loci are too low for therapeutic applications. We report a Tc bovine system that produces large yields of hpAbs. Tc cattle were generated by transferring a human artificial chromosome vector carrying the entire unrearranged, human immunoglobulin heavy (hIGH) and kappa-light (hIGK) chain loci to bovine fibroblasts in which two endogenous bovine IgH chain loci were inactivated. Plasma from the oldest animal contained >2 g/l of hIgG, paired with either human kappa-light chain (up to approximately 650 microg/ml, fully human) or with bovine kappa- or lambda-light chain (chimeric), with a normal hIgG subclass distribution. Hyperimmunization with anthrax protective antigen triggered a hIgG-mediated humoral immune response comprising a high proportion of antigen-specific hIgG. Purified, fully human and chimeric hIgGs were highly active in an in vitro toxin neutralization assay and protective in an in vivo mouse challenge assay.

  5. Molecular deconvolution of the monoclonal antibodies that comprise the polyclonal serum response

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Yariv; Boutz, Daniel R.; Lavinder, Jason J.; Miklos, Aleksandr E.; Hughes, Randall A.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Jung, Sang Taek; Horton, Andrew P.; Murrin, Ellen M.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Georgiou, George

    2013-01-01

    We have developed and validated a methodology for determining the antibody composition of the polyclonal serum response after immunization. Pepsin-digested serum IgGs were subjected to standard antigen-affinity chromatography, and resulting elution, wash, and flow-through fractions were analyzed by bottom-up, liquid chromatography–high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Identification of individual monoclonal antibodies required the generation of a database of IgG variable gene (V-gene) sequences constructed by NextGen sequencing of mature B cells. Antibody V-gene sequences are characterized by short complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of high diversity adjacent to framework regions shared across thousands of IgGs, greatly complicating the identification of antigen-specific IgGs from proteomically observed peptides. By mapping peptides marking unique VH CDRH3 sequences, we identified a set of V-genes heavily enriched in the affinity chromatography elution, constituting the serum polyclonal response. After booster immunization in a rabbit, we find that the antigen-specific serum immune response is oligoclonal, comprising antibodies encoding 34 different CDRH3s that group into 30 distinct antibody VH clonotypes. Of these 34 CDRH3s, 12 account for ∼60% of the antigen-specific CDRH3 peptide mass spectral counts. For comparison, antibodies with 18 different CDRH3s (12 clonotypes) were represented in the antigen-specific IgG fraction from an unimmunized rabbit that fortuitously displayed a moderate titer for BSA. Proteomically identified antibodies were synthesized and shown to display subnanomolar affinities. The ability to deconvolute the polyclonal serum response is likely to be of key importance for analyzing antibody responses after vaccination and for more completely understanding adaptive immune responses in health and disease. PMID:23382245

  6. Purified silicon production system

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  7. Method of purifying isosaccharinate

    DOEpatents

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-09-07

    A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

  8. Pneumococcal cell wall phosphorylcholine elicits polyclonal antibody secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Bach, M A; Beckmann, E; Levitt, D

    1984-07-01

    Immunization of mice with phosphorylcholine (PC)-bearing Staphylococcus pneumoniae Type 2, strain 36a (R36a) results in both a PC-specific and a polyclonal increase in splenic plaque-forming cells. The polyclonal increase was observed in all strains tested, including those bearing an X-linked immune defect resulting in an undetectable anti-PC immune response. The magnitude of the polyclonal response is directly related to the amount of bacterial surface PC as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Congenitally athymic (nude) mice mount an anti-PC plaque-forming cell response after R36a immunization but fail to produce a significant polyclonal response. From our results it appears that PC on the cell wall of a bacterium acts both as a polyclonal activator and a specific antigen, stimulating each by different mechanisms.

  9. Characterization of specific high affinity receptors for human tumor necrosis factor on mouse fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, P.E.; Hotchkiss, A.; Mohler, M.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1985-10-05

    Mouse L-929 fibroblasts, an established line of cells, are very sensitive to lysis by human lymphotoxin (hTNF-beta). Specific binding of a highly purified preparation of hTNF-beta to these cells was examined. Recombinant DNA-derived hTNF-beta was radiolabeled with (TH)propionyl succinimidate at the lysine residues of the molecule to a specific activity of 200 microCi/nmol of protein. (TH)hTNF-beta was purified by high performance gel permeation chromatography and the major fraction was found to be monomeric by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The labeled hTNF-beta was fully active in causing lysis of L-929 fibroblasts and bound specifically to high affinity binding sites on these cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity receptors with an apparent Kd of 6.7 X 10(-11) M and a capacity of 3200 binding sites/cell. Unlabeled recombinant DNA-derived hTNF-beta was found to be approximately 5-fold more effective competitive inhibitor of binding than the natural hTNF-beta. The binding of hTNF-beta to these mouse fibroblasts was also correlated with the ultimate cell lysis. Neutralizing polyclonal antibodies to hTNF-beta efficiently inhibited the binding of (TH)hTNF-beta to the cells. The authors conclude that the specific high affinity binding site is the receptor for hTNF-beta and may be involved in lysis of cells.

  10. Production of Potent Fully Human Polyclonal Antibodies against Ebola Zaire Virus in Transchromosomal Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Dye, John M.; Wu, Hua; Hooper, Jay W.; Khurana, Surender; Kuehne, Ana I.; Coyle, Elizabeth M.; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Fuentes, Sandra; Herbert, Andrew S.; Golding, Hana; Bakken, Russell A.; Brannan, Jennifer M.; Kwilas, Steve A.; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Luke, Thomas C.; Smith, Gale; Glenn, Gregory; Li, Wenfang; Ye, Ling; Yang, Chinglai; Compans, Richard W.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Jiao, Jin-an

    2016-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies, derived from humans or hyperimmunized animals, have been used prophylactically or therapeutically as countermeasures for a variety of infectious diseases. SAB Biotherapeutics has successfully developed a transchromosomic (Tc) bovine platform technology that can produce fully human immunoglobulins rapidly, and in substantial quantities, against a variety of disease targets. In this study, two Tc bovines expressing high levels of fully human IgG were hyperimmunized with a recombinant glycoprotein (GP) vaccine consisting of the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) Makona isolate. Serum collected from these hyperimmunized Tc bovines contained high titers of human IgG against EBOV GP as determined by GP specific ELISA, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and virus neutralization assays. Fully human polyclonal antibodies against EBOV were purified and evaluated in a mouse challenge model using mouse adapted Ebola virus (maEBOV). Intraperitoneal administration of the purified anti-EBOV IgG (100 mg/kg) to BALB/c mice one day after lethal challenge with maEBOV resulted in 90% protection; whereas 100% of the control animals succumbed. The results show that hyperimmunization of Tc bovines with EBOV GP can elicit protective and potent neutralizing fully human IgG antibodies rapidly and in commercially viable quantities. PMID:27109916

  11. Production of Potent Fully Human Polyclonal Antibodies against Ebola Zaire Virus in Transchromosomal Cattle.

    PubMed

    Dye, John M; Wu, Hua; Hooper, Jay W; Khurana, Surender; Kuehne, Ana I; Coyle, Elizabeth M; Ortiz, Ramon A; Fuentes, Sandra; Herbert, Andrew S; Golding, Hana; Bakken, Russell A; Brannan, Jennifer M; Kwilas, Steve A; Sullivan, Eddie J; Luke, Thomas C; Smith, Gale; Glenn, Gregory; Li, Wenfang; Ye, Ling; Yang, Chinglai; Compans, Richard W; Tripp, Ralph A; Jiao, Jin-An

    2016-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies, derived from humans or hyperimmunized animals, have been used prophylactically or therapeutically as countermeasures for a variety of infectious diseases. SAB Biotherapeutics has successfully developed a transchromosomic (Tc) bovine platform technology that can produce fully human immunoglobulins rapidly, and in substantial quantities, against a variety of disease targets. In this study, two Tc bovines expressing high levels of fully human IgG were hyperimmunized with a recombinant glycoprotein (GP) vaccine consisting of the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) Makona isolate. Serum collected from these hyperimmunized Tc bovines contained high titers of human IgG against EBOV GP as determined by GP specific ELISA, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and virus neutralization assays. Fully human polyclonal antibodies against EBOV were purified and evaluated in a mouse challenge model using mouse adapted Ebola virus (maEBOV). Intraperitoneal administration of the purified anti-EBOV IgG (100 mg/kg) to BALB/c mice one day after lethal challenge with maEBOV resulted in 90% protection; whereas 100% of the control animals succumbed. The results show that hyperimmunization of Tc bovines with EBOV GP can elicit protective and potent neutralizing fully human IgG antibodies rapidly and in commercially viable quantities. PMID:27109916

  12. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  13. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  14. Exhaust gas purifying device

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.; Hamada, S.

    1985-04-23

    An exhaust gas purifying device for use with a diesel engine comprising a filter block disposed in an engine exhaust passage for collecting exhaust gas particulates, and a heater for incinerating the collected exhaust gas particulates. The filter block has parallel channels defined therein and separated from one another by porous partition walls, some of the channels being closed at their inlet ends with blind plugs while the other channels are closed at their outlet ends with blind plugs. The heater is supported by the blind plugs.

  15. GENERAL VIEW OF PURIFIERS ON SECOND FLOOR. (THE PURIFIERS DATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF PURIFIERS ON SECOND FLOOR. (THE PURIFIERS DATE FROM CA. 1910 AND WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE ALLIS CHALMERS COMPANY OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.) - Patterson Milling Company, Feed Mill, Water & Point Streets, Saltsburg, Indiana County, PA

  16. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  17. Polyclonality of Parathyroid Tumors in Neonatal Severe Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Kristin R; Andrade, Simone Caixeta; Bellizzi, Justin; D'Souza-Li, Lilia; Arnold, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is a rare disorder characterized by major hypercalcemia, elevated parathyroid hormone levels, and marked enlargement of multiple parathyroid glands, usually associated with germline mutations in the calcium receptor gene CASR. However, little is known about the outgrowth of parathyroid tumors in NSHPT, including whether they represent monoclonal or polyclonal expansions. We sought to examine the clonality of parathyroid tissues resected from a patient with NSHPT and biallelic CASR mutations. DNA from two distinct parathyroid tumors resected from a girl with NSHPT, plus polyclonal/monoclonal control samples, were subjected to analyses of clonality by two independent methods, X-chromosome inactivation analysis at the androgen receptor locus (HUMARA) and BAC array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Both parathyroid tumor samples revealed polyclonal patterns by X-inactivation analysis, with polyclonal and monoclonal controls yielding the expected patterns. Similarly, by BAC array CGH, neither parathyroid sample contained monoclonal copy number changes and both appeared identical to the patient-matched polyclonal controls. Our observations provide direct experimental evidence that the markedly enlarged parathyroid tumors in the setting of NSHPT constitute polyclonal, generalized hyperplastic growths rather than monoclonal neoplasms.

  18. Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P

    1978-01-01

    The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726

  19. Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P

    1978-06-01

    The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726

  20. Autoimmunity, polyclonal B-cell activation and infection.

    PubMed

    Granholm, N A; Cavallo, T

    1992-02-01

    It is widely believed that autoimmunity is an integral part of the immune system, and that genetic, immunologic, hormonal, environmental and other factors contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Thus, autoimmune disease may represent an abnormal expression of immune functions instead of loss of tolerance to self, and it can be organ specific or systemic in its manifestations. We review the various factors that contribute to the development of autoimmune disease; we also review the mechanisms of polyclonal B-cell activation, with emphasis on the role of infectious agents. We consider systemic lupus erythematosus in humans and in experimental animals as prototypic autoimmune disease, and we summarize data to indicate that polyclonal B-cell activation is central to the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune disease. The effect of polyclonal B-cell activation, brought about by injections of a B-cell activator-lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria-is sufficient to cause autoimmune disease in an immunologically normal host. In fact, autoimmune disease can be arrested if excessive polyclonal B-cell activation is suppressed; alternatively, autoimmune disease can be exacerbated if polyclonal B-cell activation is enhanced. We explore the mechanism of tissue injury when autoimmune disease is induced or exacerbated, and we consider the pathogenic roles of autoantibodies, immune complexes, complement, the blood cell carrier system, and the mononuclear phagocyte system. Although polyclonal B-cell activation may be the mechanism whereby various factors can cause or exacerbate systemic autoimmune disease, polyclonal B-cell activation may cause autoimmune disease on its own.

  1. Different molecular weight forms of opioid receptors revealed by polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Zhu, Y X; Lee, N M; Loh, H H

    1988-01-15

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against a purified opioid receptor from bovine brain (Cho, et. al., 1986), and shown to inhibit 3H-diprenorphine binding to this receptor in a dose-dependent fashion. These antibodies were then used to characterize opioid-binding material present in rat brain and in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibodies reacted with a single species of 58,000 molecular weight in rat brain membranes; this closely corresponds in size to the bovine opioid receptor used to raise the antibodies. In contrast, the polyclonal antibodies reacted with a 45,000 molecular weight species in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells; moreover, this band was specifically reduced in NG108-15 cells in which opioid receptors had been down-regulated by incubation with D-ala2-D-leu5-enkephalin for 24 hours. Thus at least two distinct opioid receptor molecules have been identified, which have antigenic similarities.

  2. Purification of antibodies to O antigen of Salmonella Typhimurium from human serum by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Goodall, Margaret; Cobbold, Mark; Saul, Allan; Maclennan, Calman A

    2013-01-31

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae (NTS) are a common cause of bacteraemia in children and HIV-infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. We have previously shown that antibodies play a key role in both bactericidal and cellular mechanisms of immunity to NTS, but found that high concentrations of antibody to Salmonella Typhimurium O antigen (OAg) in the serum of some HIV-infected African adults is associated with impaired killing of NTS. To further investigate the function of antibodies to the OAg of NTS, we developed a method to purify these antibodies from human serum by affinity chromatography. Purified Salmonella Typhimurium OAg was activated with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) via two different chemistries before linking to N-hydroxysuccinamide-Sepharose resin: one ADH molecule was introduced per OAg chain on its terminal 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid sugar (OAg-ADH), or multiple ADH molecules were attached along the OAg chain after oxidation with sodium periodate (OAgoxADH). Both resulting columns worked well when tested with commercial polyclonal anti-O:4,5 antibodies from rabbit serum. Over 90% of the applied antibodies bound to the resin and 89% of these antibodies were then eluted as detected by ELISA. OAg-ADH was preferred as the method for OAg derivatisation as it does not modify the saccharide chain and can be applied to OAg from different bacteria. Both columns were able to bind OAg-specific antibodies in human serum, but antibody recovery was initially low. Different elution buffers were tested and different amounts of OAg-ADH were linked to the resin to improve the yield. Optimal recovery (51%) was obtained by loading 1mg of activated OAg per ml of resin and eluting with 0.1M glycine, 0.1M NaCl pH2.4. The column matrix could be regenerated following elution with no detectable loss in performance for over ten uses. This method offers the potential to purify antibodies to Salmonella OAg from polyclonal serum following vaccination or natural exposure to Salmonella

  3. A Polyclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Bovine Haptoglobin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Donghua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp), without the signal peptide sequence, was synthesized based on the codon usage bias of Escherichia coli. The synthesized pirBoHp gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a (+), which contains a His-tag. The recombinant pirBoHp protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Western blot analysis showed that the purified recombinant pirBoHp protein could be recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody. Further investigations indicated that a polyclonal antibody against the recombinant pirBoHp protein could recognize the α and β chains of native bovine haptoglobin in a pooled plasma sample from dairy cattle suffering from foot rot. PMID:24328747

  4. Antigen capture ELISA system for henipaviruses using polyclonal antibodies obtained by DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; Barr, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-08-01

    A novel antigen-capture sandwich ELISA system targeting the glycoproteins of the henipaviruses Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) was developed. Utilizing purified polyclonal antibodies derived from NiV glycoprotein-encoding DNA-immunized rabbits, we established a system that can detect the native antigenic structures of the henipavirus surface glycoproteins using simplified and inexpensive methods. The lowest detection limit against live viruses was achieved for NiV Bangladesh strain, 2.5 × 10(4) TCID(50). Considering the recent emergence of genetic variants of henipaviruses and the resultant problems that arise for PCR-based detection, this system could serve as an alternative rapid diagnostic and detection assay. PMID:22585045

  5. Recombinant expression and affinity purification of snake venom gland parvalbumin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ying; Pérez, John C

    2009-07-01

    Parvalbumins (PV) are small, acidic, water soluble and calcium-binding proteins generally present in muscular and nervous tissues. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA clone encoding PV, named AplPV, from a snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) venom gland cDNA library. AplPV belongs to EF-hand proteins with six alpha-helices constituting three EF-hand domains. The deduced amino acid sequence of AplPV is 91% and 68% identical to the previously characterized PVs of Boa constrictor and Cyprinus carpio, respectively. The full-length cDNA was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX and transformed into Escherichia coli (E.coli) to produce recombinant protein. The bacterially expressed GST-AplPV fusion protein was highly expressed, and effectively purified by Glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography. A high concentration of thrombin protease specifically cleaved and removed the GST tag from fusion protein, and further purified by Benzamidine column for removal of thrombin protease. As a result, the 12 kDa AplPV recombinant protein alone was purified. To investigate the tissue-specific biological occurrence of AplPV, a polyclonal antibody (anti-AplPV-antibody) was raised against GST-AplPV fusion protein in rabbit. Western blot analysis revealed that immunoreactive bands were exhibited in both recombinant protein and samples of venom glands, but not in any crude venom. This specific occurrence indicates a specialized function of AplPV in snake venom glands.

  6. Immunocytochemical detection of androgen receptor in human temporal cortex characterization and application of polyclonal androgen receptor antibodies in frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Puy, L; MacLusky, N J; Becker, L; Karsan, N; Trachtenberg, J; Brown, T J

    1995-11-01

    Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of androgen receptor protein in various regions of the rodent and non-human primate cortex. Localization of androgen receptor in the human brain has, however, not been studied as extensively, because of difficulties in obtaining suitable tissue samples. In the present study, we have localized androgen receptors in both frozen and paraffin-embedded temporal cortex from epileptic patients undergoing resection. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against fusion proteins containing fragments of the human androgen receptor protein. The antibodies were affinity-purified against the corresponding fusion protein. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting using extracts from human cell lines demonstrated the specificity of the antibodies for the human androgen receptor and lack of cross-reactivity with other steroid hormone receptors. Immunocytochemistry was performed on frozen and paraffin sections of human temporal cortex and in paraffin-embedded benign hyperplastic prostates (BPH), as well as prostate and breast carcinomas, by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Antigen-retrieval was performed in paraffin-embedded sections using microwave irradiation. Specific nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for androgen receptor was detected in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia cells of the temporal cortex. In contrast, only nuclear staining was observed in BPH, prostate and breast carcinomas. Immunoprecipitation of human temporal cortex lysate and subsequent Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of a 98 kDa immunoreactive protein, slightly smaller than the reported molecular weight of the wild-type androgen receptor. These results provide further evidence for the expression of androgen receptor in the human temporal cortex. The use of these immunocytochemical techniques should enable the retrospective determination of possible changes in androgen receptor expression in

  7. Production of Nurr-1 Specific Polyclonal Antibodies Free of Cross-reactivity Against Its Close Homologs, Nor1 and Nur77.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre; Moon, Minho; Kim, Woori; Jeong, Inhye; Kim, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2015-08-17

    The nuclear receptor subfamily 4 (NR4A) is composed of 3 related proteins sharing a DNA binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). The nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1 or NR4A2) plays a key role in the maintenance of the dopaminergic system. Dopamine dysfunctions associated with the Nurr1 gene include Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and manic depression among others. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that Nurr1 is also expressed in other brain areas such as the hippocampus and plays critical roles for learning and memory. The other members of the family are nerve growth factor IB (Nur77 or NR4A1) and neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1 or NR4A3). To help investigate the precise functional roles of Nurr1 in dopaminergic and other brain region-related neuronal dysfunctions antibodies devoid of cross-reactivities against Nur77 and NOR1 were needed. Since the proteins are more divergent in their LBDs than in their DNA binding domains immunization with purified LBDs should yield antibodies specific for Nurr1 with minimal reactivities against Nur77 and/or NOR1. Although anti-Nurr1 antibodies were successfully generated these showed significant immunoreactivity against the other members of the family. Affinity chromatography over immobilized Protein A followed by pre-adsorption against immobilized Nur77 and NOR1 LBDs yielded Nurr1 specific antibodies free of cross-reactivity. Here, we selectively target antibodies against a specific member of a highly conserved family of proteins by immunizing animals with their most divergent regions followed by removing cross reactive antibodies by pre-adsorption. The goal of the protocol is to increase polyclonal antibodies specificity through pre-adsorption against cross-reactive antigens.

  8. Detection of Polyclonality among Clinical Isolates from Prosthetic Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    De-la-Fuente, Marta; Martinez-Perez, Marta; Gonzalez-Pallares, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is an increasingly important health concern in the Western world due to the rising number of joint arthroplasties. Although most infections are considered to be monomicrobial, the introduction of sonication procedures has led to an increase in the detection of polymicrobial infections. To date, no published studies have investigated the presence of different clones of the same species in the infected patient. The objective of this study was to analyze whether the phenomenon of polyclonality, or the appearance of different clones in the same sample, occurs in PJI. Bacteria isolated by sonication of the retrieved implant from patients with theoretically monomicrobial PJI were included in the study. Two techniques (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPD] and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight [MALDI-TOF] mass spectrometry) were used to determine the presence of several clones in the same sample. Results were analyzed to determine bacterial species and infection type (acute versus chronic). RAPD showed a predominance of polyclonal cases (16 of 19). However, when performing the analysis with MALDI-TOF, all cases were shown to be polyclonal. We were unable to establish any relationship between the two methodologies. Polyclonality is a common phenomenon in acute and chronic PJI. Further studies are needed to establish the potential implications of this phenomenon on patient outcomes. PMID:26378278

  9. Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Rodney R.

    1985-01-01

    Supports, affinity ligands, immobilization, elution methods, and a number of applications are among the topics considered in this discussion of affinity chromatography. An outline of the basic principles of affinity chromatography is included. (JN)

  10. Characterization of fimbriae of Actinomyces naeslundii N16 using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Two populations of fimbriae, which differ both in antigenicity and biological activity, have been identified on Actinomyces viscosus T14V cells. Although A. naeslundii serotype 1 isolates possess only one of these fimbrial populations (type 2 fimbriae), there was functional evidence to suggest that A. naeslundii serotype 3 strain N16 had both types of fimbriae. The purpose of this study was to characterize the fimbriae of A. naeslundii N16 immunologically by using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to N16 were produced; all three bound to N16 fimbriae as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. In a solid-phase radioimmunoassay MAb 3B5.A1 reacted with 100% of the A. naeslundii serotype 3 isolates tested, but it did not react with any heterologous isolates. Type 1 and type 2 fimbriae were detected in Lancefield extracts of N16 cells by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (XIEP) using rabbit antiserum against N16 whole cells. When {sup 125}I-MAb 3B5.A1 was also incorporated into the gel, autoradiography indicated that MAb 3B5.A1 was specific for type 2 fimbriae. The N16 type 2 fimbriae were purified by gel filtration and immunoaffinity chromatography on a MAb 3B5.A1 column. Fimbriae-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were used in various immunological assays to determine that (a) N16 type 1 fimbriae are not related antigenically to type 2 fimbriae, (b) each type of fimbriae has epitopes that are present on the corresponding fimbriae of certain heterologous strains, and (c) MAb 3B5.A1 recognizes a serotype-specific epitope residing on the type 2 fimbriae of A. naeslundii serotype 3 strains.

  11. Guanine nucleotide regulatory protein co-purifies with the D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Senogles, S.E.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-05-01

    The D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor from bovine anterior pituitary was purified approx.1000 fold by affinity chromatography on CMOS-Sepharose. Reconstitution of the affinity-purified receptor into phospholipid vesicles revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist sites as detected by N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) competition experiments with /sup 3/H-spiperone. High affinity agonist binding could be converted to the low affinity form by guanine nucleotides, indicating the presence of an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein (N protein) in the affinity-purified D/sub 2/ receptor preparations. Furthermore, this preparation contained an agonist-sensitive GTPase activity which was stimulated 2-3 fold over basal by 10 ..mu..M NPA. /sup 35/S-GTP..gamma..S binding to these preparations revealed a stoichiometry of 0.4-0.7 mole N protein/mole receptor, suggesting the N protein may be specifically coupled with the purified D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor and not present as a contaminant. Pertussis toxin treatment of the affinity purified receptor preparations prevented high affinity agonist binding, as well as agonist stimulation of the GTPase activity, presumably by inactivating the associated N protein. Pertussis toxin lead to the ADP-ribosylation of a protein of 39-40K on SDS-PAGE. These findings indicate that an endogenous N protein, N/sub i/ or N/sub o/, co-purifies with the D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor which may reflect a precoupling of this receptor with an N protein within the membranes.

  12. Single-step affinity purification of enzyme biotherapeutics: a platform methodology for accelerated process development.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kevin P; Ryakala, Venkat K; Bird, Ryan; Godawat, Rahul; Riske, Frank J; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Warikoo, Veena; Gamble, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Downstream sample purification for quality attribute analysis is a significant bottleneck in process development for non-antibody biologics. Multi-step chromatography process train purifications are typically required prior to many critical analytical tests. This prerequisite leads to limited throughput, long lead times to obtain purified product, and significant resource requirements. In this work, immunoaffinity purification technology has been leveraged to achieve single-step affinity purification of two different enzyme biotherapeutics (Fabrazyme® [agalsidase beta] and Enzyme 2) with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, as ligands. Target molecules were rapidly isolated from cell culture harvest in sufficient purity to enable analysis of critical quality attributes (CQAs). Most importantly, this is the first study that demonstrates the application of predictive analytics techniques to predict critical quality attributes of a commercial biologic. The data obtained using the affinity columns were used to generate appropriate models to predict quality attributes that would be obtained after traditional multi-step purification trains. These models empower process development decision-making with drug substance-equivalent product quality information without generation of actual drug substance. Optimization was performed to ensure maximum target recovery and minimal target protein degradation. The methodologies developed for Fabrazyme were successfully reapplied for Enzyme 2, indicating platform opportunities. The impact of the technology is significant, including reductions in time and personnel requirements, rapid product purification, and substantially increased throughput. Applications are discussed, including upstream and downstream process development support to achieve the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) as well as integration with bioprocesses as a process analytical technology (PAT).

  13. Specificity of a Polyclonal Fecal Elastase ELISA for CELA3

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Christoph; Lerch, Markus M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elastase is a proteolytic pancreatic enzyme that passes through the gastrointestinal tract undergoing only limited degradation. ELISA tests to determine stool elastase concentrations have therefore been developed for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Five different isoforms of pancreatic elastase (CELA1, CELA2A, CELA2B, CELA3A, CELA3B) are encoded in the human genome. We have investigated three different polyclonal antisera that are used in a commercial fecal elastase ELISA to determine their specificity for different pancreatic elastase isoforms. Material and Methods Different polyclonal rabbit antisera against human elastase peptides (BIOSERV Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) were tested by Western blot analysis of human pancreatic juice, in HEK-293 cells expressing Elastase constructs, and in the protein content of porcine pancreatin, used for treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Results In human pancreatic juice the polyclonal antisera detected proteins at the corresponding size of human pancreatic elastase isoforms (~29kDa). Transiently expressed GFP fusion protein of elastase isoform CELA3A (CELA3A-GFP), but not CELA2A (CELA2A-GFP) could be precipitated from HEK-293 cell lysates with the elastase antisera. We detected no cross-reactivity with elastases in the porcine pancreatic extracts (pancreatin) used for enzyme replacement therapy. Conclusion The polyclonal antisera used in a commercial fecal elastase ELISA are specific for the human pancreatic elastase isoform CELA3 and do not cross-react with elastase contained in pig pancreatin. While pancreatic elastase 1 (CELA1) is not expressed in the adult human pancreas, possible differences between the other isoforms regarding their cellular expression, pathophysiological role and relevance in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency deserve further investigation. PMID:27459204

  14. Methods for purifying carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dailly, Anne; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-05-26

    Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.

  15. Protein purification using PDZ affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains function in nature as protein-binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise approximately 90 residues and undergo specific, high-affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, other PDZ domains, and/or phospholipids. We have previously shown that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. This unit provides protocols for the PDZ affinity chromatography procedure that are applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domains or PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We detail the preparation of affinity resins composed of PDZ domains or PDZ domain peptide ligands coupled to solid supports. These resins can be used to purify proteins containing endogenous or genetically introduced PDZ domains or ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands. PMID:25829303

  16. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  17. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  18. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture. PMID:27473483

  19. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  20. Deconvolution of antibody affinities and concentrations by non-linear regression analysis of competitive ELISA data.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Bobrovnik, S. A.; Biosciences Division; Palladin Inst. Biochemistry

    2007-12-01

    Physiological responses of the adaptive immune system are polyclonal in nature whether induced by a naturally occurring infection, by vaccination to prevent infection or, in the case of animals, by challenge with antigen to generate reagents of research or commercial significance. The composition of the polyclonal responses is distinct to each individual or animal and changes over time. Differences exist in the affinities of the constituents and their relative proportion of the responsive population. In addition, some of the antibodies bind to different sites on the antigen, whereas other pairs of antibodies are sterically restricted from concurrent interaction with the antigen. Even if generation of a monoclonal antibody is the ultimate goal of a project, the quality of the resulting reagent is ultimately related to the characteristics of the initial immune response. It is probably impossible to quantitatively parse the composition of a polyclonal response to antigen. However, molecular regression allows further parameterization of a polyclonal antiserum in the context of certain simplifying assumptions. The antiserum is described as consisting of two competing populations of high- and low-affinity and unknown relative proportions. This simple model allows the quantitative determination of representative affinities and proportions. These parameters may be of use in evaluating responses to vaccines, to evaluating continuity of antibody production whether in vaccine recipients or animals used for the production of antisera, or in optimizing selection of donors for the production of monoclonal antibodies.

  1. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  2. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  3. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  4. Characterization of rabbit cells by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ponsard, D C; Cinader, B; Chou, C T; Dubiski, S

    1986-01-01

    Reagents for the identification of rabbit cell markers have been developed at a relatively slow rate. In this paper, rabbit cells are being characterized by polyclonal antibodies against a T-cell antigen (RTLA), a B-cell antigen (RABELA) and an analogue of murine Ia antigen. A number of monoclonal antibodies, specific for lymphocytes and/or bone marrow and/or polymorphonuclear leucocytes, have been used for the analysis of cells with identifiable membrane antigens. Populations that have cells with two of the above antigens in the membranes were identified. To these ends, complement-mediated cell kill by antisera alone and in mixtures was employed. PMID:3489667

  5. Identification of an outer membrane protein of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum that binds with high affinity to bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Menon, Sailesh; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev

    2015-03-23

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is the primary etiologic agent of liver abscesses in cattle. There are two subspecies; subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme, which differ in morphological, biochemical, molecular characteristics, and virulence. The subsp. necrophorum, which is more virulent, occurs more frequently in liver abscesses than the subsp. funduliforme. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is critical to the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections, and in F. necrophorum, outer membrane proteins (OMP) have been shown to mediate adhesion to bovine endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to identify potential adhesins that are involved in adhesion of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum to the host cells. An OMP of 42.4 kDa, which binds with high affinity to the bovine endothelial cells and is recognized by the sera from cattle with liver abscesses, was identified. N-terminal sequencing of the protein showed 96% homology to the FomA protein of F. nucleatum. The PCR analysis showed that this fomA gene was present in several strains of subsp. necrophorum, subsp. funduliforme of bovine and subsp. funduliforme of human origin. The purified native and recombinantly expressed protein when preincubated with the endothelial cells, prevented the attachment of subsp. necrophorum significantly. In addition, the polyclonal antibody produced against the protein prevented the binding of subsp. necrophorum to bovine endothelial cells.

  6. Production and characterization of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to almond (Prunus dulcis L.) major storage protein.

    PubMed

    Acosta, M R; Roux, K H; Teuber, S S; Sathe, S K

    1999-10-01

    Rabbits were immunized with purified almond major protein (AMP), the primary storage protein in almonds. Rabbit anti-AMP polyclonal antibodies (PA) could detect AMP when as little as 1-10 ng/mL were used to coat microtiter plates in a noncompetitive enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Competitive inhibition ELISA assays detected the AMP down to 300 ng/mL. PA recognized the AMP in protein extracts from all U.S. major marketing cultivars of almonds (Mission, Neplus, Peerless, Carmel, and Nonpareil) with specific reactivity of 52.6-75% as compared to that of the AMP alone. Immunoreactivity of protein extracts prepared from commercial samples of blanched almonds, roasted almonds, and almond paste was respectively reduced by 50.0%, 56.6%, and 68.4% (noncompetitive ELISA) when compared to the immunoreactivity of the AMP. Moist heat (121 degrees C, 15 min) pretreatment of the AMP reduced the PA reactivity by 87% (noncompetitive ELISA). Exposing AMP to pH extremes (12.5 and 1.5-2.5) caused a 53% and 57% reduction in PA reactivity, respectively (noncompetitive ELISA). PA showed some cross-reactivity with the cashew major globulin, and to a lesser extent, the Tepary and Great Northern bean major storage protein (7S or phaseolin). The presence of almonds in a commercial food was detected using PA in a competitive ELISA. PMID:10552764

  7. A Novel Polyclonal Antiserum against Toxoplasma gondii Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bin; Kuang, Zhenzhan; Zhan, Yanli; Chen, Daxiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming; Luo, Shuhong; Hao, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    The sodium hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), which functions in maintaining the ratio of Na+ and H+ ions, is widely distributed in cell plasma membranes. It plays a prominent role in pH balancing, cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. However, its exact subcellular location and biological functions in Toxoplasma gondii are largely unclear. In this study, we cloned the C-terminal sequence of T. gondii NHE1 (TgNHE1) incorporating the C-terminal peptide of NHE1 (C-NHE1) into the pGEX4T-1 expression plasmid. The peptide sequence was predicted to have good antigenicity based on the information obtained from an immune epitope database. After induction of heterologous gene expression with isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactoside, the recombinant C-NHE1 protein successfully expressed in a soluble form was purified by glutathione sepharose beads as an immunogen for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. The specificity of this antiserum was confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The antiserum could reduce T. gondii invasion into host cells, indicated by the decreased TgNHE1 expression in T. gondii parasites that were pre-incubated with antiserum in the process of cell entry. Furthermore, the antiserum reduced the virulence of T. gondii parasites to host cells in vitro, possibly by blocking the release of Ca2+. In this regard, this antiserum has potential to be a valuable tool for further studies of TgNHE1. PMID:26951975

  8. Production of cocktail of polyclonal antibodies using bacterial expressed recombinant protein for multiple virus detection.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Reetika; Mandal, Bikash; Paul, Prabir Kumar; Chigurupati, Phaneendra; Jain, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Cocktail of polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were produced that will help in multiple virus detection and overcome the limitation of individual virus purification, protein expression and purification as well as immunization in multiple rabbits. A dual fusion construct was developed using conserved coat protein (CP) sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in an expression vector, pET-28a(+). The fusion protein (∼40kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Likewise, a triple fusion construct was developed by fusing conserved CP sequences of CMV and PRSV with conserved nucleocapsid protein (N) sequence of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) and expressed as a fusion protein (∼50kDa) in pET-28a(+). PAb made separately to each of these three viruses recognized the double and triple fusion proteins in Western blot indicating retention of desired epitopes for binding with target antibodies. The fusion proteins (∼40kDa and ∼50kDa) were used to produce cocktail of PAb by immunizing rabbits, which simultaneously detected natural infection of CMV and PRSV or CMV, PRSV and GBNV in Cucurbitaceous, Solanaceous and other hosts in DAC-ELISA. This is the first report on production of a cocktail of PAb to recombinant fusion protein of two or three distinct viruses.

  9. Induction of antihemagglutinin antibodies by polyclonal antiidiotype antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dinca, L; Neuwirth, S; Schulman, J; Bona, C

    1993-01-01

    Antiidiotypic antibodies can be envisioned as an alternative approach in the development of vaccines against influenza virus, which exhibits natural antigenic variations. In our work, we obtained two polyclonal cross-reactive anti-Id antibodies against PY102, VM113, and VM202 mAbs, which in turn are specific respectively for PR8 virus and laboratory-induced virus variants (PY102-V1 and VM113-V1). With these cross-reactive anti-Id antibodies, we were able to elicit anti-HA antibodies in mice. In comparing the anti-HA antibody response in animals injected with anti-Id antibodies to those immunized with PR8 influenza virus, we demonstrated that the HI titer was higher after virus immunization and that the PR8 virus boost was more efficient in this group. Our results showed that the polyclonal cross-reactive anti-Id antibodies were more efficient than the individual anti-Ids at eliciting responses. At the same time, we demonstrated that PR8-primed T cells, cultured with B cells from animals immunized with anti-Id antibodies, were able to produce anti-PR8 antibodies subsequent to stimulation with influenza virus. PMID:8476510

  10. Induction of antihemagglutinin antibodies by polyclonal antiidiotype antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dinca, L; Neuwirth, S; Schulman, J; Bona, C

    1993-01-01

    Antiidiotypic antibodies can be envisioned as an alternative approach in the development of vaccines against influenza virus, which exhibits natural antigenic variations. In our work, we obtained two polyclonal cross-reactive anti-Id antibodies against PY102, VM113, and VM202 mAbs, which in turn are specific respectively for PR8 virus and laboratory-induced virus variants (PY102-V1 and VM113-V1). With these cross-reactive anti-Id antibodies, we were able to elicit anti-HA antibodies in mice. In comparing the anti-HA antibody response in animals injected with anti-Id antibodies to those immunized with PR8 influenza virus, we demonstrated that the HI titer was higher after virus immunization and that the PR8 virus boost was more efficient in this group. Our results showed that the polyclonal cross-reactive anti-Id antibodies were more efficient than the individual anti-Ids at eliciting responses. At the same time, we demonstrated that PR8-primed T cells, cultured with B cells from animals immunized with anti-Id antibodies, were able to produce anti-PR8 antibodies subsequent to stimulation with influenza virus.

  11. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using polyclonal antibody immobilized magnetostrictive biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guntupalli, R.; Hu, Jing; Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Barbaree, James M.; Huang, T. S.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2006-05-01

    Novel mass-sensitive, magnetostrictive sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted by the sensor in response to an applied, time varying, magnetic field. This magnetostrictive platform has a unique advantage over conventional sensor platforms in that measurement is wireless or remote. These biosensors can thus be used in-situ for detecting pathogens and biological threat agents. In this work, we have used a magnetostrictive platform immobilized with a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) to form a biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Upon exposure to solutions containing Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, the bacteria were bound to the sensor and the additional mass of the bound bacteria caused a shift in the sensor's resonant frequency. Responses of the sensors to different concentrations of S. typhimurium were recorded and the results correlated with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of samples. Good agreement between the measured number of bound bacterial cells (attached mass) and frequency shifts were obtained. The longevity and specificity of the selected polyclonal antibody were also investigated and are reported.

  12. Immunological Activities of Purified Preparations of Enterobacterial Common Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Patrick J.; Jacobs, Diane M.; Marx, Arthur; Mayer, Hubert; Romanowska, Elzbieta; Neter, Erwin

    1982-01-01

    The immunological activities of three purified preparations of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) obtained by different procedures were studied. ECA-Ma (method of A. Marx) was from Salmonella typhimurium TV149 (Ra mutant), ECA-My (method of H. Mayer) was from S. montevideo, and ECA-Ro (method of E. Romanowska) was from Shigella sonnei phase I. These preparations, on a weight basis, neutralized similar amounts of ECA antibodies, indicating that the serological activities were comparable. Neither ECA-My nor ECA-Ro elicited specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions at 24 or 48 h in immunized guinea pigs. ECA-Ma, as well as the nonpurified preparations of the antigens used for immunization, elicited reactions at 24 h but not at 48 h. Thus, ECA-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was not detected in immunized guinea pigs. Striking differences were noted in the immunogenicity of these antigens, ECA-Ma being highly immunogenic in the rabbit in contrast to ECA-My and ECA-Ro. ECA-Ma was a potent mitogen for guinea pig spleen cells, stimulating high levels of DNA synthesis; ECA-My was only slightly active. The three antigens were mitogenic to spleen cells from both CBA/J and C3H/HeJ mice, although not to the same degree, indicating that this effect is not due to contaminating lipopolysaccharide, since the latter strain of mice is resistant to endotoxin. Since an ECA-Ma extract made from an ECA-negative mutant proved to be mitogenic to murine spleen cells, the mitogenicity is not due to the ECA haptenic determinant. The mitogenic effect is polyclonal in nature, ECA-Ma producing a maximum response on day 3. Thus, the ECA preparations are both B-cell mitogens and polyclonal activators in murine spleen cells. From these studies it is evident that the biological and immunological activities of these purified antigens depend not only on the haptenic determinant but also on associated or bound components of the preparations. PMID:7033134

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi cytosolic alkaline antigens (FI) induce polyclonal activation in murine normal B cells.

    PubMed

    Montes, C L; Vottero-Cima, E; Gruppi, A

    1996-08-01

    Several reports have described polyclonal activation in mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this work was to analyse the participation of one T. cruzi antigenic fraction in this immunological event. The antigen selected was FI, an antigenic fraction of pI 7-9 obtained from T. cruzi cytosol separated by isoelectricfocusing. FI is constituted by molecules with molecular weights of around 60 and 20 KDa. The authors assayed the ability of this antigenic fraction to induce polyclonal activation of spleen mononuclear cells from normal (NSMC) BALB/c mice. NSMC showed a marked lymphoproliferative response measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation after 3 days of culture in presence of FI. The values reached by FI-stimulated cells were 10 times higher than the controls (non-stimulated cells). This effect was dose-dependent. Furthermore, the authors observed that a purified T-cell population in the presence of adherent cells was unaffected by FI. Additionally, in a culture of NSMC, FI stimulated the proliferation of B cells as observed by the increase of the percentage of B220+ cells determined by FACS using FITC-conjugated anti-mouse B220. The authors noticed that the percentage of B220+Ly1+(CD5) populations in the presence of FI did not change with respect to the control (non-stimulated cells), indicating that FI expanded both conventional and CD5+ B cells. The isotypic pattern of the antibodies produced after 6 days of culture of NSMC in the presence of FI was predominantly IgM, which reacted with highly conserved antigens such as actin, myosin, myoglobin, thyroglobulin and carbonic anhydrase, but did not react with FI. A slight increase of IgG1 and IgG3 with respect to the control was observed but no changes on the levels of IgG2 was noticed. These results indicate that FI promotes activation, proliferation and differentiation in antibody-secreting cells of normal murine B lymphocytes.

  14. Incidence of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce and its detection by polyclonal antibodies produced against recombinant coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Sharma, Susheel; Singh, Jasvir; Saha, Swati; Baranwal, V K

    2016-04-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus of family Potyviridae, causes mosaic disease in lettuce has recently been identified in India. The virus is seed borne and secondary infection occurs through aphids. To ensure virus freedom in seeds it is important to develop diagnostic tools, for serological methods the production of polyclonal antibodies is a prerequisite. The coat protein (CP) gene of LMV was amplified, cloned and expressed using pET-28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 competent cells. The LMV CP was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of the E. coli His tag. The LMV CP/His protein reacted positively with a commercial antiserum against LMV in an immunoblot assay. Polyclonal antibodies purified from serum of rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave positive results when LMV infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was tested at 1:1000 dilution in PTA-ELISA. These were used for specific detection of LMV in screening lettuce accessions. The efficacy of the raised polyclonal antiserum was high and it can be utilized in quarantine and clean seed production. PMID:26850143

  15. Human antibody responses to the polyclonal Dryvax vaccine for smallpox prevention can be distinguished from responses to the monoclonal replacement vaccine ACAM2000.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Christine; Keasey, Sarah; Korman, Lawrence; Pittman, Phillip R; Ulrich, Robert G

    2014-06-01

    Dryvax (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Marietta, PA) is representative of the vaccinia virus preparations that were previously used for preventing smallpox. While Dryvax was highly effective, the national supply stocks were depleted, and there were manufacturing concerns regarding sterility and the clonal heterogeneity of the vaccine. ACAM2000 (Acambis, Inc./Sanofi-Pasteur Biologics Co., Cambridge, MA), a single-plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax, recently replaced the polyclonal smallpox vaccine for use in the United States. A substantial amount of sequence heterogeneity exists within the polyclonal proteome of Dryvax, including proteins that are missing from ACAM2000. Reasoning that a detailed comparison of antibody responses to the polyclonal and monoclonal vaccines may be useful for identifying unique properties of each antibody response, we utilized a protein microarray comprised of approximately 94% of the vaccinia poxvirus proteome (245 proteins) to measure protein-specific antibody responses of 71 individuals receiving a single vaccination with ACAM2000 or Dryvax. We observed robust antibody responses to 21 poxvirus proteins in vaccinated individuals, including 11 proteins that distinguished Dryvax responses from ACAM2000. Analysis of protein sequences from Dryvax clones revealed amino acid level differences in these 11 antigenic proteins and suggested that sequence variation and clonal heterogeneity may contribute to the observed differences between Dryvax and ACAM2000 antibody responses.

  16. Incidence of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce and its detection by polyclonal antibodies produced against recombinant coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Sharma, Susheel; Singh, Jasvir; Saha, Swati; Baranwal, V K

    2016-04-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus of family Potyviridae, causes mosaic disease in lettuce has recently been identified in India. The virus is seed borne and secondary infection occurs through aphids. To ensure virus freedom in seeds it is important to develop diagnostic tools, for serological methods the production of polyclonal antibodies is a prerequisite. The coat protein (CP) gene of LMV was amplified, cloned and expressed using pET-28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 competent cells. The LMV CP was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of the E. coli His tag. The LMV CP/His protein reacted positively with a commercial antiserum against LMV in an immunoblot assay. Polyclonal antibodies purified from serum of rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave positive results when LMV infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was tested at 1:1000 dilution in PTA-ELISA. These were used for specific detection of LMV in screening lettuce accessions. The efficacy of the raised polyclonal antiserum was high and it can be utilized in quarantine and clean seed production.

  17. Solar purifier of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Fawzy, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Around 1920, ultraviolet radiation was used in Switzerland and France for water purification. Now, it is in use in more than 2000 European water works. In the United States, between 1916 and 1928, four municipal water installations of ultraviolet apparatus were in operation. By 1939, they were all abandoned in favor of chlorination primarily because of economy and the inadequacy of technology available at that time. In recent years, ultraviolet purification has had a comeback, partly because of the realization of what chlorination is doing to the environment and partly due to the vast advances in UV technology. Although solar ultraviolet radiation has a marginal biocidal effect, a property designed solar purifier could be a viable option in certain application. Among possible uses are: (1) rural single-family dwellings; (2) underdeveloped countries; and (3) small usage rates where electric power is not available. A solar purifier model is presented in this study. The data it provided illustrates that it can be effective in treating partially contaminated water.

  18. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800{degrees} C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800{degrees} C to below about 300{degrees} C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300{degrees} C.

  19. Purified discord and multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric G.; Webster, Eric J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2013-10-15

    We study bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of a multipartite entanglement structure in the tripartite purified system. In particular, we find that bipartite quantum discord requires the presence of both bipartite and tripartite entanglement in the purification. This allows one to understand the asymmetry of quantum discord, D(A,B)≠D(B,A) in terms of entanglement monogamy. As instructive special cases, we study discord for qubits and Gaussian states in detail. As a result of this we shed new light on a counterintuitive property of Gaussian states: the presence of classical correlations necessarily requires the presence of quantum correlations. Finally, our results also shed new light on a protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party. -- Highlights: •Bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of multipartite entanglement. •Relevance of quantum discord as a utilizable resource for quantum info. tasks. •Quantum discord manifests itself in entanglement in the purified state. •Relation between asymmetry of discord and entanglement monogamy. •Protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party.

  20. Generation of leukotrienes by purified human lung mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    MacGlashan, D W; Schleimer, R P; Peters, S P; Schulman, E S; Adams, G K; Newball, H H; Lichtenstein, L M

    1982-01-01

    Although mediator release from mast cells and basophils plays a central role in the pathogenesis of human allergic disease, biochemical studies have been restricted to rat peritoneal mast cells and basophilic leukemia cells because they could be easily purified. We have used two new techniques of cell separation to purify human lung mast cells to 98% homogeneity. Lung cell suspensions were obtained by dispersion of chopped lung tissue with proteolytic enzymes. Mast cells were then purified from the suspensions by countercurrent centrifugal elutriation and affinity chromatography. The purified mast cells released both histamine and slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) (leukotriene C and D) during stimulation with goat anti-human IgE antibody. Moreover, these preparations were able to generate significant quantities of SRS-A (32 +/- 7 x 10(-17) LTD mole-equivalents/mast cell) at all stages of purification, indicating that a secondary cell is not necessary for the antigen-induced release of SRS. Images PMID:7119113

  1. Purification of glycolytic enzymes by using affinity-elution chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Scopes, R K

    1977-01-01

    1. A systematic procedure for the purification of enzymes by affinity-elution chromatography is described. Enzymes are adsorbed on a cation-exchanger, and eluted with ligands specific for the enzyme concerned. 2. All of the glycolytic and some related enzymes present in rabbit muscle can be purified by the affinity-elution technique. The pH range for adsorption and elution of each enzyme was found, and the effects of minor variations of conditions are described. 3. A description of experimental conditions suitable for affinity elution of each enzyme is given, together with special features relevant to each individual enzyme. 4. Theoretical considerations of affinity elution chromatography are discussed, including its limitations, advantages and disadvantages compared with affinity-adsorption chromatography. Possible developments are suggested to cover enzymes which because of their adsorption characteristics are not at present amenable to affinity-elution procedures. PMID:192194

  2. Autoantibodies interacting with purified native thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Atger, M; Misrahi, M; Young, J; Jolivet, A; Orgiazzi, J; Schaison, G; Milgrom, E

    1999-11-01

    Native thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from membrane extracts of stably transfected L cells. An ELISA test was devised to study anti-TSHR autoantibodies directly. Comparison of native TSHR with bacterially expressed, denatured TSHR showed that the latter was not recognized by the autoantibodies, suggesting that they bind to conformational epitopes only present on the native receptor. The use of deglycosylated TSHR and of purified receptor ectodomain (alpha-subunit) showed that the autoantibodies recognized only the protein backbone moiety of the receptor and that their epitopes were localized entirely in its ectodomain. Autoantibodies were detected in 45 of 48 subjects with untreated Graves' disease and in 26 of 47 healthy volunteers. The affinity for the receptor was similar in the two groups (Kd = 0.25-1 x 10-10 M) and the autoantibodies belonged to the IgG class in all cases. Although the concentration of autoantibodies was higher in Graves' disease patients (3.50 +/- 0.36 mg.L-1) than in control subjects (1.76 +/- 0.21) (mean +/- SEM), there was an overlap between the groups. Receptor-stimulating autoantibodies (TSAb) were studied by measuring cAMP synthesis in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Their characteristics (recognition of alpha-subunit, of deglycosylated TSHR, nonrecognition of bacterially expressed denatured receptor) were similar to those of the antibodies detected by the ELISA test. TSAb were only found in individuals with Graves' disease. The ELISA test measures total anti-TSHR antibodies, whereas the test using adenylate cyclase stimulation measures antibodies that recognize specific epitopes involved in receptor activation. Our observations thus disprove the hypothesis according to which Graves' disease is related to the appearance of anti-TSHR antibodies not present in normal subjects. Actually, anti-TSHR antibodies exist in many euthyroid subjects, in some cases even at concentrations higher than those

  3. Back to the future: recombinant polyclonal antibody therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-zhe; Coljee, Vincent W.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Antibody therapeutics are one of the fastest growing classes of pharmaceuticals, with an annual US market over $20 billion, developed to treat a variety of diseases including cancer, auto-immune and infectious diseases. Most are currently administered as a single molecule to treat a single disease, however there is mounting evidence that cocktails of multiple antibodies, each with a unique binding specificity and protective mechanism, may improve clinical efficacy. Here, we review progress in the development of oligoclonal combinations of antibodies to treat disease, focusing on identification of synergistic antibodies. We then discuss the application of modern antibody engineering technologies to produce highly potent antibody preparations, including oligoclonal antibody cocktails and truly recombinant polyclonal antibodies. Specific examples illustrating the synergy conferred by multiple antibodies will be provided for diseases caused by botulinum toxin, cancer and immune thrombocytopenia. The bioprocessing and regulatory options for these preparations will be discussed. PMID:24443710

  4. Back to the future: recombinant polyclonal antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Zhe; Coljee, Vincent W; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2013-11-01

    Antibody therapeutics are one of the fastest growing classes of pharmaceuticals, with an annual US market over $20 billion, developed to treat a variety of diseases including cancer, auto-immune and infectious diseases. Most are currently administered as a single molecule to treat a single disease, however there is mounting evidence that cocktails of multiple antibodies, each with a unique binding specificity and protective mechanism, may improve clinical efficacy. Here, we review progress in the development of oligoclonal combinations of antibodies to treat disease, focusing on identification of synergistic antibodies. We then discuss the application of modern antibody engineering technologies to produce highly potent antibody preparations, including oligoclonal antibody cocktails and truly recombinant polyclonal antibodies. Specific examples illustrating the synergy conferred by multiple antibodies will be provided for diseases caused by botulinum toxin, cancer and immune thrombocytopenia. The bioprocessing and regulatory options for these preparations will be discussed. PMID:24443710

  5. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asial viruses grown in the presence of polyclonal antisera in serology and nucleotide sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Manoj; Sanyal, A; Hemadri, D; Tosh, C; Mohapatra, J K; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2004-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) have a high rate of mutation and spontaneous mutants can be readily. isolated in the laboratory. In this study, plaque purified FMDV Asial vaccine strains (IND 63/72 and IND 491/97) were passaged in-vitro in Baby Hamster Kidney-21 cell monolayers in the presence of sub-neutralizing levels of antiviral polyclonal sera (APS), raised in guinea pigs against the purified and inactivated whole virus particles of IND 63/72, IND 491/97 and IND 13/01. After serial passages under selective immune pressure, the viruses starts growing in the presence of undiluted sera and showed certain characteristics like an increased resistance to neutralization by APS and reduction in plaque counts on titration in plaque assay. Cross-neutralization of these viruses with above-mentioned APS revealed selection of three complete and one partial polyclonal antibody resistant (PAR) viruses based on the 'r' value in micro neutralization test. Alterations were detected at several amino acid residues in the structural protein-coding P1 region. Many of the residues inferred to be positively selected sites in other serotypes of this virus were also prone to substitution under immune selection pressure in Asia1 virus. The present work extends the finding that selection exerted by host antibody also plays a major role in the rapid evolution of FMDV Asia1, as observed in other serotypes.

  6. Expression, purification and characterization of two truncated peste des petits ruminants virus matrix proteins in Escherichia coli, and production of polyclonal antibodies against this protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2013-09-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants, is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The PPRV matrix (M) gene is composed of 1483 base pairs, encoding a 335 amino acids M protein with a molecular weight of approximately 38kD. We have demonstrated previously that the full-length M protein was expressed at an extremely low level or not even expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). In this study, the M protein was split into two truncated forms to be successfully expressed in E. coli at a high level using the pET30a (+) vector, respectively, by analysis of SDS-PAGE, western blot and MALDI-TOF-MS. The optimization of culture conditions led us to perform the recombinant protein induction with 0.2mM IPTG at 28°C for 12h, whereby both proteins nevertheless were expressed in the insoluble form. Therefore, both His-tagged proteins were purified under the denaturing condition using a commercially available kit. Balb/c mice were immunized with the complex of purified proteins and then effectively produced polyclonal antibodies, which reached to a relatively high titer by the analysis of ELISA. The specificity of the prepared polyclonal antibodies was checked by western blot and immunofluorescence, revealing them with the desirable specificity against both non-denatured and denatured M proteins.

  7. Affine projective Osserman structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkey, P.; Nikčević, S.

    2013-08-01

    By considering the projectivized spectrum of the Jacobi operator, we introduce the concept of projective Osserman manifold in both the affine and in the pseudo-Riemannian settings. If M is an affine projective Osserman manifold, then the deformed Riemannian extension metric on the cotangent bundle is both spacelike and timelike projective Osserman. Since any rank-1-symmetric space is affine projective Osserman, this provides additional information concerning the cotangent bundle of a rank-1 Riemannian symmetric space with the deformed Riemannian extension metric. We construct other examples of affine projective Osserman manifolds where the Ricci tensor is not symmetric and thus the connection in question is not the Levi-Civita connection of any metric. If the dimension is odd, we use methods of algebraic topology to show the Jacobi operator of an affine projective Osserman manifold has only one non-zero eigenvalue and that eigenvalue is real.

  8. Affinity purification of metalloprotease from marine bacterium using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Yang, Juan; Bao, Jing; Liu, Junzhong; Lin, Shengxiang; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an efficient affinity purification protocol for an alkaline metalloprotease from marine bacterium was developed using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After screening and optimization of the affinity ligands and spacer arm lengths, Cu-iminmodiacetic acid was chosen as the optimal affinity ligand, which was coupled to Sepharose 6B via a 14-atom spacer arm. The absorption analysis of this medium revealed a desorption constant Kd of 21.5 μg/mL and a theoretical maximum absorption Qmax of 24.9 mg/g. Thanks to this affinity medium, the enzyme could be purified by only one affinity purification step with a purity of approximately 95% pure when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recovery of the protease activity reached 74.6%, which is much higher than the value obtained by traditional protocols (8.9%). These results contribute to the industrial purifications and contribute a significant reference for the purification of other metalloproteases. PMID:27058973

  9. The cloning and characterization of the enolase2 gene of Gekko japonicus and its polyclonal antibody preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Ronghua; Chen, Haijiao; Zhou, Youlang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The enolase2 gene is usually expressed in mature neurons and also named neuron specific enolase (NSE). In the present study, we first obtained the NSE gene cDNA sequence by using the RACE method based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) fragment from the cDNA library of Gekko japonicus and identified one transcript of about 2.2 kb in central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The open reading frame of NSE is 1305 bp, which encodes a 435 amino-acid protein. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern of NSE by RT-PCR and found that the expression of NSE mRNA was very high in brain, spinal cord and low in heart, while it was not detectable in other tissues. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the time-dependent change in the expression of the NSE mRNA level after gecko spinal cord transection and found it significantly increased at one day, reaching its highest level three days post-injury and then decreasing at the seventh day of the experiment. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-NSE was constructed and induced to express His fused NSE protein. The purified NSE protein was used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65536 determined by ELISA. Western blotting showed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and endogenous NSE protein. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals were present in neurons of the brain and the spinal cord. This study provided the tools of cDNA and polyclonal antibody for studying NSE function in Gekko japonicus. PMID:23615470

  10. Dengue Virus Directly Stimulates Polyclonal B Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Michelle Premazzi; de Morais, Ana Theresa Silveira; Peçanha, Ligia Maria Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection is associated to vigorous inflammatory response, to a high frequency of activated B cells, and to increased levels of circulating cross-reactive antibodies. We investigated whether direct infection of B cells would promote activation by culturing primary human B lymphocytes from healthy donors with DENV in vitro. B cells were susceptible, but poorly permissive to infection. Even though, primary B cells cultured with DENV induced substantial IgM secretion, which is a hallmark of polyclonal B cell activation. Notably, DENV induced the activation of B cells obtained from either DENV immune or DENV naïve donors, suggesting that it was not dependent on DENV-specific secondary/memory response. B cell stimulation was dependent on activation of MAPK and CD81. B cells cultured with DENV also secreted IL-6 and presented increased expression of CD86 and HLA-DR, which might contribute to B lymphocyte co-stimulatory function. Indeed, PBMCs, but not isolated B cells, secreted high amounts of IgG upon DENV culture, suggesting that interaction with other cell types in vivo might promote Ig isotype switching and IgG secretion from different B cell clones. These findings suggest that activation signaling pathways triggered by DENV interaction with non-specific receptors on B cells might contribute to the exacerbated response observed in dengue patients. PMID:26656738

  11. Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kadanali, A; Varoglu, E; Kerek, M; Tasyaran, M A

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) scintigraphy for the diagnosis of brucellosis, and to compare its effectiveness in the diagnosis of osteoarticular involvement in comparison with bone scanning. Of 30 patients with brucellosis, Tc-99m HIG detected osteoarticular involvement in 18 (60%) patients, in whom the sacroiliac joints were affected most commonly (n = 13; 72.2%), with statistically predominant bilateral involvement (p < 0.05). By bone scanning, the rate of osteoarticular involvement was 70% (21 of 30 patients), and the joints affected most commonly were sacroiliac (15 of 21 patients; 71.4%). Although bilateral involvement was observed mostly by bone scanning, there was no significant difference between the rate of bilateral and unilateral involvement. The anatomical distribution of osteoarticular complications, as detected by Tc-99m HIG and bone scintigraphy, did not differ significantly. With Tc-99m HIG, orchitis was detected in two patients and paravertebral abscess in one patient. Since bone scanning did not detect these soft tissue complications, Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy might be useful for the detection of both osteoarticular and soft tissue complications resulting from brucellosis.

  12. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by intravenously administered polyclonal immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Achiron, A; Mor, F; Margalit, R; Cohen, I R; Lider, O; Miron, S

    2000-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats either by active immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) or by adoptive transfer using anti-MBP specific CD4(+)T cells. Treatment with human polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) effectively suppressed active EAE. Time-dependent experiments demonstrated that the effect of IgG was manifested only when treatment was given immediately after immunization; administration from day 7 after disease induction did not suppress the disease. In the adoptive transfer model of EAE, IgG had no effect in vivo. However, pretreatment in vitro of the antigen-specific T-cells with IgG inhibited their ability to mediate adoptive EAE, as it did in active EAE. Similarly, in vitro IgG pretreatment of the antigen-specific T-cells suppressed the proliferative response to MBP. Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated the binding of IgG to activated T-cell lines that was inhibited by soluble Fc molecules. The differential effects of IgG on active EAE and on the adoptive transfer of EAE suggest that IgG in vivo can suppress disease by acting during the early phase of the immune response which involves naive T cells. The inhibition of T-cell proliferation and adoptive transfer of EAE by incubation of T cells in vitro appears to require higher concentrations of IgG than those obtained in vivo. PMID:11040073

  13. Type 1 diabetes immunotherapy using polyclonal regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Buckner, Jane H; Fitch, Mark; Gitelman, Stephen E; Gupta, Shipra; Hellerstein, Marc K; Herold, Kevan C; Lares, Angela; Lee, Michael R; Li, Kelvin; Liu, Weihong; Long, S Alice; Masiello, Lisa M; Nguyen, Vinh; Putnam, Amy L; Rieck, Mary; Sayre, Peter H; Tang, Qizhi

    2015-11-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be defective in the autoimmune disease setting. Thus, efforts to repair or replace Tregs in T1D may reverse autoimmunity and protect the remaining insulin-producing β cells. On the basis of this premise, a robust technique has been developed to isolate and expand Tregs from patients with T1D. The expanded Tregs retained their T cell receptor diversity and demonstrated enhanced functional activity. We report on a phase 1 trial to assess safety of Treg adoptive immunotherapy in T1D. Fourteen adult subjects with T1D, in four dosing cohorts, received ex vivo-expanded autologous CD4(+)CD127(lo/-)CD25(+) polyclonal Tregs (0.05 × 10(8) to 26 × 10(8) cells). A subset of the adoptively transferred Tregs was long-lived, with up to 25% of the peak level remaining in the circulation at 1 year after transfer. Immune studies showed transient increases in Tregs in recipients and retained a broad Treg FOXP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD127(lo) phenotype long-term. There were no infusion reactions or cell therapy-related high-grade adverse events. C-peptide levels persisted out to 2+ years after transfer in several individuals. These results support the development of a phase 2 trial to test efficacy of the Treg therapy. PMID:26606968

  14. Specific polyclonal antibodies to a mouse liver carcinogen-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, H.A.; Marletta, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    Previously they characterized a mouse liver cytosolic protein termed a carcinogen-binding protein (CBP) by virtue of its ability to reversibly bind polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high affinity and saturability. Recently, the CBP was purified and found to be a single polypeptide of 29 kDa. A K/sub D/ of 2.7 +/- 0.7 nM was estimated for the pure protein. 2D-electrophoresis resolved the purified protein into six isoelectric variants labeled specifically by (/sup 3/H)-1-azidopyrene. Antisera were prepared from rabbits with a high titer as measured by ELISA. The sera is highly specific for the 29 kDa protein when analyzed by western blotting of both SDS and native acrylamide gels. Immunological screening provides an alternative to the limitations of the ligand-binding charcoal assay. The concentration of CBP is highest in liver followed by lung, kidney and heart which were approximately the same. Lower levels were found in intestine, testes, spleen, thymus and brain. Ligand-binding and immunological assays have identified the CBP in Ah responsive and non-responsive strains. Cross-reactivity studies with the rat and the rabbit are underway.

  15. Affinity Purification of Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadonaga, James T.; Tjian, Robert

    1986-08-01

    We describe a method for affinity purification of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that is fast and effective. Complementary chemically synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides that contain a recognition site for a sequence-specific DNA binding protein are annealed and ligated to give oligomers. This DNA is then covalently coupled to Sepharose CL-2B with cyanogen bromide to yield the affinity resin. A partially purified protein fraction is combined with competitor DNA and subsequently passed through the DNA-Sepharose resin. The desired sequence-specific DNA binding protein is purified because it preferentially binds to the recognition sites in the affinity resin rather than to the nonspecific competitor DNA in solution. For example, a protein fraction that is enriched for transcription factor Sp1 can be further purified 500- to 1000-fold by two sequential affinity chromatography steps to give Sp1 of an estimated 90% homogeneity with 30% yield. In addition, the use of tandem affinity columns containing different protein binding sites allows the simultaneous purification of multiple DNA binding proteins from the same extract. This method provides a means for the purification of rare sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, such as Sp1 and CAAT-binding transcription factor.

  16. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  17. Studies on the hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycans purified from articular chondrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandy, J.D.; Plaas, A.H.

    1989-06-01

    Primary cultures of rabbit articular chondrocytes have been maintained for 10 days and labeled with (35S)sulfate, (3H)leucine, and (35S)cysteine in pulse-chase protocols to study the structure and hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycan monomers. Radiolabeled monomers were purified from medium and cell-layer fractions by dissociative CsCl gradient centrifugation with bovine carrier monomer, and analyzed for hyaluronate binding affinity on Sepharose CL-2B in 0.5 M Na acetate, 0.1% Triton X-100, pH 6.8. Detergent was necessary to prevent self-association of newly synthesized monomers during chromatography. Monomers secreted during a 30-min pulse labeling with (35S)sulfate had a low affinity relative to carrier. Those molecules released into the medium during the first 12 h of chase remained in the low affinity form whereas those retained by the cell layer rapidly acquired high affinity. In cultures where more than 90% of the preformed cell-layer proteoglycan was removed by hyaluronidase digestion before radiolabeling the newly synthesized low affinity monomers also rapidly acquired high affinity if retained in the cell layer. Cultures labeled with amino acid precursors were used to establish the purity of monomer preparations and to isolate core proteins for study. Leucine- or cysteine-labeled core proteins derived from either low or high affinity monomer preparations migrated as a single major species on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with electrophoretic mobility very similar to that of core protein derived from extracted proteoglycan monomer. Purified low affinity monomers were converted to the high affinity form by treatment at pH 8.6; however, this change was prevented by guanidinium-HCl at concentrations above 0.8 M.

  18. Low-Affinity Memory CD8+ T Cells Mediate Robust Heterologous Immunity.

    PubMed

    Krummey, Scott M; Martinez, Ryan J; Andargachew, Rakieb; Liu, Danya; Wagener, Maylene; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Evavold, Brian D; Larsen, Christian P; Ford, Mandy L

    2016-03-15

    Heterologous immunity is recognized as a significant barrier to transplant tolerance. Whereas it has been established that pathogen-elicited memory T cells can have high or low affinity for cross-reactive allogeneic peptide-MHC, the role of TCR affinity during heterologous immunity has not been explored. We established a model with which to investigate the impact of TCR-priming affinity on memory T cell populations following a graft rechallenge. In contrast to high-affinity priming, low-affinity priming elicited fully differentiated memory T cells with a CD45RB(hi) status. High CD45RB status enabled robust secondary responses in vivo, as demonstrated by faster graft rejection kinetics and greater proliferative responses. CD45RB blockade prolonged graft survival in low affinity-primed mice, but not in high affinity-primed mice. Mechanistically, low affinity-primed memory CD8(+) T cells produced more IL-2 and significantly upregulated IL-2Rα expression during rechallenge. We found that CD45RB(hi) status was also a stable marker of priming affinity within polyclonal CD8(+) T cell populations. Following high-affinity rechallenge, low affinity-primed CD45RB(hi) cells became CD45RB(lo), demonstrating that CD45RB status acts as an affinity-based differentiation switch on CD8(+) T cells. Thus, these data establish a novel mechanism by which CD45 isoforms tune low affinity-primed memory CD8(+) T cells to become potent secondary effectors following heterologous rechallenge. These findings have direct implications for allogeneic heterologous immunity by demonstrating that despite a lower precursor frequency, low-affinity priming is sufficient to generate memory cells that mediate potent secondary responses against a cross-reactive graft challenge. PMID:26864034

  19. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    DOEpatents

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  20. Affinity purification of antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies are provided in a variety of formats that includes antiserum, hybridoma culture supernatant or ascites. They can all be used successfully in crude form for the detection of target antigens by immunoassay. However, it is advantageous to use purified antibody in defined quantity to facil...

  1. Studies on the hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycans purified from articular chondrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Sandy, J D; Plaas, A H

    1989-06-01

    Primary cultures of rabbit articular chondrocytes have been maintained for 10 days and labeled with [35S]sulfate, [3H]leucine, and [35S]cysteine in pulse-chase protocols to study the structure and hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycan monomers. Radiolabeled monomers were purified from medium and cell-layer fractions by dissociative CsCl gradient centrifugation with bovine carrier monomer, and analyzed for hyaluronate binding affinity on Sepharose CL-2B in 0.5 M Na acetate, 0.1% Triton X-100, pH 6.8. Detergent was necessary to prevent self-association of newly synthesized monomers during chromatography. Monomers secreted during a 30-min pulse labeling with [35S]sulfate had a low affinity relative to carrier. Those molecules released into the medium during the first 12 h of chase (about 40% of the total) remained in the low affinity form whereas those retained by the cell layer rapidly acquired high affinity. In cultures where more than 90% of the preformed cell-layer proteoglycan was removed by hyaluronidase digestion before radiolabeling the newly synthesized low affinity monomers also rapidly acquired high affinity if retained in the cell layer. Cultures labeled with amino acid precursors were used to establish the purity of monomer preparations and to isolate core proteins for study. Leucine- or cysteine-labeled core proteins derived from either low or high affinity monomer preparations migrated as a single major species on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with electrophoretic mobility very similar to that of core protein derived from extracted proteoglycan monomer. Purified low affinity monomers were converted to the high affinity form by treatment at pH 8.6; however, this change was prevented by guanidinium-HCl at concentrations above 0.8 M. Conversion to high affinity was also achieved by incubation of monomers in aggregate with hyaluronic acid (HA) at pH 6.8 followed by dissociative reisolation of monomer

  2. Artificial antigen synthesis and the development of polyclonal antibody-based immunoassay for citreoviridin determination.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhen Hong; Que, Shan Jin; Gao, Yue Ming; Yuan, Jun; Ye, Zhou; Du, Min; Lin, Guang Mei; Liu, Li Cai; Wang, Shi Hua

    2014-01-01

    Citreoviridin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum is a common contaminant of wide range of agri-products and detrimental to human and animal health. Therefore it is important to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay for citreoviridin detection. In this study, polyclonal antibody against citreoviridin was developed. For the preparation of citreoviridin-bovine serum albumin conjugate (CIT-BSA), hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbon atoms were oxidized by sodium periodate, so the product with reactive aldehyde residues was suitable for coupling with amine. Anti-citreoviridin polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing mice with CIT-BSA conjugate. The specificity and sensitivity of the polyclonal antibody was determined by indirect competitive ELISA. Results showed that the IC50 value of the polyclonal antibody was 0.56 μg/mL and no cross-reactivity was found between antiserum and other mycotoxins used in the experiment. The citreoviridin recovery rates by this polyclonal antibody were calculated through rice powder spiked by artificial citreoviridin. The recovery rates ranged were found from 70.5 ± 0.08 % to 94.7 ± 0.09% for inter-assay, and from 77.5 ± 0.04% to 95.4 ± 0.18% for intra-assay, which indicated that this polyclonal antibody could detect trace amount of CIT from the tested samples. Consequently, this study provided a specific and sensitive anti-citreoviridin polyclonal antibody, which made the determination of citreoviridin easier, quicker, and more accurate. PMID:23900904

  3. Polyclonal Antibody Production for Membrane Proteins via Genetic Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Debra T.; Robida, Mark D.; Craciunescu, Felicia M.; Loskutov, Andrey V.; Dörner, Katerina; Rodenberry, John-Charles; Wang, Xiao; Olson, Tien L.; Patel, Hetal; Fromme, Petra; Sykes, Kathryn F.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are essential for structural determinations and functional studies of membrane proteins, but antibody generation is limited by the availability of properly-folded and purified antigen. We describe the first application of genetic immunization to a structurally diverse set of membrane proteins to show that immunization of mice with DNA alone produced antibodies against 71% (n = 17) of the bacterial and viral targets. Antibody production correlated with prior reports of target immunogenicity in host organisms, underscoring the efficiency of this DNA-gold micronanoplex approach. To generate each antigen for antibody characterization, we also developed a simple in vitro membrane protein expression and capture method. Antibody specificity was demonstrated upon identifying, for the first time, membrane-directed heterologous expression of the native sequences of the FopA and FTT1525 virulence determinants from the select agent Francisella tularensis SCHU S4. These approaches will accelerate future structural and functional investigations of therapeutically-relevant membrane proteins. PMID:26908053

  4. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  5. Transient transfection of purified Babesia bovis merozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transient transfection of intraerythrocytic Babesia bovis parasites has been previously reported. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of methods for transfection of purified B. bovis merozoites using either nucleofection (Amaxa) or conventional electroporation (Gene Pulser II...

  6. Large-scale in vitro expansion of polyclonal human CD4(+)CD25high regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Petra; Eder, Ruediger; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Andreesen, Reinhard; Edinger, Matthias

    2004-08-01

    CD4(+)CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are pivotal for the maintenance of self-tolerance, and their adoptive transfer gives protection from autoimmune diseases and pathogenic alloresponses after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation in murine model systems. In vitro, human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells display phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of murine CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells: namely, hyporesponsiveness to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and suppression of CD25- T cells. Thus far, the detailed characterization and potential clinical application of human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells have been hampered by their paucity in peripheral blood and the lack of appropriate expansion protocols. Here we describe the up to 40 000-fold expansion of highly purified human CD4(+)CD25high T cells in vitro through the use of artificial antigen-presenting cells for repeated stimulation via CD3 and CD28 in the presence of high-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2). Expanded CD4(+)CD25high T cells were polyclonal, maintained their phenotype, exceeded the suppressive activity of freshly isolated CD4(+)CD25high T cells, and maintained expression of the lymph node homing receptors L-selectin (CD62L) and CCR7. The ability to rapidly expand human CD4(+)CD25high Treg cells on a large scale will not only facilitate their further exploration but also accelerate their potential clinical application in T cell-mediated diseases and transplantation medicine. PMID:15090447

  7. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens promoting the growth of Chinese cabbage and its polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Soh, Byoung Yul; Lee, Gun Woong; Go, Eun Byeul; Kim, Byeo-Ri; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxlyate (ACC) deaminase (AcdS) is an enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. The acdS gene was cloned from Pseudomonas fluorescens, which was capable of improving the seedling of Chinese cabbage under salinity condition. The recombinant AcdS (rAcdS) exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.5 and 30°C. Strong activity was sustained at up to 100 mM NaCl. The polyclonal anti-P. fluorescens AcdS antibody was produced in a rabbit that had been immunized with the purified rAcdS. This antibody successfully recognized the homologous antigens derived from the total proteins of isolated plant growth-promoting microorganisms. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the intensity of hybridization signal and AcdS activity measured by a biochemical method, suggesting its application as a useful indicator for active deaminases.

  8. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits to 4S-limonene synthase from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    PubMed

    Alonso, W R; Crock, J E; Croteau, R

    1993-02-15

    Limonene synthase, a monoterpene cyclase from the oil glands of spearmint (Mentha spicata) leaves that catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-4S-limonene, was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against the sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured protein. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the antibodies were very specific for denatured limonene synthase from all Mentha species tested. However, no immunological cross-reactivity was observed with denatured limonene synthases from Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae) or wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae). Furthermore, the antibody preparation did not detectably cross-react with other monoterpene cyclases from related angiosperm species of the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Umbellifereae, or from conifer species, and no cross-reactivity was demonstrated toward several sesquiterpene cyclases of higher plant and fungal origin. Although the antibody preparation was highly selective for denatured limonene cyclase from Mentha, the antibodies did not recognize the native protein in several different types of experiments. Nevertheless, specificity for the target enzyme was unambiguously demonstrated when the antibody preparation was shown to cross-react with the cyclase protein expressed in Escherichia coli that harbored the corresponding limonene synthase cDNA gene from M. spicata.

  9. Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV purified with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin induce strong immune responses.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, G

    1993-05-01

    Lectin affinity chromatography was used to purify in a single step the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Envelope glycoproteins carry the major determinants essential for protection by the humoral immune response. The purification of these proteins has previously been a laborious procedure. The glycoproteins were purified by a one-step procedure to a high level of purity by using Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA). The purified glycoprotein had CD4-binding and antigenic reactivities. Strong immune responses to envelope proteins and peptides were seen in mice and primates after immunization with these preparations.

  10. Affinity Purification of Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hnasko, Robert M; McGarvey, Jeffery A

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are provided in a variety of formats that include antiserum, hybridoma culture supernatant, or ascites. They can all be used successfully in crude form for the detection of target antigens by immunoassay. However, it is advantageous to use purified antibody in defined quantity to facilitate assay reproducibility, economy, and reduced interference of nonspecific components as well as improved storage, stability, and bio-conjugation. Although not always necessary, the relative simplicity of antibody purification using commercially available protein-A, protein-G, or protein-L resins with basic chromatographic principles warrants purification when antibody source material is available in sufficient quantity. Here, we define three simple methods using immobilized (1) protein-A, (2) protein-G, and (3) protein-L agarose beads to yield highly purified antibody. PMID:26160561

  11. Challenges and recent advances in affinity purification of tag-free proteins.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongli; Chen, Zhilei

    2014-07-01

    There is currently no generic, simple, lowcost method for affinity chromatographic purification of proteins in which the purified product is free of appended tags. Existing approaches for the purification of tagless proteins fall into two broad categories: (1) direct affinity-based capture of tag-free proteins that utilize affinity ligands specific to the target protein or class of target protein, and (2) removal of an appended affinity tag following tag-mediated protein capture. This paper reviews current state-of-the-art approaches for tagless protein purification in both categories, including specific examples of affinity ligands used for the capture of different classes of proteins and cleavage systems for affinity tag removal following chromatographic capture. A particular focus of this review is on recent developments in affinity tag removal systems utilizing split inteins. PMID:24658742

  12. Preparation of polyclonal antibodies against pig trachea apomucin

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.H.; Carlson, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    Purified procine tracheal mucin (PTM) was deglycosylated by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS). A preferrential release of fucose, galactose > GlcNAc > GalNAc was observed during the deglycosylation. After five hours of TFMS treatment at 5C, over 90% of the carbohydrate was released leaving mainly Ga1NAc attached to the core protein. The residual Ga1NAc was further removed by three series of the Smith Degradation. The resulting apomucin consisted mainly of (mol %) Thr, 14; Ser, 12; Gly, 12; Glx, 10; Ala, 9; Pro, 8; Val, 7; Asx, 7. Sugars were not detected by gas chromatography. Antibodies obtained by immunizing rabbits with the apomucin recognized only the apomucin and not the holomucin in a double-sandwich ELISA assay. The ELISA is highly specific and has detection limits in the ng range. This antibody preparation was used in precipitation assays of cell-free translation products of pig trachea epithelium RNAs. Translocation products labeled with (TH)Ser and (TH)Thr showed significantly higher counts than with control serum.

  13. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    PubMed

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach. PMID:27498895

  14. Affinity driven social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  15. Supramolecular Affinity Chromatography for Methylation-Targeted Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Graham A E; Starke, Melissa J; Shaurya, Alok; Li, Janessa; Hof, Fraser

    2016-04-01

    Proteome-wide studies of post-translationally methylated species using mass spectrometry are complicated by high sample diversity, competition for ionization among peptides, and mass redundancies. Antibody-based enrichment has powered methylation proteomics until now, but the reliability, pan-specificity, polyclonal nature, and stability of the available pan-specific antibodies are problematic and do not provide a standard, reliable platform for investigators. We have invented an anionic supramolecular host that can form host-guest complexes selectively with methyllysine-containing peptides and used it to create a methylysine-affinity column. The column resolves peptides on the basis of methylation-a feat impossible with a comparable commercial cation-exchange column. A proteolyzed nuclear extract was separated on the methyl-affinity column prior to standard proteomics analysis. This experiment demonstrates that such chemical methyl-affinity columns are capable of enriching and improving the analysis of methyllysine residues from complex protein mixtures. We discuss the importance of this advance in the context of biomolecule-driven enrichment methods. PMID:26973166

  16. Maintenance of Serological Memory by Polyclonal Activation of Human Memory B Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Nadia L.; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2002-12-01

    Production of antibodies can last for a lifetime, through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we show that human memory B lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, such as bystander T cell help and CpG DNA. Furthermore, plasma cells secreting antibodies to recall antigens are produced in vivo at levels proportional to the frequency of specific memory B cells, even several years after antigenic stimulation. Although antigen boosting leads to a transient increase in specific antibody levels, ongoing polyclonal activation of memory B cells offers a means to maintain serological memory for a human lifetime.

  17. Performance assessment of O-18 water purifier.

    PubMed

    Kitano, H; Magata, Y; Tanaka, A; Mukai, T; Kuge, Y; Nagatsu, K; Konishi, J; Saji, H

    2001-02-01

    In the synthesis of 18F-FDG by the nucleophilic substitution method, 18O-H2O is usually used as target water. The target water should be recovered after synthesis and reused, because it is expensive, but recovered water contains impurities such as organic substances, and it must be purified before reuse. For this reason Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. developed an O-18 water purifier for elimination of organic substances in recovered water. This instrument consists of a UV irradiation unit and low-temperature distillation unit. Our institution had an opportunity to test use this instrument and evaluated its performance. The concentrations of organic substances after UV irradiation was greatly reduced, and recovery efficiency after distillation by the low-temperature distillation unit was very satisfactory at 99.3 +/- 0.5%. Furthermore, the yield of 18F-FDG from 18O-H20 purified with this instrument was sufficient for the clinical use. PMID:11355788

  18. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorous compounds

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, Lyle D.; Krupa, Joseph F.; Schroeder, Norman C.

    1981-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorous compounds are purified of undesirable impurities by contacting a solution of the compounds with a mercuric nitrate solution to form an insoluble mercuric bidentate compound which precipitates while the impurities remain in solution. The precipitate is washed and then contacted with a mixture of an aqueous solution of a strong mercuric ion complexing agent and an organic solvent to complex the mercuric ion away from the bidentate compound which then dissolves in the solvent. The purified bidentate compounds are useful for extracting the actinide elements from aqueous acidic nuclear waste solutions.

  19. Electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    A program to develop an engineering model of an electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals is summarized. An extensive mathematical modeling study and numerous ground based tests were included. Focus was placed on developing an actual electrophoretic separator of the continuous flow type, configured and suitable for flight testing as a space processing applications rocket payload.

  20. Two systems developed for purifying inert atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Johnson, C. E.; Kyle, M. L.

    1969-01-01

    Two systems, one for helium and one for argon, are used for purifying inert atmospheres. The helium system uses an activated charcoal bed at liquid nitrogen temperature to remove oxygen and nitrogen. The argon system uses heated titanium sponge to remove nitrogen and copper wool beds to remove oxygen. Both use molecular sieves to remove water vapor.

  1. Home Air Purifiers Eradicate Harmful Pathogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center funded the University of Madison-Wisconsin to develop ethylene scrubbers to keep produce fresh in space. Akida Holdings of Jacksonville, Florida, licensed the technology and developed Airocide, an air purifier that can kill airborne pathogens. Previously designed for industrial spaces, there is now a specially designed unit for home use.

  2. Improvement of Linde Kryotechnik's internal purifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Lutz; Meier, Albert; Wilhelm, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    With the recent shortage in supply of helium, recovery solutions have experienced a new focus with a tendency to recover streams with higher impurity content. This development calls for purifier systems operating efficiently and with low impact on liquefaction capacity for helium streams with impurity levels in the percentage range. Linde Kryotechnik has answered this demand by improving the performance of its purifier technology. Since 1983, its standardized helium liquefiers of the L- and former TCF-series type contain an internal purifier which already allows efficient impurity removal with minimized space demand. Along with a line dryer to absorb humidity, it is designed to remove air impurities up to 5 mol%. However, with increasing impurity level, liquefaction capacity reduced significantly being furthermore restricted to an upper level of approx. 180 l/h and continuous purification became limited in time. With the current redesign of this purifier, the impact on liquefaction capacity is now minimized without any limitation within the capacity range of the L-series plants. Continuous purification is hence ensured beyond previous maximum impurity content. This paper provides the key design changes and the achievable performance, which has been verified in the recent L-series plants delivered to customers.

  3. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  4. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-05-16

    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  5. Biological cost of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli implicated in polyclonal infection.

    PubMed

    Bémer, P; Corvec, S; Guitton, C; Giraudeau, C; Le Gargasson, G; Espaze, E; Drugeon, H

    2007-07-01

    Polyclonal Escherichia coli strains were isolated in a transplanted patient who experienced successive septic shocks. Fluoroquinolone susceptible and resistant strains were corresponding to different PFGE fragment profiles. The gyrA S83L mutation was associated with a reduction in biological fitness. Resistant strain was selected by a long-term single use of ofloxacin.

  6. Preserved antiviral adaptive immunity following polyclonal antibody immunotherapy for severe murine influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Natalie E.; Hatjopolous, Antoinette; Fraser, Cara K.; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Hayball, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy may have particular benefits for the treatment of severe influenza infection in at-risk populations, however little is known of the impact of passive immunotherapy on the formation of memory responses to the virus. Ideally, passive immunotherapy should attenuate the severity of infection while still allowing the formation of adaptive responses to confer protection from future exposure. In this study, we sought to determine if administration of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal antibodies could inhibit adaptive immune responses in a murine model of lethal influenza infection. Ovine polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant PR8 (H1N1) hemagglutinin exhibited potent prophylactic capacity and reduced lethality in an established influenza infection, particularly when administered intranasally. Surviving mice were also protected against reinfection and generated normal antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to the virus. The longevity of ovine polyclonal antibodies was explored with a half-life of over two weeks following a single antibody administration. These findings support the development of an ovine passive polyclonal antibody therapy for treatment of severe influenza infection which does not affect the formation of subsequent acquired immunity to the virus. PMID:27380890

  7. Biological cost of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli implicated in polyclonal infection.

    PubMed

    Bémer, P; Corvec, S; Guitton, C; Giraudeau, C; Le Gargasson, G; Espaze, E; Drugeon, H

    2007-07-01

    Polyclonal Escherichia coli strains were isolated in a transplanted patient who experienced successive septic shocks. Fluoroquinolone susceptible and resistant strains were corresponding to different PFGE fragment profiles. The gyrA S83L mutation was associated with a reduction in biological fitness. Resistant strain was selected by a long-term single use of ofloxacin. PMID:16884861

  8. Characterization and neutralization of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom using polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changkeun; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Euikyung

    2014-08-01

    Jellyfish stings have often caused serious health concerns for sea bathers especially in tropical waters. In the coastal areas of Korea, China and Japan, the blooming and stinging accidents of poisonous jellyfish species have recently increased, including Nemopilema nomurai. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) by the immunization of white rabbits with NnV antigen. In the present study, the antibody has been characterized for its neutralizing effect against NnV. At first, the presence of NnV polyclonal antibody has been confirmed from the immunized rabbit serum by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the neutralizing activities of the polyclonal antibody have been investigated using cell-based toxicity test, hemolysis assay, and mice lethality test. When the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with NnV, it shows a high effectiveness in neutralizing the NnV toxicities in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we explored proteomic analyses using 2-D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to illustrate the molecular identities of the jellyfish venom. From this, 18 different protein families have been identified as jellyfish venom-derived proteins; the main findings of which are matrix metalloproteinase-14, astacin-like metalloprotease toxin 3 precursor. It is expected that the present results would have contributed to our understandings of the envenomation by N. nomurai, their treatment and some valuable knowledge on the pathological processes of the jellyfish stinging.

  9. PDZ Affinity Chromatography: A general method for affinity purification of proteins based on PDZ domains and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Walkup, Ward G.; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, DiscsLarge, ZO1) domains function in nature as protein binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise ~ 90 residues and make specific, high affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, with other PDZ domains, and with phospholipids. We hypothesized that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands would make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. Here we describe a novel affinity chromatography method applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We created a series of affinity resins comprised of PDZ domains from the scaffold protein PSD-95, or from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), coupled to solid supports. We used them to purify heterologously expressed neuronal proteins or protein domains containing endogenous PDZ domain ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands. We show that Proteins of Interest (POIs) lacking endogenous PDZ domain ligands can be engineered as fusion products containing C-terminal PDZ domain ligand peptides or internal, N- or C-terminal PDZ domains and then can be purified by the same method. Using this method, we recovered recombinant GFP fused to a PDZ-domain ligand in active form as verified by fluorescence yield. Similarly, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and β-Galactosidase (LacZ) fused to a C-terminal PDZ domain ligand or an N-terminal PDZ domain were purified in active form as assessed by enzymatic assay. In general, PDZ domains and ligands derived from PSD-95 were superior to those from nNOS for this method. PDZ Domain Affinity Chromatography promises to be a versatile and effective method for purification of a wide variety of natural and recombinant proteins. PMID:24607360

  10. Characterization of a purified nicotinic receptor from rat brain by using idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, L.G.; Langone, J.J.; Bjercke, R.; Lu, X.; Banerjee, S.

    1987-09-01

    The availability of an anti-nicotine monoclonal antibody has made it possible to further establish the nature of the nicotine recognition proteins purified from rat brain by affinity chromatography and to provide a highly sensitive assay for determining (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding to the purified material. An enantiomeric analogue of nicotine. (-)-6-hydroxymethylnicotine, was used to prepare the affinity column. In addition, with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody, it was confirmed that the recognition site for nicotine resides on a protein complex composed of two components with molecular masses of 62 and 57 kDa. It was also demonstrated that the same two proteins could be purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody. With the use of the anti-nicotine antibody to measure (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding, the purified material was shown to bind 250 pmol/mg of protein. By utilizing a procedure in which the purified receptor protein was conjugated to membranes by disulfide bonds, a binding activity of 80 pmol/mg was obtained. With the availability of sterospecific monoclonal antibodies to (-)-nicotine as well as monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies derived when the anti-nicotine antibodies were used as immunogens, additional procedures became available for the further characterization of the purified nicotine receptor and examining its (-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine-binding characteristics.

  11. Affinity chromatography with an immobilized RNA enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, A; Altman, S

    1986-01-01

    M1 RNA, the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli RNase P, has been covalently linked at its 3' terminus to agarose beads. Unlike M1 RNA, which is active in solution in the absence of the protein component (C5) of RNase P, the RNA linked to the beads is active only in the presence of C5 protein. Affinity chromatography of crude extracts of E. coli on a column prepared from the beads to which the RNA has been crosslinked results in the purification of C5 protein in a single step. The protein has been purified in this manner from cells that contain a plasmid, pINIIIR20, which includes the gene that codes for C5 protein. A 6-fold amplification of the expression of C5 protein is found in these cells after induction as compared to cells that do not harbor the plasmid. Images PMID:3526344

  12. Affinity immunoblotting - High resolution isoelectric focusing analysis of antibody clonotype distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knisley, Keith A.; Rodkey, L. Scott

    1986-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method is proposed for the analysis of specific antibody clonotype changes occurring during an immune response and for comparing multiple sera for antibody clonotype similarities. Polyclonal serum antibodies separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) were analyzed by an affinity immunoblotting method using antigen-coated nitrocellulose membranes. Antibodies present on the surface of the acrylamide gels following IEF bind the antigen on the nitrocellulose when the coated nitrocellulose is laid over the gels. The technique has been used to analyze Ig clonotypes specific for five protein antigens and two carbohydrate antigens. Optimal antigen concentrations for coating the nitrocellulose membranes were found to range from 10-100 microgram/ml.

  13. Purification of proteins specifically binding human endogenous retrovirus K long terminal repeat by affinity elution chromatography.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, D O; Zavalova, L L; Akopov, S B; Nikolaev, L G

    2002-11-01

    A novel affinity elution procedure for purification of DNA-binding proteins was developed and employed to purify to near homogeneity the proteins recognizing a 21 base pair sequence within the long terminal repeat of human endogenous retroviruses K. The approach involves loading the initial protein mixture on a heparin-agarose column and elution of protein(s) of interest with a solution of double-stranded oligonucleotide containing binding sites of the protein(s). The affinity elution has several advantages over conventional DNA-affinity chromatography: (i) it is easier and faster, permitting to isolate proteins in a 1 day-one stage procedure; (ii) yield of a target protein is severalfold higher than that in DNA-affinity chromatography; (iii) it is not necessary to prepare a special affinity support for each factor to be isolated. Theaffinity elution could be a useful alternative to conventional DNA-affinity chromatography.

  14. Intra-clonal competition inhibits the formation of high affinity antibody secreting cells1

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuc-vy L.; Kim, Tea Hyun; Chaplin, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Protective immunity requires a diverse, polyclonal B cell repertoire. We demonstrate that affinity maturation of the humoral response to a hapten is impaired when pre-existing clonally restricted cells recognizing the hapten are dominant in the B cell repertoire. B1- 8i+/− mice, which feature a high frequency of B cells with nitrophenyl (NP) binding specificity, respond to NP-haptenated proteins with the production of NP-specific antibodies, but affinity maturation is impaired due to insufficient generation of high affinity antibody producing cells. We manipulated the frequency of NP-specific B cells by adoptive transfer of B1-8 B cells into naïve, wild-type recipients. Remarkably, when 104 B1-8 B cells were transferred, these cells supported efficient affinity maturation and plasma cell differentiation. In contrast, when 106 B1-8 cells were transferred, affinity maturation did not occur. These data indicate that restricting the frequency of clonally related B cells is required to support affinity maturation. PMID:18941192

  15. Neuronal and glial localization of GAT-1, a high-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acid plasma membrane transporter, in human cerebral cortex: with a note on its distribution in monkey cortex.

    PubMed

    Conti, F; Melone, M; De Biasi, S; Minelli, A; Brecha, N C; Ducati, A

    1998-06-22

    High-affinity gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) plasma membrane transporters (GATs) influence the action of GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cerebral cortex. In this study, the cellular expression of GAT-1, the main cortical GABA transporter, was investigated in the human cerebral cortex by using immunocytochemistry with affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies directed to the C-terminus of rat GAT-1. In temporal and prefrontal association cortex (Brodmann's areas 21 and 46) and in cingulofrontal transition cortex (area 32), specific GAT-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was localized to numerous puncta and fibers in all cortical layers. GAT-1+ puncta were distributed homogeneously in all cortical layers, although they were slightly more numerous in layers II-IV, and appeared to have a preferential relationship to the somata and proximal dendrites of unlabeled pyramidal cells, even though, in many cases, they were also observed around nonpyramidal cells. Electron microscopic observations showed that GAT-1+ puncta were axon terminals that formed exclusively symmetric synapses. In addition, some distal astrocytic processes also contained immunoreaction product. Analysis of the patterns of GAT-1 labeling in temporal and prefrontal association areas (21 and 46), in cingulofrontal transition areas (32), and in somatic sensory and motor areas (1 and 4) of the monkey cortex revealed that its distribution varies according to the type of cortex examined and indicated that the distribution of GAT-1 is similar in anatomically corresponding areas of different species. The present study demonstrates that, in the human homotypical cortex, GAT-1 is expressed by both inhibitory axon terminals and astrocytic processes. This localization of GAT-1 is compatible with a major role for this transporter in GABA uptake at GABAergic synapses and suggests that GAT-1 may contribute to determining GABA levels in the extracellular space.

  16. A feasible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against glucosyltransferase-B from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been considered the principal etiological agent of dental caries in humans. S. mutans can secrete three kinds of glucosyltransferases (GTFs). One of these, GTF-B, which synthesizes water-insoluble glucans from sucrose, has been considered to be one of the most important factors of cariogenic dental plaque formation. Therefore, determination of whether GTF-B is present in plaque and saliva samples may contribute to the evaluation of individual virulence potential (caries risk). The aim of this study was to develop a feasible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the routine quantification of GTF-B in plaque-derived cultures and clinical samples, and to apply this assay to an epidemiological study. To determine the presence of GTF-B in plaque samples, a sandwich-ELISA was devised, consisting of mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against GTF-B and a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit antibody. The developed ELISA allowed for quantification of the amounts of purified GTF-B with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity; this method was not affected by other components such as plaque and saliva. Plaque samples from healthy volunteers were examined using this ELISA method and microbial analysis to apply the assay to an epidemiological study. A correlation was observed between the amount of extracted GTF-B and S. mutans levels as determined by ELISA and cultivated with Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar plates derived from plaque samples, although there were some exceptions. In this regard, this ELISA system has the advantage of estimating both the individual numbers of S. mutans and the productivity of GTF-B, namely, the cariogenic potential of S. mutans simultaneously. These results indicate that this ELISA method is a useful tool for the diagnosis of caries risk.

  17. Purification of a Recombinant Polyhistidine-Tagged Glucosyltransferase Using Immobilized Metal-Affinity Chromatography (IMAC).

    PubMed

    de Costa, Fernanda; Barber, Carla J S; Pujara, Pareshkumar T; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Short peptide tags genetically fused to recombinant proteins have been widely used to facilitate detection or purification without the need to develop specific procedures. In general, an ideal affinity tag would allow the efficient purification of tagged proteins in high yield, without affecting its function. Here, we describe the purification steps to purify a recombinant polyhistidine-tagged glucosyltransferase from Centella asiatica using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. PMID:26843168

  18. Microbiological testing of the Blairex Water Purifier.

    PubMed

    Meng, K E; Harris, M G

    1987-04-01

    The Blairex Water Purifier (previously called The Blairex Deionizer) is a filtration unit designed to purify tap water for uses that require distilled or deionized water. The unit is intended to offer soft contact lens wearers a more convenient and safe method of obtaining distilled water when using salt tablets or enzymatic cleaning tablets. In this study, the safety of these units was analyzed from a microbiological point of view. The microbial starting state of 18 factory sealed Blairex Water Purifiers was evaluated by filtering sterile water through each unit and enumerating the organisms in the effluent. Then a known number of specific microorganisms was filtered through each unit. For the next 30 days, subsequent sterile distilled water filtrations were done each day. The effluent was collected with each filtration and enumerated for microorganisms. The results indicated that the majority of Blairex units tested were not sterile from the onset. Several Blairex units evaluated did support bacterial growth, as the bacteria that were passed through the unit on day 1 of the study were found in the effluent in increasing numbers with use. The clinical implications of our findings are discussed. Each time Blairex units were obtained for evaluation, the units appeared different in either filter attachments, plastic composition, or shape. The results varied according to which type of Blairex unit was tested. PMID:3296767

  19. Steroidogenesis in amlodipine treated purified Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, Rabia; Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa; Hameed, Waqas; Aslam, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Drugs have been shown to adversely affect male fertility and recently anti-hypertensive drugs were added to the list. The anti-fertility effects of amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, are well-illustrated in in vivo experiments but lack an in vitro proof. The present study was designed to experimentally elucidate the effects of amlodipine on Leydig cell steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in vitro. Leydig cells of Sprague–Dawley rats were isolated and purified by Percoll. Cells were incubated for 3 h with/without amlodipine in the presence/absence of LH, dbcAMP, Pregnenolone and 25-Hydroxycholesterol. Cytosolic calcium was measured in purified Leydig cells by fluorometric technique. The results showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in amlodipine exposed rats. The site of amlodipine induced steroidogenic inhibition seems to be prior to the formation of Pregnenolone at the level of StAR protein. -- Highlights: ► Inhibition of steroidogenesis in isolated and purified Leydig cells by amlodipine. ► Site of inhibition was before Pregnenolone formation, at the level of StAR protein. ► Inhibition of LH stimulated rise in cytosolic calcium by amlodipine.

  20. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  1. Analysis of erythritol in foods by polyclonal antibody-based indirect competitive ELISA.

    PubMed

    Sreenath, Kundimi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2008-05-01

    Sugar alcohols are widely used as food additives and drug excipients. Erythritol (INS 968) is an important four-carbon sugar alcohol in the food industry. Erythritol occurs naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and fermented foods. Currently, HPLC and GC methods are in use for the quantification of erythritol in natural/processed foods. However, an immunoassay for erythritol has not been developed so far. We have utilized affinity-purified erythritol-specific antibodies generated earlier [9] to develop an indirect competitive ELISA. With erythritol-BSA conjugate (54 mol/mol; 100 ng/well) as the coating antigen, a calibration curve was prepared using known amounts of standard meso-erythritol (0.1-100,000 ng) in the immunoassay. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and red wine were selected as the food sources containing meso-erythritol. The amount of meso-erythritol was calculated as 2.36 mg/100 g fresh weight of watermelon and 206.7 mg/L of red wine. The results obtained from the immunoassay are in close agreement with the reported values analyzed by HPLC and GC (22-24 mg/kg in watermelon and 130-300 mg/L in red wine). The recovery analyses showed that added amounts of meso-erythritol were recovered fairly accurately with recoveries of 86-105% (watermelon) and 85-93.3% (red wine). The method described here for erythritol is the first report of an immunoassay for a sugar alcohol.

  2. Highly efficient immunodiagnosis of Large cardamom chirke virus using the polyclonal antiserum against Escherichia coli expressed recombinant coat protein.

    PubMed

    Vijayanandraj, S; Yogita, M; Das, Amrita; Ghosh, Amalendu; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-09-01

    Large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV), genus Macluravirus, family Potyviridae is an important constrain in large cardamom production in India. Purification of LCCV from large cardamom tissues is difficult and therefore immunodiagnostic reagents are not available. In the present study, we have successfully expressed coat protein (CP) gene of LCCV in Escherichia coli. The purification of expressed protein by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was inefficient due to precipitation of protein during renaturation. We have optimized a simple, inexpensive and efficient method for purification of the expressed CP through gel extraction with 5 % SDS followed by renaturation in Milli-Q water, which resulted in high yield (4.7 mg/ml) and good quality of the protein. A higher titer (1:256,000) polyclonal antibody (PAb) to the recombinant CP was produced, which strongly recognized LCCV in crude leaf extract and showed minimal background reaction with the healthy leaf extract in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA). The sensitivities of the ELISA and DIBA were 5 and 0.1 ng of expressed protein, respectively. Both the ELISA and DIBA were validated with 100 % accuracy in detecting LCCV in field samples. The PAb differentiated Cardamom mosaic virus, another close relative of LCCV. Our study is first to report highly efficient immunodiagnosis with PAb to E. coli expressed recombinant CP of a virus under the genus Macluravirus. The antigen expression construct and PAb developed in the present study will be useful in production of virus free planting materials of large cardamom. PMID:24426280

  3. An automated packed protein G micro-pipette tip assay for rapid quantification of polyclonal antibodies in ovine serum.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil; Francis, Richard; Bracewell, Daniel G; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2010-11-15

    The demands on the biopharmaceutical sector to expedite process development have instigated the deployment of micro-biochemical engineering techniques to acquire manufacturing insight with extremely small sample volumes. In conjunction with automated liquid handlers, this permits the simultaneous evaluation of multiple operating conditions and reduces manual intervention. For these benefits to be sustained, novel ways are now required to accelerate analysis and so prevent this becoming a throughput bottleneck. For example, although Protein G HPLC is used to quantify antibody titres in bioprocess feedstocks, it can be time-consuming owing to the serial nature of its application. Although commercial options are available that can process many samples simultaneously, these require separate, potentially expensive instruments. A more integrated approach is desirable wherein the assay is implemented directly on a robot. This article describes a high-throughput alternative to antibody HPLC analysis which uses an eight-channel liquid handler to control pipette tips packed with 40 μL of Protein G affinity matrix. The linearity, range, limit of detection, specificity and precision of the method were established, with results showing that antibody was detected reliably and specifically between 0.10 and 1.00 mg/mL. Subsequently, the technique was used to quantify the antibody titre in ovine serum, which is used as feed material by BTG PLC for manufacturing FDA-approved polyclonal bio-therapeutics. The mean concentration determined by the tips was comparable to that found by HPLC, but the tip method delivered its results in less than 40% of the time and with the potential for further, substantial time-savings possible by using higher capacity robots.

  4. Highly efficient immunodiagnosis of Large cardamom chirke virus using the polyclonal antiserum against Escherichia coli expressed recombinant coat protein.

    PubMed

    Vijayanandraj, S; Yogita, M; Das, Amrita; Ghosh, Amalendu; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-09-01

    Large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV), genus Macluravirus, family Potyviridae is an important constrain in large cardamom production in India. Purification of LCCV from large cardamom tissues is difficult and therefore immunodiagnostic reagents are not available. In the present study, we have successfully expressed coat protein (CP) gene of LCCV in Escherichia coli. The purification of expressed protein by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was inefficient due to precipitation of protein during renaturation. We have optimized a simple, inexpensive and efficient method for purification of the expressed CP through gel extraction with 5 % SDS followed by renaturation in Milli-Q water, which resulted in high yield (4.7 mg/ml) and good quality of the protein. A higher titer (1:256,000) polyclonal antibody (PAb) to the recombinant CP was produced, which strongly recognized LCCV in crude leaf extract and showed minimal background reaction with the healthy leaf extract in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA). The sensitivities of the ELISA and DIBA were 5 and 0.1 ng of expressed protein, respectively. Both the ELISA and DIBA were validated with 100 % accuracy in detecting LCCV in field samples. The PAb differentiated Cardamom mosaic virus, another close relative of LCCV. Our study is first to report highly efficient immunodiagnosis with PAb to E. coli expressed recombinant CP of a virus under the genus Macluravirus. The antigen expression construct and PAb developed in the present study will be useful in production of virus free planting materials of large cardamom.

  5. Characterization of fructose 6 phosphate phosphoketolases purified from Bifidobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Grill, J P; Crociani, J; Ballongue, J

    1995-07-01

    Fructose 6 phosphate phosphoketolases (F6PPKs) were purified from Bifidobacterium longum BB536, B. dentium ATCC 27534, B. globosum ATCC 25864, and Bifidobacterium animalis ATCC 25527. Concerning ions (Cu++, Zn++, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Co++, Mn++) and common enzyme inhibitors (fructose, ammonium sulfate, iodoacetate, and parachloromercuribenzoic acid), no difference appeared between the enzymes. Cu++, parachloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB), and mercuric acetate induced high enzymatic inhibition. The study of pCMB demonstrated a noncompetitive inhibition. Additional results showed that the sulfhydryl group was not involved in catalytic reaction. Photooxidation experiments and determination of ionizable group pKas (5.16-7.17) suggested the presence of one or more histidines necessary for the catalytic reaction and explained the inhibition observed with pCMB. In light of the noncompetitive inhibition, this group was not directly involved in substrate binding. Determination of Km demonstrated that the affinities for fructose 6 phosphate in the case of animal and human origin strains were close. In addition, the same enzymatic efficiency (Kcat/Km) was obtained for each strain. The F6PPK activity was regulated by sodium pyrophosphate, ATP, and especially by ADP.

  6. PNA lectin for purifying mouse acinar cells from the inflamed pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Fischbach, Shane; Fusco, Joseph; Zimmerman, Ray; Song, Zewen; Nebres, Philip; Ricks, David Matthew; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Husain, Sohail Z.; Gittes, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Better methods for purifying human or mouse acinar cells without the need for genetic modification are needed. Such techniques would be advantageous for the specific study of certain mechanisms, such as acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming and pancreatitis. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin has been used to label and isolate acinar cells from the pancreas. However, the purity of the UEA-I-positive cell fraction has not been fully evaluated. Here, we screened 20 widely used lectins for their binding specificity for major pancreatic cell types, and found that UEA-I and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) have a specific affinity for acinar cells in the mouse pancreas, with minimal affinity for other major pancreatic cell types including endocrine cells, duct cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, PNA-purified acinar cells were less contaminated with mesenchymal and inflammatory cells, compared to UEA-I purified acinar cells. Thus, UEA-I and PNA appear to be excellent lectins for pancreatic acinar cell purification. PNA may be a better choice in situations where mesenchymal cells or inflammatory cells are significantly increased in the pancreas, such as type 1 diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26884345

  7. Polyclonality among clinical strains of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria: phenotypic and genotypic differences and their potential implications.

    PubMed

    García-Pedrazuela, M; Frutos, J M; Muñoz-Egea, M C; Alcaide, F; Tórtola, T; Vitoria, A; Cortés, P; Esteban, J

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the potential implications (especially the implications in clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility) of polyclonality among rapidly growing mycobacteria, we performed random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis in 64 clinical isolates of which the clinical significance was established. Phenotypic characteristics (antimicrobial susceptibility test, colony morphology and growth rate) of each clone were studied. Polyclonality was detected in 13 of the isolates (20.3%). There was a relationship between monoclonality and clinical significance (p 0.0096). Monoclonal and polyclonal isolates showed different behaviour in antimicrobial susceptibility. There was a strong relationship between monoclonality and those species that are more pathogenic for humans, and also with clinical significance of the isolates. PMID:25596780

  8. The crystal structure of oxy hemoglobin from high oxygen affinity bird emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Mohamed Abubakkar, Mohamed H; Saraboji, Kadhirvel; Ponnuswamy, Mon Nanjappa G

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobin is an honorary enzyme, a two-way respiratory carrier, transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and facilitating the return transport of carbon dioxide. Hemoglobin has high affinity for oxygen and low affinity for carbon dioxide and other substances in the arterial circulation, whereas in the venous circulation these relative affinities are upturned. The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin increases with the fall in temperature and decreases with the increase in pH and 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate; point mutations also affect the tetrameric arrangement and alter the oxygen affinity. Though several studies have revealed the specific reasons for the adaptation of increased oxygen affinity of avian hemoglobins at high-altitudes, further structural insights on hemoglobins from high oxygen affinity species are required to understand the detailed oxygen adaptation at the molecular level. Herein, we describe the structural investigation of hemoglobin from emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a high oxygen affinity bird. Hemoglobin from emu was purified using anion-exchange chromatography, crystallized and determined the structure in the oxy form at a resolution of 2.3 Å; the R-factor of the model was 19.2%. The structure was compared with other oxy hemoglobins of high oxygen affinity avian species; significant changes are noted at intra-subunit contacts which provide the clues for increased oxygen affinity of emu hemoglobin. PMID:25146185

  9. Effect of cell division inhibitors on polyclonal activation can vary according to the target cell used.

    PubMed

    Löwy, I; Chedid, L

    1979-01-01

    The effects of inhibitors of cell division on polyclonal stimulation induced either by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or by a synthetic adjuvant, MDP, were compared, using different target cells. Doses of colchicine that prevented 3H-thymidine incorporation also prevented the induction of antibodies against TNP and against an altered self antigen: bromelain-treated mouse red blood cells (br-MRBC). Under identical conditions, incubation with cytosine arabinoside (CA) strongly prevented the induction of anti-TNP PFC and to a lesser degree anti-SRBC PFC. However, the number of anti br-MRBC PFC was unchanged even when a dose of CA which inhibits totally the incorporation of 3H-thymidine was used. Our findings indicate that the general term "polyclonal stimulation" may concern at least two different types of cell populations and therefore we strongly stress the importance of choosing similar targets in comparative experiments.

  10. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  11. Establishment of a panel of in-house polyclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Osamu; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sato, Yuko; Nakajima, Noriko; Koike, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sata, Tetsutaro; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Taguchi, Fumihiro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Noriyo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method of virus detection for the diagnosis of critical enterovirus infections such as acute infective encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myocarditis. Because histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues play an important role in recognizing infectious agents in tissue samples, six in-house polyclonal antibodies raised against three representative enteroviruses using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry were examined. This panel of polyclonal antibodies recognized three serotypes of enterovirus. Two of the polyclonal antibodies were raised against denatured virus particles from enterovirus A71, one was raised against the recombinant VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3, and the other for poliovirus type 1 were raised against denatured virus particles, the recombinant VP1 protein and peptide 2C. Western blot analysis revealed that each of these antibodies recognized the corresponding viral antigen and none cross-reacted with non-enteroviruses within the family Picornaviridae. However, all cross-reacted to some extent with the antigens derived from other serotypes of enterovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that the virus capsid and non-structural proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of affected culture cells, and skeletal muscles and neurons in neonatal mice experimentally-infected with human enterovirus. The antibodies also recognized antigens derived from recent clinical isolates of enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that representative antibodies tested showed the same recognition pattern according to each serotype. Thus, the panel of in-house anti-enterovirus polyclonal antibodies described herein will be an important tool for the screening and pathological diagnosis for enterovirus infections, and may be useful for the classification of different

  12. Affinity chromatography: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hage, David S; Matsuda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most selective and versatile forms of liquid chromatography for the separation or analysis of chemicals in complex mixtures. This method makes use of a biologically related agent as the stationary phase, which provides an affinity column with the ability to bind selectively and reversibly to a given target in a sample. This review examines the early work in this method and various developments that have lead to the current status of this technique. The general principles of affinity chromatography are briefly described as part of this discussion. Past and recent efforts in the generation of new binding agents, supports, and immobilization methods for this method are considered. Various applications of affinity chromatography are also summarized, as well as the influence this field has played in the creation of other affinity-based separation or analysis methods. PMID:25749941

  13. (/sup 14/C)chloroacetylcholine as an advantageous affinity label of the acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, D.M.; Sin-Ren, A.C.; Waser, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The alkylating agent (/sup 14/C)chloroacetylcholine perchlorate ((/sup 14/C) ClACh) was synthesized and used for affinity labelling of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata. Solubilized and affinity-purified receptor proteins were reduced and alkylated according to the bromoacetylcholine-method. Covalent binding of (/sup 14/C) ClACh to the cholinergic receptor proved to be specific and saturable, and occurred exclusively to the alpha-subunit. Halogen substitution of acetylcholine by chlorine and insertion of a /sup 14/C-isotope instead of the widely used /sup 3/H resulted in favorable properties of the affinity label.

  14. Iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody detection of gastrointestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, H.A.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.; Haagensen, D.A.; Thurston, M.O.; Mojzisik, C.; Houchens, D.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To localize gastrointestinal tumor, 31 patients were injected with 1.7-2.1 mCi I-131 anti-CEA baboon polyclonal antibody. Whole body imaging at 48, 72, and occasionally 96 hrs was performed with a Signa Camera (Technicare) peaked at 364 keV with 20% window. Additional spot views were usually obtained. No subtraction methods were used. All patients had surgical and pathological confirmation of the nuclear medicine studies. Labeled antibody images were positive in 15 (8 recurrent or metastatic colorectal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 primary colon, and 1 breast metastatic to chest wall). In 1, antibody images were positive for metastatic deposits in para-aortic lymph nodes, but negative for primary rectal tumor. True negative images were observed in 6; false negative images in 9 (4 liver metastases, 2 rectal, 1 pancreatic, 1 mesenteric lymph node metastasis, 1 bone metastasis). In all cases, no correlation existed between preoperative CEA serum levels and imaging. I-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody imaging proved highly efficient in detecting gastric cancer (2/2) and moderately efficient in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer (8/15). On the other hand, the I-131 labeled polyclonal anti-CEA antibody imaging was of limited value in detecting colon cancer (1/9), pancreatic cancer (1/4) and metastatic liver disease (0/4).

  15. Affinity approaches in RNAi-based therapeutics purification.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Queiroz, João A; Figueiras, Ana; Sousa, Fani

    2016-05-15

    The recent investigation on RNA interference (RNAi) related mechanisms and applications led to an increased awareness of the importance of RNA in biology. Nowadays, RNAi-based technology has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for silencing gene expression, being exploited to develop new therapeutics for treating a vast number of human disease conditions, as it is expected that this technology can be translated onto clinical applications in a near future. This approach makes use of a large number of small (namely short interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are likely to have a crucial role as the next generation therapeutics. The commercial and biomedical interest in these RNAi-based therapy applications have fostered the need to develop innovative procedures to easily and efficiently purify RNA, aiming to obtain the final product with high purity degree, good quality and biological activity. Recently, affinity chromatography has been applied to ncRNAs purification, in view of the high specificity. Therefore, this article intends to review the biogenesis pathways of regulatory ncRNAs and also to discuss the most significant and recent developments as well as applications of affinity chromatography in the challenging task of purifying ncRNAs. In addition, the importance of affinity chromatography in ncRNAs purification is addressed and prospects for what is forthcoming are presented. PMID:26830537

  16. Affinity approaches in RNAi-based therapeutics purification.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Queiroz, João A; Figueiras, Ana; Sousa, Fani

    2016-05-15

    The recent investigation on RNA interference (RNAi) related mechanisms and applications led to an increased awareness of the importance of RNA in biology. Nowadays, RNAi-based technology has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for silencing gene expression, being exploited to develop new therapeutics for treating a vast number of human disease conditions, as it is expected that this technology can be translated onto clinical applications in a near future. This approach makes use of a large number of small (namely short interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are likely to have a crucial role as the next generation therapeutics. The commercial and biomedical interest in these RNAi-based therapy applications have fostered the need to develop innovative procedures to easily and efficiently purify RNA, aiming to obtain the final product with high purity degree, good quality and biological activity. Recently, affinity chromatography has been applied to ncRNAs purification, in view of the high specificity. Therefore, this article intends to review the biogenesis pathways of regulatory ncRNAs and also to discuss the most significant and recent developments as well as applications of affinity chromatography in the challenging task of purifying ncRNAs. In addition, the importance of affinity chromatography in ncRNAs purification is addressed and prospects for what is forthcoming are presented.

  17. Purification of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    André, C; De Backer, J P; Guillet, J C; Vanderheyden, P; Vauquelin, G; Strosberg, A D

    1983-01-01

    Calf forebrain homogenates contain 2.8 pM muscarinic acetylcholine receptors per mg of protein. [3H]Antagonist saturation binding experiments under equilibrium conditions revealed a single class of sites with equilibrium dissociation constants of 0.82 nM for [3H]dexetimide and 0.095 nM for [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate. Displacement binding studies with agonists revealed the presence of low and high affinity sites. Here we describe the solubilization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with digitonin and their purification by affinity chromatography using an affinity gel which consisted of dexetimide coupled to Affi-Gel 10 (i.e., carboxy N-hydroxysuccinimide esters linked via a 1 nm spacer arm to agarose beads). Purified proteins were obtained by specific elution with muscarinic drugs, i.e., the antagonist atropine and the irreversible ligand propylbenzilylcholine mustard. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioiodinated purified preparations revealed a major 70-K protein. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6605245

  18. Biological properties of purified recombinant HCV particles with an epitope-tagged envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Akazawa, Daisuke; Kato, Takanobu; Date, Tomoko; Shirakura, Masayuki; Nakamura, Noriko; Mochizuki, Hidenori; Tanaka-Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji

    2010-05-14

    To establish a simple system for purification of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, we designed a chimeric J6/JFH-1 virus with a FLAG (FL)-epitope-tagged sequence at the N-terminal region of the E2 hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) gene (J6/JFH-1/1FL). We found that introduction of an adaptive mutation at the potential N-glycosylation site (E2N151K) leads to efficient production of the chimeric virus. This finding suggests the involvement of glycosylation at Asn within the envelope protein(s) in HCV morphogenesis. To further analyze the biological properties of the purified recombinant HCV particles, we developed a strategy for large-scale production and purification of recombinant J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K. Infectious particles were purified from the culture medium of J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K-infected Huh-7 cells using anti-FLAG affinity chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy of the purified particles using negative staining showed spherical particle structures with a diameter of 40-60 nm and spike-like projections. Purified HCV particle-immunization induced both an anti-E2 and an anti-FLAG antibody response in immunized mice. This strategy may contribute to future detailed analysis of HCV particle structure and to HCV vaccine development.

  19. Immunoaffinity chromatography as a means of purifying legumin from Pisum (pea) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, R

    1979-01-01

    The potential of immunoaffinity chromatography as a means of purifying legumin from a wide range of Pisum (pea) types was assessed. The method required small amounts of highly purified legumin from a single Pisum type, and this was obtained by salting out with (NH4)2SO4 followed by zonal isoelectric precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Some physiocochemical properties of purified legumin were determined, a number of which (Strokes radius, subunit molecular weights, subunit N-terminal residues and subunit molar ratios) have not previously been reported for Pisum legumin. Examination of Pisum legumin by two-dimensional gel isoelectric focusing/electrophoresis indicated the existence of extensive subunit heterogeneity, and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate showed apparent variation in the nature of this heterogeneity from one Pisum variety to another. Despite this variation, immunoaffinity chromatography on immobilized anti-legumin (which was prepared by affinity chromatography on the immubolized purified legumin from the single Pisum type) was shown to be a generally applicable method for the purification of undegraded legumin from a range of pisum types, including two primate lines. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:435248

  20. Adsorption and kinetic behavior of purified endoglucanases and exoglucanases from Trichoderma viride

    SciTech Connect

    Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Rombouts, F.M.; Searle-van Leeuwen, M.F.; Pilnik, W.

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on crystalline cellulose of six endoglucanases and two exoglucanases, purified from a commercial cellulase preparation of Trichoderma viride origin, was studied, Endo I, III, and V adsorbed strongly on Avicel cellulose, while adsorption of Endo II, IV, and VI was much lower. Also, the two exoglucanases could be divided into one enzyme (Exo III) that had a high adsorption affinity and another enzyme (Exo II) that adsorbed only moderately. Adsorption data fitted the Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. However, adsorption was only partially reversible with respect to dilution. No relation could be found between adsorption affinity and degree of randomness in cellulose hydrolysis, measured as the diversity of released hydrolytic products. Kinetic measurements indicated that only part of the adsorbed enzyme molecules are hydrolytically active.

  1. General approach for characterizing in vitro selected peptides with protein binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Andrew C; Gillig, Annabelle; Shah, Pankti; Sau, Sujay P; Fenton, Kathryn E; Chaput, John C

    2014-08-01

    In vitro selection technologies are important tools for identifying high affinity peptides to proteins of broad medical and biological interest. However, the technological advances that have made it possible to generate long lists of candidate peptides have far outpaced our ability to characterize the binding properties of individual peptides. Here, we describe a low cost strategy to rapidly synthesize, purify, screen, and characterize peptides for high binding affinity. Peptides are assayed in a 96-well dot blot apparatus using membranes that enable partitioning of bound and unbound peptide-protein complexes. We have validated the binding affinity constants produced by this method using known peptide ligands and applied this process to discover five new peptides with nanomolar affinity to human α-thrombin. Given the need for new analytical tools that can accelerate peptide discovery and characterization, we feel that this approach would be useful to a wide range of technologies that utilize high affinity peptides.

  2. Production of capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 and its purification by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Suárez, N; Fraguas, L F; Texeira, E; Massaldi, H; Batista-Viera, F; Ferreira, F

    2001-02-01

    We describe a rapid and efficient method for producing the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae by fermentation on tryptic soy broth and purification of this compound by using immobilized soybean lectin as an affinity adsorbent. In principle, the same strategy can be used to produce purified capsular polysaccharides from other streptococcal serotypes by selecting the appropriate lectin adsorbents. PMID:11157270

  3. Production of capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 and its purification by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Suárez, N; Fraguas, L F; Texeira, E; Massaldi, H; Batista-Viera, F; Ferreira, F

    2001-02-01

    We describe a rapid and efficient method for producing the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae by fermentation on tryptic soy broth and purification of this compound by using immobilized soybean lectin as an affinity adsorbent. In principle, the same strategy can be used to produce purified capsular polysaccharides from other streptococcal serotypes by selecting the appropriate lectin adsorbents.

  4. Production of Capsular Polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae Type 14 and Its Purification by Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Norma; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Texeira, Esther; Massaldi, Hugo; Batista-Viera, Francisco; Ferreira, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    We describe a rapid and efficient method for producing the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae by fermentation on tryptic soy broth and purification of this compound by using immobilized soybean lectin as an affinity adsorbent. In principle, the same strategy can be used to produce purified capsular polysaccharides from other streptococcal serotypes by selecting the appropriate lectin adsorbents. PMID:11157270

  5. Induction slag reduction process for purifying metals

    DOEpatents

    Traut, Davis E.; Fisher, II, George T.; Hansen, Dennis A.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous method is provided for purifying and recovering transition metals such as neodymium and zirconium that become reactive at temperatures above about 500.degree. C. that comprises the steps of contacting the metal ore with an appropriate fluorinating agent such as an alkaline earth metal fluosilicate to form a fluometallic compound, and reducing the fluometallic compound with a suitable alkaline earth or alkali metal compound under molten conditions, such as provided in an induction slag metal furnace. The method of the invention is advantageous in that it is simpler and less expensive than methods used previously to recover pure metals, and it may be employed with a wide range of transition metals that were reactive with enclosures used in the prior art methods and were hard to obtain in uncontaminated form.

  6. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    PubMed

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process. PMID:27338300

  7. Apparatus and methods for purifying lead

    DOEpatents

    Tunison, Harmon M.

    2016-01-12

    Disclosed is an exemplary method of purifying lead which includes the steps of placing lead and a fluoride salt blend in a container; forming a first fluid of molten lead at a first temperature; forming a second fluid of the molten fluoride salt blend at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; mixing the first fluid and the second fluid together; separating the two fluids; solidifying the molten fluoride salt blend at a temperature above a melting point of the lead; and removing the molten lead from the container. In certain exemplary methods the molten lead is removed from the container by decanting. In still other exemplary methods the molten salt blend is a Lewis base fluoride eutectic salt blend, and in yet other exemplary methods the molten salt blend contains sodium fluoride, lithium fluoride, and potassium fluoride.

  8. Method of separating and purifying gadolinium-153

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A [Richland, WA; Corneillie, Todd M [Davis, CA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the method of separating and purifying gadolinium from a mixture of gadolinium and europium having the steps of (a) dissolving the mixture in an acid; (b) reducing europium+3 to europium+2; and (c) precipitating the europium+2 with a sulfate ion in a superstoichiometric amount; wherein the improvement is achieved by using one or more of the following: (i) the acid is an anoic acid; (ii) the reducing is with zinc metal in the absence of a second metal or with an amount of the second metal that is ineffective in the reducing; (iii) adding a group IIA element after step (c) for precipitating the excess sulfate prior to repeating step (c); (iv) the sulfate is a sulfate salt with a monovalent cation; (v) adding cold europium+3 prior to repeating step (c).

  9. Polycation-induced assembly of purified tubulin.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, H P; Voter, W A

    1976-01-01

    Several different polycations have been found that can substitute for the microtubule-associated proteins, or tau factor, in facilitating assembly of tubulin that has been purified by ion exchange chromatography. In low concentrations of the polycation diethylaminoethyl-dextran, 7 mg of tubulin is pelleted per 1 mg of polycation added. Under conditions favorable to microtubule assembly the entire pellet is seen by electron microscopy to consist of "double wall microtubules", which are essentially identical to normal microtubules in subunit structure and arrangement. When assembly is inhibited approximately the same amount of tubulin is pelleted, but it is in the form of clusters of curved sheets or filaments apparently related to tubulin rings. When conditions are changed to favor assembly, the tubulin within these clusters appears to reassemble to form the double wall microtubules. Images PMID:1066692

  10. Isolating and Purifying Clostridium difficile Spores.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-01-01

    The ability for the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium difficile to form a metabolically dormant spore is critical for the survival of this organism outside of the host. This spore form is resistant to a myriad of environmental stresses, including heat, desiccation, and exposure to disinfectants and antimicrobials. These intrinsic properties of spores allow C. difficile to survive long-term in an oxygenated environment, to be easily transmitted from host-to-host, and to persist within the host following antibiotic treatment. Because of the importance of the spore form to the C. difficile life cycle and treatment and prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), the isolation and purification of spores are necessary to study the mechanisms of sporulation and germination, investigate spore properties and resistances, and for use in animal models of CDI. Here we provide basic protocols, in vitro growth conditions, and additional considerations for purifying C. difficile spores for a variety of downstream applications. PMID:27507337

  11. Catalyst for purifying diesel engine exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Ueda, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Ono, T.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a catalyst for purifying a diesel engine exhaust gas. The catalyst comprises a refractory three-dimensional structure having a gas filter function, a porous inorganic carrier supported on it, and (a) vanadium oxide and (b) at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, rhodium and palladium supported on the carrier. The amount of component (a) is in the range of 0.2 to 40.0 g as V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ per liter of the structure and the amount of component (b) is in the range of 0.1 to 4.0 g as metal liter of the structure, wherein the mole ratio of component (a) to component (b) deposited as 1-90:1.

  12. Fitter apparatus for purifying exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Oyobe, K.; Fukutani, M.; Ito, K.; Matsui, K.; Miwa, N.; Nomura, E.

    1985-05-28

    Filter apparatus having a honeycomb structure and a heater for purifying exhaust gases consists of cells or passages defined by porous partition walls. Alternate passages are provided respectively with upstream plugs and downstream plugs. Particulates in exhaust gases are trapped in the honeycomb structure and ignited by the heater. The upstream plugs define spaces upstream thereof in which particulates are trapped in addition to those trapped in the passages having downstream plugs. The heat of burning of the particulates trapped in the spaces facilitates the burning of the particulates trapped in the passages having downstream plugs. Therefore, the exhaust gas particualtes trapped and collected in the downstream portion of the structure can also be easily burned to regenerate the structure over its entire length.

  13. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  16. Purified oxygen scavenging cell membrane fragments and use of same

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Adler, H.I.

    1988-10-18

    A process for purifying oxygen scavenging cell membrane fragments (OSCMF) and the use of same are disclosed. The novel purifying process involves salt precipitation and molecular exclusion chromatography. The unique feature of purified OSCMF is its ability to remove oxygen from organic reaction media and organic preparations without contaminating them to any substantial degree. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet air purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in the air by...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  19. Purification of proteins containing zinc finger domains using Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Voráčková, Irena; Suchanová, Šárka; Ulbrich, Pavel; Diehl, William E.; Ruml, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Heterologous proteins are frequently purified by Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) based on their modification with a hexa-histidine affinity tag (His-tag). The terminal His-tag can, however, alter functional properties of the tagged protein. Numerous strategies for the tag removal have been developed including chemical treatment and insertion of protease target sequences in the protein sequence. Instead of using these approaches, we took an advantage of natural interaction of zinc finger domains with metal ions to purify functionally similar retroviral proteins from two different retroviruses. We found that these proteins exhibited significantly different affinities to the immobilized metal ions, despite that both contain the same type of zinc finger motif (i.e. CCHC). While zinc finger proteins may differ in biochemical properties, the multitude of IMAC platforms should allow relatively simple yet specific method for their isolation in native state. PMID:21600288

  20. A rapid method to produce high yields of purified rotavirus particles.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Guillermo Adolfo; Argüelles, Marcelo Horacio; Castello, Alejandro Andrés; Mas, Neus Jiménez; Glikmann, Graciela

    2002-06-01

    A rapid purification method of rotavirus particles to high yield retaining the double shelled structure of infectious virus is described. Group A rotavirus (UK strain) was concentrated through a cushion of colloidal silica (rho=1.10 g/cm(3)) or by precipitating with polyethylene glycol 8000. After concentration, infectious rotavirus was cleared from host cell proteins by density equilibrium centrifugation in gradients of colloidal silica using near vertical rotors. Characterisation of purified virus assessed by electron microscopy and poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed the typical wheel shape structure of rotavirus particles and the presence of the 11 segments of dsRNA arranged in the 4-2-3-2 pattern. Presence of rotavirus structural proteins including VP6, VP4 and VP7 from the outer shell, was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot using polyclonal and VP6-specific monoclonal antibodies. This method achieved a approximately 1500 fold purification, which retained approximately 80% infectivity depending on the concentration protocol used, while yielding 160 microg of viral protein per each litre of infected cell culture medium. The time required for the isopycnic centrifugation was only 25 min and the entire completion of the method required 3.5 h. The method is simple technically and applicable to the purification of large as well as minute amounts of virus.

  1. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  2. Isolation of human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme X by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, A H; van Kuyk, L; Boettcher, B

    1978-01-01

    Human isoenzyme LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme X) was isolated from seminal fluid of frozen semen samples by affinity chromatography by using oxamate-Sepharose and AMP-Sepharose. In the presence of 1.6 mM-NAD+, isoenzyme LDH-X does not bind to AMP-Sepharose, whereas the other lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes do. This is the crucial point in the isolation of isoenzyme LDH-X from the other isoenzymes. The purified human isoenzyme LDH-X had a specific activity of 146 units/mg of protein. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:213050

  3. Native Elution of Yeast Protein Complexes Obtained by Affinity Capture.

    PubMed

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes two options for the native (nondenaturing) elution of protein complexes obtained by affinity capture. The first approach involves the elution of complexes purified through a tag that includes a human rhinovirus 3C protease (PreScission protease) cleavage site sequence between the protein of interest and the tag. Incubation with the protease cleaves immobilized complexes from the affinity medium. The second approach involves the release of protein A-tagged protein complexes using a competitive elution reagent called PEGylOx. The degree of purity of the native assemblies eluted is sample dependent and strongly influenced by the affinity capture. It should be noted that the efficiency of native elution is commonly lower than that of elution by a denaturing agent (e.g., SDS) and the release of the complex will be limited by the activity of the protease or the inhibition constant (Ki) of the competitive release agent. However, an advantage of native release is that some nonspecifically bound materials tend to stay adsorbed to the affinity medium, providing an eluted fraction of higher purity. Finally, keep in mind that the presence of the protease or elution peptide could potentially affect downstream applications; thus, their removal should be considered. PMID:27371597

  4. Brucella fractions behave as nonspecific mitogens and polyclonal B-cell activators for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, J P; Rabesandratana, H; Huguet, M F; Cannat, A; Serre, A

    1985-01-01

    Two lipid-A-free fractions which were extracted from Brucella melitensis and were designated PI and SF stimulated human unsensitized mononuclear cells to proliferate and to secrete immunoglobulins. Both of these effects were observed in cultures of peripheral blood, tonsils, and cord blood lymphocytes. Neither B cells nor T cells alone proliferated in the presence of these fractions, whereas the proliferative response of T cells plus B cells was largely independent of accessory cells. Polyclonal activation was estimated by counting the cells which secreted immunoglobulins of different isotypes into culture supernatants. This phenomenon was strongly T dependent. PMID:3876286

  5. Individual Plasmodium vivax msp1 Variants within Polyclonal P. vivax Infections Display Different Propensities for Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J.; Kharabora, Oksana; Sem, Rithy; Lin, Feng-Chang; Muth, Sinuon; Ménard, Didier; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Rogers, William O.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a newly developed Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 gene (Pvmsp1) heteroduplex tracking assay, we genotyped 107 P. vivax infections in individuals from Cambodia, 45 of whom developed recurrent parasitemia within 42 days. The majority of isolates were polyclonal, but recurrent parasitemias displayed fewer variants compared to initial parasitemias. Two Pvmsp1 gene variants occurred more frequently in the initial genotypes of those who developed recurrent parasitemia, representing the first time P. vivax variants associated with a higher risk of relapse have been described. PMID:22205791

  6. Isolation and characterization of an outer membrane protein of Salmonella paratyphi B: a mitogen and polyclonal activator of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sager, S; Virella, G; Chen, W Y; Fudenberg, H H

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella paratyphi B (S. paratyphi B) has been previously characterized as a human T-independent polyclonal B cell activator. To define further the nature of the bacterial structure responsible for these properties, we studied the effects of autoclaving and enzyme treatment of S. paratyphi B on its stimulatory capacity. We found that both autoclaving and papain treatment decreased the ability of S. paratyphi B to induce B cell activation, while trypsin treatment did not affect this capacity. Neither type of treatment affected the binding of S. paratyphi B to lymphocytes, suggesting that binding and B cell stimulation are mediated by different structures. The observation that B cell stimulation was significantly reduced by papain treatment led us to attempt to purify membrane proteins so that we could investigate whether they shared the stimulating capacity of S. paratyphi B. A water-insoluble, 43-45,000 mol. wt. protein, rich in aspartic acid, glutamine, glycine, alanine and leucine, similar in mol. wt. and physicochemical chemical properties to the porins of other gram negative bacteria, was isolated and designated as outer membrane protein (OMP). This protein was equally efficient to S. paratyphi B in inducing T-independent B cell activation. By performing time-course studies of [3H]-thymidine incorporation we observed a burst of mitogenic activity after stimulation of PBL or purified B cells with both S. paratyphi B and OMP peaking at 48-96 hr of culture (compared to 96-120 hr for the PWM proliferation peak), and with a magnitude of roughly 10% of that observed after PWM stimulation. Given the fact that the proportion of B lymphocytes in PBL is 4-12%, it appears likely that the proliferation burst seen with S. paratyphi B and OMP corresponds to a mitogenic effect mainly restricted to the B cell population. Images Figure 1 PMID:6370841

  7. Cell-surface bound pertussis toxin induces polyclonal T cell responses with high levels of interferon-gamma in the absence of interleukin-12.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuki, Ayako; Borrow, Persephone; Rigley, Kevin; Beverley, Peter C L

    2003-07-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTx), an exotoxin produced by Bordetella pertussis, has long been used as a mucosal adjuvant. We examined the T cell stimulatory properties of PTx in order to dissect its mechanisms of adjuvanticity. PTx or the B-oligomer of PTx (PTxB) failed to activate purified murine CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, as measured by a lack of proliferation or expression of early T cell activation markers. However, these T cells proliferated extensively in response to the toxin in the presence of syngeneic DC, and proliferation was accompanied by a high level of IFN-gamma production in the absence of IL-12. Interestingly, such responses were independent of signals mediated by MHC-TCR interaction. Both PTx and PTxB were found to bind stably to the surface of DC, and increased the adherence of DC to surrounding cells. These data suggest that polyclonal T cell responses mediated by the toxin are likely to be caused by the toxin bound on the surface of APC, either cross-linking cell surface molecules on T cells, or directly stimulating T cells together with the co-stimulatory molecules expressed on APC. B. pertussis may use this toxin as a mechanism to evade a specific immune response. PMID:12811846

  8. Mimicking respiratory phosphorylation using purified enzymes.

    PubMed

    von Ballmoos, Christoph; Biner, Olivier; Nilsson, Tobias; Brzezinski, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation is a striking example of the functional association of multiple enzyme complexes, working together to form ATP from cellular reducing equivalents. These complexes, such as cytochrome c oxidase or the ATP synthase, are typically investigated individually and therefore, their functional interplay is not well understood. Here, we present methodology that allows the co-reconstitution of purified terminal oxidases and ATP synthases in synthetic liposomes. The enzymes are functionally coupled via proton translocation where upon addition of reducing equivalents the oxidase creates and maintains a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient that energizes the synthesis of ATP by the F1F0 ATP synthase. The method has been tested with the ATP synthases from Escherichia coli and spinach chloroplasts, and with the quinol and cytochrome c oxidases from E. coli and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, respectively. Unlike in experiments with the ATP synthase reconstituted alone, the setup allows in vitro ATP synthesis under steady state conditions, with rates up to 90 ATP×s(-1)×enzyme(-1). We have also used the novel system to study the phenomenon of "mild uncoupling" as observed in mitochondria upon addition of low concentrations of ionophores (e.g. FCCP, SF6847) and the recoupling effect of 6-ketocholestanol. While we could reproduce the described effects, our data with the in vitro system does not support the idea of a direct interaction between a mitochondrial protein and the uncoupling agents as proposed earlier. PMID:26707617

  9. Characterization of the purified Chlamydomonas minus agglutinin

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Chlamydomonas flagellar sexual agglutinins are responsible for the adhesion of opposite mating-type (plus and minus) gametes during the first stages of mating. Purification and partial characterization of the plus agglutinin was previously reported (Adair, W. S., C. J. Hwang, and U. W. Goodenough, 1983, Cell, 33:183-193). Here we characterize the purified minus molecule. We show it to be a high molecular weight, hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein that migrates in the 3% stacking region of an SDS-polyacrylamide gel and is absent from two nonagglutinating minus mutants. Plus and minus agglutinins are remarkably similar, although nonidentical, in amino acid composition, molecular morphology, and reactivity in vivo and in vitro with monoclonal antibodies raised against the plus agglutinin. Moreover, the adhesiveness of both plus and minus agglutinins, when coupled to agarose beads, is abolished by thermolysin, trypsin, periodate, alkaline borohydride, reducing agents, or heat, but unaffected by exo- or endoglycosidases. The minus agglutinin, however, migrates just ahead of the plus molecule on SDS PAGE, is excluded from an anion-exchange (Mono Q) column, elutes earlier during hydrophobic interaction (Bio-gel TSK Phenyl 5PW) chromatography, and is sensitive to chymotrypsin digestion (unlike the plus agglutinin); therefore, it differs from the plus agglutinin in apparent molecular weight, net charge, relative hydrophobicity and proteolytic susceptibility. Nevertheless, our results generally demonstrate a high degree of homology between these complementary cell-cell recognition/adhesion molecules, which suggests that they are specified by genes that have a common evolutionary origin. PMID:2411736

  10. Characterization of co-purified acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinghua; Tan, Yajun; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Zhang, Shumin; Xing, Dorothy; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WPVs) have been completely replaced by the co-purified acellular vaccines (APVs) in China. To date few laboratory studies were reported for co-purified APVs in terms of their antigenic composition and protective immune responses. To further understand the antigenic composition in co-purified APVs, in the present study 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic technology was used to analyze the composition of co-purified APVs. The results showed that besides the main antigens pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), co-purified APVs also contained pertactin (PRN), fimbriae (FIM) 2and3 and other minor protein antigens. Of the 9 proteins identified, 3 were differentially presented in products from manufacturer 1 and manufacturer 2. Compared with WPVs and purified APVs, co-purified APVs induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with more toward to a Th1 response than the purified APVs in this study. These results hint that different immune mechanisms might be involved in protection induced by co-purified and purified APVs.

  11. Characterization of co-purified acellular pertussis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yinghua; Tan, Yajun; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Zhang, Shumin; Xing, Dorothy; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WPVs) have been completely replaced by the co-purified acellular vaccines (APVs) in China. To date few laboratory studies were reported for co-purified APVs in terms of their antigenic composition and protective immune responses. To further understand the antigenic composition in co-purified APVs, in the present study 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic technology was used to analyze the composition of co-purified APVs. The results showed that besides the main antigens pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), co-purified APVs also contained pertactin (PRN), fimbriae (FIM) 2and3 and other minor protein antigens. Of the 9 proteins identified, 3 were differentially presented in products from manufacturer 1 and manufacturer 2. Compared with WPVs and purified APVs, co-purified APVs induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with more toward to a Th1 response than the purified APVs in this study. These results hint that different immune mechanisms might be involved in protection induced by co-purified and purified APVs. PMID:25610957

  12. Enhanced Follicular Dendritic Cell-B Cell Interaction in HIV and SIV Infections and its Potential Role in Polyclonal B Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Mark. G.; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie H.

    1998-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have been characterized by both polyclonal Bcell activation and enhanced responsiveness to B-cell growth factors on one hand and the loss of specific antibody (Ab) responses and refractoriness to the normal signals for B-cell activation on the other. Histopathological studies of lymph node from HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected individuals have indicated initial follicular hyperplasia and the appearance of large irregular germinal centers that undergo progressive involution concomitant with follicular dendritic-cell (FDC) disruption. During this process, follicular dendritic-cell -enriched lymph-node-cell cultures exhibit increased ability to induce cluster formation (“in vitro germinal centers”), lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production compared to uninfected controls. This paper discusses how enhanced FDC-B-cell interaction within SIV-infected germinal centers may result in a reduced ability to select high-affinity B cells and alter the dynamics of antibodyproducing- cell and memory-cell generation resulting in the observed hyperactivity. PMID:9716906

  13. Comparison of specific activity and cytopathic effects of purified 33 kDa serine proteinase from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Tae; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Ha, Young-Ran; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yu, Hak Sun

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amebic keratitis (AK) by Acanthamoeba has yet to be clarified. Protease has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GAE and AK. In the present study, we have compared specific activity and cytopathic effects (CPE) of purified 33 kDa serine proteinases from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence (A. healyi OC-3A, A. lugdunensis KA/E2, and A. castellanii Neff). Trophozoites of the 3 strains revealed different degrees of CPE on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. The effect was remarkably reduced by adding phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), a serine proteinase inhibitor. This result indicated that PMSF-susceptible proteinase is the main component causing cytopathy to HCE cells by Acanthamoeba. The purified 33 kDa serine proteinase showed strong activity toward HCE cells and extracellular matrix proteins. The purified proteinase from OC-3A, the most virulent strain, demonstrated the highest enzyme activity compared to KA/E2, an ocular isolate, and Neff, a soil isolate. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified 33 kDa serine proteinase inhibit almost completely the proteolytic activity of culture supernatant of Acanthamoeba. In line with these results, the 33 kDa serine proteinase is suggested to play an important role in pathogenesis and to be the main component of virulence factor of Acanthamoeba. PMID:17170574

  14. Immunotherapy Expands and Maintains the Function of High-Affinity Tumor-Infiltrating CD8 T Cells In Situ.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy E; Polesso, Fanny; Weinberg, Andrew D

    2016-09-15

    Cancer cells harbor high-affinity tumor-associated Ags capable of eliciting potent antitumor T cell responses, yet detecting these polyclonal T cells is challenging. Therefore, surrogate markers of T cell activation such as CD69, CD44, and programmed death-1 (PD-1) have been used. We report in this study that in mice, expression of activation markers including PD-1 is insufficient in the tumor microenvironment to identify tumor Ag-specific T cells. Using the Nur77GFP T cell affinity reporter mouse, we highlight that PD-1 expression can be induced independent of TCR ligation within the tumor. Given this, we characterized the utility of the Nur77GFP model system in elucidating mechanisms of action of immunotherapies independent of PD-1 expression. Coexpression of Nur77GFP and OX40 identifies a polyclonal population of high-affinity tumor-associated Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, which produce more IFN-γ in situ than OX40 negative and doubles in quantity with anti-OX40 and anti-CTLA4 mAb therapy but not with anti-PD-1 or programmed death ligand-1. Moreover, expansion of these high-affinity CD8 T cells prolongs survival of tumor-bearing animals. Upon chronic stimulation in tumors and after adoptive cell therapy, CD8 TCR signaling and Nur77GFP induction is impaired, and tumors progress. However, this can be reversed and overall survival significantly enhanced after adoptive cell therapy with agonist OX40 immunotherapy. Therefore, we propose that OX40 agonist immunotherapy can maintain functional TCR signaling of chronically stimulated tumor-resident CD8 T cells, thereby increasing the frequency of cytotoxic, high-affinity, tumor-associated Ag-specific cells. PMID:27503208

  15. Polyclonal breast cancer metastases arise from collective dissemination of keratin 14-expressing tumor cell clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin J.; Padmanaban, Veena; Silvestri, Vanesa; Schipper, Koen; Cohen, Joshua D.; Fairchild, Amanda N.; Gorin, Michael A.; Verdone, James E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Bader, Joel S.; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genomic studies challenge the conventional model that each metastasis must arise from a single tumor cell and instead reveal that metastases can be composed of multiple genetically distinct clones. These intriguing observations raise the question: How do polyclonal metastases emerge from the primary tumor? In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to demonstrate that polyclonal seeding by cell clusters is a frequent mechanism in a common mouse model of breast cancer, accounting for >90% of metastases. We directly observed multicolored tumor cell clusters across major stages of metastasis, including collective invasion, local dissemination, intravascular emboli, circulating tumor cell clusters, and micrometastases. Experimentally aggregating tumor cells into clusters induced a >15-fold increase in colony formation ex vivo and a >100-fold increase in metastasis formation in vivo. Intriguingly, locally disseminated clusters, circulating tumor cell clusters, and lung micrometastases frequently expressed the epithelial cytoskeletal protein, keratin 14 (K14). RNA-seq analysis revealed that K14+ cells were enriched for desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion complex genes, and were depleted for MHC class II genes. Depletion of K14 expression abrogated distant metastases and disrupted expression of multiple metastasis effectors, including Tenascin C (Tnc), Jagged1 (Jag1), and Epiregulin (Ereg). Taken together, our findings reveal K14 as a key regulator of metastasis and establish the concept that K14+ epithelial tumor cell clusters disseminate collectively to colonize distant organs. PMID:26831077

  16. Immunomagnetic separation of scum-forming bacteria using polyclonal antibody that recognizes mycolic acids.

    PubMed

    Morisada, S; Miyata, N; Iwahori, K

    2002-10-01

    Mycolic acid-containing bacteria (mycolata) are thought to be involved in scum formation in aeration basins of activated sludge plants due to their ability to produce biosurfactants and their cell surface hydrophobicity. To isolate these bacteria, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) using an anti-mycolic acid polyclonal antibody was investigated. IMS that targeted Gordonia amarae SC1 exhibited a 100% recovery at 5x10(3) CFU ml(-1). At cell concentration of 7.8x10(6) CFU ml(-1), the recovery was lowered, but 80% of cells were still captured. Effect of bead concentrations on the recovery of SC1 at 10(6) CFU ml(-1) was examined. The results showed that addition of more than 6-7x10(6) beads for 1x10(6) CFU reached a maximum recovery (83%). Furthermore, the IMS procedure optimized with SC1 cells was tested with another mycolata. The results suggested that variation of the recovery for each mycolata is dependent on the specificity of the polyclonal antibody and that mycolata which are recognized by the antibody can be recovered by this procedure. PMID:12133606

  17. Development, characterization, and use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the myxosporean, Ceratomyxa shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Rohovec, J.S.; Fryer, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Both monoclonal and polyclonal antisera were produced against Ceratomyxa shasta. Ascites containing trophozoites of the parasite was collected from infected fish and used as antigen for immunization of mice. The resulting monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with trophozoite and sporoblast stages but did not react with C. shasta spores by either indirect fluorescent antibody techniques or in Western blots. This indicates that some C. shasta antigens are specific to certain life stages of the parasite. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in a rabbit by injecting a spore protein electro-eluted from an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. This antiserum reacted with both trophozoites and spores by indirect fluorescent antibody techniques and in Western blots. All antisera were tested for cross-reactivity to trout white blood cells, a contaminant of the ascites, and to other myxosporea. Two monoclonal antibodies reacted with white blood cells and myxosporea of the genera Sphaerospora and Myxobilatus. One hybridoma produced antibodies of high specificity for C. shasta pre-spore stages. This is the first report of a monoclonal antibody produced against a myxosporean parasite.

  18. Polyclonal B cell activation, circulating immune complexes and autoimmunity in human american visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Galvão-Castro, B; Sá Ferreira, J A; Marzochi, K F; Marzochi, M C; Coutinho, S G; Lambert, P H

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective study, serum and plasma samples from 17 patients with kala-azar were collected in Rio de Janeiro. High levels of immune complexes (IC) were detected in serum by means of 125I-Clq and conglutinin binding assays. The Clq binding material had a sedimentation coefficient of 19-25S, as determined by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradient. Plasma levels of C3 and C3 breakdown products were measured and the C3d levels were increased in six out of 11 patients. The occurrence of polyclonal B cell activation was suggested by (a) a marked increase of serum IgG and IgM levels and (b) of the presence of antibodies against various proteins and haptens (SRBC, DNP-BSA, FITC-BSA,KLH). There was a close association between the presence of IC and anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. Anti-smooth muscle antibodies were also observed. These data are consistent with a major role of polyclonal B cell activation in the induction of IC during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:6424987

  19. A deep sequencing tool for partitioning clearance rates following antimalarial treatment in polyclonal infections

    PubMed Central

    Mideo, Nicole; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Hathaway, Nicholas J.; Ngasala, Billy; Saunders, David L.; Lon, Chanthap; Kharabora, Oksana; Jamnik, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas; Meshnick, Steven R.; Read, Andrew F.; Juliano, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Current tools struggle to detect drug-resistant malaria parasites when infections contain multiple parasite clones, which is the norm in high transmission settings in Africa. Our aim was to develop and apply an approach for detecting resistance that overcomes the challenges of polyclonal infections without requiring a genetic marker for resistance. Methodology: Clinical samples from patients treated with artemisinin combination therapy were collected from Tanzania and Cambodia. By deeply sequencing a hypervariable locus, we quantified the relative abundance of parasite subpopulations (defined by haplotypes of that locus) within infections and revealed evolutionary dynamics during treatment. Slow clearance is a phenotypic, clinical marker of artemisinin resistance; we analyzed variation in clearance rates within infections by fitting parasite clearance curves to subpopulation data. Results: In Tanzania, we found substantial variation in clearance rates within individual patients. Some parasite subpopulations cleared as slowly as resistant parasites observed in Cambodia. We evaluated possible explanations for these data, including resistance to drugs. Assuming slow clearance was a stable phenotype of subpopulations, simulations predicted that modest increases in their frequency could substantially increase time to cure. Conclusions and implications: By characterizing parasite subpopulations within patients, our method can detect rare, slow clearing parasites in vivo whose phenotypic effects would otherwise be masked. Since our approach can be applied to polyclonal infections even when the genetics underlying resistance are unknown, it could aid in monitoring the emergence of artemisinin resistance. Our application to Tanzanian samples uncovers rare subpopulations with worrying phenotypes for closer examination. PMID:26817485

  20. Multiple myeloma in a dog with multiple concurrent infectious diseases and persistent polyclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Geigy, Caroline; Riond, Barbara; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Grest, Paula; Kircher, Patrick; Lutz, Hans

    2013-03-01

    A 12-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for acute hematuria, stranguria, polyuria, and polydipsia, as well as lameness for 8 days. Previous medical history included treatment for infection with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, and Dirofilaria immitis 6.5 years prior to presentation. Besides persistently increased antibody titers to E canis and A phagocytophilum, polyclonal gammopathy with a monoclonal spike and moderate hypercalcemia were observed. There was marked hematuria, and Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from urine. Two weeks after successful treatment of the urinary tract infection, radiographs showed an extensive destructive monostotic lesion of the right humerus. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of this lesion revealed a neoplastic round cell population suggestive of multiple myeloma. The dog was treated with melphalan and prednisolone for suspected multiple myeloma and doxycycline for suspected ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Treatments lead to resolution of the clinical signs, hypercalcemia, and monoclonal gammopathy, and there was radiographic improvement of bone lesions; polyclonal gammopathy persisted. About one year after presentation the dog was still in clinical remission. This is a rare report of a dog with suspected multiple myeloma and a history of multiple chronic infectious diseases, suggesting that chronic infection and uncontrolled long-term stimulation of the immune system could contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. PMID:23278475

  1. Cesium cation affinities and basicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Jean-François; Maria, Pierre-Charles; Massi, Lionel; Mayeux, Charly; Burk, Peeter; Tammiku-Taul, Jaana

    2007-11-01

    This review focuses on the quantitative data related to cesium cation interaction with neutral or negatively charged ligands. The techniques used for measuring the cesium cation affinity (enthalpies, CCA), and cesium cation basicities (Gibbs free energies, CCB) are briefly described. The quantum chemical calculations methods that were specifically designed for the determination of cesium cation adduct structures and the energetic aspects of the interaction are discussed. The experimental results, obtained essentially from mass spectrometry techniques, and complemented by thermochemical data, are tabulated and commented. In particular, the correlations between cesium cation affinities and lithium cation affinities for the various kinds of ligands (rare gases, polyatomic neutral molecules, among them aromatic compounds and negative ions) serve as a basis for the interpretation of the diverse electrostatic modes of interaction. A brief account of some recent analytical applications of ion/molecule reactions with Cs+, as well as other cationization approaches by Cs+, is given.

  2. High-affinity binding of fibronectin to cultured Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, P.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.; McKeown-Longo, P.J.; Saba, T.M.; Mazurkiewicz, J.E.; Dias, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Hepatic Kupffer cells are a major component of the reticuloendothelial or macrophage system. They were the first phagocytic cell type whose phagocytosis was shown to be influenced by plasma fibronectin, a dimeric opsonic glycoprotein. In the current study, the binding of soluble radioiodinated fibronectin purified from rat serum to isolated rat hepatic Kupffer cells was investigated using a cultured Kupffer cell monolayer technique. Binding was specific, since unlabeled purified fibronectin competed in a dose-dependent manner with the 125I-fibronectin for binding to the Kupffer cells. Addition of gelatin enhanced the binding of 125I-fibronectin to Kupffer cells. The phagocytosis of gelatinized-coated red cells by Kupffer cells was increased either by preopsonizing the target particles with purified fibronectin or by the addition of purified fibronectin to the culture medium. In contrast, exposure of the Kupffer cells to medium containing purified fibronectin followed by wash-removal of the fibronectin did not increase the uptake of gelatin-coated red blood cells, even though fibronectin was detected on the surface of the Kupffer cells by immunofluorescence. Trypsinized monolayers expressed decreased capacity to bind 125I-fibronectin as well as fibronectin-coated sheep erythrocytes. The binding of 125I-fibronectin-gelatin complexes was inhibited by excess unlabeled fibronectin. We calculated that specific high-affinity (Kd = 7.46 x 10(-9) M) binding sites for fibronectin exist on Kupffer cells. There are approximately 2,800-3,500 binding sites or putative fibronectin receptors per Kupffer cell. These sites appear to mediate the enhanced phagocytosis of gelatin-coated particles opsonized by fibronectin.

  3. "Clickable" agarose for affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Punna, Sreenivas; Kaltgrad, Eiton; Finn, M G

    2005-01-01

    Successful purification of biological molecules by affinity chromatography requires the attachment of desired ligands to biocompatible chromatographic supports. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and alkynes-the premier example of "click chemistry"-is an efficient way to make covalent connections among diverse molecules and materials. Both azide and alkyne units are highly selective in their reactivity, being inert to most chemical functionalities and stable to wide ranges of solvent, temperature, and pH. We show that agarose beads bearing alkyne and azide groups can be easily made and are practical precursors to functionalized agarose materials for affinity chromatography.

  4. Hydrogen purifier module and method for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    DeVries, Peter David

    2012-02-07

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane, and a gas-tight seal, where the seal is uses a low temperature melting point metal, which upon heating above the melting point subsequently forms a seal alloy with adjacent metals, where the alloy has a melting point above the operational temperature of the purifier. The purifier further is constructed such that a degree of isolation exists between the metal that melts to form the seal and the active area of the purifier membrane, so that the active area of the purifier membrane is not corrupted. A method of forming a hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane with a seal of the same type is also disclosed.

  5. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Brill, Allison L; Pasker, Renee L

    2013-01-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:24510596

  6. Quantifying Affinity among Chinese Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A study of the relationships between Chinese dialects based on a quantitative measure of dialect affinity is summarized. First, tone values in all the dialect localities available in the early 1970s were used to calculate the dialectal differences in terms of tone height with respect to the "yin and yang" split. In the late 1970s, calculations of…

  7. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  8. Affinity Purification and Characterization of a G-Protein Coupled Receptor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste2p

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kwon; Jung, Kyung-Sik; Son, Cagdas D; Kim, Heejung; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Becker, Jeffrey Marvin

    2007-01-01

    We present a rare example of a biologically active G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) whose purity and identity were verified by mass spectrometry after being purified to near homogeneity from its native system. An overexpression vector was constructed to encode the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPCR -factor receptor (Ste2p, the STE2 gene product) containing a 9-amino acid sequence of rhodopsin that served as an epitope/affinity tag. In the construct, two glycosylation sites and two cysteine residues were removed to aid future structural and functional studies. The receptor was expressed in yeast cells and was detected as a single band in a western blot indicating the absence of glycosylation. Tests of the epitope-tagged, mutated receptor showed it maintained its full biological activity. For extraction of Ste2p, yeast membranes were solubilized with 0.5 % n-dodecyl maltoside (DM). Approximately 120 g of purified -factor receptor was obtained per liter of culture by single-step affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody to the rhodopsin epitope. The binding affinity (Kd) of the purified -factor receptor in DM micelles was 28 nM as compared to Kd = 12.7 nM for Ste2p in cell membranes, and approximately 40 % of the purified receptor was correctly folded as judged by ligand saturation binding. About 50 % of the receptor sequence was retrieved from MALDITOF and nanospray mass spectrometry after CNBr digestion of the purified receptor. The methods described will enable structural studies of the -factor receptor and may provide an efficient technique to purify other GPCRs that have been functionally expressed in yeast.

  9. Human Polyclonal Antibodies Produced through DNA Vaccination of Transchromosomal Cattle Provide Mice with Post-Exposure Protection against Lethal Zaire and Sudan Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bounds, Callie E.; Kwilas, Steven A.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Brannan, Jennifer M.; Bakken, Russell R.; Dye, John M.; Hooper, Jay W.; Dupuy, Lesley C.; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccination of transchromosomal bovines (TcBs) with DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized (co) glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) produce fully human polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) that recognize both viruses and demonstrate robust neutralizing activity. Each TcB was vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP) a total of four times and at each administration received 10 mg of the EBOV-GPco DNA vaccine and 10 mg of the SUDV-GPco DNA vaccine at two sites on the left and right sides, respectively. After two vaccinations, robust antibody responses (titers > 1000) were detected by ELISA against whole irradiated EBOV or SUDV and recombinant EBOV-GP or SUDV-GP (rGP) antigens, with higher titers observed for the rGP antigens. Strong, virus neutralizing antibody responses (titers >1000) were detected after three vaccinations when measured by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA). Maximal neutralizing antibody responses were identified by traditional plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) after four vaccinations. Neutralizing activity of human immunoglobulins (IgG) purified from TcB plasma collected after three vaccinations and injected intraperitoneally (IP) into mice at a 100 mg/kg dose was detected in the serum by PsVNA up to 14 days after administration. Passive transfer by IP injection of the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) to groups of BALB/c mice one day after IP challenge with mouse adapted (ma) EBOV resulted in 80% protection while all mice treated with non-specific pAbs succumbed. Similarly, interferon receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR -/-) mice receiving the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) by IP injection one day after IP challenge with wild type SUDV resulted in 89% survival. These results are the first to demonstrate that filovirus GP DNA vaccines administered to TcBs by IM-EP can elicit neutralizing antibodies that provide post-exposure protection. Additionally, these data describe

  10. Single-step purification of native miraculin using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2009-06-24

    Miraculin is a taste-modifying protein that can be isolated from miracle fruit ( Richadella dulcifica ), a shrub native to West Africa. It is able to turn a sour taste into a sweet taste. The commercial exploitation of this sweetness-modifying protein is underway, and a fast and efficient purification method to extract the protein is needed. We succeeded in purifying miraculin from miracle fruit in a single-step purification using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified miraculin exhibited high purity (>95%) in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We also demonstrated the necessity of its structure for binding to the nickel-IMAC column. PMID:19469504

  11. Comparison between scintigraphy with polyclonal immunoglobulin (99Tcm-HIG) and physical examination in polyarthritic disease.

    PubMed

    Vesterskiöld, L; Schnell, P O; Jacobsson, H

    1996-01-01

    99Tcm-labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin 99Tcm-HIG scintigraphy has been suggested as a technique to detect joint inflammation in arthritic disorders. Scintigraphy was performed in fifteen patients with active polyarthritis. All joints except the hips were scored clinically for swelling and pain by a rheumatologist and scintigraphic images were obtained at 30 minutes and four hours after injection of 350MBq 99Tcm-HIG. The images were assessed by a nuclear medicine physician according to a four grade scale. The images were easy to assess. There was a highly significant correlation between swelling and scan score, but no correlation between pain and scan score. The mechanism for the accumulation of activity to inflamed synovial tissue remains unclear. The mean values of the scan score however increased significantly between 30 minutes and 4 hours, indicating an active binding mechanism. The method has a potential as an objective tool in monitoring rheumatic diseases.

  12. Surface antigens of brain synapses: identification of minor proteins using polyclonal antisera

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Antigenic proteins of brain synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and postsynaptic densities (PSD) were characterized using antisera raised against SPM. Immunostaining of brain sections showed that the antigens were restricted to synapses, and electron microscopy revealed staining at both presynaptic terminals and PSDs. In primary brain cell cultures the antisera were also neuron-specific but the antigens were distributed throughout the entire neuronal plasma membrane, suggesting that some restrictive influence present in whole tissue is absent when neurons are grown dispersed. The antigenic proteins with which these antisera react were identified using SDS gel immunoblots. SPM and PSD differed from one another in their characteristic antigenic proteins. Comparison with amido-black stained gel blots showed that in both cases most of these did not correspond to known abundant proteins of SPM or PSDs revealed by conventional biochemical techniques. None of the antigens revealed by the polyclonal antisera were detected by any of a large series of monoclonal antibodies against SPM. PMID:6368568

  13. Polyclonal hyper-IgE mouse model reveals mechanistic insights into antibody class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Misaghi, Shahram; Senger, Kate; Sai, Tao; Qu, Yan; Sun, Yonglian; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Nguyen, Allen; Jin, Zhaoyu; Zhou, Meijuan; Yan, Donghong; Lin, Wei Yu; Lin, Zhonghua; Lorenzo, Maria N.; Sebrell, Andrew; Ding, Jiabing; Xu, Min; Caplazi, Patrick; Austin, Cary D.; Balazs, Mercedesz; Roose-Girma, Merone; DeForge, Laura; Warming, Søren; Lee, Wyne P.; Dixit, Vishva M.; Zarrin, Ali A.

    2013-01-01

    Preceding antibody constant regions are switch (S) regions varying in length and repeat density that are targets of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. We asked how participating S regions influence each other to orchestrate rearrangements at the IgH locus by engineering mice in which the weakest S region, Sε, is replaced with prominent recombination hotspot Sμ. These mice produce copious polyclonal IgE upon challenge, providing a platform to study IgE biology and therapeutic interventions. The insertion enhances ε germ-line transcript levels, shows a preference for direct vs. sequential switching, and reduces intraswitch recombination events at native Sμ. These results suggest that the sufficiency of Sμ to mediate IgH rearrangements may be influenced by context-dependent cues. PMID:24019479

  14. Polyclonal hyper-IgE mouse model reveals mechanistic insights into antibody class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Misaghi, Shahram; Senger, Kate; Sai, Tao; Qu, Yan; Sun, Yonglian; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Nguyen, Allen; Jin, Zhaoyu; Zhou, Meijuan; Yan, Donghong; Lin, Wei Yu; Lin, Zhonghua; Lorenzo, Maria N; Sebrell, Andrew; Ding, Jiabing; Xu, Min; Caplazi, Patrick; Austin, Cary D; Balazs, Mercedesz; Roose-Girma, Merone; DeForge, Laura; Warming, Søren; Lee, Wyne P; Dixit, Vishva M; Zarrin, Ali A

    2013-09-24

    Preceding antibody constant regions are switch (S) regions varying in length and repeat density that are targets of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. We asked how participating S regions influence each other to orchestrate rearrangements at the IgH locus by engineering mice in which the weakest S region, Sε, is replaced with prominent recombination hotspot Sμ. These mice produce copious polyclonal IgE upon challenge, providing a platform to study IgE biology and therapeutic interventions. The insertion enhances ε germ-line transcript levels, shows a preference for direct vs. sequential switching, and reduces intraswitch recombination events at native Sμ. These results suggest that the sufficiency of Sμ to mediate IgH rearrangements may be influenced by context-dependent cues. PMID:24019479

  15. Serological Differentiation of Plant-parasitic Nematode Species with Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Schots, Arjen; Gommers, Fred J.; Bakker, Jaap; Egberts, Egbert

    1990-01-01

    Although several attempts have been made to differentiate nematode species with polyclonal antisera, these efforts thus far have met with limited success because of extensive crossreactivities of the sera. Since the hybridoma technique offers the opportunity to develop more specific serological reagents, some research groups have recently started to apply this technology to the problem of species identification in nematology. Monoclonal antibodies (MA) that differentiate the potato-cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, as well as MA specific for Meloidogyne species, have been developed. The possibilities of developing serodiagnostic tools for identification of nematodes recovered from soil samples and the implications of such monitoring of nematode infestations in view of integrated control of plant-parasitic nematodes are discussed. PMID:19287684

  16. Use of protein-protein interactions in affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Muronetz, V I; Sholukh, M; Korpela, T

    2001-10-30

    Biospecific recognition between proteins is a phenomenon that can be exploited for designing affinity-chromatographic purification systems for proteins. In principle, the approach is straightforward, and there are usually many alternative ways, since a protein can be always found which binds specifically enough to the desired protein. Routine immunoaffinity chromatography utilizes the recognition of antigenic epitopes by antibodies. However, forces involved in protein-protein interactions as well the forces keeping the three-dimensional structures of proteins intact are complicated, and proteins are easily unfolded by various factors with unpredictable results. Because of this and because of the generally high association strength between proteins, the correct adjustment of binding forces between an immobilized protein and the protein to be purified as well as the release of bound proteins in biologically active form from affinity complexes are the main problem. Affinity systems involving interactions like enzyme-enzyme, subunit-oligomer, protein-antibody, protein-chaperone and the specific features involved in each case are presented as examples. This article also aims to sketch prospects for further development of the use of protein-protein interactions for the purification of proteins. PMID:11694271

  17. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exposure to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical...

  2. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-γ). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  3. Detection of acute inflammation with /sup 111/In-labeled nonspecific polyclonal IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Khaw, B.A.; Callahan, R.J.; Wilkinson, R.; Keech, F.; Nedelman, M.; Dragotakes, S.; Kramer, P.B.; LaMuraglia, G.M.

    1988-10-01

    The detection of focal sites of inflammation is an integral part of the clinical evaluation of the febrile patient. When anatomically distinct abscesses are present, lesion detection can be accomplished by standard radiographic techniques, particularly in patients with normal anatomy. At the phlegmon stage, however, and in patients who have undergone surgery, these techniques are considerably less effective. While radionuclide methods, such as Gallium-67 (67Ga)-citrate and Indium-111 (111In)-labeled WBCs have been relatively successful for the detection of early inflammation, neither approach is ideal. In the course of studies addressing the use of specific organism-directed antibodies for imaging experimental infections in animals, we observed that nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) localized as well as specific antibodies. Preliminary experiments suggested that the Fc portion of IgG is necessary for effective inflammation localization. Since polyclonal IgG in gram quantities has been safely used for therapy in patients with immune deficiency states, we decided to test whether milligram quantities of radiolabeled IgG could image focal sites of inflammation in humans. Thus far, we have studied a series of 84 patients with suspected lesions in the abdomen, pelvis, vascular grafts, lungs, or bones/joints. In 48 of 52 patients with focal lesions detected by surgery, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound (US), the IgG scan correctly localized the site, while 31 patients without focal inflammation had no abnormal focal localization of the radiopharmaceutical. Four patients had false negative scans and one patient had a false positive scan. For this small series, the overall sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 95%, respectively. In this report, we review our experience with this exciting new agent.

  4. Bacillus anthracis Capsular Conjugates Elicit Chimpanzee Polyclonal Antibodies That Protect Mice from Pulmonary Anthrax.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaochun; Schneerson, Rachel; Lovchik, Julie A; Dai, Zhongdong; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Agulto, Liane; Leppla, Stephen H; Purcell, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    The immunogenicity of Bacillus anthracis capsule (poly-γ-D-glutamic acid [PGA]) conjugated to recombinant B. anthracis protective antigen (rPA) or to tetanus toxoid (TT) was evaluated in two anthrax-naive juvenile chimpanzees. In a previous study of these conjugates, highly protective monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PGA were generated. This study examines the polyclonal antibody response of the same animals. Preimmune antibodies to PGA with titers of >10(3) were detected in the chimpanzees. The maximal titer of anti-PGA was induced within 1 to 2 weeks following the 1st immunization, with no booster effects following the 2nd and 3rd immunizations. Thus, the anti-PGA response in the chimpanzees resembled a secondary immune response. Screening of sera from nine unimmunized chimpanzees and six humans revealed antibodies to PGA in all samples, with an average titer of 10(3). An anti-PA response was also observed following immunization with PGA-rPA conjugate, similar to that seen following immunization with rPA alone. However, in contrast to anti-PGA, preimmune anti-PA antibody titers and those following the 1st immunization were ≤300, with the antibodies peaking above 10(4) following the 2nd immunization. The polyclonal anti-PGA shared the MAb 11D epitope and, similar to the MAbs, exerted opsonophagocytic killing of B. anthracis. Most important, the PGA-TT-induced antibodies protected mice from a lethal challenge with virulent B. anthracis spores. Our data support the use of PGA conjugates, especially PGA-rPA targeting both toxin and capsule, as expanded-spectrum anthrax vaccines.

  5. Portable self-contained solar powered water purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a portable self-contained solar powered water purifier. It comprises housing means for buoyantly supporting the purifier; solar cell means supported by the housing means above water to be treated; purification means depending from the housing means so as to be positioned in water to be treated and including sacrificial anode means providing ionized metallic ions for purifying the water and cathode means providing abstraction of electrons to facilitate the release of oxygen into the water; means for electrically connecting the solar cell means to the electrolytic purification means to enable the electrolytic purification means to purify water when the purifier is placed therein; and diode means for preventing reverse current flow between the anode means and cathode means.

  6. Noncanonical Amino Acid Labeling in Vivo to Visualize and Affinity Purify Newly Synthesized Proteins in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein expression in the nervous system undergoes regulated changes in response to changes in behavioral states, in particular long-term memory formation. Recently, methods have been developed (BONCAT and FUNCAT), which introduce noncanonical amino acids bearing small bio-orthogonal functional groups into proteins using the cells’ own translational machinery. Using the selective “click reaction”, this allows for the identification and visualization of newly synthesized proteins in vitro. Here we demonstrate that noncanonical amino acid labeling can be achieved in vivo in an intact organism capable of simple learning behavior, the larval zebrafish. We show that azidohomoalanine is metabolically incorporated into newly synthesized proteins, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but has no apparent toxic effect and does not influence simple behaviors such as spontaneous swimming and escape responses. This enables fluorescent labeling of newly synthesized proteins in whole mount larval zebrafish. Furthermore, stimulation with a GABA antagonist that elicits seizures in the larval zebrafish causes an increase in protein synthesis throughout the proteome, which can also be visualized in intact larvae. PMID:22347535

  7. Dephosphorylation and Quantification of Organic Phosphorus in Poultry Litter by Purified Phytic-Acid High Affinity Aspergillus Phosphohydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracellular phosphohydrolases have received increased attention as they are shown to influence the behavior and bioavailability of environmental phosphorus, which pose risks of impairment of surface waters and degradation of sensitive aquatic ecosystems. Induction and culture of five strains of A...

  8. In vitro transcription directed from the somatostatin promoter is dependent upon a purified 43-kDa DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Andrisani, O M; Zhu, Z N; Pot, D A; Dixon, J E

    1989-01-01

    In vitro transcription analyses were used to establish the biological function of a 43-kDa affinity-purified DNA-binding protein. The 43-kDa affinity-purified protein protects the region from position -59 to position -35 of the somatostatin promoter from DNase I digestion. This region of the somatostatin promoter harbors the TGACGTCA motif, also found and required for function in a number of other cAMP-responsive and adenovirus E1A-inducible promoters. Efficient and authentic transcription in vitro directed from the somatostatin promoter requires the TGACGTCA promoter element. In vitro transcription assays performed in the presence of somatostatin (positions -60 to -29), enkephalin (positions -105 to -71), and adenovirus type 5 E3 gene (positions -72 to -42) competitor fragments, harboring similar TGACGTCA motifs, selectively inhibit transcription directed from the somatostatin promoter, suggesting that the TGACGTCA element is the site of interaction of a somatostatin gene transactivator. Furthermore, extracts depleted of the TGACGTCA-binding activities by affinity chromatography utilizing a biotinylated oligonucleotide-avidin resin, are incapable of directing transcription from the somatostatin but not from the adenovirus major late promoter. Addition of the purified 43-kDa protein to the affinity-depleted extract restores transcription from the somatostatin promoter. These results are consistent with the 43-kDa protein being a trans-activator of the somatostatin gene. Images PMID:2564679

  9. Enzyme-gold affinity labelling of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Berg, R H; Erdos, G W; Gritzali, M; Brown, R D

    1988-04-01

    The enzyme-linked colloidal gold affinity labelling technique was tested as a method to localize cellulose on thin sections of plant cell walls and slime mold spores. Commercially available cellulase from cultures of Trichoderma reesei, the main components being cellobiohydrolase I and II (CBH I, CBH II) and endoglucanase (EG), was linked to colloidal gold by using standard techniques and applied as a dilute, buffered suspension to thin sections. After brief exposure, e.g., 15-30 minutes, cellulose exposed on the surface of sections was labelled with the enzyme-gold complex. Poststaining did not appear to have a deleterious effect on the labelled sections. The specificity of labelling was demonstrated by its complete inhibition when carboxymethylcellulose was incorporated in the labelling mixture, by lack of labelling of 1,4-beta-mannans or 1,3-beta-xylans in noncellulosic walls of marine algae, by lack of labelling of 1,4-beta-glucans in chitin, by much lower labelling density when done at 4 degrees C, and by lack of labelling when sections were predigested with cellulase. Labelling with the crude commercial cellulase was compared to labelling with purified CBH I-, CBH II-, and EG-linked colloidal gold, and the labelling pattern was similar. This method was found useful on conventionally fixed material and required no special preparation other than the use of inert (Ni or Au) grids and 0.5% gelatin to reduce nonspecific binding of the gold complex. Labelling was similar in the several embedding resins tested: LR White, Lowicryl K4M, Epon 812, and Spurr's.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Affinity purification of in vitro transcribed RNA with homogeneous ends using a 3'-ARiBo tag.

    PubMed

    Di Tomasso, Geneviève; Salvail-Lacoste, Alix; Bouvette, Jonathan; Omichinski, James G; Legault, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Common approaches for purification of RNAs synthesized in vitro by the T7 RNA polymerase often denature the RNA and produce RNAs with chemically heterogeneous 5'- and 3'-ends. Thus, native affinity purification strategies that incorporate 5' and 3' trimming technologies provide a solution to two main disadvantages that arise from standard approaches for RNA purification. This chapter describes procedures for nondenaturing affinity purification of in vitro transcribed RNA using a 3'-ARiBo tag, which yield RNAs with a homogeneous 3'-end. The applicability of the method to RNAs of different sequences, secondary structures, and sizes (29-614 nucleotides) is described, including suggestions for troubleshooting common problems. In addition, this chapter presents three complementary approaches to producing 5'-homogeneity of the affinity-purified RNA: (1) selection of the starting sequence; (2) Cse3 endoribonuclease cleavage of a 5'-CRISPR tag; or (3) self-cleavage of a 5'-hammerhead ribozyme tag. The additional steps to express and purify the Cse3 endonuclease are detailed. In light of recent results, the advantages and limitations of current approaches to achieve 5'-homogeneity of affinity-purified RNA are discussed, such that one can select a suitable strategy to purify the RNA of interest. PMID:25432744

  11. RNase One Gene Isolation, Expression, and Affinity Purification Models Research Experimental Progression and Culminates with Guided Inquiry-Based Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl P.

    2009-01-01

    This new biochemistry laboratory course moves through a progression of experiments that generates a platform for guided inquiry-based experiments. RNase One gene is isolated from prokaryotic genomic DNA, expressed as a tagged protein, affinity purified, and tested for activity and substrate specificity. Student pairs present detailed explanations…

  12. Amplification of the polyclonal activation of human T cells. I. Null-cell products promote the polyclonal proliferation of T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Caraux, J; Klein, B; Thierry, C; Serrou, B

    1982-01-01

    Synergy can be observed in the proliferative response to mitogens of cultures containing human T and Null cells when compared with those containing only highly purified cells of those two types. This synergy was analysed (i) by evaluation of the proliferative response at each step of the purification process leading to separation of T and Null cells; (ii) by back-mixing T and Nul cells at different rations; and (iii) by evaluation of the proliferative response of free suspension cultures of T cells overlaying a semi-solid layer containing Null cells, or of free suspension cultures of Null cells over a semi-solid culture layer of T cells. The following conclusions were reached: (i) purified Null cells are unresponsive to mitogen when cultured alone or in the presence of diffusible T-cell products; (ii) the T cells are less responsive when cultured alone than in the presence of Null cells or diffusible Null cell products. Thus the synergistic effect observed between T and Null cells is not due to the promotion of Null-cell proliferation by T -cell products but can be accounted for by diffusible Null-cell products enhancing the process of T lymphocyte activation by mitogens. PMID:6977479

  13. Cell type-specific affinity purification of nuclei for chromatin profiling in whole animals.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Florian A; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing cell differentiation during development in a complex organism requires the analysis of expression and chromatin profiles in individual cell types. Our laboratory has developed a simple and generally applicable strategy to purify specific cell types from whole organisms for simultaneous analysis of chromatin and expression. The method, termed INTACT for Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types, depends on the expression of an affinity-tagged nuclear envelope protein in the cell type of interest. These nuclei can be affinity-purified from the total pool of nuclei and used as a source for RNA and chromatin. The method serves as a simple and scalable alternative to FACS sorting or laser capture microscopy to circumvent the need for expensive equipment and specialized skills. This chapter provides detailed protocols for the cell-type specific purification of nuclei from Caenorhabditis elegans.

  14. mRNA 5'-cap binding activity in purified influenza virus detected by simple, rapid assay.

    PubMed Central

    Kroath, H; Shatkin, A J

    1982-01-01

    Reovirus mRNA 5'-terminal caps were 3'-radiolabeled with pCp and as affinity probes for proteins with cap binding activity. A rapid, simple, and sensitive blot assay was devised that could detect cellular cap binding protein in a complex polypeptide mixture. By using this method, cap binding activity was found in detergent-treated influenza virus but not in reovirus or vaccinia virus. Preincubation of capped reovirus mRNA with purified cellular cap binding protein reduced its primer effect on influenza transcriptase, whereas priming by ApG was not affected. The results indicate that influenza transcriptase complexes include cap-recognizing proteins that are involved in the formation of chimeric mRNAs. Images PMID:7097854

  15. Two-parameter twisted quantum affine algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Zhang, Honglian

    2016-09-01

    We establish Drinfeld realization for the two-parameter twisted quantum affine algebras using a new method. The Hopf algebra structure for Drinfeld generators is given for both untwisted and twisted two-parameter quantum affine algebras, which include the quantum affine algebras as special cases.

  16. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ∼ 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ∼ 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation.

  17. Preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (Carassius auratus) vitellogenin and its application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Bing, Xin; Yu, Kun; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) represents a good model to detect the estrogenic effects of chemicals, and vitellogenin (Vtg) is a vital indicator of estrogenic activity. The heterologous anti-carp Vtg antibody has previously been used for goldfish Vtg detection. Here, we report the preparation of an anti-goldfish Vtg antibody to improve the sensitivity and specificity of goldfish Vtg immunoassays. Vtg was purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced goldfish by gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. It was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of ~460 kDa and separated into three major polypeptides corresponding to ~130, ~106, and ~81 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A polyclonal antibody against goldfish Vtg was raised in rabbits and found to be specific for goldfish Vtg through immunoelectrophoresis and Western blot. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of plasma Vtg, with a detection limit of 3.6 ng/mL and a detection range from 7.8 to 250 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were 2.4-6.8% and 6.7-10.8%, respectively. Additionally, we qualitatively and quantitatively detected the induction of Vtg in male fish exposed to 0.01, 0.01, and 1.00 mg/L monocrotophos pesticide by Western blot and ELISA. The homologous sandwich ELISA based on the anti-goldfish Vtg antibody could provide a valuable tool for the study of estrogenic effects of exogenous chemicals on goldfish.

  18. Isolation and purification of blood group antigens using immuno-affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Mönster, Andrea; Hiller, Oliver; Grüger, Daniela; Blasczyk, Rainer; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-02-01

    Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM(®)) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM(®) Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM(®) Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM(®) Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap(®) metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

  19. Method for trapping affinity chromatography of transcription factors using aldehyde-hydrazide coupling to agarose.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yinshan; Jarrett, Harry W

    2015-08-01

    The use of a method of coupling DNA was investigated for trapping and purifying transcription factors. Using the GFP-C/EBP (CAAT/enhancer binding protein) fusion protein as a model, trapping gives higher purity and comparable yield to conventional affinity chromatography. The chemistry used is mild and was shown to have no detrimental effect on GFP fluorescence or GFP-C/EBP DNA binding. The method involves introducing a ribose nucleotide to the 3' end of a DNA sequence. Reaction with mM NaIO4 (sodium metaperiodate) produces a dialdehyde of ribose that couples to hydrazide-agarose. The DNA is combined at nM concentration with a nuclear extract or other protein mixture, and DNA-protein complexes form. The complex is then coupled to hydrazide-agarose for trapping the DNA-protein complex and the protein eluted by increasing NaCl concentration. Using a different oligonucleotide with the proximal E-box sequence from the human telomerase promoter, USF-2 transcription factor was purified by trapping, again with higher purity than results from conventional affinity chromatography and similar yield. Other transcription factors binding E-boxes, including E2A, c-Myc, and Myo-D, were also purified, but myogenin and NFκB were not. Therefore, this approach proved to be valuable for both affinity chromatography and the trapping approach. PMID:25935261

  20. Method for trapping affinity chromatography of transcription factors using aldehyde-hydrazide coupling to agarose

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yinshan; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of a method of coupling DNA is investigated for trapping and purifying transcription factors. Using the GFP-C/EBP fusion protein as a model, trapping gives higher purity and comparable yield to conventional affinity chromatography. The chemistry utilized is mild and was shown to have no detrimental effect on GFP fluorescence or GFP-C/EBP DNA-binding. The method involves introducing a ribose nucleotide to the 3′ end of a DNA sequence. Reaction with mM NaIO4 (sodium metaperiodate) produces a dialdehyde of ribose which couples to hydrazide-agarose. The DNA is combined at nM concentration with a nuclear extract or other protein mixture and DNA-protein complexes form. The complex is then coupled to hydrazide-agarose for trapping the DNA-protein complex and the protein eluted by increasing NaCl concentration. Using a different oligonucleotide with the proximal E-box sequence from the human telomerase promoter, USF-2 transcription factor was purified by trapping, again with higher purity than results from conventional affinity chromatography and similar yield. Other transcription factors binding E-boxes including E2A, c-myc, and myo-D were also purified but myogenenin and NFκB were not. Therfore, this approach proved valuable for both affinity chromatography and for the trapping approach. PMID:25935261

  1. Inhibition of Na-K-Cl cotransport in Ehrlich ascites cells by antiserum against purified proteins of the cotransporter

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, P.B. ); Jessen, F.; Hoffmann, E.K. )

    1990-09-01

    Two proteins were purified earlier from solubilized membranes of Ehrlich ascites cells by using a bumetanide-Sepharose affinity column. These proteins were proposed to be constituents of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter. However, the specificity of binding of bumetanide to the cotransporter was insufficient evidence for this proposal. The authors now have direct evidence that the purified protein contains components of the cotransporter. Antiserum raised against the bumetanide-binding proteins strongly inhibits Na-K-Cl cotransport measured by two independent methods. Cotransport was induced by hypertonic challenge and was measured as the bumetanide-sensitive portion of unidirectional Cl influx and as regulatory cell volume increase. In both assays, contransport was strongly inhibited by antiserum. Fab fragments of the antibodies inhibited cotransport to a similar extent.

  2. Polymorphism in purified guanylate cyclase from vertebrate rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, F; Yamazaki, A

    1991-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase from rod photoreceptors of amphibian (toad, Bufo marinus, and frog, Rana catesbeiana) and bovine retinas was solubilized and purified by a single chromatography step on a GTP-agarose column. Silver staining of purified amphibian enzymes in SDS/polyacrylamide gels disclosed a doublet band (110 and 115 kDa), while the bovine enzyme appeared as a singlet band (110 kDa). The identification of these guanylate cyclases was confirmed using three chromatography systems with the purified enzymes. Specific binding to Con A-Sepharose suggested that rod guanylate cyclase is a glycoprotein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of purified toad, frog, and bovine enzymes resolved two, three, and five variants, respectively, that differed in isoelectric point. Two variants of toad guanylate cyclase showed differences in various characterizations. These data suggest multiple mechanisms for regulation of guanylate cyclase activity in vertebrate rod photoreceptors. Images PMID:1675787

  3. Polyclonal Intestinal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae upon Traveling to India

    PubMed Central

    Pires, João; Kuenzli, Esther; Kasraian, Sara; Tinguely, Regula; Furrer, Hansjakob; Hilty, Markus; Hatz, Christoph; Endimiani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the intestinal colonization dynamics by multiple extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESC-R-Ent) clones in Swiss travelers to India, a country with high prevalence of these multidrug-resistant pathogens. Fifteen healthy volunteers (HVs) colonized with ESC-R-Ent after traveling to India who provided stools before, after, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up are presented in this study. Stools were enriched in a LB broth containing 3 mg/L cefuroxime and plated in standard selective media (BLSE, ChromID ESBL, Supercarba) to detect carbapenem- and/or ESC-R-Ent. At least 5 Enterobacteriaceae colonies were analyzed for each stool provided. All strains underwent phenotypic tests (MICs in microdilution) and molecular typing to define bla genes (microarray, PCR/sequencing), clonality (MLST, rep-PCR), and plasmid content. While only three HVs were colonized before the trip, all participants had positive stools after returning, but the colonization rate decreased during the follow-up period (i.e., six HVs were still colonized at both 3 and 6 months). More importantly, polyclonal acquisition (median of 2 clones, range 1–5) was identified at return in all HVs. The majority of the Escherichia coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups A and B1 and to high diverse non-epidemic sequence types (STs); however, 15% of them belonged to clonal complex 10 and mainly possessed blaCTX−M−15 genes. F family plasmids were constantly found (~80%) in the recovered ESC-R-Ent. Our results indicate a possible polyclonal acquisition of the ESC-R-Ent via food-chain and/or through an environmental exposure. For some HVs, prolonged colonization in the follow-up period was observed due to clonal persistence or presence of the same plasmid replicon types in a new bacterial host. Travel medicine practitioners, clinicians, and clinical microbiologists who are facing the returning travelers and their samples for different reasons should be aware of this

  4. A semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying soybean (Glycine max) lectin.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Yewande O; Swaisgood, Harold E; Garlich, Jim D; Classen, Henry L

    2003-07-30

    Availability of gram quantities of purified soybean lectin (SBL) to scientists will foster discovery of novel biomedical applications of the lectin and provide the opportunity to investigate the antinutritional effects of SBL in soybean-consuming food animals and poultry. Therefore, a semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying SBL was designed. Defatted soyflour was extracted overnight with 0.9% NaCl at 4 degrees C. The extract obtained was filtered (0.45 microm membrane) and subjected to affinity chromatography using a column containing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine resin that is specific for SBL. Bound SBL was eluted off the column with 0.14 M galactose solution. The eluent was ultrafiltered (30 kDa), and the resulting solution (SBL and water) was freeze-dried. Electrophoretic analysis and hemagglutination assay revealed that the freeze-dried SBL was similar to Sigma-grade SBL in purity and activity (35 and 33 HU/mg protein, respectively). The procedure yielded 141 mg of SBL/100 g of soyflour. PMID:14705873

  5. An improved method to extract and purify cystatin from hen egg white.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiapei; Wu, Jianping

    2014-07-15

    Hen egg white cystatin, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinase, may have wide applications for improving human health. However, its pricy cost associated with extraction and preparation has hurdled its further utilization. The objective was to develop an improved method to extract and purify cystatin from egg white. After removal of ovomucin, a fraction containing cystatin was obtained by cation exchange chromatography, and further purified by affinity chromatography using a cm-papain-Sepharose column. The prepared cystatin was then characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western-Blot, and LC-MS/MS, and its purity was determined by HPLC method instead of the conventional immunodiffusion method. The protein content of cystatin extract was 66.4 ± 2.3%. In comparison with the conventional method, the purity of cystatin was improved from 56.6 ± 1.7% to 93.3 ± 4.0%, and its yield was improved from 21.3 ± 1.2% to 33.6 ± 1.5%. Relative activities of cystatin to inhibit papain prepared by our method and the conventional method were determined to be 88 ± 7% and 91 ± 4% respectively, against a cystatin standard from Sigma. This suggested no significant loss of activity during the separation process.

  6. Substrate Specificity of Purified Recombinant Chicken β-Carotene 9',10'-Oxygenase (BCO2).

    PubMed

    Dela Seña, Carlo; Sun, Jian; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Kenneth M; Yuan, Yan; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2016-07-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids are oxidatively cleaved by β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) at the central 15-15' double bond to form retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Another carotenoid oxygenase, β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at the 9'-10' bond to yield an ionone and an apo-10'-carotenoid. Previously published substrate specificity studies of BCO2 were conducted using crude lysates from bacteria or insect cells expressing recombinant BCO2. Our attempts to obtain active recombinant human BCO2 expressed in Escherichia coli were unsuccessful. We have expressed recombinant chicken BCO2 in the strain E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified the enzyme by cobalt ion affinity chromatography. Like BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. Its catalytic activity with β-carotene as substrate is at least 10-fold lower than that of BCO1. In further contrast to BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 also catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene and the non-provitamin A carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, and is inactive with all-trans-lycopene and β-apocarotenoids. Apo-10'-carotenoids were detected as enzymatic products by HPLC, and the identities were confirmed by LC-MS. Small amounts of 3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal were also consistently detected in BCO2-β-cryptoxanthin reaction mixtures. With the exception of this activity with β-cryptoxanthin, BCO2 cleaves specifically at the 9'-10' bond to produce apo-10'-carotenoids. BCO2 has been shown to function in preventing the excessive accumulation of carotenoids, and its broad substrate specificity is consistent with this. PMID:27143479

  7. In vitro transcription of pathogenesis-related genes by purified RNA polymerase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, L; Karls, R K; Betley, M J

    1995-01-01

    The RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme of Staphylococcus aureus was purified by DNA affinity, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. This RNAP contained four major subunits with apparent molecular masses of 165, 130, 60, and 47 kDa. All four subunits of the RNAP were serologically related to the subunits of Escherichia coli E sigma 70 holoenzyme by Western immunoblot analysis. The 60-kDa subunit was subsequently isolated and found to react with a monoclonal antibody specific to the E. coli sigma 70 subunit. This sigma 70-related protein allowed E. coli core RNAP promoter-specific initiation and increased transcription by S. aureus RNAP that is unsaturated with sigma. We therefore suggest that this 60-kDa protein is a sigma factor. Purified S. aureus RNAP transcribed from the promoters of several important S. aureus virulence genes (sea, sec, hla, and agr P2) in vitro. The in vitro transcription start sites of the sea, sec, and agr P2 promoters, mapped by primer extension, were similar to those identified in vivo. The putative promoter hexamers of these three genes showed strong sequence similarity to the E. coli sigma 70 consensus promoter, and transcription by E sigma 70 from some of these promoters has been observed. Conversely, S. aureus RNAP does not transcribe from all E. coli sigma 70-dependent promoters. Taken together, our results indicate that the promoter sequences recognized by purified S. aureus RNAP are similar but not identical to those recognized by E. coli E sigma 70. PMID:7751267

  8. Affitins as robust tailored reagents for affinity chromatography purification of antibodies and non-immunoglobulin proteins.

    PubMed

    Béhar, Ghislaine; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Mouratou, Barbara; Pecorari, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Affinity chromatography is a convenient way of purifying proteins, as a high degree of purity can be reached in one step. The use of tags has greatly contributed to the popularity of this technique. However, the addition of tags may not be desirable or possible for the production of biopharmaceuticals. There is thus a need for tailored artificial affinity ligands. We have developed the use of archaeal extremophilic proteins as scaffolds to generate affinity proteins (Affitins). Here, we explored the potential of Affitins as ligand to design affinity columns. Affitins specific for human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), bacterial PulD protein, and chicken egg lysozyme were immobilized on an agarose matrix. The columns obtained were functional and highly selective for their cognate target, even in the presence of exogenous proteins as found in cell culture media, ascites and bacterial lysates, which result in a high degree of purity (∼95%) and recovery (∼100%) in a single step. Anti-hIgG Affitin columns withstand repetitive cycles of purification and cleaning-in-place treatments with 0.25 M NaOH as well as Protein A does. High levels of Affitin productions in Escherichia coli makes it possible to produce these affinity columns at low cost. Our results validate Affitins as a new class of tailored ligands for the affinity chromatography purification of potentially any proteins of interest including biopharmaceuticals.

  9. Affitins as robust tailored reagents for affinity chromatography purification of antibodies and non-immunoglobulin proteins.

    PubMed

    Béhar, Ghislaine; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Mouratou, Barbara; Pecorari, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Affinity chromatography is a convenient way of purifying proteins, as a high degree of purity can be reached in one step. The use of tags has greatly contributed to the popularity of this technique. However, the addition of tags may not be desirable or possible for the production of biopharmaceuticals. There is thus a need for tailored artificial affinity ligands. We have developed the use of archaeal extremophilic proteins as scaffolds to generate affinity proteins (Affitins). Here, we explored the potential of Affitins as ligand to design affinity columns. Affitins specific for human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), bacterial PulD protein, and chicken egg lysozyme were immobilized on an agarose matrix. The columns obtained were functional and highly selective for their cognate target, even in the presence of exogenous proteins as found in cell culture media, ascites and bacterial lysates, which result in a high degree of purity (∼95%) and recovery (∼100%) in a single step. Anti-hIgG Affitin columns withstand repetitive cycles of purification and cleaning-in-place treatments with 0.25 M NaOH as well as Protein A does. High levels of Affitin productions in Escherichia coli makes it possible to produce these affinity columns at low cost. Our results validate Affitins as a new class of tailored ligands for the affinity chromatography purification of potentially any proteins of interest including biopharmaceuticals. PMID:26952369

  10. Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Influenza Virus Antibodies: Enhancement of Neutralizing Potency in Polyclonal Mixtures and IgA Backbones

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenqian; Mullarkey, Caitlin E.; Duty, J. Andrew; Moran, Thomas M.; Palese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current influenza virus vaccines rely upon the accurate prediction of circulating virus strains months in advance of the actual influenza season in order to allow time for vaccine manufacture. Unfortunately, mismatches occur frequently, and even when perfect matches are achieved, suboptimal vaccine efficacy leaves several high-risk populations vulnerable to infection. However, the recent discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk domain has renewed hope that the development of “universal” influenza virus vaccines may be within reach. Here, we examine the functions of influenza A virus hemagglutinin stalk-binding antibodies in an endogenous setting, i.e., as polyclonal preparations isolated from human sera. Relative to monoclonal antibodies that bind to the HA head domain, the neutralization potency of monoclonal stalk-binding antibodies was vastly inferior in vitro but was enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the polyclonal context. Furthermore, we demonstrated a surprising enhancement in IgA-mediated HA stalk neutralization relative to that achieved by antibodies of IgG isotypes. Mechanistically, this could be explained in two ways. Identical variable regions consistently neutralized virus more potently when in an IgA backbone compared to an IgG backbone. In addition, HA-specific memory B cells isolated from human peripheral blood were more likely to be stalk specific when secreting antibodies of IgA isotypes compared to those secreting IgG. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that HA stalk-binding antibodies perform optimally when in a polyclonal context and that the targeted elicitation of HA stalk-specific IgA should be an important consideration during “universal” influenza virus vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses remain one of the most worrisome global public health threats due to their capacity to cause pandemics. While seasonal vaccines fail to protect against the

  11. Binding specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa for purified, native Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jeremy L; Dean, Donald H

    2001-01-01

    Background To better understand the molecular interactions of Bt toxins with non-target insects, we have examined the real-time binding specificity and affinity of Cry1 toxins to native silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut receptors. Previous studies on B. mori receptors utilized brush border membrane vesicles or purifed receptors in blot-type assays. Results The Bombyx mori (silkworm) aminopeptidase N (APN) and cadherin-like receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin were purified and their real-time binding affinities for Cry toxins were examined by surface plasmon resonance. Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins did not bind to the immobilized native receptors, correlating with their low toxicities. Cry1Aa displayed moderate affinity for B. mori APN (75 nM), and unusually tight binding to the cadherin-like receptor (2.6 nM), which results from slow dissociation rates. The binding of a hybrid toxin (Aa/Aa/Ac) was identical to Cry1Aa. Conclusions These results indicate domain II of Cry1Aa is essential for binding to native B. mori receptors and for toxicity. Moreover, the high-affinity binding of Cry1Aa to native cadherin-like receptor emphasizes the importance of this receptor class for Bt toxin research. PMID:11722800

  12. Screening of high-affinity scFvs from a ribosome displayed library using BIAcore biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Wang, Zhongkang; Nian, Siji; Yin, Youping; Chen, Gang; Xia, Yuxian

    2009-02-01

    An experimental protocol was developed to screen high-affinity single-chain Fv antibody fragments (scFvs) from a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) immunized ribosome display library using BIAcore biosensor. The screening methods involved immobilizing antigen [lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Xac] on sensor chip HPA and then unpurified expression products of scFvs flowing over the immobilized sensor chip. The affinity-improved scFvs were selected based on dissociation rate constants (k (d)). Thirty-five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-positive scFvs were analyzed by BIAcore, and three of those (scFv A1, B2, and C5) with lower k (d) were screened. To demonstrate the accuracy of the screening method, the three scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli HB2151 and purified. The purified scFvs were subsequently further identified according to association rate and affinity constants. The results showed that the three scFvs (A1, B2, and C5) had high affinity for LPS of Xac (3.51 x 10(-11), 1.13 x 10(-10), 5.06 x 10(-10) M, respectively). Furthermore, the scFv B2 was highly specific for LPS of Xac and had no any cross-reactions with bovine serum albumin and LPS from Xac-related bacteria. This provided evidence that the information from the BIAcore screening assay could be accurate. PMID:18574567

  13. RNA mango aptamer-fluorophore: a bright, high-affinity complex for RNA labeling and tracking.

    PubMed

    Dolgosheina, Elena V; Jeng, Sunny C Y; Panchapakesan, Shanker Shyam S; Cojocaru, Razvan; Chen, Patrick S K; Wilson, Peter D; Hawkins, Nancy; Wiggins, Paul A; Unrau, Peter J

    2014-10-17

    Because RNA lacks strong intrinsic fluorescence, it has proven challenging to track RNA molecules in real time. To address this problem and to allow the purification of fluorescently tagged RNA complexes, we have selected a high affinity RNA aptamer called RNA Mango. This aptamer binds a series of thiazole orange (fluorophore) derivatives with nanomolar affinity, while increasing fluorophore fluorescence by up to 1,100-fold. Visualization of RNA Mango by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, together with injection and imaging of RNA Mango/fluorophore complex in C. elegans gonads demonstrates the potential for live-cell RNA imaging with this system. By inserting RNA Mango into a stem loop of the bacterial 6S RNA and biotinylating the fluorophore, we demonstrate that the aptamer can be used to simultaneously fluorescently label and purify biologically important RNAs. The high affinity and fluorescent properties of RNA Mango are therefore expected to simplify the study of RNA complexes. PMID:25101481

  14. A novel approach for separating bacteriophages from other bacteriophages using affinity chromatography and phage display

    PubMed Central

    Ceglarek, Izabela; Piotrowicz, Agnieszka; Lecion, Dorota; Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Owczarek, Barbara; Hodyra, Katarzyna; Harhala, Marek; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Practical applications of bacteriophages in medicine and biotechnology induce a great need for technologies of phage purification. None of the popular methods offer solutions for separation of a phage from another similar phage. We used affinity chromatography combined with competitive phage display (i) to purify T4 bacteriophage from bacterial debris and (ii) to separate T4 from other contaminating bacteriophages. In ‘competitive phage display’ bacterial cells produced both wild types of the proteins (expression from the phage genome) and the protein fusions with affinity tags (expression from the expression vectors). Fusion proteins were competitively incorporated into the phage capsid. It allowed effective separation of T4 from a contaminating phage on standard affinity resins. PMID:24225840

  15. Monoclonal versus polyclonal anti-D in the treatment of ITP.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Alan H

    2013-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder caused by low numbers of platelets generally due to the production of anti-platelet antibodies. One effective treatment for ITP patients who express the RhD antigen on their red blood cells has been the use of blood donor-derived pooled polyclonal anti-D. Although anti-D has served us well, it needs to be replaced with a recombinant product. While the mechanism of action of anti-D in ITP remains highly speculative, this has not thwarted attempts to replace anti-D with a monoclonal product. Although a single attempt at a monoclonal antibody was not successful in the 1990s for the treatment of ITP, more recent efforts in mouse models of ITP and ITP patients now show that monoclonal antibodies can be successful in ITP. These studies also finally help substantiate the concept that it is unlikely that contaminants in the original donor-derived preparations mediate the major ameliorative activity of anti-D in ITP. PMID:23919777

  16. CD4 T cells in murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: polyclonal progression to anergy

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the kinetics of changes that occur in the helper T cell subset during murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which occurs after infection with the mix of viruses known as BM5. We find that there is expansion of the CD4 T cells by 2 wk, 50% of the CD4 T cells become large as the disease progresses, and the CD4 T cell population is increasingly comprised of cells with a memory/activated phenotype. These effects are apparent by 2 wk postinfection, and the change is nearly complete by 6-8 wk. The phenotypic shift is paralleled by the loss of the ability of the CD4 T cells to proliferate or to produce interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, IL-4, and interferon gamma in response to stimulation with mitogens, superantigen, or anti-CD3. There is no obvious expansion or deletion of CD4 T cells expressing particular V beta genes, as might be expected if a conventional superantigen were driving the changes. The results suggest, however, that the total CD4 population has been driven to anergy by some potent polyclonal stimulus directly associated with viral infection. PMID:1588283

  17. Polyclonal Expansion of NKG2C+ NK Cells in TAP-Deficient Patients

    PubMed Central

    Béziat, Vivien; Sleiman, Marwan; Goodridge, Jodie P.; Kaarbø, Mari; Liu, Lisa L.; Rollag, Halvor; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Zimmer, Jacques; Malmberg, Karl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive natural killer (NK) cell responses to human cytomegalovirus infection are characterized by the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells expressing self-specific inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Here, we set out to study the HLA class I dependency of such NKG2C+ NK cell expansions. We demonstrate the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells in patients with transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) deficiency, who express less than 10% of normal HLA class I levels. In contrast to normal individuals, expanded NKG2C+ NK cell populations in TAP-deficient patients display a polyclonal KIR profile and remain hyporesponsive to HLA class I-negative target cells. Nonetheless, agonistic stimulation of NKG2C on NK cells from TAP-deficient patients yielded significant responses in terms of degranulation and cytokine production. Thus, while interactions with self-HLA class I molecules likely shape the KIR repertoire of expanding NKG2C+ NK cells during adaptive NK cell responses in normal individuals, they are not a prerequisite for NKG2C+ NK cell expansions to occur. The emergence of NKG2C-responsive adaptive NK cells in TAP-deficient patients may contribute to antiviral immunity and potentially explain these patients’ low incidence of severe viral infections. PMID:26500647

  18. Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mazliah, Damián; Albareda, María C.; Alvarez, María G.; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela L.; Petti, Marcos; Viotti, Rodolfo J.; Laucella, Susana A.

    2012-01-01

    Allopurinol is the most popular commercially available xanthine oxidase inhibitor and it is widely used for treatment of symptomatic hyperuricaemia, or gout. Although, several anti-inflammatory actions of allopurinol have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, there have been few studies on the action of allopurinol on T cells. In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine production in human T cells. Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation with Herpes Simplex virus 1, Influenza (Flu) virus, tetanus toxoid and Trypanosoma cruzi-derived antigens. Allopurinol attenuated CD69 upregulation after CD3 and CD28 engagement and significantly reduced the levels of spontaneous and mitogen-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in T cells. The diminished T cell activation and cytokine production in the presence of allopurinol support a direct action of allopurinol on human T cells, offering a potential pharmacological tool for the management of cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23049532

  19. Development and characterization of polyclonal peptide antibodies for the detection of Yellow fever virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Stock, N K; Escadafal, C; Achazi, K; Cissé, M; Niedrig, M

    2015-09-15

    There is still a considerable need for development of new tools and methods detecting specific viral proteins for the diagnosis and pathogenesis study of the Yellow fever virus (YFV). This study aimed to develop and characterize polyclonal peptide antisera for detection of YFV-C and -NS1 proteins. The antisera were used further to investigate NS1 protein expression during YFV infection in mammalian cells. YFV target proteins were detected by all antisera in western blot and immunofluorescence assays. No cross-reactivity was observed with Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. Nuclear localization of the YFV-C protein was demonstrated for the first time. Experiments investigating NS1 expression suggested a potential use of the YFV-NS1 antisera for development of diagnostic approaches targeting the secreted form of the NS1 protein. The antisera described in this study offer new possibilities for use in YFV research and for the development of novel diagnostic tests.

  20. Production and application of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Bao, Haixun; Miao, Fengqin; Peng, Yaqin; Shen, Yuqing; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spiroplasma, Spiroplasma eriocheiris (S. eriocheiris), was identified as a lethal pathogen of tremor disease (TD) in Chinese mitten crab recently. In order to acquire appropriate biological and diagnostic tools for characterizing this newly discovered pathogen, 5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal antibody (pAb) against S. eriocheiris were produced. Among the mAbs, 6F5, 7C8 and 12H5 lead to the deformation of S. eriocheiris. A peptide sequence, YMRDMQSGLPRY was identified as a mimic motif of MreB that is the cell shape determining protein of S. eriocheiris interacting with 3 mAbs. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of S. eriocheiris was established using the mAb and pAb we prepared. It detected as low as 0.1 μg/mL of S. eriocheiris. No cross-reaction was observed with three other common bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis) and the hemolymph samples of healthy Eriocheir sinensis. Collectively, our results indicated that the mAbs and pAb we prepared could be used in the analysis of S. eriocheiris membrane proteins mimotope and development of a diagnostic kit for S. eriocheiris infections. PMID:26639364

  1. Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to bacterial infection using next generation phage display.

    PubMed

    Naqid, Ibrahim A; Owen, Jonathan P; Maddison, Ben C; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D; Warry, Andrew; Tchórzewska, Monika A; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Davies, Robert H; La Ragione, Roberto M; Gough, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to infectious diseases to identify individual epitopes has the potential to underpin the development of novel serological assays and vaccines. Here, phage-peptide library panning coupled with screening using next generation sequencing was used to map antibody responses to bacterial infections. In the first instance, pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated. IgG samples from twelve infected pigs were probed in parallel and phage binding compared to that with equivalent IgG from pre-infected animals. Seventy-seven peptide mimotopes were enriched specifically against sera from multiple infected animals. Twenty-seven of these peptides were tested in ELISA and twenty-two were highly discriminatory for sera taken from pigs post-infection (P < 0.05) indicating that these peptides are mimicking epitopes from the bacteria. In order to further test this methodology, it was applied to differentiate antibody responses in poultry to infections with distinct serovars of Salmonella enterica. Twenty-seven peptides were identified as being enriched specifically against IgY from multiple animals infected with S. Enteritidis compared to those infected with S. Hadar. Nine of fifteen peptides tested in ELISA were highly discriminatory for IgY following S. Enteritidis infection (p < 0.05) compared to infections with S. Hadar or S. Typhimurium. PMID:27072017

  2. Glycation of polyclonal IgGs: Effect of sugar excipients during stability studies.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Y; Bihoreau, N; Jube, M; Andre, M-H; Tellier, Z; Chevreux, G

    2016-05-01

    A number of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations are stabilized with sugar additives that may lead over time to undesirable glycation reactions especially in liquid formulation. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of sugar excipients on such preparations in condition of temperature, formulation and concentration commonly used for pharmaceutical products. Through an innovative LC-MS method reported to characterize post-translational modifications of IgGs Fc/2 fragments, a stability study of IVIg formulated with reducing and non-reducing sugars has been undertaken. The rate of polyclonal IgGs glycation was investigated during 6months at 5, 25, 30 and 40°C. High levels of glycation were observed with reducing sugars such as glucose and maltose in the first months of the stability study from 25°C. Non-reducing sugars presented a low reactivity even at the highest tested temperature (40°C). Furthermore, a site by site analysis was performed by MS/MS to determine the glycation sites which were mainly identified at Lys246, Lys248 and Lys324. This work points out the high probability of glycation reactions in some commercialized products and describes a useful method to characterize IVIg glycated products issued from reducing sugar excipients. PMID:26992291

  3. Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to bacterial infection using next generation phage display

    PubMed Central

    Naqid, Ibrahim A.; Owen, Jonathan P.; Maddison, Ben C.; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D.; Warry, Andrew; Tchórzewska, Monika A.; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J.; Davies, Robert H.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Gough, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to infectious diseases to identify individual epitopes has the potential to underpin the development of novel serological assays and vaccines. Here, phage-peptide library panning coupled with screening using next generation sequencing was used to map antibody responses to bacterial infections. In the first instance, pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated. IgG samples from twelve infected pigs were probed in parallel and phage binding compared to that with equivalent IgG from pre-infected animals. Seventy-seven peptide mimotopes were enriched specifically against sera from multiple infected animals. Twenty-seven of these peptides were tested in ELISA and twenty-two were highly discriminatory for sera taken from pigs post-infection (P < 0.05) indicating that these peptides are mimicking epitopes from the bacteria. In order to further test this methodology, it was applied to differentiate antibody responses in poultry to infections with distinct serovars of Salmonella enterica. Twenty-seven peptides were identified as being enriched specifically against IgY from multiple animals infected with S. Enteritidis compared to those infected with S. Hadar. Nine of fifteen peptides tested in ELISA were highly discriminatory for IgY following S. Enteritidis infection (p < 0.05) compared to infections with S. Hadar or S. Typhimurium. PMID:27072017

  4. Design, synthesis and application of benzyl-sulfonate biomimetic affinity adsorbents for monoclonal antibody purification from transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Maltezos, Anastasios; Platis, Dimitris; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Marinou, Marigianna; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    The human anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody 2G12 (mAb 2G12) is one of the most broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV that recognizes a unique epitope on the surface glycoprotein gp120. In the present work, a limited affinity-ligand library was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to bind and purify recombinant mAb 2G12 expressed in transgenic corn. The affinity ligands were structural fragments of polysulfonate triazine dye Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB3GA) and represent novel lead scaffolds for designing synthetic affinity ligands. Solid phase chemistry was used to synthesize variants of CB3GA lead ligand. One immobilized ligand, bearing 4-aminobenzyl sulfonic acid (4ABS) linked on two chlorine atoms of the triazine ring (4ABS-Trz-4ABS), displayed high affinity for mAb 2G12. Absorption equilibrium, 3D molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out to provide a detailed picture of the 4ABS-Trz-4ABS interaction with mAb 2G12. This biomimetic affinity ligand was exploited for the development of a facile two-step purification protocol for mAb 2G12. In the first step of the procedure, mAb 2G12 was purified on an S-Sepharose FF cation exchanger, and in the second step, mAb 2G12 was purified using affinity chromatography on 4ABS-Trz-4ABS affinity adsorbent. Analysis of the antibody preparation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the mAb 2G12 was fully active and of sufficient purity suitable for analytical applications.

  5. Characterization of a dockerin-based affinity tag: application for purification of a broad variety of target proteins.

    PubMed

    Demishtein, Alik; Karpol, Alon; Barak, Yoav; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose, a major component of plant matter, is degraded by a cell surface multiprotein complex called the cellulosome produced by several anaerobic bacteria. This complex coordinates the assembly of different glycoside hydrolases, via a high-affinity Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between the enzyme-borne dockerin and the scaffoldin-borne cohesin modules. In this study, we characterized a new protein affinity tag, ΔDoc, a truncated version (48 residues) of the Clostridium thermocellum Cel48S dockerin. The truncated dockerin tag has a binding affinity (K(A)) of 7.7 × 10(8)M(-1), calculated by a competitive enzyme-linked assay system. In order to examine whether the tag can be used for general application in affinity chromatography, it was fused to a range of target proteins, including Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), C. thermocellum β-glucosidase, Escherichia coli thioesterase/protease I (TEP1), and the antibody-binding ZZ-domain from Staphylococcus aureus protein A. The results of this study significantly extend initial studies performed using the Geobacillus stearothermophilus xylanase T-6 as a model system. In addition, the enzymatic activity of a C. thermocellum β-glucosidase, purified using this approach, was tested and found to be similar to that of a β-glucosidase preparation (without the ΔDoc tag) purified using the standard His-tag. The truncated dockerin derivative functioned as an effective affinity tag through specific interaction with a cognate cohesin, and highly purified target proteins were obtained in a single step directly from crude cell extracts. The relatively inexpensive beaded cellulose-based affinity column was reusable and maintained high capacity after each cycle. This study demonstrates that deletion into the first Ca(2+)-binding loop of the dockerin module results in an efficient and robust affinity tag that can be generally applied for protein purification. PMID:21038354

  6. Design, synthesis and application of benzyl-sulfonate biomimetic affinity adsorbents for monoclonal antibody purification from transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Maltezos, Anastasios; Platis, Dimitris; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Marinou, Marigianna; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    The human anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody 2G12 (mAb 2G12) is one of the most broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV that recognizes a unique epitope on the surface glycoprotein gp120. In the present work, a limited affinity-ligand library was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to bind and purify recombinant mAb 2G12 expressed in transgenic corn. The affinity ligands were structural fragments of polysulfonate triazine dye Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB3GA) and represent novel lead scaffolds for designing synthetic affinity ligands. Solid phase chemistry was used to synthesize variants of CB3GA lead ligand. One immobilized ligand, bearing 4-aminobenzyl sulfonic acid (4ABS) linked on two chlorine atoms of the triazine ring (4ABS-Trz-4ABS), displayed high affinity for mAb 2G12. Absorption equilibrium, 3D molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out to provide a detailed picture of the 4ABS-Trz-4ABS interaction with mAb 2G12. This biomimetic affinity ligand was exploited for the development of a facile two-step purification protocol for mAb 2G12. In the first step of the procedure, mAb 2G12 was purified on an S-Sepharose FF cation exchanger, and in the second step, mAb 2G12 was purified using affinity chromatography on 4ABS-Trz-4ABS affinity adsorbent. Analysis of the antibody preparation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the mAb 2G12 was fully active and of sufficient purity suitable for analytical applications. PMID:24375581

  7. In Vitro Evolution and Affinity-Maturation with Coliphage Qβ Display

    PubMed Central

    Skamel, Claudia; Aller, Stephen G.; Bopda Waffo, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage, Qβ (Coliphage Qβ), offers a favorable alternative to M13 for in vitro evolution of displayed peptides and proteins due to high mutagenesis rates in Qβ RNA replication that better simulate the affinity maturation processes of the immune response. We describe a benchtop in vitro evolution system using Qβ display of the VP1 G-H loop peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). DNA encoding the G-H loop was fused to the A1 minor coat protein of Qβ resulting in a replication-competent hybrid phage that efficiently displayed the FMDV peptide. The surface-localized FMDV VP1 G-H loop cross-reacted with the anti-FMDV monoclonal antibody (mAb) SD6 and was found to decorate the corners of the Qβ icosahedral shell by electron microscopy. Evolution of Qβ-displayed peptides, starting from fully degenerate coding sequences corresponding to the immunodominant region of VP1, allowed rapid in vitro affinity maturation to SD6 mAb. Qβ selected under evolutionary pressure revealed a non-canonical, but essential epitope for mAb SD6 recognition consisting of an Arg-Gly tandem pair. Finally, the selected hybrid phages induced polyclonal antibodies in guinea pigs with good affinity to both FMDV and hybrid Qβ-G-H loop, validating the requirement of the tandem pair epitope. Qβ-display emerges as a novel framework for rapid in vitro evolution with affinity-maturation to molecular targets. PMID:25393763

  8. Tolerance is established in polyclonal CD4(+) T cells by distinct mechanisms, according to self-peptide expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepali; Linehan, Jonathan L; Dileepan, Thamotharampillai; Lee, You Jeong; Purtha, Whitney E; Lu, Jennifer V; Nelson, Ryan W; Fife, Brian T; Orr, Harry T; Anderson, Mark S; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jenkins, Marc K

    2016-02-01

    Studies of repertoires of mouse monoclonal CD4(+) T cells have revealed several mechanisms of self-tolerance; however, which mechanisms operate in normal repertoires is unclear. Here we studied polyclonal CD4(+) T cells specific for green fluorescent protein expressed in various organs, which allowed us to determine the effects of specific expression patterns on the same epitope-specific T cells. Peptides presented uniformly by thymic antigen-presenting cells were tolerated by clonal deletion, whereas peptides excluded from the thymus were ignored. Peptides with limited thymic expression induced partial clonal deletion and impaired effector T cell potential but enhanced regulatory T cell potential. These mechanisms were also active for T cell populations specific for endogenously expressed self antigens. Thus, the immunotolerance of polyclonal CD4(+) T cells was maintained by distinct mechanisms, according to self-peptide expression patterns. PMID:26726812

  9. Magnetic particles as affinity matrix for purification of antithrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercês, A. A. D.; Maciel, J. C.; Carvalho Júnior, L. B.

    2015-11-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto insoluble supports is an important tool for the fabrication of a diverse range of functional materials. It provides advantages: enhanced stability and easy separation. In this work two different magnetic composites were synthesized (MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS) to human antithrombin purification. The magnetic particles (MAG) were obtained by co-precipitation method of iron salts II and III and subsequently coated with polyaniline (MAG-PANI particles). Dacron (polyethylene terephthalate) suffered a hydrazinolysis reaction to obtain a powder (Dacron hydrazide) which was subsequently magnetized (mDAC particles) also by co-precipitation method. Heparan sulfate (HS) was immobilized to MAG-PANI and mDAC retained respectively 35μg and 38.6μg per of support. The magnetic composite containing HS immobilized (MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS) was incubated with human blood plasma (1mL) and then washed with NaCl gradients. Electrophoresis of proteins present in eluates showed bands of antithrombin (58kDa). A reduction in the antithrombin activity was detected in plasma that were incubated in the composites magnetic with HS immobilized, suggesting that the antithrombin was removed of the human blood plasma and then purified. Therefore, the above results suggest that both preparations: MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS are able to affinity purify antithrombin, an important component of blood coagulation.

  10. Altering the motility of Trypanosoma cruzi with rabbit polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies reduces infection to susceptible mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Finkelsztein, Eli J; Diaz-Soto, Juan C; Vargas-Zambrano, Juan C; Suesca, Elizabeth; Guzmán, Fanny; López, Manuel C; Thomas, M Carmen; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Cuellar, Adriana; Puerta, Concepción J; González, John M

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi's trypomastigotes are highly active and their incessant motility seems to be important for mammalian host cell infection. The kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) is a protein expressed in all parasite stages, which induces a cellular and humoral immune response in the infected host, and is hypothesized to participate in the parasite's motility. An N-terminal peptide from KMP-11, termed K1 or TcTLE, induced polyclonal antibodies that inhibit parasitic invasion of Vero cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate the motility and infectivity of T. cruzi when exposed to polyclonal anti-TcTLE antibodies. Rabbits were immunized with TcTLE peptide along with FIS peptide as an immunomodulator. ELISA assay results showed that post-immunization sera contained high titers of polyclonal anti-TcTLE antibodies, which were also reactive against the native KMP-11 protein and live parasites as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi were incubated with pre- or post-immunization sera, and infectivity to human astrocytes was assessed by Giemsa staining/light microscope and flow cytometry using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeled parasites. T. cruzi infection in astrocytes decreased approximately by 30% upon incubation with post-immunization sera compared with pre-immunization sera. Furthermore, trypomastigotes were recorded by video microscopy and the parasite's flagellar speed was calculated by tracking the flagella. Trypomastigotes exposed to post-immunization sera had qualitative alterations in motility and significantly slower flagella (45.5 µm/s), compared with those exposed to pre-immunization sera (69.2 µm/s). In summary, polyclonal anti-TcTLE serum significantly reduced the parasite's flagellar speed and cell infectivity. These findings support that KMP-11 could be important for parasite motility, and that by targeting its N-terminal peptide infectivity can be reduced.

  11. The maximal affinity of ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, I. D.; Chen, K.; Sharp, K. A.; Kollman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    We explore the question of what are the best ligands for macromolecular targets. A survey of experimental data on a large number of the strongest-binding ligands indicates that the free energy of binding increases with the number of nonhydrogen atoms with an initial slope of ≈−1.5 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.18 J) per atom. For ligands that contain more than 15 nonhydrogen atoms, the free energy of binding increases very little with relative molecular mass. This nonlinearity is largely ascribed to nonthermodynamic factors. An analysis of the dominant interactions suggests that van der Waals interactions and hydrophobic effects provide a reasonable basis for understanding binding affinities across the entire set of ligands. Interesting outliers that bind unusually strongly on a per atom basis include metal ions, covalently attached ligands, and a few well known complexes such as biotin–avidin. PMID:10468550

  12. Engineering antibody affinity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Webster, D M; Roberts, S; Cheetham, J C; Griest, R; Rees, A R

    1988-01-01

    A combination of ab initio calculations, "knowledge-based prediction", molecular graphics and site-directed mutagenesis has enabled us to probe the molecular details of antibody:antigen recognition and binding and to alter the affinity and specificity of an antibody for its antigen. The significance of electrostatic hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic/hydrophobic patch matching and van der Waals interactions as well as CDR:CDR interactions are discussed in relation to the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments on the anti-lysozyme antibody Gloop2. The ability to generate reconstructed antibodies, chimeric antibodies, catalytic antibodies and the use of modelled antibodies for the design of drugs is discussed. PMID:3209295

  13. Proton affinities of hydrated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadbeigi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Proton affinities (PA) of non-hydrated, M, and hydrated forms, M(H2O)1,2,3, of 20 organic molecules including alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and amines were calculated by the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. For homogeneous families, linear correlations were observed between PAs of the M(H2O)1,2,3 and the PAs of the non-hydrated molecules. Also, the absolute values of the hydration enthalpies of the protonated molecules decreased linearly with the PAs. The correlation functions predicted that for an amine with PA < 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is larger than the corresponding PA, while for an amine with PA > 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is smaller than the PA.

  14. Polyclonal activation of rat splenic lymphocytes after in vivo administration of Mycoplasma pulmonis and its relation to in vitro response.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J S; Davis, J K; Cassell, G H

    1986-01-01

    The plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) sensitized with different antigens and a 4-h tritiated thymidine pulse assay were used to determine whether polyclonal activation occurs in rats following in vivo administration of Mycoplasma pulmonis. Injection of M. pulmonis into F344 rats resulted in an increase in the number of splenic immunoglobulin M-secreting PFC that produced antibodies reactive with the trinitrophenyl hapten and with SRBC. This polyclonal response reached a peak by 72 h after injection and returned to normal levels by 96 h, at which time the specific response to M. pulmonis reached its peak. Heat treatment and preopsonization of M. pulmonis with antiserum before injection resulted in reduced numbers of PFC against M. pulmonis-sensitized SRBC, trinitrophenyl hapten-sensitized SRBC, and SRBC. The number of PFC against the three types of target cells also increased in LEW rats after immunization with M. pulmonis. The number of PFC against SRBC and staphylococcal protein A-sensitized SRBC was higher in immunized LEW rats than in immunized F344 rats. Examination of unimmunized animals also revealed that LEW rats had higher initial numbers of PFC than did F344 rats. These results showed that polyclonal activation occurs in rats following in vivo administration of M. pulmonis and that LEW rats have an inherent propensity to develop higher nonspecific responses in vivo than F344 rats. PMID:3486159

  15. Bioengineering of bacteria to assemble custom-made polyester affinity resins.

    PubMed

    Hay, Iain D; Du, Jinping; Burr, Natalie; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2015-01-01

    Proof of concept for the in vivo bacterial production of a polyester resin displaying various customizable affinity protein binding domains is provided. This was achieved by engineering various protein binding domains into a bacterial polyester-synthesizing enzyme. Affinity binding domains based on various structural folds and derived from molecular libraries were used to demonstrate the potential of this technique. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins), engineered OB-fold domains (OBodies), and VHH domains from camelid antibodies (nanobodies) were employed. The respective resins were produced in a single bacterial fermentation step, and a simple purification protocol was developed. Purified resins were suitable for most lab-scale affinity chromatography purposes. All of the affinity domains tested produced polyester beads with specific affinity for the target protein. The binding capacity of these affinity resins ranged from 90 to 600 nmol of protein per wet gram of polyester affinity resin, enabling purification of a recombinant protein target from a complex bacterial cell lysate up to a purity level of 96% in one step. The polyester resin was efficiently produced by conventional lab-scale shake flask fermentation, resulting in bacteria accumulating up to 55% of their cellular dry weight as polyester. A further proof of concept demonstrating the practicality of this technique was obtained through the intracellular coproduction of a specific affinity resin and its target. This enables in vivo binding and purification of the coproduced "target protein." Overall, this study provides evidence for the use of molecular engineering of polyester synthases toward the microbial production of specific bioseparation resins implementing previously selected binding domains. PMID:25344238

  16. Affinity labeling of GTP-binding proteins in cellular extracts.

    PubMed

    Löw, A; Faulhammer, H G; Sprinzl, M

    1992-05-25

    GTP-binding proteins in cellular extracts from Escherichia coli, Thermus thermophilus, yeast, wheat germ or calf thymus were identified using in situ periodate-oxidized [alpha-32P]GTP as affinity label. Site-specific reaction of individual GTP-binding proteins was achieved by cross-linking the protein-bound 2',3'-dialdehyde derivative of GTP with the single lysine residue of the conserved NKXD sequence through Schiff's base formation and subsequent cyanoborohydride reduction. Labeled GTP-binding proteins from prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell homogenates were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography. In addition cross-linking of [alpha-32P]GTP with GTP-binding proteins was demonstrated in model systems using different purified GTPases, human c-H-ras p21, transducin from bovine retina, polypeptide elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) from T. thermophilus and initiation factor 2 (IF2) from T. thermophilus. The described affinity labeling technique can serve as an analytical method for the identification of GTPases belonging to the classes of ras-proteins, elongation and initiation factors, and heterotrimeric signal transducing G-proteins. PMID:1592117

  17. Conformal field theory on affine Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Clubok, K.S.

    1996-04-01

    Working directly on affine Lie groups, we construct several new formulations of the WZW model, the gauged WZW model, and the generic affine-Virasoro action. In one formulation each of these conformal field theories (CFTs) is expressed as a one-dimensional mechanical system whose variables are coordinates on the affine Lie group. When written in terms of the affine group element, this formulation exhibits a two-dimensional WZW term. In another formulation each CFT is written as a two-dimensional field theory, with a three- dimensional WZW term, whose fields are coordinates on the affine group. On the basis of these equivalent formulations, we develop a translation dictionary in which the new formulations on the affine Lie group are understood as mode formulations of the conventional formulations on the Lie group. Using this dictionary, we also express each CFT as a three-dimensional field theory on the Lie group with a four-dimensional WZW term. 36 refs.

  18. Affinity purification of human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha-chain. Demonstration of binding by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, S.; Shibuya, K.; Miyazono, K.; Tojo, A.; Oka, Y.; Miyagawa, K.; Takaku, F. )

    1990-11-15

    The human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha-chain, a low affinity component of the receptor, was solubilized and affinity-purified from human placenta using biotinylated GM-CSF. Scatchard analysis of {sup 125}I-GM-CSF binding to the placental membrane extract disclosed that the GM-CSF receptor had a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.5-0.8 nM, corresponding to the Kd value of the GM-CSF receptor alpha-chain on the intact placental membrane. Affinity labeling of the solubilized protein using a photoreactive cross-linking agent, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate (HSAB), demonstrated a single specific band of 70-95 kDa representing a ligand-receptor complex. Approximately 2 g of the placental membrane extract was subjected to a biotinylated GM-CSF-fixed streptavidin-agarose column, resulting in a single major band at 70 kDa on a silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate gel. The radioiodination for the purified material disclosed that the purified protein had an approximate molecular mass of 70 kDa and a pI of 6.6. Binding activity of the purified material was demonstrated by photoaffinity labeling using HSAB-{sup 125}I-GM-CSF, producing a similar specific band at 70-95 kDa as was demonstrated for the crude protein.

  19. Composition of partially purified NADPH oxidase from pig neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, P; Jones, O T; Cross, A R; Papini, E; Rossi, F

    1984-01-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-forming enzyme NADPH oxidase from pig neutrophils was solubilized and partially purified by gel-filtration chromatography. The purification procedure allowed the separation of NADPH oxidase activity from NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase activities. O2.-forming activity was co-purified with cytochrome b-245 and was associated with phospholipids. However, active fractions endowed with cytochrome b were devoid of ubiquinone and contained only little FAD. The cytochrome b/FAD ratio was 1.13:1 in the crude solubilized extract and increased to 18.95:1 in the partially purified preparations. Most of FAD was associated with fractions containing NADH-dependent oxidoreductases. These results are consistent with the postulated role of cytochrome b in O2.-formation by neutrophil NADPH oxidase, but raise doubts about the participation of flavoproteins in this enzyme activity. PMID:6439185

  20. Structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Largent, B.L.; Wikstroem, H.G.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-12-01

    The structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity have been evaluated by examining a wide range of compounds related to opioids, neuroleptics, and phenylpiperidine dopaminergic structures for affinity at sigma receptor-binding sites labeled with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP. Among opioid compounds, requirements for sigma receptor affinity differ strikingly from the determinants of affinity for conventional opiate receptors. Sigma sites display reverse stereoselectivity to classical opiate receptors. Multi-ringed opiate-related compounds such as morphine and naloxone have negligible affinity for sigma sites, with the highest sigma receptor affinity apparent for benzomorphans which lack the C ring of opioids. Highest affinity among opioids and other compounds occurs with more lipophilic N-substituents. This feature is particularly striking among the 3-PPP derivatives as well as the opioids. The butyrophenone haloperidol is the most potent drug at sigma receptors we have detected. Among the series of butyrophenones, receptor affinity is primarily associated with the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety. Conformational calculations for various compounds indicate a fairly wide range of tolerance for distances between the aromatic ring and the amine nitrogen, which may account for the potency at sigma receptors of structures of considerable diversity. Among the wide range of structures that bind to sigma receptor-binding sites, the common pharmacophore associated with high receptor affinity is a phenylpiperidine with a lipophilic N-substituent.

  1. Non-affine deformations in polymer hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi; Basu, Anindita; Janmey, Paul A.; Yodh, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Most theories of soft matter elasticity assume that the local strain in a sample after deformation is identical everywhere and equal to the macroscopic strain, or equivalently that the deformation is affine. We discuss the elasticity of hydrogels of crosslinked polymers with special attention to affine and non-affine theories of elasticity. Experimental procedures to measure non-affine deformations are also described. Entropic theories, which account for gel elasticity based on stretching out individual polymer chains, predict affine deformations. In contrast, simulations of network deformation that result in bending of the stiff constituent filaments generally predict non-affine behavior. Results from experiments show significant non-affine deformation in hydrogels even when they are formed by flexible polymers for which bending would appear to be negligible compared to stretching. However, this finding is not necessarily an experimental proof of the non-affine model for elasticity. We emphasize the insights gained from experiments using confocal rheoscope and show that, in addition to filament bending, sample micro-inhomogeneity can be a significant alternative source of non-affine deformation. PMID:23002395

  2. A Novel Vertex Affinity for Community Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Andy; Sanders, Geoffrey; Henson, Van; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2015-10-05

    We propose a novel vertex affinity measure in this paper. The new vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength and is ideal for such graph analytics applications as community detection. We also developed a framework that combines simple graph searches and resistance circuit formulas to compute the vertex affinity efficiently. We study the properties of the new affinity measure empirically in comparison to those of other popular vertex proximity metrics. Our results show that the existing metrics are ill-suited for community detection due to their lack of fundamental properties that are essential for correctly capturing inter- and intra-cluster vertex proximity.

  3. Polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection immunoassay for diagnosis of Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Jas, R; Ghosh, J D; Das, K

    2010-06-24

    A polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cAg-ELISA) for diagnosis of experimental and natural Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats was developed and evaluated. Adult O. columbianum worms, collected from the caecum and colon of slaughtered goats, were triturated and cultured for obtaining infective third stage larvae (L(3)) and also used for preparation of excretory-secretory antigen (ESAg). Experimental goats were orally infected each with 600 L(3)/kg of the body weight. Filter sterilized faecal supernatant, i.e. the coproantigen (cAg) was harvested from the rectal faeces of all the infected goats, on alternate days from day-5 till day-31 after the infection. Hyperimmune serum (HIS) against ESAg of O. columbianum was raised in rabbits. Molecular and antigenic characterization of ES products of O. columbianum by HIS revealed that 50 and 39kDa polypeptides were immuno-dominant. Coproantigen detection ELISA was standardized by using the cAg as coating antigen and its subsequent binding with the HIS against ESAg of O. columbianum. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the standardized assay were determined by evaluating the assay on the faecal supernatant of 96 slaughtered goats taking into consideration their recorded parasitological status in respect of the abomasal and the intestinal parasites. The cAg-ELISA detected the prepatent oesophagostomosis on 20-24-day-post-infection with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 88, 89.13 and 88.54%, respectively. The assay is relatively easy to perform and would serve as a reliable tool for detection of caprine nodular oesophagostomosis.

  4. Cross-reactive polyclonal antibodies to the inner core of lipopolysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Svein Rune; Guthrie, Terry; Guile, Geoffrey R; Kolberg, Jan; Hou, Sam; Hyland, Lisa; Wong, Simon Y C

    2002-03-01

    Sera from mice immunized with native or detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant 44/76(Mu-4) of Neisseria meningitidis were analyzed for antibodies to LPS. The carbohydrate portion of 44/76(Mu-4) LPS consists of the complete inner core, Glc beta 1-->4[GlcNAc alpha 1-->2Hep alpha 1-->3]Hep alpha 1-->5KDO[4-->2 alpha KDO]. Immunoblot analysis revealed that some sera contained antibodies to wild-type LPS which has a fully extended carbohydrate chain of immunotype L3,7, as well as to the homologous LPS. Sera reacted only weakly to LPS from 44/76(Mu-3), which lacks the terminal glucose of the inner core. No binding to more truncated LPS was observed. Consequently, the cross-reactive epitopes are expressed mainly by the complete inner core. Dephosphorylation of wild-type LPS abolished antibody binding to LPS in all but one serum. Thus, at least two specificities of cross-reactive antibodies exist: one is dependent on phosphoethanolamine groups in LPS, and one is not. Detection of these cross-reactive antibodies strongly supports the notion that epitopes expressed by meningococcal LPS inner core are also accessible to antibodies when the carbohydrate chain is fully extended. Also, these inner core epitopes are sufficiently immunogenic to induce antibody levels detectable in polyclonal antibody responses. Meningococci can escape being killed by antibodies to LPS that bind only to a specific LPS variant, by altering the carbohydrate chain length. Cross-reactive antibodies may prevent such escape. Therefore, inner core LPS structures may be important antigens in future vaccines against meningococcal disease. PMID:11854213

  5. Human P-glycoprotein exhibits reduced affinity for substrates during a catalytic transition state.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, M; Ambudkar, S V; Chen, D; Hrycyna, C A; Dey, S; Gottesman, M M; Pastan, I

    1998-04-01

    Human P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a plasma membrane protein that confers multidrug resistance, functions as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. Pgp contains two ATP binding/utilization sites and exhibits ATPase activity that is stimulated in the presence of substrates and modulating agents. The mechanism of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport is not known. To understand the role of ATP hydrolysis in drug binding, it is necessary to develop methods for purifying and reconstituting Pgp that retains properties including stimulation of ATPase activity by known substrates to an extent similar to that in the native membrane. In this study, (His)6-tagged Pgp was expressed in Trichoplusia ni (High Five) cells using the recombinant baculovirus system and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Upon reconstitution into phospholipid vesicles, purified Pgp exhibited specific binding to analogues of substrates and ATP in affinity labeling experiments and displayed a high level of drug-stimulated ATPase activity (specific activity ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 micromol min-1 mg-1). The ATPase activity was inhibited by ADP in a competitive manner, and by vanadate and N-ethylmaleimide at low concentrations. Vanadate which is known to inhibit ATPase activity by trapping MgADP at the catalytic site inhibited photoaffinity labeling of Pgp with substrate analogues, [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin and [3H]azidopine, only under ATP hydrolysis conditions. Because vanadate-trapped Pgp is known to resemble the ADP and phosphate-bound catalytic transition state, our findings indicate that ATP hydrolysis results in a conformation with reduced affinity for substrates. A catalytic transition conformation with reduced affinity would essentially result in substrate dissociation and supports a model for drug transport in which an ATP hydrolysis-induced conformational change leads to drug release toward the extracellular medium.

  6. Purify First: rapid expression and purification of proteins from XMRV.

    PubMed

    Gillette, William K; Esposito, Dominic; Taylor, Troy E; Hopkins, Ralph F; Bagni, Rachel K; Hartley, James L

    2011-04-01

    Purifying proteins from recombinant sources is often difficult, time-consuming, and costly. We have recently instituted a series of improvements in our protein purification pipeline that allows much more accurate choice of expression host and conditions and purification protocols. The key elements are parallel cloning, small scale parallel expression and lysate preparation, and small scale parallel protein purification. Compared to analyzing expression data only, results from multiple small scale protein purifications predict success at scale-up with greatly improved reliability. Using these new procedures we purified eight of nine proteins from xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) on the first attempt at large scale. PMID:21146612

  7. In-mask aerosol sampling for powered air purifying respirators

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.Y.U.; Sega, K.; Rubow, K.L.; Lenhart, S.W.; Myers, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    A system for sampling aerosols in the facepiece of a powered air purifying respirator has been described. The system consists of a sampling inlet mounted on the respiratory facepiece, a filter cassette and a personal sampling pump. The theoretical and practical considerations leading to the design of the sampling inlet have been discussed and experimental data presented showing the efficiency of the inlet as a function of particle size and sampling flow rate. The in-mask sampling system has been designed for powered air purifying respirators.

  8. Affinity chromatography and affinity labeling of rat liver succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Ball, D J; Nishimura, J S

    1980-11-25

    Succinyl-CoA synthetase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver. The key step in the purification procedure involved adsorption on a GDP dialdehyde (dial-GDP)-adipic dihydrazide-Sepharose 4B column and elution by GDP-Mg2+. Like the pig heart enzyme (Brownie, E. R., and Bridger, W. A. (1972) Can. J. Biochem. 50, 719--724), the rat liver enzyme was an alpha beta heterodimer and only the alpha subunit was phosphorylated by [gamma-32P]GTP. The A 280(0.1%) of the enzyme was determined to be 0.5. Amino acid analyses revealed significant similarities in 50% of the amino acid residues of rat liver and Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetases. However, immunodiffusion analysis failed to reveal any antigenic identity between the two enzymes. Incubation with the affinity label, dial-GDP, in the presence of Mg2+ resulted in a biphasic inactivation of the enzyme. The extent of the rapid phase of inactivation appeared to be related to the extent of dephosphorylation of the enzyme and was prevented by preincubation of the enzyme with GTP-Mg2+. The presence of GDP-Mg2+ in the incubation medium prevented the slow phase of the inactivation and retarded the rapid phase. Dephosphorylated enzyme was approximately 2 orders of magnitude more susceptible to inactivation by dial-GDP than phosphorylated enzyme. Labeling of succinyl-CoA synthetase with [3H]dial-GDP gave a linear relationship between inactivation and incorporation of radioactivity with an extrapolated value of less than 1.2 mol of analog/mol of enzyme at 100% inactivation. The distribution of the label in enzyme that was inactivated 40% was approximately 60% in the alpha subunit and 40% in the beta subunit. Thus, while phosphorylation of the enzyme occurs exclusively in the alpha subunit, the nucleotide binding site appears to include components from both alpha and beta subunits. PMID:7430155

  9. CD4(+) T cells from lupus-prone mice are hyperresponsive to T cell receptor engagement with low and high affinity peptide antigens: a model to explain spontaneous T cell activation in lupus.

    PubMed

    Vratsanos, G S; Jung, S; Park, Y M; Craft, J

    2001-02-01

    Polyclonal CD4(+) T cell activation is characteristic of spontaneous lupus. As a potential explanation for this phenotype, we hypothesized that T cells from lupus-prone mice are intrinsically hyperresponsive to stimulation with antigen, particularly to those peptide ligands having a low affinity for the T cell receptor (TCR). To test this hypothesis, we backcrossed the alpha and beta chain genes of the AND TCR specific for amino acids 88-104 of pigeon cytochrome C (PCC) to the Fas-intact MRL/Mp(+)(Fas-lpr) and to the H-2(k)-matched control backgrounds B10.BR and CBA/CaJ (MRL.AND, B10.AND, and CBA.AND, respectively), and assessed naive CD4(+) TCR transgenic T cell activation in vitro after its encounter with cognate antigen and lower affinity altered peptide ligands (APLs). MRL.AND T cells, compared with control B10.AND and CBA.AND cells, proliferated more when stimulated with agonist antigen. More strikingly, MRL.AND T cells proliferated significantly more and produced more interleukin 2 when stimulated with the APLs of PCC 88-104, having lower affinity for the transgenic TCR. These results imply that one of the forces driving polyclonal activation of alpha/beta T cells in lupus is an intrinsically heightened response to peptide antigen, particularly those with low affinity for the TCR, independent of the nature of the antigen-presenting cell and degree of costimulation.

  10. Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2015-01-15

    We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.

  11. Small-Scale Evaluation of the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Throughout 2007, an evaluation the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP), a mobile water treatment techno...

  12. Purified guar galactomannan as an improved pharmaceutical excipient.

    PubMed

    Gebert, M S; Friend, D R

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess certain pharmaceutical attributes of guar galactomannan, a hydrocolloid polysaccharide obtained from the endosperm of the leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.), following purification using both literature procedures and new processes. Experiments were performed to measure viscosity, hydration rate, tablet hardness, and dissolution profiles of guar galactomannan both before and after purification. The viscosity of an aqueous 1% purified galactomannan solution is typically 40-50% higher than its unpurified guar galactomannan precursor. The hydration rate of an aqueous 1% purified galactomannan solution increases by 100% after purification. These physicochemical changes resulted in improvements in pharmaceutical properties such as better stir speed independence in both tablet and capsule dissolution profiles and improved tablet hardness. For instance, time to 50% dissolution of ranitidine HCl from capsules containing unpurified guar gum was 0.4 and 1.8 hr at 20 and 40 rpm, respectively, using USP Apparatus II. Using the same amount of purified guar gum and the same conditions (20 and 40 rpm), these values were increased to 2.9 and 3.8 hr, respectively. These data demonstrate a reduced effect of changing agitation conditions and the need for less guar gum to sustain the release of a water-soluble drug. Tablet hardness of purified guar gum (particle size < 75 microns) was about 7 kP and the same unpurified guar gum of equal particle size and hydration gave a hardness of less than 1 kP. PMID:9742552

  13. Methods for Improving Aptamer Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hijiri; Savory, Nasa; Abe, Koichi; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that bind a wide range of biological targets. Although aptamers can be isolated from pools of random sequence oligonucleotides using affinity-based selection, aptamers with high affinities are not always obtained. Therefore, further refinement of aptamers is required to achieve desired binding affinities. The optimization of primary sequences and stabilization of aptamer conformations are the main approaches to refining the binding properties of aptamers. In particular, sequence optimization using combined in silico sequence recombinations and in vitro functional evaluations is effective for the improvement of binding affinities, however, the binding affinities of aptamers are limited by the low hydrophobicity of nucleic acids. Accordingly, introduction of hydrophobic moieties into aptamers expands the diversity of interactions between aptamers and targets. Moreover, construction of multivalent aptamers by connecting aptamers that recognize distinct epitopes is an attractive approach to substantial increases in binding affinity. In addition, binding affinities can be tuned by optimizing the scaffolds of multivalent constructs. In this review, we summarize the various techniques for improving the binding affinities of aptamers. PMID:27043498

  14. Effect of refrigeration on microbial growth in the Blairex Water Purifier.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Meng, K E; Frank, L J; Mamalis, G

    1987-05-01

    The Blairex Water Purifier is designed to make tap water into purified water that can be used to make saline solution for soft contact lens disinfection and rinsing. The micropore filters of eight Purifiers were perforated to allow a controlled contamination by either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Serratia marcescens. The bacterial growth was evaluated in these altered Blairex Water Purifiers under refrigerated and unrefrigerated conditions. Those Purifiers that were refrigerated showed significantly less bacterial growth than those Purifiers that were kept at room temperature between samplings. Our findings imply that soft contact lens wearers may reduce the level of microbial growth in undamaged Purifiers by refrigerating the Purifiers between uses. PMID:3111265

  15. Use of a purified and functional recombinant calcium-channel beta4 subunit in surface-plasmon resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Sandrine; Sandoz, Guillaume; Mabrouk, Kamel; Matavel, Alessandra; Marchot, Pascale; Hoshi, Toshinori; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Miquelis, Raymond; Lévêque, Christian; de Waard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Native high-voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit complexes comprising a pore-forming subunit Ca(v) and at least two auxiliary subunits alpha(2)delta and beta. The beta subunit facilitates cell-surface expression of the channel and contributes significantly to its biophysical properties. In spite of its importance, detailed structural and functional studies are hampered by the limited availability of native beta subunit. Here, we report the purification of a recombinant calcium-channel beta(4) subunit from bacterial extracts by using a polyhistidine tag. The purified protein is fully functional since it binds on the alpha1 interaction domain, its main Ca(v)-binding site, and regulates the activity of P/Q calcium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a similar way to the beta(4) subunit produced by cRNA injection. We took advantage of the functionality of the purified material to (i) develop an efficient surface-plasmon resonance assay of the interaction between two calcium channel subunits and (ii) measure, for the first time, the affinity of the recombinant His-beta(4) subunit for the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel. The availability of this purified material and the development of a surface-plasmon resonance assay opens two immediate research perspectives: (i) drug screening programmes applied to the Ca(v)/beta interaction and (ii) crystallographic studies of the calcium-channel beta(4) subunit. PMID:11988102

  16. Prolactin-binding components in rabbit mammary gland: characterization by partial purification and affinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-06-01

    The molecular characteristics of the PRL receptor isolated from rabbit mammary gland microsomes were investigated. Two approaches were employed: 1) affinity purification of PRL receptors and direct electrophoretic analysis, and 2) affinity cross-linking of microsomal receptors with (/sup 125/I)ovine PRL ((/sup 125/I)oPRL). PRL receptors were solubilized from mammary microsomes with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)1-propane sulfonate and purified using an oPRL agarose affinity column. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of the gel revealed at least nine bands, including a 32,000 mol wt band which was most intensively labeled with /sup 125/I using the chloramine-T method. Covalent labeling of PRL receptors with (/sup 125/I)oPRL was performed using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azido benzoate, disuccinimidyl suberate, or ethylene glycol bis (succinimidyl succinate). A single band of 59,000 mol wt was produced by all three cross-linkers when sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed under reducing conditions. Assuming 1:1 binding of hormone and binding subunit and by subtracting the mol wt of (/sup 125/I)oPRL, which was estimated from the migration distance on the gel, the mol wt of the binding subunit was calculated as 32,000. In the absence of dithiothreitol during electrophoresis, only one major hormone-receptor complex band was observed. The same mol wt binding components were also detected in microsomal fractions of rabbit kidney, ovary, and adrenal. A slightly higher mol wt binding subunit was observed in rat liver microsomes. Rabbit liver microsomes revealed five (/sup 125/I)oPRL-binding components, three of which were considered to be those of a GH receptor. Moreover, affinity labeling of detergent-solubilized and affinity purified mammary PRL receptors showed a similar major binding subunit.

  17. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  18. Purification of peroxidase from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Somtürk, Burcu; Kalın, Ramazan; Özdemir, Nalan

    2014-08-01

    Peroxidase was purified in a single step using 4-amino benzohydrazide affinity chromatography from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), and some important biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme were determined. The enzyme, with a specific activity of 3,550 EU/mg protein, was purified 120.6-fold with a yield of 2.9% from the synthesized affinity matrix. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 69.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. For guaiacol substrate, the K m and V max values were found as 0.048 mM and 1.46 EU/mL/min, respectively. Additionally, the IC50 and K i values for 4-amino benzohydrazide were calculated to be 1.047 and 0.702±0.05 mM, respectively, and 4-amino benzohydrazide showed noncompetitive inhibition.

  19. Necator americanus secretory acetylcholinesterase and its purification from excretory-secretory products by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Leggett, K V; Rogan, M T; McKean, P G; Brown, A

    1991-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) secretion by adult N. americanus was enhanced in vitro by incorporating insoluble collagen rafts into culture dishes. Enzyme produced in this way had preferential substrate specificity for acetylthiocholine iodide (ATC), and its activity was inhibited by eserine (1.1 x 10(-8) M). Ancylostoma ceylanicum, another hookworm species, failed to produce comparable amounts of AChE in culture. AChE was efficiently purified from culture medium by affinity chromatography on edrophonium sepharose; 81% of the AChE activity was retained by the affinity matrix, although this fraction contained only 4.3% of the protein loaded. Antisera raised against purified AChE in rabbits immunohistochemically stained the oesophageal glands of the parasite, and reacted with molecules of 32, 60, 80, 140 and 220 kDa in reduced adult ES products on Western blotting, although differential activity was observed against worm homogenates and earlier developmental stages. On IEF, purified AChE resolved predominantly with a pl of 3.55; proteins with a similar pl were recognized by rabbit anti-AChE. IgG preparations of this antiserum inhibited AChE activity in ES products, and inhibited AChE secretion by adult worms in culture. The availability of this immunological probe will allow definitive experiments to be conducted on the role of this enigmatic enzyme in the host-parasite relationship. PMID:2052405

  20. B cell expression of the SH2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP-1) is required to establish anergy to high affinity, proteinacious autoantigens.

    PubMed

    Akerlund, Janie; Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C

    2015-08-01

    Many self-reactive B cells exist in the periphery in a rapidly reversible state of unresponsiveness referred to as anergy. Reversibility of anergy indicates that chronically occupied BCR must transduce non-durable regulatory signals that maintain unresponsiveness. Consistent with such a mechanism, studies of immunoglobulin transgenic, as well as naturally occurring polyclonal autoreactive B cells demonstrate activation of the inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP-1 in anergic cells, and low affinity chromatin autoantigen-reactive B cells have been shown to require expression of this phosphatase to maintain anergy. However, it has been reported that anergy of B cells recognizing high affinity soluble antigen may not require SHIP-1, and is instead mediated by upregulation of the inositol 3-phosphatase PTEN. To further explore this apparent difference in mechanism we analyzed the effect of B cell-targeted SHIP-1 deletion on immune tolerance of high affinity anti-HEL B cells in mice expressing soluble HEL (MD4.ML-5). We report that SHIP-1 functions to dampen responses of naïve and low-dose antigen-primed B cells in vitro, and is required for induction of B cell tolerance. Thus, while anergy of B cells reactive with low affinity and likely polyvalent chromatin antigens is maintained by activation of inhibitory signaling circuitry involving SHIP-1, anergy of B cells recognizing soluble self antigen with high affinity also requires increased activity of SHIP-1.

  1. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-an; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs. PMID:26107496

  2. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Svensson, W; Glass, D M; Bradley, D; Peters, A M

    1999-05-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m-labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99mTc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99mTc-HIG compared with 99mTc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99mTc-HIG was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of 99mTc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not significantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99mTc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per

  3. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs.

  4. Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for HPV exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coseo, Sarah E.; Porras, Carolina; Dodd, Lori E.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Sherman, Mark E.; Jimenez, Silvia; Solomon, Diane; Bougelet, Catherine; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2011-01-01

    Background Seropositivity to HPV16 and 18 antibodies is used as a measure of cumulative HPV exposure and as a stratifier of HPV exposure for vaccine efficacy analyses. Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the enrollment phase of the HPV16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica, we evaluated the performance of the polyclonal ELISA HPV16 and 18 serological assays as a measure of HPV exposure. Biological (for eg. HPV infection at the cervix) and behavioral characteristics (for eg. lifetime number of sexual partners) with known associations with current and past HPV infection were used to define cases and controls (HPV exposed vs. not exposed). Pre-vaccination serum was measured for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 by ELISA; cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR SPF10/LiPA25. ELISA results were analyzed using receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC); performance was evaluated at the manufacturer set cutpoint (HPV16 =8, HPV18 =7) and at cutpoints chosen to optimize sensitivity and specificity (HPV16 =34, HPV18 =60). Results Defining cases as type-specific HPV DNA positive with high-grade abnormal cytolzogy (i.e. combined molecular and microscopic markers of infection), HPV16-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (62.2 compared with 75.7, respectively; p=0.44). However, specificity was higher (85.3 compared with 70.4, respectively; p<0.0001). Similarly, HPV18-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (34.5 compared with 51.7, respectively; p=0.40), with higher specificities (94.9 compared with 72.6, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modifying cutpoints did not improve the low sensitivity. The low sensitivity of this assay does not support its use for risk stratification or clinical settings. PMID:21934576

  5. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs. PMID:26107496

  6. Affinity purification of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) using a human mycoplasma protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuemei; Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-02-15

    Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior functional equivalent to mammalian IgG. However, the preparation of refined and highly purified IgY is still attributed as difficult task. Protein M (a transmembrane protein from human mycoplasma) has been newly demonstrated as an ideal affinity regent for mammalian antibody purification. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between protein M and IgY. The results showed protein M could be a superior affinity reagent for IgY, scFv as well as IgYΔFc, based on pull down and western blot investigations; in addition, it was found that ∼125 times increase of effective IgY in the elutent was obtained using protein M affinity chromatography column compared with traditional IgY extraction methods. This indicates, the purification strategy of protein M is entirely different to traditional IBPs and the salient purification feature of protein M would be a breakthrough for purifying not only non-mammalian antibodies, but also monoclonal antibodies and engineered antibodies based on variable region.

  7. Metal chelate affinity precipitation of RNA and purification of plasmid DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balan, Sindhu; Murphy, Jason; Galaev, Igor; Kumar, Ashok; Fox, George E.; Mattiasson, Bo; Willson, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    The affinity of metal chelates for amino acids, such as histidine, is widely used in purifying proteins, most notably through six-histidine 'tails'. We have found that metal affinity interactions can also be applied to separation of single-stranded nucleic acids through interactions involving exposed purines. Here we describe a metal affinity precipitation method to resolve RNA from linear and plasmid DNA. A copper-charged copolymer of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and vinyl imidazole (VI) is used to purify plasmid from an alkaline lysate of E. coli. The NIPAM units confer reversible solubility on the copolymer while the imidazole chelates metal ions in a manner accessible to interaction with soluble ligands. RNA was separated from the plasmid by precipitation along with the polymer in the presence of 800 mM NaCl. Bound RNA could be recovered by elution with imidazole and separated from copolymer by a second precipitation step. RNA binding showed a strong dependence on temperature and on the type of buffer used.

  8. One-step purification of lactoperoxidase from bovine milk by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Atasever, Ali; Ozdemir, Hasan; Gulcin, Ilhami; Irfan Kufrevioglu, O

    2013-01-15

    Sulphanilamide was determined to be a new inhibitor of lactoperoxidase (LPO) with an IC(50) of 0.848.10(-5)M. The K(i) for sulphanilamide was determined to be 3.57.10(-5)M and sulphanilamide showed competitive inhibition, which makes it a suitable ligand for constructing a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine affinity matrix. The affinity matrix was synthesised by coupling sulphanilamide as the ligand and L-tyrosine as the spacer arm to a cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated-Sepharose 4B matrix. Lactoperoxidase was purified 409-fold from the synthesized affinity matrix in a single step, with a yield of 62.3% and a specific activity of 40.9 EU/mg protein. The enzyme activity was measured using ABTS as a chromogenic substrate (pH 6.0). The degree of LPO purification was monitored by SDS-PAGE and its R(z) (A(412)/A(280)) value. The R(z) value for the purified LPO was found to be 0.7. Maximum binding was achieved and K(m) and V(max) values were determined.

  9. A cleavable silica-binding affinity tag for rapid and inexpensive protein purification.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Brandon L; Baneyx, François

    2014-10-01

    We describe a new affinity purification tag called Car9 that confers proteins to which it is fused micromolar affinity for unmodified silica. When appended to the C-terminus of GFPmut2 through a flexible linker, Car9 promotes efficient adsorption to silica gel and the fusion protein can be released from the particles by incubation with L-lysine. Using a silica gel column and the lysine elution approach in fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) mode, Car9-tagged versions of GFPmut2, mCherry and maltose binding protein (MBP) can be recovered from clarified lysates with a purity of 80-90%. Capitalizing on silica's ability to handle large pressure drops, we further show that it is possible to go from cell lysates to purified protein in less than 15 min using a fully disposable device. Finally, we demonstrate that the linker-Car9 region is susceptible to proteolysis by E. coli OmpT and take advantage of this observation to excise the C-terminal extension of GFPmut2-Car9 by incubating purified fusion protein with cells that overproduce the outer membrane protease OmpT. The set of strategies described herein, should reduce the cost of affinity purification by at least 10-fold, cut down purification times to minutes, and allow for the production of proteins with native (or nearly native) termini from their C-terminally-tagged versions.

  10. How the Glycine and GABA Receptors Were Purified

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purification by Affinity Chromatography of the Glycine Receptor of Rat Spinal Cord (Pfeiffer, F., Graham, D., and Betz, H. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 9389–9393) A γ-Aminobutyric Acid/Benzodiazepine Receptor Complex of Bovine Cerebral Cortex (Sigel, E., Stephenson, F. A., Mamalaki, C., and Barnard, E. A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 6965–6971) PMID:23180805

  11. Reversible acyl-homoserine lactone binding to purified Vibrio fischeri LuxR protein.

    PubMed

    Urbanowski, M L; Lostroh, C P; Greenberg, E P

    2004-02-01

    The Vibrio fischeri LuxR protein is the founding member of a family of acyl-homoserine lactone-responsive quorum-sensing transcription factors. Previous genetic evidence indicates that in the presence of its quorum-sensing signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL), LuxR binds to lux box DNA within the promoter region of the luxI gene and activates transcription of the luxICDABEG luminescence operon. We have purified LuxR from recombinant Escherichia coli. Purified LuxR binds specifically and with high affinity to DNA containing a lux box. This binding requires addition of 3OC6-HSL to the assay reactions, presumably forming a LuxR-3OC6-HSL complex. When bound to the lux box at the luxI promoter in vitro, LuxR-3OC6-HSL enables E. coli RNA polymerase to initiate transcription from the luxI promoter. Unlike the well-characterized LuxR homolog TraR in complex with its signal (3-oxo-octanoyl-HSL), the LuxR-30C6-HSL complex can be reversibly inactivated by dilution, suggesting that 3OC6-HSL in the complex is not tightly bound and is in equilibrium with the bulk solvent. Thus, although LuxR and TraR both bind 3-oxoacyl-HSLs, the binding is qualitatively different. The differences have implications for the ways in which these proteins respond to decreases in signal concentrations or rapid drops in population density.

  12. Functional analysis and association state of water channel (AQP-1) isoforms purified from six mammals.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D J; van Hoek, A N

    1997-09-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) or CHIP28 occurs in glycosylated (glyCHIP) and non-glycosylated (CHIP) forms and solubilization in octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG) results in a tight association of glyCHIP and CHIP to form a heterodimer. The tight association did not permit separation of the two forms by affinity chromatography. We examined the mechanism of the tight association by enzymatic removal of sugar moieties, utilized organic solvents for preferential solubilization and purified CHIP28 from six mammals for inspection of glycosylation and association state in OG. Removal of terminal saccharides sustained the dimeric state of human CHIP28, while endo-glycosidases induced the transition into monomers, without leaving an affinity tag for separation purposes. Separation was achieved by preferential solubilization of non-glycosylated CHIP28 in CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures. The two CHIP28 forms were solubilized in SDS, chromatographed in OG, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes; pf values were 1.5 and 1.6 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). Among erythrocytes from cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, dog, and horse CHIP28, one out of two molecules was glycosylated and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis also indicated heterodimers in OG; functional analysis of reconstituted proteoliposomes gave single channel water permeabilities, pf's, ranging from 2.0-3.4 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). The results indicate that CHIP28 structure, function, and association in OG are conserved among mammals and establish procedures to obtain glycosylated and non-glycosylated CHIP28 in functional form. PMID:9417990

  13. Use of anionic denaturing detergents to purify insoluble proteins after overexpression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins form insoluble protein aggregates, called “inclusion bodies”, when overexpressed in E. coli. This is the biggest obstacle in biotechnology. Ever since the reversible denaturation of proteins by chaotropic agents such as urea or guanidinium hydrochloride had been shown, these compounds were predominantly used to dissolve inclusion bodies. Other denaturants exist but have received much less attention in protein purification. While the anionic, denaturing detergent sodiumdodecylsulphate (SDS) is used extensively in analytical SDS-PAGE, it has rarely been used in preparative purification. Results Here we present a simple and versatile method to purify insoluble, hexahistidine-tagged proteins under denaturing conditions. It is based on dissolution of overexpressing bacterial cells in a buffer containing sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and whole-lysate denaturation of proteins. The excess of detergent is removed by cooling and centrifugation prior to affinity purification. Host- and overexpressed proteins do not co-precipitate with SDS and the residual concentration of detergent is compatible with affinity purification on Ni/NTA resin. We show that SDS can be replaced with another ionic detergent, Sarkosyl, during purification. Key advantages over denaturing purification in urea or guanidinium are speed, ease of use, low cost of denaturant and the compatibility of buffers with automated FPLC. Conclusion Ionic, denaturing detergents are useful in breaking the solubility barrier, a major obstacle in biotechnology. The method we present yields detergent-denatured protein. Methods to refold proteins from a detergent denatured state are known and therefore we propose that the procedure presented herein will be of general application in biotechnology. PMID:23231964

  14. Immunoglobulin G subclasses secreted by human B cells in vitro in response to interleukin-2 and polyclonal activators.

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, J E; Johnstone, R; Duggan-Keen, M F; Bird, P

    1990-01-01

    The IgG subclasses secreted by human B cells in vitro in response to IL-2 have been analysed. B cells were prepared from tonsil, blood and spleen, and cultured with recombinant IL-2 in the presence or absence of two polyclonal activators: Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 (SAC) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of all four subclasses and of IgM was stimulated by IL-2, but the relative amounts varied according to (i) the tissue source of the B cells, and (ii) which polyclonal activator was used. The amount of IgG1 tended to be higher and IgG2 tended to be lower when SAC was the polyclonal activator (compared to LPS). This difference was most marked for tonsil B cells, and it was found that SAC had a negative effect on secretion of IgM and IgG2 in these cultures, whilst synergizing with IL-2 to stimulate the production of IgG1, 3 and 4. When the degree of stimulation of different pairs of isotypes was analysed, several interesting positive correlations emerged. In tonsil B-cell cultures, stimulation of IgM and IgG2 was linked with each other, but not with IgG1, whilst in blood B-cell cultures all isotypes appeared to be stimulated co-ordinately. Stimulation of IgG1 and IgG3 were positively correlated in cultures of B cells from all tissues. The results emphasize that the effects of a single cytokine on immunoglobulin isotype production can be influenced by the source of the B cells, and by other signals delivered to the cells. PMID:2373516

  15. Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.

    PubMed

    Taussig, Michael J

    2016-09-25

    The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. PMID:27118167

  16. Aptamers in Affinity Separations: Stationary Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelet, Corinne; Peyrin, Eric

    The use of DNA or RNA aptamers as tools in analytical chemistry is a very promising field of research because of their capabilities to bind specifically the target molecules with an affinity similar to that of antibodies. Notably, they appear to be of great interest as target-specific ligands for the separation and capture of various analytes in affinity chromatography and related affinity-based methods such as magnetic bead technology. In this chapter, the recent developments of these aptamer-based separation/capture approaches are addressed.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of highly purified nanosilica from pyrophyllite ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Abdulloh; Mufti, Nandang; Diantoro, Markus; Subakti, S., Septa Kurniawati

    2016-03-01

    A simple method based on alkaline extraction followed by acid precipitation and acid dissolution has been developed to produce highly purified nanosilica from pyrophyllite materials. The reaction parameters such as molar ratio NaOH/SiO2, reaction time and reaction temperature are varied for obtaining maximum nanosilica convertion. About 99,45% highly purified precipitated nanosilica measure with ICP, 259 m2/gr measure with BET surface area, 97% whiteness and 3 ml/gr oil absorbtion from pyrophyllite materials has been achieved in closed system at 150°C within 180 min. The physicals and chemical properties (such as X-Ray Diffraction from PANalytical, X-Ray Fluorescence Minipal4 from PANanalytical, BET surface area, Forier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy from Hitachi, and SEM-EDS Inspect-S50 from FEI Company) of the highly purity nanosilica were studied.

  18. Method of preparing highly purified kiln dried solar salt

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.; Hass, L.M.; Rose, D.L.

    1984-12-18

    Partially purified salt containing less than about 00.4 weight percent insolubles is further purified to reduce the insolubles until the milk pad rating is 3 or better for certain industrial uses and 1 for human consumption. The entry salt is washed in clarified brine to dislodge insoluble impurities adhered to the salt surfaces. The washed salt is then scrubbed with fresh water sprays to displace the wash brine from salt surfaces. The washed salt is drained and then dried in a kiln where flowing air blows away some impurities. The dried salt is passed through a magnetic separator, doubly sifted to remove both large and small impurities, and, where food grade salt is required, passed through a color sorter that removes relatively dark impurities.

  19. Methods to Purify and Assay Secretory Pathway Kinases.

    PubMed

    Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Xiao, Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Members of the four-jointed and VLK families of secretory pathway kinases appear to be responsible for the phosphorylation of secreted proteins and proteoglycans. These enzymes have been implicated in many biological processes and mutations in several of these kinases cause human diseases. Here, we describe methods to purify and assay two members of the four-jointed family of secretory kinases: the Fam20C protein kinase and the Fam20B proteoglycan kinase. PMID:27632012

  20. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOEpatents

    Adney, W.S.; Thomas, S.R.; Nieves, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1994-11-22

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1], and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 9 figs.

  1. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from thermophilic bacterium acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Mohagheghi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.

  2. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inhalation pressure to draw the ambient air through the air-purifying filter elements (filters) to remove... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying...

  3. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inhalation pressure to draw the ambient air through the air-purifying filter elements (filters) to remove... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying...

  4. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  5. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  6. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  7. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  8. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  9. In vitro activities of purified visna virus integrase.

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, M; Sudol, M

    1994-01-01

    Although integration generally is considered a critical step in the retrovirus life cycle, it has been reported that visna virus, which causes degenerative neurologic disease in sheep, can productively infect sheep choroid plexus cells without detectable integration. To ascertain whether the integrase (IN) of visna virus is an inherently defective enzyme and to create tools for further study of integration of the phylogenetically related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we purified visna virus IN by using a bacterial expression system and applied various in vitro oligonucleotide-based assays to studying this protein. We found that visna virus IN demonstrates the full repertoire of in vitro functions characteristic of retroviral integrases. In particular, visna virus IN exhibits site-specific endonuclease activity following the invariant CA found two nucleotides from the 3' ends of viral DNA (processing activity), joins processed oligonucleotides to various sites on other oligonucleotides (strand transfer or integration activity), and reverses the integration reaction by resolving a complex that mimics one end of viral DNA integrated into host DNA (disintegration activity). In addition, although it has been reported that purified HIV-1 IN cannot specifically nick visna virus DNA ends, purified visna virus IN does specifically process and integrate HIV-1 DNA ends. Images PMID:8189495

  10. [Proteomic Analyses of Purified Particles of the Rabies Virus].

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhongzhong; Gong, Wenjie; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Ye; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    The rabies virus (RABV) is an enveloped RNA virus. It mainly damages the central nervous system and causes anencephaly in mammals and humans. There is now compelling evidence that enveloped virions released from infected cells can carry many host proteins, some of which may play an important part in viral replication. Several host proteins have been reported to be incorporated into RABV particles. However, a systematic study to reveal the proteomics of RABV particles has not been conducted. In the present study, after virus culture and purification by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, a proteomics approach was used to analyze the protein composition of purified RABV particles to understand the molecular mechanisms of virus-cell interactions. Fifty host proteins, along with five virus-encoded structural proteins, were identified in purified RABV particles. These proteins could be classified into ten categories according to function: intracellular trafficking (14%), molecular chaperone (12%), cytoskeletal (24%), signal transduction (8%), transcription regulation (12%), calcium ion-binding (6%), enzyme binding (6%), metabolic process (2%), ubiquitin (2%) and other (14%). Of these, four proteins (beta-actin, p-tubulin, Cofilin, Hsc70) were validated by western blotting to be present in purified RABV particles. This novel study of the composition of host proteins in RABV particles may aid investigation of the mechanism of RABV replication. PMID:26470524

  11. Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barlowe, Charles

    1997-01-01

    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function. PMID:9382859

  12. [Proteomic Analyses of Purified Particles of the Rabies Virus].

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhongzhong; Gong, Wenjie; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Ye; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    The rabies virus (RABV) is an enveloped RNA virus. It mainly damages the central nervous system and causes anencephaly in mammals and humans. There is now compelling evidence that enveloped virions released from infected cells can carry many host proteins, some of which may play an important part in viral replication. Several host proteins have been reported to be incorporated into RABV particles. However, a systematic study to reveal the proteomics of RABV particles has not been conducted. In the present study, after virus culture and purification by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, a proteomics approach was used to analyze the protein composition of purified RABV particles to understand the molecular mechanisms of virus-cell interactions. Fifty host proteins, along with five virus-encoded structural proteins, were identified in purified RABV particles. These proteins could be classified into ten categories according to function: intracellular trafficking (14%), molecular chaperone (12%), cytoskeletal (24%), signal transduction (8%), transcription regulation (12%), calcium ion-binding (6%), enzyme binding (6%), metabolic process (2%), ubiquitin (2%) and other (14%). Of these, four proteins (beta-actin, p-tubulin, Cofilin, Hsc70) were validated by western blotting to be present in purified RABV particles. This novel study of the composition of host proteins in RABV particles may aid investigation of the mechanism of RABV replication.

  13. Polyclonal antibodies specific for mutagenic alkylated base O/sup 4/-ethylthymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, A.; Miller, R.; D'Ambrosio, S.

    1986-05-01

    Alkylating carcinogen induced base O-alkylation appear to be the genomic modifications most relevant to cellular oncogenic transformation. O/sup 4/-ethylthymidine (O/sup 4/-EtThy) though minor DNA alkylation product lacks repair in mammalian including human cells. High affinity and high titer antibodies in rabbits were developed against this lesion using O/sup 4/-EtThy-KLH conjugates as antigen. Antiserum TB3 (affinity constant = 8.1 x 10/sup 8/ l/mol) shows titers of 10/sup -6/ in ELISA against O/sup 4/-EtThy-KLH and ethylated poly(dT) and 2 x 10/sup -4/ in tracerRIA against O/sup 4/(/sup 3/H)-EtThy as antigen. In competitive inhibition assays 50% inhibition of tracer-antibody binding was observed at 0.5 pmoles of O/sup 4/-EtThy, while requiring 150, 2 x 10/sup 4/ and >5 x 10/sup 6/ -fold higher amounts of O/sup 2/-EtThy, N3-EtThy and Thy respectively. In non-competitive ELISA the antibody shows optimal binding to ENU ethylated poly(dT) at 100 ng immobilized antigen while no significant binding could be observed against 10/sup 3/ -fold higher amounts of unalkylated poly(dT). ENU concentration dependent binding could be seen using 100 ng poly(dT) alkylated in vitro with as low as 0.1 mM ENU. Suitable assay conditions for monitoring the persistent levels of O/sup 4/-EtThy in DNA after in vivo alkylation of mammalian cells with subtoxic concentrations of ENU are being developed to relate this mutagenic and potential carcinogenic lesion to its biological consequence.

  14. Structure of the high-affinity binding site for noncompetitive blockers of the acetylcholine receptor: serine-262 of the delta subunit is labeled by [3H]chlorpromazine.

    PubMed Central

    Giraudat, J; Dennis, M; Heidmann, T; Chang, J Y; Changeux, J P

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata was photolabeled by the noncompetitive channel blocker [3H]chlorpromazine under equilibrium conditions in the presence of agonist. Incorporation of radioactivity into all subunits occurred and was reduced by addition of phencyclidine, a specific ligand for the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers. The delta subunit was purified and digested with trypsin, and the resulting fragments were fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC. The labeled peptide could not be purified to homogeneity because of its marked hydrophobic character, but a combination of differential CNBr subcleavage and cosequencing of partially purified fragments enabled us to identify Ser-262 as being labeled by [3H]chlorpromazine. The labeling of this particular residue was prevented by phencyclidine and thus took place at the level of, or in proximity to, the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers. Ser-262 is located in a hydrophobic and potentially transmembrane segment termed MII. Images PMID:3085104

  15. Ni2+-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Jones, Alun; Lim, Maria L R

    2008-01-01

    A two-step chromatographic sequence is described for the purification of native lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli cells. The first step involves Ni(2+)-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of the soluble cytoplasmic extract. This method provides superior speed, resolution and yield than the established phosphocellulose cation-exchange chromatographic procedure. Anion-exchange chromatography is used for further purification to >95% purity. The identity and purity of the lactose repressor protein were demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, crystallization, tryptic finger-printing mass spectrometry, and inducer binding assays. The purified lac repressor exhibited inducer sensitivity for operator DNA binding and undergoes a conformational change upon inducer binding. By all these extensive biochemical criteria, the purified protein behaves exactly as that described for the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor. PMID:18800304

  16. Identification of proteins associated with RNA polymerase III using a modified tandem chromatin affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thuy-Trinh; Saguez, Cyril; Conesa, Christine; Lefebvre, Olivier; Acker, Joël

    2015-02-01

    To identify the proteins associated with the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in exponentially growing yeast cells, we developed our own tandem chromatin affinity purification procedure (TChAP) after in vivo cross-link, allowing a reproducible and good recovery of the protein bait and its associated partners. In contrast to TFIIIA that could only be purified as a free protein, this protocol allows us to capture free Pol III together with Pol III bound on its target genes. Transcription factors, elongation factors, RNA-associated proteins and proteins involved in Pol III biogenesis were identified by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the presence of all the TFIIIB subunits found associated with Pol III together with the absence of TFIIIC and chromatin factors including histones suggest that DNA-bound Pol III purified using TChAP is mainly engaged in transcription reinitiation.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF AFFINITY-BASED BIOSENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the amount of resources that have been invested by national and international academic, government, and commercial sectors to develop affinity-based biosensor products, little obvious success has been realized through commercialization of these devices for specific applic...

  18. Visualizing Antibody Affinity Maturation in Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Jeroen M.J.; Mesin, Luka; Pasqual, Giulia; Targ, Sasha; Jacobsen, Johanne T.; Mano, Yasuko M.; Chen, Casie S.; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Browne, Edward P.; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Victora, Gabriel D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies somatically mutate to attain high affinity in germinal centers (GCs). There, competition between B cell clones and among somatic mutants of each clone drives an increase in average affinity across the population. The extent to which higher-affinity cells eliminating competitors restricts clonal diversity is unknown. By combining multiphoton microscopy and sequencing, we show that tens to hundreds of distinct B cell clones seed each GC, and that GCs lose clonal diversity at widely disparate rates. Furthermore, efficient affinity maturation can occur in the absence of homogenizing selection, ensuring that many clones can mature in parallel within the same GC. Our findings have implications for development of vaccines in which antibodies with non-immunodominant specificities must be elicited, as is the case for HIV-1 and influenza. PMID:26912368

  19. Designing Chaotic Systems by Piecewise Affine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tiantian; Li, Qingdu; Yang, Xiao-Song

    Based on mathematical analysis, this paper provides a methodology to ensure the existence of homoclinic orbits in a class of three-dimensional piecewise affine systems. In addition, two chaotic generators are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Affinity Electrophoresis Using Ligands Attached To Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Snyder, Robert S.; Harris, J. M.; Brooks, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    In new technique, reduction of electrophoretic mobilities by addition of polyethylene glycol to ligands increases electrophoretic separabilities. In immuno-affinity electrophoresis, modification of ligands extends specificity of electrophoretic separation to particles having surface electric-charge structures otherwise making them electrophoretically inseparable. Modification of antibodies by polyethylene glycol greatly reduces ability to aggregate while enhancing ability to affect electrophoretic mobilities of cells. In hydrophobic-affinity electrophoresis, addition of polyethylene glycol reduces tendency toward aggregation of cells or macromolecules.

  1. Virus-induced polyclonal B cell activation improves protective CTL memory via retained CD27 expression on memory CTL.

    PubMed

    Matter, Matthias; Mumprecht, Sabine; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Pavelic, Viktor; Yagita, Hideo; Krautwald, Stefan; Borst, Jannie; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

    2005-11-01

    Different viruses elicit distinct phenotypes of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). This is reflected in differential expression of homing receptors and costimulatory molecules like CD27. Memory CTL retained CD27 following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, but not after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus or tumor cells expressing LCMV glycoprotein. Stable CD27 expression on memory CTL required ligation by CD70 expressed on polyclonally activated B cells during the contraction phase. The functional consequence of CD27 expressed on virus-specific CTL was analyzed in CD27-deficient mice. LCMV infection of CD27(-/-) mice revealed that primary CTL activation and expansion as well as elimination of the virus were independent of CD27 expression. In contrast, ligation of CD27 on memory CTL upon secondary antigen encounter increased clonal expansion and improved protection against re-infection. This points to novel B cell-CTL interactions during viral infection and to a beneficial role of polyclonal B cell activation that represents a characteristic of murine LCMV, human immunodeficiency virus and human hepatitis B and C virus infection. PMID:16231287

  2. Phosphorylcholine on isologous red blood cells induces polyclonal but not anti-phosphorylcholine plaque-forming cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, E; Bach, M A; Levitt, D

    1984-07-01

    It has been demonstrated in the preceding report (Bach, M. A., Beckmann, E. and Levitt, D., Eur. J. Immunol. 1984. 14: 589) that phosphorylcholine (PC) on the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae R36a stimulated polyclonal as well as anti-PC plaque-forming cells (PFC) in mouse spleen in vivo. In this study, red blood cells from BALB/c mice (MRBC) were either conjugated with PC, 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) or treated with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to expose PC on the cell membrane (determined by hemagglutination with the anti-PC myeloma HOPC8). When BALB/c mice were immunized i.v. with the conjugated or enzyme-treated MRBC, a significant polyclonal antibody response occurred (p less than 0.05) using PC-MRBC or PLA2-treated MRBC, but not with TNP-MRBC or sham-treated MRBC. No anti-PC or anti-MRBC immunoglobulin-secreting cells developed after immunization. Repeated immunization with PC-MRBC resulted in similar levels of protein A PFC after each immunization but no anti-PC, anti-MRBC or anti-PC-MRBC PFC. Thus, PC on R36a or isologous RBC stimulated increased numbers of splenic plaque-forming cells. In the case of R36a, 10-25% of these PFC produced antibodies directed towards PC. In contrast, PC-MRBC or PLA2-treated MRBC, failed to evoke any anti-PC antibody responses.

  3. Effect of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies and polyclonal IVIG on the activation status of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    RADDER, C M; BEEKHUIZEN, H; KANHAI, H H H; BRAND, A

    2004-01-01

    Maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies can cause severe fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), complicated by intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). Antenatal treatment with maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) seems to protect against ICH even when thrombocytopenia persists. The aim of this study was to investigate if anti-HPA-1a antibodies and IVIG potentially affect vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in order to identify susceptibility for ICH. Human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with anti-HPA-1a antibodies with or without polyclonal IVIG and evaluated for EC activation. Maternal sera with anti-HPA-1a antibodies affected neither the EC expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and tissue factor (TF) nor the release of van Willebrand factor (vWF) or interleukin (IL)-8 nor the integrity of ECs. Maternal sera obtained after IVIG treatment and polyclonal IVIG decrease constitutive and cytokine-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on ECs. The results show that maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies cause no activation or damage of ECs in this model. The clinical relevance of the de-activating properties of IVIG on EC activation with respect to ICH deserves further investigation. PMID:15196265

  4. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, Lobna; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. However, the detection of Vip3Aa16 on Western blot showed in addition to the toxin two other strips (62 and 180 kDa) recognized by the anti-Vip3Aa16 polyclonal antibodies prepared at the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax Tunisia. For that reason and in order to develop a technique for reliable quantification of the toxin, we have considered the production of polyclonal antibodies at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany. These antibodies were the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the protein produced by the Vip3Aa16 recombinant strain Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). These monoclonal antibodies were tested by plate-trapped antigen (PTA) and triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The selection of hybridoma supernatants gave us four positive clones producing monoclonal antibodies.

  5. Defective disposal of immune complexes and polyclonal B cell activation persist long after exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Granholm, N.A.; Cavallo, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus experience clinical exacerbation during superimposed bacterial infection. Previous studies in mice indicated that heightened immune phenomena during exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) appear to be related, in part, to polyclonal B cell activation, to abnormal disposal of immune complexes (IC), and to increased localization of IC in tissues. To investigate whether such effects were reversible, we administered bacterial LPS to C57BL/6 mice for 5 weeks. Control mice received vehicle alone. We then discontinued LPS, and 6 weeks later LPS and control mice were challenged with a subsaturating dose of radiolabeled IC; the removal of IC from the circulation, their localization in the liver, spleen, and kidney were determined. In comparison to values in control mice, in mice previously exposed to LPS, serologic features of polyclonal B cell activation persisted; liver uptake of pathogenic IC (greater than Ag2Ab2) was normal, but removal of small size IC (less than or equal to Ag2Ab2) from the circulation was delayed; localization of IC in the kidneys was enhanced, and pathologic proteinuria developed. The effects of repeated exposure to bacterial LPS are partially reversible, but they last long after LPS is discontinued and may contribute to altered disposal of IC, enhanced organ localization of IC, and organ dysfunction.

  6. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP): prokaryotic expression, purification, and preparation of a polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H L; Li, H; Sun, Y S; Yang, Z Y; Yu, Q

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) plays important roles in promoting cancer occurrence and in the development of bone metastases. To increase our knowledge of the biological functions of PTHrP, the prokaryotic expression vector pET-PTHrP was successfully constructed and the His-PTHrP fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Anti-PTHrP polyclonal antibody was then prepared from rabbits. Finally, the goat tissue expression profile of PTHrP was analyzed by Western blot with the anti-PTHrP polyclonal antibody. The results showed that the expression of PTHrP in goat mammary glands was significantly higher than that in other organs. This indicates that PTHrP may play important roles in the goat mammary gland. The antibody prepared will be a useful tool for detecting PTHrP and will be valuable in future studies investigating the role of PTHrP in calcium metabolism in the goat model. PMID:25158263

  7. Liver-expressed Igkappa superantigen induces tolerance of polyclonal B cells by clonal deletion not kappa to lambda receptor editing.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takayuki; Ota, Miyo; Duong, Bao Hoa; Gavin, Amanda L; Nemazee, David

    2011-03-14

    Little is know about the nature of peripheral B cell tolerance or how it may vary in distinct lineages. Although autoantibody transgenic studies indicate that anergy and apoptosis are involved, some studies claim that receptor editing occurs. To model peripheral B cell tolerance in a normal, polyclonal immune system, we generated transgenic mice expressing an Igκ-light chain-reactive superantigen targeted to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes (pAlb mice). In contrast to mice expressing κ superantigen ubiquitously, in which κ cells edit efficiently to λ, in pAlb mice, κ B cells underwent clonal deletion. Their κ cells failed to populate lymph nodes, and the remaining splenic κ cells were anergic, arrested at a semi-mature stage without undergoing receptor editing. In the liver, κ cells recognized superantigen, down-regulated surface Ig, and expressed active caspase 3, suggesting ongoing apoptosis at the site of B cell receptor ligand expression. Some, apparently mature, κ B1 and follicular B cells persisted in the peritoneum. BAFF (B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family) overexpression rescued splenic κ B cell maturation and allowed κ cells to populate lymph nodes. Our model facilitates analysis of tissue-specific autoimmunity, tolerance, and apoptosis in a polyclonal B cell population. The results suggest that deletion, not editing, is the major irreversible pathway of tolerance induction among peripheral B cells.

  8. Transmembrane-truncated alphavbeta3 integrin retains high affinity for ligand binding: evidence for an 'inside-out' suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, R J; Diefenbach, B; Brown, A; Cullen, E; Jonczyk, A; Güssow, D; Luckenbach, G A; Goodman, S L

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of alphavbeta3 integrin affinity regulation have important biological implications in tumour development, wound repair and angiogenesis. We expressed, purified and characterized recombinant forms of human alphavbeta3 (r-alphavbeta3) and compared the activation state of these with alphavbeta3 in its cellular environment. The ligand specificity and selectivity of recombinant full-length and double transmembrane truncations of r-alphavbeta3 cloned in BacPAK6 vectors and expressed in Sf9 and High Five insect cells were compared with those of native placental alphavbeta3 and the receptor in situ on the cell surface. r-alphavbeta3 integrins were purified by affinity chromatography from detergent extracts of cells (full-length), and from the culture medium of cells expressing double-truncated r-alphavbeta3. r-alphavbeta3 had the same epitopes, ligand-binding specificities, bivalent cation requirements and susceptibility to RGD-containing peptides as native alphavbeta3. On M21-L4 melanoma cells, alphavbeta3 mediated binding to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen unless activated with Mn2+. Non-activated alphaIIbbeta3 integrin as control in M21-L-IIb cells had the opposite profile, mediating binding to fibrinogen, but not to vitronectin unless activated with Mn2+. Thus these receptors had moderate to low ligand affinity. In marked contrast, purified alphavbeta3 receptors, with or without transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, were constitutively of high affinity and able to bind strongly to vitronectin, fibronectin and fibrinogen under physiological conditions. Our data suggest that, in contrast with the positive regulation of alphaIIbbeta3 in situ, intracellular controls lower the affinity of alphavbeta3, and the cytoplasmic domains may act as a target for negative regulators of alphavbeta3 activity. PMID:9480902

  9. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alginate to Produce Oligosaccharides by a New Purified Endo-Type Alginate Lyase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Benwei; Chen, Meijuan; Yin, Heng; Du, Yuguang; Ning, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium alginate to produce alginate oligosaccharides has drawn increasing attention due to its advantages of containing a wild reaction condition, excellent gel properties and specific products easy for purification. However, the efficient commercial enzyme tools are rarely available. A new alginate lyase with high activity (24,038 U/mg) has been purified from a newly isolated marine strain, Cellulophaga sp. NJ-1. The enzyme was most active at 50 °C and pH 8.0 and maintained stability at a broad pH range (6.0–10.0) and temperature below 40 °C. It had broad substrate specificity toward sodium alginate, heteropolymeric MG blocks (polyMG), homopolymeric M blocks (polyM) and homopolymeric G blocks (polyG), and possessed higher affinity toward polyG (15.63 mM) as well as polyMG (23.90 mM) than polyM (53.61 mM) and sodium alginate (27.21 mM). The TLC and MS spectroscopy analysis of degradation products suggested that it completely hydrolyzed sodium alginate into oligosaccharides of low degrees of polymerization (DPs). The excellent properties would make it a promising tool for full use of sodium alginate to produce oligosaccharides. PMID:27275826

  10. Thermal Characterization of Purified Glucose Oxidase from A Newly Isolated Aspergillus Niger UAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Anjum Zia, Muhammad; Khalil-ur-Rahman; K. Saeed, Muhammad; Andaleeb, Fozia; I. Rajoka, Muhammad; A. Sheikh, Munir; A. Khan, Iftikhar; I. Khan, Azeem

    2007-01-01

    An intracellular glucose oxidase was isolated from the mycelium extract of a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger UAF-1. The enzyme was purified to a yield of 28.43% and specific activity of 135 U mg−1 through ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme showed high affinity for D-glucose with a Km value of 2.56 mM. The enzyme exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.5. Temperature optimum for glucose oxidase, catalyzed D-glucose oxidation was 40°C. The enzyme showed a high thermostability having a half-life 30 min, enthalpy of denaturation 99.66 kJ mol−1 and free energy of denaturation 103.63 kJ mol−1. These characteristics suggest the use of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger UAF-1 as an analytical reagent and in the design of biosensors for clinical, biochemical and diagnostic assays. PMID:18193107

  11. Procedure for rapid isolation of photosynthetic reaction centers using cytochrome c affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Brudvig, G.W.; Worland, S.T.; Sauer, K.

    1983-02-01

    Horse heart cytochrome c linked to Sepharose 4B is used to purify reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. This procedure allows for an initial recovery of 80-90% of the bacterial reaction centers present in chromatophore membranes. High purity reaction centers (A/sub 280//A/sub 802/ < 1.30) can be obtained with a 30% recovery. Reaction centers from wild-type Rps. sphaeroides and Rps. capsulata also bind to a cytochrome c column. Cytochrome c affinity chromatography can also be used to isolate photosystem I complexes from spinach chloroplasts.

  12. Rapid purification of circular DNA by triplex-mediated affinity capture

    DOEpatents

    Ji, H.; Smith, L.M.

    1997-01-07

    A single-step capture of a target supercoiled double-stranded DNA molecule is accomplished by forming a local triple-helix among two strands of the supercoiled circular DNA and an oligonucleotide probe. The oligonucleotide is bound to an immobilizing support which facilitates the immobilization and purification of target DNA molecules. Non-target DNA molecules and other contaminating cellular material are easily removed by washing. The triple-helical structure is destabilized by raising the pH, leaving purified target DNA in the supernatant and reusable affinity capture oligonucleotide secured to the immobilizing support. 3 figs.

  13. Rapid purification of circular DNA by triplex-mediated affinity capture

    DOEpatents

    Ji, Huamin; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1997-01-01

    A single-step capture of a target supercoiled double-stranded DNA molecule is accomplished by forming a local triple-helix among two strands of the supercoiled circular DNA and an oligonucleotide probe. The oligonucleotide is bound to an immobilizing support which facilitates the immobilization and purification of target DNA molecules. Non-target DNA molecules and other contaminating cellular material are easily removed by washing. The triple-helical structure is destabilized by raising the pH, leaving purified target DNA in the supernatant and reusable affinity capture oligonucleotide secured to the immobilizing support.

  14. One-step purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase using reactive dye-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cunxi; Lee, Thomas C; Crowley, Kathleen S; Bell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dye purification is an affinity purification technique offering unique selectivity and high purification potential. Historically, purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) has involved several steps of precipitation and column chromatography. Here, we describe a novel purification method that is simple, time-saving, inexpensive, and reproducible. The novel method employs a single chromatography step using a reactive dye resin, Reactive brown 10-agarose. Reactive brown 10 preferentially binds the PAT protein, which can then be specifically released by one of its substrates, acetyl-CoA. Using Reactive brown 10-agarose, PAT protein can be purified to homogeneity from E. coli or plant tissue with high recovery efficiency. PMID:25749943

  15. A microsomal ecdysone-binding cytochrome P450 from the insect Locusta migratoria purified by sequential use of type-II and type-I ligands.

    PubMed

    Winter, J; Eckerskorn, C; Waditschatka, R; Kayser, H

    2001-11-01

    A dual-affinity method was established to purify, for the first time, a microsomal ecdysone-binding cytochrome P450 protein from locust Malpighian tubules. This method involved, after prepurification on omega-octylamino-agarose and hydroxylapatite, binding of cytochrome P450 to an immobilized triazole-based general P450 inhibitor (type-II ligand) followed by elution with the substrate ecdysone (type-I ligand) of the bound cytochrome. The isolated material showed a typical cytochrome P450 spectrum, a specific heme content of 13 nmol/mg protein, and a prominent protein of about 60 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Based on a tryptic undecapeptide sequence the isolated protein may be identical to CYP6H1, a putative ecdysone 20-monooxygenase recently cloned from the same tissue. Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity could be partially reconstituted from microsomal detergent extracts, when supplemented with purified bovine cytochrome P450 reductase and detergent-extracted microsomes; reconstitution was not successful with any chromatographic fraction, however. Therefore, purification of the locust cytochrome P450 was monitored by ecdysone-induced type-I difference spectra, whenever applicable, in addition to carbon monoxide spectra. Affinity columns with matrix-bound diethylstilbestrol and testosterone 3-thiosemicarbazone, but not with the 17beta-hemisuccinate, yielded elution profiles with ecdysone that were comparable to those of the triazole matrix. The concept of dual-affinity chromatography described here may be generally applicable to the isolation of cytochromes P450.

  16. A microsomal ecdysone-binding cytochrome P450 from the insect Locusta migratoria purified by sequential use of type-II and type-I ligands.

    PubMed

    Winter, J; Eckerskorn, C; Waditschatka, R; Kayser, H

    2001-11-01

    A dual-affinity method was established to purify, for the first time, a microsomal ecdysone-binding cytochrome P450 protein from locust Malpighian tubules. This method involved, after prepurification on omega-octylamino-agarose and hydroxylapatite, binding of cytochrome P450 to an immobilized triazole-based general P450 inhibitor (type-II ligand) followed by elution with the substrate ecdysone (type-I ligand) of the bound cytochrome. The isolated material showed a typical cytochrome P450 spectrum, a specific heme content of 13 nmol/mg protein, and a prominent protein of about 60 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Based on a tryptic undecapeptide sequence the isolated protein may be identical to CYP6H1, a putative ecdysone 20-monooxygenase recently cloned from the same tissue. Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity could be partially reconstituted from microsomal detergent extracts, when supplemented with purified bovine cytochrome P450 reductase and detergent-extracted microsomes; reconstitution was not successful with any chromatographic fraction, however. Therefore, purification of the locust cytochrome P450 was monitored by ecdysone-induced type-I difference spectra, whenever applicable, in addition to carbon monoxide spectra. Affinity columns with matrix-bound diethylstilbestrol and testosterone 3-thiosemicarbazone, but not with the 17beta-hemisuccinate, yielded elution profiles with ecdysone that were comparable to those of the triazole matrix. The concept of dual-affinity chromatography described here may be generally applicable to the isolation of cytochromes P450. PMID:11767943

  17. Purification of Hemoglobin from Red Blood Cells using Tangential Flow Filtration and Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Jacob; Harris, David; Palmer, Andre F.

    2011-01-01

    Two methods for purifying hemoglobin (Hb) from red blood cells (RBCs) are examined and compared. In the first method, red blood cell lysate is clarified with a 50 nm tangential flow filter and hemoglobin is purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). In the second method, RBC lysate is processed with 50 nm, 500 kDa, and 50-100 kDa tangential flow filters, then hemoglobin is purified with IMAC. Our results show that the hemoglobins from both processes produce identical Hb products that are ultrapure and retain their biophysical properties (except for chicken hemoglobin, which shows erratic oxygen binding behavior after purification). Therefore, the most efficient method for Hb purification appears to be clarification with a 50 nm tangential flow filter, followed by purification with IMAC, and sample concentration/polishing on a 10-50 kDa tangential flow filter. PMID:21195679

  18. Purification of recombinant proteins from mammalian cell culture using a generic double-affinity chromatography scheme.

    PubMed

    Cass, Brian; Pham, Phuong Lan; Kamen, Amine; Durocher, Yves

    2005-03-01

    Transient transfection of mammalian cells has proven to be a useful technique for the rapid production of recombinant proteins because of its ability to produce milligram quantities within 2 weeks following cloning of their corresponding cDNA. This rapid production also requires a fast and efficient purification scheme that can be applied generically, typically through the use of affinity tags such as the polyhistidine-tag for capture by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC) or the Strep-tag II, which binds to the StrepTactin affinity ligand. However, one-step purification using either of these tags has disadvantages in terms of yield, elution conditions, and purity. Here, we show that the addition of both Strep-tag-II and (His)(8) to the C-terminal of r-proteins allows efficient purification by consecutive IMAC and StrepTactin affinity. This approach has been successfully demonstrated using the intracellular protein DsRed, as well as two secreted proteins, secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), all produced by transient transfection of HEK293-EBNA1 cells in medium supplemented with bovine calf serum. All proteins were purified to >99% homogeneity with yields varying from 29 to 81%. PMID:15721774

  19. Chemiluminescently labeled aptamers as the affinity probe for interaction analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Yi; Deng, Qin-Pei; Zhang, De-Wen; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2010-07-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid oligonucleotides, which can recognize targets with high affinity and specificity. Fluorescently labeled aptamers have been used as affinity probes in CE for interaction analysis. In this study, a method of labeling aptamers chemiluminescently with isoluminol isothiocyanate (ILITC) through covalent bonds was proposed and realized. The ILITC-labeled aptamers were characterized by HPLC-MS and purified by HPLC. After desalination, the ILITC-labeled aptamers were employed as the affinity probe for interaction analysis in CE coupled with chemiluminescence detection (CE-CL) by interface of end column reaction mode, the apparatus of which was home-designed and setup. CE-CL experiment conditions, including buffer pH, concentrations of horseradish peroxidase and H(2)O(2), were optimized first. The system of thrombin and its 29-mer aptamer was chosen as the model. Binding parameters, namely the dissociation constant (K(d)) and the binding site number (n), were calculated. The K(d) obtained was 124.0+/-6.9 nM in agreement with the reported values. Thus, interaction analysis method based on chemiluminescently labeled aptamers as the affinity probe in CE-CL has been established. This method can be widely applied due to the ease and universality of the labeling method, simplicity of CE-CL apparatus and combination with aptamers for a wide range of targets.

  20. Protecting group-free immobilization of glycans for affinity chromatography using glycosylsulfonohydrazide donors.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Armada, Daniel; Santos, Jobette T; Richards, Michele R; Cairo, Christopher W

    2015-11-19

    A variety of applications in glycobiology exploit affinity chromatography through the immobilization of glycans to a solid support. Although several strategies are known, they may provide certain advantages or disadvantages in how the sugar is attached to the affinity matrix. Additionally, the products of some methods may be hard to characterize chemically due to non-specific reactions. The lack of specificity in standard immobilization reactions makes affinity chromatography with expensive oligosaccharides challenging. As a result, methods for specific and efficient immobilization of oligosaccharides remain of interest. Herein, we present a method for the immobilization of saccharides using N'-glycosylsulfonohydrazide (GSH) carbohydrate donors. We have compared GSH immobilization to known strategies, including the use of divinyl sulfone (DVS) and cyanuric chloride (CC), for the generation of affinity matrices. We compared immobilization methods by determining their immobilization efficiency, based on a comparison of the mass of immobilized carbohydrate and the concentration of active binding sites (determined using lectins). Our results indicate that immobilization using GSH donors can provide comparable amounts of carbohydrate epitopes on solid support while consuming almost half of the material required for DVS immobilization. The lectin binding capacity observed for these two methods suggests that GSH immobilization is more efficient. We propose that this method of oligosaccharide immobilization will be an important tool for glycobiologists working with precious glycan samples purified from biological sources. PMID:26454791

  1. Baculovirus display for discovery of low-affinity extracellular receptor-ligand interactions using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Tom, Irene; Estevez, Alberto; Bowman, Krista; Gonzalez, Lino C

    2015-06-15

    When used in conjunction with multivalent protein probes, protein microarrays offer a robust technology for discovery of low-affinity extracellular protein-protein interactions. Probes for receptor-matching screens generally consist of purified extracellular domains fused to affinity tags. Given that approximately two-thirds of extracellular proteins are transmembrane domain-containing proteins, it would be desirable to develop a system to express and display probe receptors in a native-like membrane environment. Toward this end, we evaluated baculovirus display as a platform for generating multivalent probes for protein microarray screens. Virion particles were generated displaying single-transmembrane domain receptors BTLA, CD200, and EFNB2, representing a range of affinities for their interacting partners. Virions directly labeled with Cy5 fluorophore were screened against a microarray containing more than 600 extracellular proteins, and the results were compared with data derived from soluble Fc protein or probe-coated protein A microbeads. An optimized protocol employing a blocking step with a nonrelated probe-expressing control baculovirus allowed identification of the expected interactions with a signal-to-noise ratio similar to or higher than those obtained with the other formats. Our results demonstrate that baculovirus display is suitable for detection of high- and low-affinity extracellular protein-protein interactions on protein microarrays. This platform eliminates the need for protein purification and provides a native-like lipid environment for membrane-associated receptors. PMID:25797350

  2. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    SciTech Connect

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. )

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  3. Purified recombinant EBV desoxyribonuclease in serological diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, M C; Debouze, S; Ng, M; Sham, J; Choy, D; Bouguermouh, A; Chan, K H; Ooka, T

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate applications of highly purified recombinant EBV DNAase in the diagnosis and prognosis of NPC, we tested sera from patients with NPC, other EBV-associated diseases and EBV-seropositive and -seronegative healthy subjects by immunoblotting and DNAase inhibitory assay. The results were compared with those obtained by the conventional immunofluorescence assays against the EBV-specified early antigens and capsid antigens. The antigenic specificity of the immunoblotting assay for IgG antibody against the viral enzyme, but not that for the IgA antibody, was correlated with DNAase-inhibitory activity of the sera and their titers of IgG antibodies against the viral early antigens. Purified IgA as well as IgG from NPC sera inhibited enzyme activity with similar efficiency. The use of highly purified viral DNase has increased the sensitivity of detection of the corresponding antibodies by immunoblotting, with the IgG antibody being detected in all but one, and IgA antibody in all but 2, of the 174 NPC sera tested. The IgG antibody was also commonly detected in the other groups of control sera, while the IgA antibody was detected in about 10% of African Burkitt's lymphoma and Algerian Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and less than 3% of the other control subjects. These results suggest that IgA antibody against recombinant EBV DNAase may be useful in the diagnosis of NPC, but the level of this antibody did not appear to be related to clinical stages of this cancer. PMID:8621254

  4. Mitogenic effects of purified outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y H; Hancock, R E; Mishell, R I

    1980-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were purified and tested for their ability to stimulate resting murine lymphocytes to proliferate. It was demonstrated that picomole amounts of all three proteins were mitogenic for both intact and T-lymphocyte-depleted populations of spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice. In contrast, they had no activity against either mature or immature thymocytes. Since the strain of mice used is unable to respond to lipopolysaccharide, we condlude that the three proteins are B-cell mitogens. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6769818

  5. Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

  6. Thermostable purified endoglucanas from acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel

    1994-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068). The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.

  7. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Adney, W.S.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-01-04

    A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is presented. The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1] and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 7 figures.

  8. Functionality and stability data of detergent purified nAChR from Torpedo using lipidic matrixes and macroscopic electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F; Colón-Sáez, José O; González-Nieves, Joel E; Quesada-González, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-03-01

    The presented data provides additional information about the assessment of affinity purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) rich membrane solubilized with long chain (16 saturated carbons) lysophospholipid with glycerol headgroup (LFG-16). The assessment of stability and functionality of solubilized membrane protein is a critical step prior to further crystallization trails. One of the key factors for this task is the appropriate choice of a detergent that can support nAChR activity and stability comparable to the crude membranes. The stability of the nAChR-LFG-16 complex incorporated into lipid cubic phase (LCP) was monitored for a period of 30 days by means of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and the functionality was evaluated after its incorporation into Xenopus oocyte by means of the two electrode voltage clamp technique. PMID:26870753

  9. Engineering a reversible, high-affinity system for efficient protein purification based on the cohesin-dockerin interaction.

    PubMed

    Karpol, Alon; Kantorovich, Lia; Demishtein, Alik; Barak, Yoav; Morag, Ely; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2009-01-01

    Efficient degradation of cellulose by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, is carried out by the multi-enzyme cellulosome complex. The enzymes on the complex are attached in a calcium-dependent manner via their dockerin (Doc) module to a cohesin (Coh) module of the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit. In this study, we have optimized the Coh-Doc interaction for the purpose of protein affinity purification. A C. thermocellum Coh module was thus fused to a carbohydrate-binding module, and the resultant fusion protein was applied directly onto beaded cellulose, thereby serving as a non-covalent "activation" procedure. A complementary Doc module was then fused to a model protein target: xylanase T-6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the binding to the immobilized Coh was only partially reversible upon treatment with EDTA, and only negligible amounts of the target protein were eluted from the affinity column. In order to improve protein elution, a series of truncated Docs were designed in which the calcium-coordinating function was impaired without appreciably affecting high-affinity binding to Coh. A shortened Doc of only 48 residues was sufficient to function as an effective affinity tag, and highly purified target protein was achieved directly from crude cell extracts in a single step with near-quantitative recovery of the target protein. Effective EDTA-mediated elution of the sequestered protein from the column was the key step of the procedure. The affinity column was reusable and maintained very high levels of capacity upon repeated rounds of loading and elution. Reusable Coh-Doc affinity columns thus provide an efficient and attractive approach for purifying proteins in high yield by modifying the calcium-binding loop of the Doc module. PMID:18979459

  10. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition of calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.

  11. Production and Purification of Streptokinase by Protected Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Babashamsi, Mohammad; Razavian, Mohammad Hossein; Nejadmoghaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Streptokinase is an extracellular protein, extracted from certain strains of beta hemolytic streptococcus. It is a non-protease plasminogen activator that activates plasminogen to plasmin, the enzyme that degrades fibrin cloth through its specific lysine binding site; it is used therefore as a drug in thrombolytic therapy. The rate of bacterial growth and streptokinase production was studied in condition of excess glucose addition to culture media and its pH maintenance. The streptokinase product of the bacterial culture was preliminary extracted by salt precipitation and then purified by affinity chromatography on plasminogen substituted sepharose-4B in a condition that the plasminogen active site was protected from streptokinase-induced activation. The purity of streptokinase was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and its biological activity determined in a specific streptokinase assay. The results showed that in the fed–batch culture, the rate of streptokinase production increased over two times as compared with the batch culture while at the same time, shortening the streptokinase purification to a single step increased the yield over 95% at the chromatography stage. PMID:23407807

  12. A reference preparation of buffalo pituitary follicle stimulating hormone using lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chand, Hitendra S; Chaudhary, Rajesh; Muralidhar, K

    2005-01-01

    An improved and cost effective method to isolate FSH from buffalo pituitary glands is described here. The buFSH activity was monitored throughout by a highly sensitive heterologous radioimmunoassay (sensitivity 0.2 ng oFSH/mL) and the in vivo biological activity of the final preparation was also established. A biologically active buFSH-enriched preparation with a moderate recovery (42%) was obtained. The yield of the final buFSH-enriched preparation was 26.5 mg/kg of buffalo pituitary gland. In SDS-PAGE, the purified buFSH resolved as a heterodimer of 30 kDa molecular size, with a 21 kDa presumptive alpha-subunit. This preparation was also characterized in terms of biological and some of its physicochemical properties. A high-titer antiserum to buFSH was also raised in rabbit using this preparation. The reagents generated, buFSH and buFSH-specific polyclonal antisera, have possible diagnostic and therapeutic usage for improvement of reproductive health of water buffaloes.

  13. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339

  14. BC(50): a generalized, unifying affinity descriptor.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Alberto; Francesconi, Oscar; Roelens, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Assessing binding affinities is an unavoidable step that we come across any time interactions between binding species are investigated. A quantitative evaluation of binding affinities relies on the determination of binding constants but, whilst the binding constant fully defines the affinity of a reagent for a ligand when only one complex species is formed, the same is not true when the interacting partners form more than one complex of different stoichiometry, because all complexes contribute to the overall binding affinity. Unfortunately, this situation is the rule rather than the exception in chemical systems, but a generally accepted solution for this issue has not yet been settled. In this Personal Account, we describe the evolution, from the initial idea to a fully developed stage, of a binding descriptor that has been developed with the aim of filling this gap, thereby providing scientists in all fields of chemistry with a unifying tool for the assessment of binding affinities based on the knowledge of the binding constants in systems that involve any number of complex species.

  15. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.

  16. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339

  17. Magnetism for understanding catalyst analysis of purified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouard, Christine; Mercier, Guillaume; Cahen, Sébastien; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Gleize, Jérôme; Lamura, Gianrico; Hérold, Claire; Vigolo, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    The precise quantification of catalyst residues in purified carbon nanotubes is often a major issue in view of any fundamental and/or applicative studies. More importantly, since the best CNTs are successfully grown with magnetic catalysts, their quantification becomes strictly necessary to better understand intrinsic properties of CNT. For these reasons, we have deeply analyzed the catalyst content remained in nickel-yttrium arc-discharge single walled carbon nanotubes purified by both a chlorine-gas phase and a standard acid-based treatment. The study focuses on Ni analysis which has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, and magnetic measurements. In the case of the acid-based treatment, all quantifications result in a decrease of the nanocrystallized Ni by a factor of two. In the case of the halogen gas treatment, analysis and quantification of Ni content is less straightforward: a huge difference appears between X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry results. Thanks to magnetic measurements, this disagreement is explained by the presence of Ni2+ ions, belonging to NiCl2 formed during the Cl-based purification process. In particular, NiCl2 compound appears under different magnetic/crystalline phases: paramagnetic or diamagnetic, or well intercalated in between carbon sheets with an ordered magnetic phase at low temperature.

  18. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Richard L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Sears, Mark K.; Stanley-Horn, Diane E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Mattila, Heather R.; Spencer, Terrence; Bidne, Keith G.; Lewis, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt toxins indicate that Cry9C and Cry1F proteins are relatively nontoxic to monarch first instars, whereas first instars are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins. Older instars were 12 to 23 times less susceptible to Cry1Ab toxin compared with first instars. Pollen bioassays suggest that pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results. The only transgenic corn pollen that consistently affected monarch larvae was from Cry1Ab event 176 hybrids, currently <2% corn planted and for which re-registration has not been applied. Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab (events Bt11 and Mon810) and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings. PMID:11559841

  19. Life cycle assessment comparison of photocatalytic coating and air purifier.

    PubMed

    Tichá, Marie; Žilka, Miroslav; Stieberová, Barbora; Freiberg, František

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a comparison of 2 very different options for removal of undesirable microorganisms and airborne pollutants from the indoor environment of hospitals, schools, homes, and other enclosed spaces using air purifiers and photocatalytic coatings based on nano titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Both products were assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology from cradle-to-grave. The assessment also includes comparison of 2 different nano TiO2 production technologies, one by continuous hydrothermal synthesis and the other by a sulfate process. Results of the study showed a relatively large contribution of photocatalytic coatings to reducing the effects of selected indices in comparison with an air purifier, regardless of which nano TiO2 production method is used. Although the impacts of the sulfate process are significantly lower compared to those of hydrothermal synthesis when viewed in terms of production alone, taken in the context of the entire product life cycle, the net difference becomes less significant. The study has been elaborated within the Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials (SHYMAN) project, which aims to develop competitive and sustainable continuous nanoparticle (NP) production technology based on supercritical hydrothermal synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:478-485. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Life cycle assessment comparison of photocatalytic coating and air purifier.

    PubMed

    Tichá, Marie; Žilka, Miroslav; Stieberová, Barbora; Freiberg, František

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a comparison of 2 very different options for removal of undesirable microorganisms and airborne pollutants from the indoor environment of hospitals, schools, homes, and other enclosed spaces using air purifiers and photocatalytic coatings based on nano titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Both products were assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology from cradle-to-grave. The assessment also includes comparison of 2 different nano TiO2 production technologies, one by continuous hydrothermal synthesis and the other by a sulfate process. Results of the study showed a relatively large contribution of photocatalytic coatings to reducing the effects of selected indices in comparison with an air purifier, regardless of which nano TiO2 production method is used. Although the impacts of the sulfate process are significantly lower compared to those of hydrothermal synthesis when viewed in terms of production alone, taken in the context of the entire product life cycle, the net difference becomes less significant. The study has been elaborated within the Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials (SHYMAN) project, which aims to develop competitive and sustainable continuous nanoparticle (NP) production technology based on supercritical hydrothermal synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:478-485. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27082715

  1. Antiviral activity of purified human breast milk mucin.

    PubMed

    Habte, Habtom H; Kotwal, Girish J; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Abrahams, Melissa; Rodriques, Jerry; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast fed infants against microbes, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize the breast milk mucin and determine its anti-poxvirus activity. In this study human milk mucin, free of contaminant protein and of sufficient quantity for further analysis, was isolated and purified by Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration and cesiumchloride density-gradient centrifugation. Based on the criteria of size and appearance of the bands and their electrophoretic mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, Western blotting together with the amino acid analysis, it is very likely that the human breast milk mucin is MUC1. It was shown that this breast milk mucin inhibits poxvirus activity by 100% using an inhibition assay with a viral concentration of 2.4 million plaque-forming units/ml. As the milk mucin seems to aggregate poxviruses prior to their entry into host cells, it is possible that this mucin may also inhibit other enveloped viruses such as HIV from entry into host cells. PMID:17361093

  2. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, R L; Siegfried, B D; Sears, M K; Stanley-Horn, D E; Daniels, M J; Mattila, H R; Spencer, T; Bidne, K G; Lewis, L C

    2001-10-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt toxins indicate that Cry9C and Cry1F proteins are relatively nontoxic to monarch first instars, whereas first instars are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins. Older instars were 12 to 23 times less susceptible to Cry1Ab toxin compared with first instars. Pollen bioassays suggest that pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results. The only transgenic corn pollen that consistently affected monarch larvae was from Cry1Ab event 176 hybrids, currently <2% corn planted and for which re-registration has not been applied. Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab (events Bt11 and Mon810) and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings. PMID:11559841

  3. Identity, Affinity, Reality: Making the Case for Affinity Groups in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Julie; Ridley, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Affinity groups are places where students build connections and process "ouch" moments from their classes. Children talk about the isolation they sometimes feel. The relationships students gain through race-based affinity groups enable them to feel less alone with their emotions and help them build a stronger sense of self. At the same time,…

  4. Stepparents' Affinity-Seeking and Affinity-Maintaining Strategies with Stepchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Fine, Mark; Martin, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the strategies that stepparents use to develop and maintain affinity with stepchildren and the effects that these strategies have on the development of stepparent-stepchildren relationships. Thirty-one affinity-seeking strategies are identified. Results show that dyadic activities worked best, but it is important that stepchildren…

  5. Multiple forms of the human gene-specific transcription factor USF. II. DNA binding properties and transcriptional activity of the purified HeLa USF.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, M

    1988-08-25

    The gene-specific upstream stimulatory transcription factor (USF) is required for maximal expression of the adenovirus major late promoter in vivo as well as in vitro. We have examined the DNA binding and transcriptional properties of USF purified to near-homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei (Sawadogo, M., Van Dyke, M. W., Gregor, P. D., and Roeder, R. G. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11985-11993). The 44-and 43,000-dalton forms of USF displayed identical affinities for the major late promoter upstream sequence. Specific binding parameters were greatly influenced by neighboring sequences, but not by the topological state of the DNA. The dissociation rate was highly dependent upon the concentration of competitor DNA, indicating that USF can efficiently transfer from one binding site to another by passing through a doubly bound intermediate state (direct transfer mechanism). Transcription stimulation by purified USF showed titration curves identical to those observed with cruder preparations of the transcription factor. However, the overall stimulation observed at saturating USF concentration was significantly lower with the purified protein. By contrast, interaction with TATA box-binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor D was observed with both USF-containing fractions. This could suggest the existence of two different mechanisms for upstream sequence-dependent transcription stimulation, where one critical component (or some necessary modification of the upstream factor itself) may be missing in reactions reconstituted with purified USF.

  6. Development of a Cost-effective Ovine Polyclonal Antibody-Based Product, EBOTAb, to Treat Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart David; Callan, Jo; Zeltina, Antra; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Strecker, Thomas; Fehling, Sarah K.; Krähling, Verena; Bosworth, Andrew; Rayner, Emma; Taylor, Irene; Charlton, Sue; Landon, John; Cameron, Ian; Hewson, Roger; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Bowden, Thomas A.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    The highly glycosylated glycoprotein spike of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP1,2) is the primary target of the humoral host response. Recombinant EBOV-GP ectodomain (EBOV-GP1,2ecto) expressed in mammalian cells was used to immunize sheep and elicited a robust immune response and produced high titers of high avidity polyclonal antibodies. Investigation of the neutralizing activity of the ovine antisera in vitro revealed that it neutralized EBOV. A pool of intact ovine immunoglobulin G, herein termed EBOTAb, was prepared from the antisera and used for an in vivo guinea pig study. When EBOTAb was delivered 6 hours after challenge, all animals survived without experiencing fever or other clinical manifestations. In a second series of guinea pig studies, the administration of EBOTAb dosing was delayed for 48 or 72 hours after challenge, resulting in 100% and 75% survival, respectively. These studies illustrate the usefulness of EBOTAb in protecting against EBOV-induced disease. PMID:26715676

  7. Matrix effects in applying mono- and polyclonal ELISA systems to the analysis of weathered oils in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pollard, S J T; Farmer, J G; Knight, D M; Young, P J

    2002-01-01

    Commercial mono- and polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems were applied to the on-site analysis of weathered hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at a former integrated steelworks. Comparisons were made between concentrations of solvent extractable matter (SEM) determined gravimetrically by Soxhlet (dichloromethane) extraction and those estimated immunologically by ELISA determination over a concentration range of 2000-330,000 mg SEM/kg soil dry weight. Both ELISA systems tinder-reported for the more weathered soil samples. Results suggest this is due to matrix effects in the sample rather than any inherent bias in the ELISA systems and it is concluded that, for weathered hydrocarbons typical of steelworks and coke production sites, the use of ELISA requires careful consideration as a field technique. Consideration of the target analyte relative to the composition of the hydrocarbon waste encountered appears critical.

  8. Detection of Rubisco and mycotoxins as potential contaminants of a plantibody against the hepatitis B surface antigen purified from tobacco.

    PubMed

    Geada, Déborah; Valdés, Rodolfo; Escobar, Arturo; Ares, Dulce M; Torres, Edel; Blanco, Reinaldo; Ferro, Williams; Dorta, Dayamí; González, Marcos; Alemán, María R; Padilla, Sigifredo; Gómez, Leonardo; Del Castillo, Norma; Mendoza, Otto; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Soria, Yordanka; Brito, José; Leyva, Alberto; Borroto, Carlos; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2007-10-01

    Antibodies have been one of the proteins widely expressed in tobacco plants for pharmaceutical purposes, which demand contaminant free preparations. Rubisco constitutes 40-60% of tobacco leaf soluble proteins; therefore it is the major potential protein contaminant of plantibodies, while mycotoxins are toxic compounds that could be introduced during the biomass production and post-harvest stages with important consequences to human health. The objective of this paper was to investigate whether Rubisco and mycotoxins are present in Plantibody HB-01 preparations used in the immunopurification of the hepatitis B surface antigen. Rubisco was purified from Nicotiana tabacum yielding 154 microg of protein per gram of leaves and purity over 95%. Among mouse monoclonal antibodies generated against this enzyme, the CBSS.Rub-2 was selected for its immunodetection. It recognizes a conserved sequential epitope of Rubisco large subunit with an affinity constant of 0.13 x 10(8)M(-1). Rubisco quantification limit was 1 microg spreading to the measurement of this contaminant less than 4% of plantibodies samples. Additionally, according to a Reverse Phase-HPLC used to measure the level of adventitiously introduced contaminants, it can be concluded that aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were undetected in the purified Plantibody HB-01 samples.

  9. European and international collaboration in affinity proteomics.

    PubMed

    Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2012-06-15

    In affinity proteomics, specific protein-binding molecules (a.k.a. binders), principally antibodies, are applied as reagents in proteome analysis. In recent years, advances in binder technologies have created the potential for an unprecedented view on protein expression and distribution patterns in plasma, cells and tissues and increasingly on protein function. Particular strengths of affinity proteomics methods include detecting proteins in their natural environments of cell or tissue, high sensitivity and selectivity for detection of low abundance proteins and exploiting binding actions such as functional interference in living cells. To maximise the use and impact of affinity reagents, it will be essential to create comprehensive, standardised binder collections. With this in mind, the EU FP7 programme AFFINOMICS (http://www.affinomics.org), together with the preceding EU programmes ProteomeBinders and AffinityProteome, aims to extend affinity proteomics research by generating a large-scale resource of validated protein-binding molecules for characterisation of the human proteome. Activity is directed at producing binders to about 1000 protein targets, primarily in signal transduction and cancer, by establishing a high throughput, coordinated production pipeline. An important aspect of AFFINOMICS is the development of highly efficient recombinant selection methods, based on phage, cell and ribosome display, capable of producing high quality binders at greater throughput and lower cost than hitherto. The programme also involves development of innovative and sensitive technologies for specific detection of target proteins and their interactions, and deployment of binders in proteomics studies of clinical relevance. The need for such binder generation programmes is now recognised internationally, with parallel initiatives in the USA for cancer (NCI) and transcription factors (NIH) and within the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO). The papers in this volume of New

  10. Displacement phenomena in lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026

  11. The dynamics of metric-affine gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. > The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. > Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. > f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy theories to

  12. A Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Polymorphism Confers Resistance to Neutralization by Polyclonal Sera and Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wasilewski, Lisa N.; El-Diwany, Ramy; Munshaw, Supriya; Snider, Anna E.; Brady, Jillian K.; Osburn, William O.; Ray, Stuart C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem, with millions of chronically infected individuals at risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV vaccine development is vital in the effort toward disease control and eradication, an undertaking aided by an increased understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). In this study, we identified HCV codons that vary deep in a phylogenetic tree of HCV sequences and showed that a polymorphism at one of these positions renders Bole1a, a computationally derived, ancestral genotype 1a HCV strain, resistant to neutralization by both polyclonal-HCV-infected plasma and multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with unique binding epitopes. This bNAb resistance mutation reduces replicative fitness, which may explain the persistence of both neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant variants in circulating viral strains. This work identifies an important determinant of bNAb resistance in an ancestral, representative HCV genome, which may inform HCV vaccine development. IMPORTANCE Worldwide, more than 170 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation in the United States. Despite recent significant advances in HCV treatment, a vaccine is needed. Control of the HCV pandemic with drug treatment alone is likely to fail due to limited access to treatment, reinfections in high-risk individuals, and the potential for resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) block infection by diverse HCV variants and therefore serve as a useful guide for vaccine development, but our understanding of resistance to bNAbs is incomplete. In this report, we identify a viral polymorphism conferring resistance to neutralization by both polyclonal plasma and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, which may inform HCV vaccine development

  13. 10-nm filaments are induced to collapse in living cells microinjected with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against tubulin

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Cells were microinjected with four mouse monoclonal antibodies that were directed against either alpha- or beta-tubulin subunits, one monoclonal with activity against both subunits, and a guinea pig polyclonal antibody with activity directed against both subunits, to determine the effects on the distribution of cytoplasmic microtubules and 10-nm filaments. The specificities of the antibodies were confirmed by Western blots, solid phase radioimmunoassay, and Western blot analysis of alpha- and beta-tubulin peptide maps. Two monoclonals DM1A and DM3B3, an anti-alpha- and anti-beta-tubulin respectively, and the guinea pig polyclonal anti-alpha/beta-tubulin antibody (GP1T4) caused the 10-nm filaments to collapse into large lateral aggregates collecting in the cell periphery or tight juxtanuclear caps; the other monoclonal antibodies had no effect when microinjected into cells. The filament collapsing was observed to be complete at 1.5-2 h after injection. During the first 30 min after injection a few cytoplasmic microtubules near the cell periphery could be observed by fluorescence microscopy. This observation was confirmed by electron microscopy, which also demonstrated assembled microtubules in the juxtanuclear region. By 1.5 h, when most of the 10-nm filaments were collapsed, the complete cytoplasmic array of microtubules was observed. Cells injected in prophase were able to assemble a mitotic spindle, suggesting that the antibody did not block microtubule assembly. Metabolic labeling with [35S]methionine of microinjected cells revealed that total protein synthesis was the same as that observed in uninjected cells. This indicated that the microinjected antibody apparently did not produce deleterious effects on cellular metabolism. These results suggest that through a direct interaction of antibodies with either alpha- or beta- tubulin subunits, 10-nm filaments were dissociated from their normal distribution. It is possible that the antibodies disrupted postulated 10

  14. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  15. Negative Electron Affinity Mechanism for Diamond Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, I. L.; Asnin, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The energy distribution of the secondary electrons for chemical vacuum deposited diamond films with Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) was investigated. It was found that while for completely hydrogenated diamond surfaces the negative electron affinity peak in the energy spectrum of the secondary electrons is present for any energy of the primary electrons, for partially hydrogenated diamond surfaces there is a critical energy above which the peak is present in the spectrum. This critical energy increases sharply when hydrogen coverage of the diamond surface diminishes. This effect was explained by the change of the NEA from the true type for the completely hydrogenated surface to the effective type for the partially hydrogenated surfaces.

  16. Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.

  17. New unitary affine-Virasoro constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.; Kiritsis, E.; Obers, N.A.; Poratti, M. ); Yamron, J.P. )

    1990-06-20

    This paper reports on a quasi-systematic investigation of the Virasoro master equation. The space of all affine-Virasoro constructions is organized by K-conjugation into affine-Virasoro nests, and an estimate of the dimension of the space shows that most solutions await discovery. With consistent ansatze for the master equation, large classes of new unitary nests are constructed, including quadratic deformation nests with continuous conformal weights, and unitary irrational central charge nests, which may dominate unitary rational central charge on compact g.

  18. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and immunoreactivity of recombinant Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lesley A; Yu, Meng; Waddington, Lynne J; Barr, Jennifer A; Scoble, Judith A; Crameri, Gary S; McKinstry, William J

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus (family Paramyxoviridae) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus (NSRV) which has been found to cause disease in humans, horses, and experimentally in other animals, e.g. pigs and cats. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been identified as the natural host reservoir. The Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein (HeV N) represents the most abundant viral protein produced by the host cell, and is highly immunogenic with naturally infected humans and horses producing specific antibodies towards this protein. The purpose of this study was to express and purify soluble, functionally active recombinant HeV N, suitable for use as an immunodiagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against HeV. We expressed both full-length HeV N, (HeV NFL), and a C-terminal truncated form, (HeV NCORE), using a bacterial heterologous expression system. Both HeV N constructs were engineered with an N-terminal Hisx6 tag, and purified using a combination of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Purified recombinant HeV N proteins self-assembled into soluble higher order oligomers as determined by SEC and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Both HeV N proteins were highly immuno-reactive with sera from animals and humans infected with either HeV or the closely related Nipah virus (NiV), but displayed no immuno-reactivity towards sera from animals infected with a non-pathogenic paramyxovirus (CedPV), or animals receiving Equivac® (HeV G glycoprotein subunit vaccine), using a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay.

  19. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and immunoreactivity of recombinant Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lesley A; Yu, Meng; Waddington, Lynne J; Barr, Jennifer A; Scoble, Judith A; Crameri, Gary S; McKinstry, William J

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus (family Paramyxoviridae) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus (NSRV) which has been found to cause disease in humans, horses, and experimentally in other animals, e.g. pigs and cats. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been identified as the natural host reservoir. The Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein (HeV N) represents the most abundant viral protein produced by the host cell, and is highly immunogenic with naturally infected humans and horses producing specific antibodies towards this protein. The purpose of this study was to express and purify soluble, functionally active recombinant HeV N, suitable for use as an immunodiagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against HeV. We expressed both full-length HeV N, (HeV NFL), and a C-terminal truncated form, (HeV NCORE), using a bacterial heterologous expression system. Both HeV N constructs were engineered with an N-terminal Hisx6 tag, and purified using a combination of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Purified recombinant HeV N proteins self-assembled into soluble higher order oligomers as determined by SEC and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Both HeV N proteins were highly immuno-reactive with sera from animals and humans infected with either HeV or the closely related Nipah virus (NiV), but displayed no immuno-reactivity towards sera from animals infected with a non-pathogenic paramyxovirus (CedPV), or animals receiving Equivac® (HeV G glycoprotein subunit vaccine), using a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay. PMID:26196500

  20. Functional analysis of novel Rab GTPases identified in the proteome of purified Legionella-containing vacuoles from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Christine; Finsel, Ivo; Otto, Andreas; Pfaffinger, Gudrun; Rothmeier, Eva; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte; Hilbi, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Legionella pneumophila employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and ∼300 different effector proteins to replicate in macrophages and amoebae in a distinct 'Legionella-containing vacuole' (LCV). LCVs from infected RAW 264.7 macrophages were enriched by immuno-affinity separation and density gradient centrifugation, using an antibody against the L. pneumophila effector SidC, which specifically binds to the phosphoinositide PtdIns(4)P on the pathogen vacuole membrane. The proteome of purified LCVs was determined by mass spectro-metry (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000647). The proteomics analysis revealed more than 1150 host proteins, including 13 small GTPases of the Rab family. Using fluorescence microscopy, 6 novel Rab proteins were confirmed to localize on pathogen vacuoles harbouring wild-type but not ΔicmT mutant L. pneumophila. Individual depletion of 20 GTPases by RNA interference indicated that endocytic GTPases (Rab5a, Rab14 and Rab21) restrict intracellular growth of L. pneumophila, whereas secretory GTPases (Rab8a, Rab10 and Rab32) implicated in Golgi-endosome trafficking promote bacterial replication. Upon silencing of Rab21 or Rab32, fewer LCVs stained positive for Rab4 or Rab9, implicated in secretory or retrograde trafficking respectively. Moreover, depletion of Rab8a, Rab14 or Rab21 significantly decreased the number of SidC-positive LCVs, suggesting that PtdIns(4)P is reduced under these conditions. L. pneumophila proteins identified in purified LCVs included proteins putatively implicated in phosphorus metabolism and as many as 60 Icm/Dot-translocated effectors, which are likely required early during infection. Taken together, the phagocyte and Legionella proteomes of purified LCVs lay the foundation for further hypothesis-driven investigations of the complex process of pathogen vacuole formation.

  1. Molecular dissection of step 2 catalysis of yeast pre-mRNA splicing investigated in a purified system.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Thomas; Odenwälder, Peter; Dannenberg, Julia; Prior, Mira; Warkocki, Zbigniew; Schmitzová, Jana; Karaduman, Ramazan; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Fabrizio, Patrizia; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Step 2 catalysis of pre-mRNA splicing entails the excision of the intron and ligation of the 5' and 3' exons. The tasks of the splicing factors Prp16, Slu7, Prp18, and Prp22 in the formation of the step 2 active site of the spliceosome and in exon ligation, and the timing of their recruitment, remain poorly understood. Using a purified yeast in vitro splicing system, we show that only the DEAH-box ATPase Prp16 is required for formation of a functional step 2 active site and for exon ligation. Efficient docking of the 3' splice site (3'SS) to the active site requires only Slu7/Prp18 but not Prp22. Spliceosome remodeling by Prp16 appears to be subtle as only the step 1 factor Cwc25 is dissociated prior to step 2 catalysis, with its release dependent on docking of the 3'SS to the active site and Prp16 action. We show by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy that Slu7/Prp18 and Prp16 bind early to distinct, low-affinity binding sites on the step-1-activated B* spliceosome, which are subsequently converted into high-affinity sites. Our results shed new light on the factor requirements for step 2 catalysis and the dynamics of step 1 and 2 factors during the catalytic steps of splicing.

  2. Affinity purification of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides using immobilized ACE.

    PubMed

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, María del Mar; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2006-09-20

    A lung extract rich in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and pure ACE were immobilized by reaction with the activated support 4 BCL glyoxyl-agarose. These immobilized ACE derivatives were used for purification of ACE inhibitory peptides by affinity chromatography. The immobilized lung extract was used to purify inhibitory peptides from sunflower and rapeseed protein hydrolysates that had been obtained by treatment of protein isolates with alcalase. The ACE binding peptides that were retained by the derivatives were specifically released by treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril and further purified by reverse-phase C18 HPLC chromatography. Inhibitory peptides with IC50 50 and 150 times lower than those of the original sunflower and rapeseed hydrolysates, respectively, were obtained. The derivative prepared using pure ACE was used for purification of ACE inhibitory peptides from the same type of sunflower protein hydrolysate. ACE binding peptides were released from the ACE-agarose derivatives by treatment with 1 M NaCl and had an IC50 a little higher than those obtained using immobilized extract and elution with captopril. Affinity chromatography facilitated the purification of ACE inhibitory peptides and potentially other bioactive peptides present in food proteins.

  3. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  4. Affinity purification of protein complexes for analysis by multidimensional protein identification technology.

    PubMed

    Banks, Charles A S; Kong, Stephanie E; Washburn, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing protein complexes and identifying their subunits promote our understanding of the machinery involved in many in vivo processes. Proteomic studies can identify a protein's binding partners, and this can provide insight into how protein complexes function and how they are regulated. In addition, the composition of a protein complex within an organism can be investigated as a function of time, as a function of location, or during the response of an organism to a change in environment. There are many ways to isolate a complex and identify its constituents. This review will focus on complex isolation using affinity purification and will address issues that biochemists should bear in mind as they isolate protein complexes for mass spectrometric analysis by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT)(1). Protein complex analysis by mass spectrometry frequently involves the collaborative efforts of biochemists or biologists who purify protein complexes and proteomic specialists who analyze the samples - for fruitful collaborations it can be helpful for these specialized groups to be acquainted with basic principles of their collaborator's discipline. With this in mind, we first review the variety of affinity purification methods which might be considered for preparing complexes for analysis, and then provide brief primers on the principles of MudPIT mass spectrometry and data analysis. From this foundation, we then discuss how these techniques are integrated and optimized and suggest salient points to consider when preparing purified samples for protein identification, performing mass spectrometry runs, and analyzing the resulting data.

  5. Regulator of insulin receptor affinity in rat skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, R.H.; Barnard, K.J.; Kaplan, S.A.; Itakura, K.

    1986-05-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity purification of detergent solubilized insulin receptors (IR) from rat skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles resulted in an apparent increase in total insulin binding activity of greater than 5-fold, suggesting that an inhibitory component had been removed. This was verified when the flow-through fraction from the WGA column was dialyzed and added back to the partially purified receptor. The addition of a 100-fold dilution of the inhibitor preparation caused a 50% reduction in binding to trace amounts of /sup 125/I-insulin. Scatchard analysis revealed that the effect of the inhibitor was to decrease the affinity of the muscle IR. The inhibitor appeared to be tissue specific, inasmuch as the I/sub 50/'s for WGA-purified IR from rat fat and liver were 10 times the I/sub 50/ for muscle IR. The I/sub 50/ for insulin binding to intact IM-9 cells was 30 times the value for muscle IR. The inhibitor eluted in the void volume of Sephadex G-50 columns. Its activity was not destroyed by heating at 90/sup 0/C for 10 minutes, or by prolonged incubation with trypsin or dithiothreitol. The inhibitor described here may have a role in modulating insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle.

  6. Removal of PCR Error Products and Unincorporated Primers by Metal-Chelate Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kanakaraj, Indhu; Jewell, David L.; Murphy, Jason C.; Fox, George E.; Willson, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) has been used for decades to purify proteins on the basis of amino acid content, especially surface-exposed histidines and “histidine tags” genetically added to recombinant proteins. We and others have extended the use of IMAC to purification of nucleic acids via interactions with the nucleotide bases, especially purines, of single-stranded RNA and DNA. We also have demonstrated the purification of plasmid DNA from contaminating genomic DNA by IMAC capture of selectively-denatured genomic DNA. Here we describe an efficient method of purifying PCR products by specifically removing error products, excess primers, and unincorporated dNTPs from PCR product mixtures using flow-through metal-chelate affinity adsorption. By flowing a PCR product mixture through a Cu2+-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agarose spin column, 94–99% of the dNTPs and nearly all the primers can be removed. Many of the error products commonly formed by Taq polymerase also are removed. Sequencing of the IMAC-processed PCR product gave base-calling accuracy comparable to that obtained with a commercial PCR product purification method. The results show that IMAC matrices (specifically Cu2+-IDA agarose) can be used for the purification of PCR products. Due to the generality of the base-specific mechanism of adsorption, IMAC matrices may also be used in the purification of oligonucleotides, cDNA, mRNA and micro RNAs. PMID:21264292

  7. IgA-affinity purification and characterization of the lectin jacalin.

    PubMed

    Roque-Barreira, M C; Praz, F; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, L; Greene, L J; Campos-Neto, A

    1986-01-01

    We describe the use of IgA-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography to purify the lectin jacalin from saline extracts of Artocarpus integrifolia L. seeds. Elution with 0.8 M D-galactose provides 10-15 mg lectin/50 mg seed protein. Jacalin behaved like a single component on immunoelectrophoresis and a single, somewhat diffuse band was obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at pH 4.5. A single peak corresponding to an apparent molecular weight of 43 kDa was obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 (10 mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4). On SDS-PAGE +/- 2-mercaptoethanol two bands of apparent molecular weights 11.8 and 14.7 kDa were detected. Jacalin behaved like a protein of apparent molecular weight of 13-14 kDa on Sephadex G-50 eluted with PBS containing 0.2% SDS. These data indicate that the jacalin molecule consists of 3-4 non-identical polypeptide subunits not connected by disulfide bridges. The amino acid composition of IgA affinity-purified jacalin (mol/405 mol amino acids) is Lys (24), His (5), Arg (4), Trp (6), Asx (36), Thr (35), Ser (48), Glx (31), Pro (18), Gly (53), Ala (13), Val (25), Met (3), Ile (23), Leu (25), Tyr (30), Phe (26), which corresponds to a molecular weight of 44.163 kDa.

  8. Two saturable recognition sites for (-) (125I)iodo-N6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-isopropyl)-adenosine binding on purified cardiac sarcolemma

    SciTech Connect

    Hausleithner, V.; Freissmuth, M.; Schuetz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of (-) (125)iodo-N6-(4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)-adenosine (( /sup 125/I)HPIA) binding to purified sarcolemmal preparations of guinea pig and bovine hearts revealed two classes of binding sites when unlabeled iodo-HPIA (100 mumol/l) was used as non-specific binding marker. In the presence of 1 mmol/l theophylline, however, only the high affinity component was detected. Adenosine receptor agonists caused biphasic displacement of (/sup 125/I)HPIA binding, with a high affinity potency rank order typical of interaction with A1-adenosine receptors. Biphasic competition curves were also observed with 8-phenyltheophylline and isobutylmethylxanthine, whereas the theophylline curve was monophasic up to 1 mmol/l. In brain membranes, specific binding of (/sup 125/I)HPIA as well as of (/sup 3/H)PIA was further reduced when unlabeled iodo-HPIA replaces theophylline as the non-specific binding marker. These results suggest the presence of two (/sup 125/I)HPIA binding sites on cardiac sarcolemma and brain membranes, but receptor function can only be ascribed to the high affinity sites. The low affinity site probably represents an artefact, which is often observed when non-specific binding is defined with the unlabeled counterpart or a structurally related ligand of the radioligand used.

  9. Production and characterization of a broad-specificity polyclonal antibody for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides and a quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antibody recognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyclonal antibody (PAb) with broad-specificity for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) against a generic hapten, 4-(diethoxyphosphoro thioyloxy) benzoic acid, was produced. The obtained PAb showed high sensitivity to seven commonly used O,O-diethyl OPs in a competitive indirect enzyme-l...

  10. The Use of Detergents to Purify Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Arnold, Thomas; Linke, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of membrane proteins from biological membranes is usually accomplished with the help of detergents. This unit describes the use of detergents to solubilize and purify membrane proteins. The chemical and physical properties of the different classes of detergents typically used with biological samples are discussed. A separate section addresses the compatibility of detergents with applications downstream of the membrane protein purification process, such as optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, biomolecular NMR, or electron microscopy. A brief summary of alternative membrane protein solubilizing and stabilizing systems is also included. Protocols in this unit include the isolation and solubilization of biological membranes and phase separation; support protocols for detergent removal, detergent exchange, and the determination of critical micelle concentration using different methods are also included.

  11. Properties of photochemical reaction centers purified from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa.

    PubMed

    Clayton, B J; Clayton, R K

    1978-03-13

    Reaction centers were isolated from a carotenoidless mutant of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa by hydroxyapatite chromatography of purified chromatophores treated with lauryl dimethyl amine oxide. Absorption spectra and spectra of light-induced absorbance changes are similar to those of reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. The ratio of absorbance at 280 nm to that at 799 nm was 1.8 in the purest preparations. The extinction coefficient at the 799 nm absorption maximum was estimated to be 305 +/- 20 mM--1 . CM--1. The molecular weight based on protein and chromophore assays was found to be 1.5 . 10(5); the reaction center protein accounted for 6% of the total membrane protein. These reaction centers contained no cytochrome and showed just two components of apparent molecular weights 33 000 and 25 000 in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The chromatophores contained 42 molecules of antenna bacteriochlorophyll for each reaction center.

  12. X-ray diffraction study of highly purified human ceruloplasmin

    SciTech Connect

    Samygina, V. R.; Sokolov, A. V.; Pulina, M. O.; Bartunik, H. D.; Vasil'ev, V. B.

    2008-07-15

    The three-dimensional structure of ceruloplasmin (CP) with unoccupied labile metal-binding sites and the structure of CP containing Ni{sup 2+} in the labile sites were solved for the first time at 2.6 and 2.95 A resolution, respectively. Crystallization was performed with the use of storage-stable CP, which was prepared in the presence of proteinase inhibitors and purified from (pre)proteinases. Ceruloplasmin with Ni{sup 2+} crystallized in the orthorhombic space group, which had been earlier unknown for CP. Ceruloplasmin with the unoccupied labile sites crystallized in the trigonal crystal form. The differences in intermolecular contacts observed in the trigonal and orthorhombic crystal structures of CP are considered. The conformational changes attendant upon Ni{sup 2+} binding are described. It was suggested that the labile sites are multifunctional and can both bind metal ions potentially toxic to organisms and be involved in electron transfer from substrates to the active site.

  13. Regulated Eukaryotic DNA Replication Origin Firing with Purified Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yeeles, Joseph T.P.; Deegan, Tom D.; Janska, Agnieszka; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F. X.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells initiate DNA replication from multiple origins, which must be tightly regulated to promote precise genome duplication in every cell cycle. To accomplish this, initiation is partitioned into two temporally discrete steps: a double hexameric MCM complex is first loaded at replication origins during G1 phase, and then converted to the active CMG (Cdc45, MCM, GINS) helicase during S phase. Here we describe the reconstitution of budding yeast DNA replication initiation with 16 purified replication factors, made from 42 polypeptides. Origin-dependent initiation recapitulates regulation seen in vivo. Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibits MCM loading by phosphorylating the origin recognition complex (ORC) and promotes CMG formation by phosphorylating Sld2 and Sld3. Dbf4 dependent kinase (DDK) promotes replication by phosphorylating MCM, and can act either before or after CDK. These experiments define the minimum complement of proteins, protein kinase substrates and co-factors required for regulated eukaryotic DNA replication. PMID:25739503

  14. Regulated eukaryotic DNA replication origin firing with purified proteins.

    PubMed

    Yeeles, Joseph T P; Deegan, Tom D; Janska, Agnieszka; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2015-03-26

    Eukaryotic cells initiate DNA replication from multiple origins, which must be tightly regulated to promote precise genome duplication in every cell cycle. To accomplish this, initiation is partitioned into two temporally discrete steps: a double hexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is first loaded at replication origins during G1 phase, and then converted to the active CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase during S phase. Here we describe the reconstitution of budding yeast DNA replication initiation with 16 purified replication factors, made from 42 polypeptides. Origin-dependent initiation recapitulates regulation seen in vivo. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibits MCM loading by phosphorylating the origin recognition complex (ORC) and promotes CMG formation by phosphorylating Sld2 and Sld3. Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) promotes replication by phosphorylating MCM, and can act either before or after CDK. These experiments define the minimum complement of proteins, protein kinase substrates and co-factors required for regulated eukaryotic DNA replication. PMID:25739503

  15. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement.

    PubMed

    Ballari, M M; Brouwers, H J H

    2013-06-15

    Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO₂ over a length of 150 m ("DeNOx street"). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks ("Control street"). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO₂ and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NOx concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NOx concentration decrease of 45% could be observed.

  16. A simple nonradioactive method for the determination of the binding affinities of antibodies induced by hapten bioconjugates for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Torres, Oscar B; Antoline, Joshua F G; Li, Fuying; Jalah, Rashmi; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2016-02-01

    The accurate analytical measurement of binding affinities of polyclonal antibody in sera to heroin, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), and morphine has been a challenging task. A simple nonradioactive method that uses deuterium-labeled drug tracers and equilibrium dialysis (ED) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) to measure the apparent dissociation constant (K d) of antibodies to 6-AM and morphine is described. The method can readily detect antibodies with K d in the low nanomolar range. Since heroin is rapidly degraded in sera, esterase inhibitors were included in the assay, greatly reducing heroin hydrolysis. MS/MS detection directly measured the heroin in the assay after overnight ED, thereby allowing the quantitation of % bound heroin in lieu of K d as an alternative measurement to assess heroin binding to polyclonal antibody sera. This is the first report that utilizes a solution-based assay to quantify heroin-antibody binding without being confounded by the presence of 6-AM and morphine and to measure K d of polyclonal antibody to 6-AM. Hapten surrogates 6-AcMorHap, 6-PrOxyHap, MorHap, DiAmHap, and DiPrOxyHap coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) were used to generate high affinity antibodies to heroin, 6-AM, and morphine. In comparison to competition ED-UPLC/MS/MS which gave K d values in the nanomolar range, the commonly used competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values in the micromolar range. Despite the differences in K d and IC50 values, similar trends in affinities of hapten antibodies to heroin, 6-AM, and morphine were observed by both methods. Competition ED-UPLC/MS/MS revealed that among the five TT-hapten bioconjugates, TT-6-AcMorHap and TT-6-PrOxyHap induced antibodies that bound heroin, 6-AM, and morphine. In contrast, TT-MorHap induced antibodies that poorly bound heroin, while TT-DiAmHap and TT-DiPrOxyHap induced antibodies either did not

  17. The rapid isolation of highly purified cadmium metallothioneins using HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, G.; Bylander, J.; Hazen-martin, D.; O'Connor, K.; Phoebe, C. Millipore Corp., Milford, MA )

    1991-03-11

    The central role of the proximal tubule in the renal toxicity due to cadmium (Cd) poisoning has been well documented, however, the mechanisms leading to the onset of this nephrotoxic effect are presently not well understood. The most likely mechanism for the initiation of toxicity involves the accumulation of Cd in the liver where it induces the formation of, and is complexed with the metallothioneins (MT-I and MT-II) followed by release from the liver and subsequent absorption by the proximal tubule. Methods for obtaining MTs for specific RIA and immunohistochemistry have been hampered by difficulties in removing impurities. To obtain highly purified Cd-MTs for use in RIA as well as to assay the relative affects of exposure to Cd-MT and ionic Cd in vitro on human proximal tubule cells, Cd-MT-I and Cd-MT-II were prepared from rat liver for use in these studies using a rapid two step chromatographic procedure employing gel filtration and high performance anion exchange chromatography. Repeated HPLC separations revealed a time dependent conversion of a non-metallothionein protein component to form which coeluted with Cd-MT-I during the ion exchange separation. This was preventable by cooling the sample or by adding proteinase inhibitors. This method demonstrated the importance of speed in the purification which permitted the isolation of highly purified Cd-MTs in high yields. Due to the extreme sensitivity, this method may also be amenable as an alternative for a non-radioactive assay of Cd-MT formation and breakdown in toxicological studies.

  18. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    PubMed

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research.

  19. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  20. Two bradykinin binding sites with picomolar affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, D.C.; Vavrek, R.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and related peptides exert a wide range of effects on several organ systems. We have attempted to sort out these effects by studying the binding interaction of (/sup 3/H)BK at the membrane level with in vitro receptor binding techniques. High specific activity (/sup 3/H)BK and an enzyme inhibitor cocktail has enabled us to label two BK binding sites with different affinity and peptide specificity in several guinea-pig tissues. In the guinea-pig ileum the high-affinity site has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (/sup 3/H)BK of 13 pM and a maximal number of binding sites of 8.3 pmol/g of tissue wet weight. The low-affinity guinea-pig ileum site displays a Kd of 910 pM, a maximum number of binding sites of 14 pmol/g of tissue wet weight and shows a greater selectivity for BK analogs over Lysyl-BK analogs. Two similar sites can also be discriminated in kidney and heart. The potencies of a series of BK analogs at the high-affinity guinea-pig ileum site correlate well with their potencies in contracting ileal smooth muscle. The binding of (/sup 3/H)BK in the guinea-pig ileum is inhibited by physiological concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations.

  1. Measurement of Ozone Emission and Particle Removal Rates from Portable Air Purifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Stephen A.; Walser, Maggie L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Portable air purifiers are popular consumer items, especially in areas with poor air quality. Unfortunately, most users of these air purifiers have minimal understanding of the factors affecting their efficiency in typical indoor settings. Emission of the air pollutant ozone (O[subscript 3]) by certain air purifiers is of particular concern. In an…

  2. 42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification. (a) The respirator manufacturer, as part of...

  3. 42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification. (a) The respirator manufacturer, as part of...

  4. 42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification. (a) The respirator manufacturer, as part of...

  5. Development of an automated mid-scale parallel protein purification system for antibody purification and affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Long, Alexander M; Swalm, Brooke; Charest, Ken; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jiali; Schulz, Craig; Goetzinger, Wolfgang; Hall, Brian E

    2016-12-01

    Protein purification is often a bottleneck during protein generation for large molecule drug discovery. Therapeutic antibody campaigns typically require the purification of hundreds of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during the hybridoma process and lead optimization. With the increase in high-throughput cloning, faster DNA sequencing, and the use of parallel protein expression systems, a need for high-throughput purification approaches has evolved, particularly in the midsize range between 20 ml and 100 ml. To address this we modified a four channel Gilson solid phase extraction system (referred to as MG-SPE) with switching valves and sample holding loops to be able to perform standard affinity purification using commercially available columns and micro-titer format deep well blocks. By running 4 samples in parallel, the MG-SPE has the capacity to purify up to 24 samples of greater than 50 ml each using a single-step affinity purification protocol or a two-step protocol consisting of affinity chromatography followed by desalting/buffer exchange overnight (∼12 h run time). Our evaluation of affinity purification using mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins from mammalian cell supernatants demonstrates that the MG-SPE compared favorably with industry standard systems for both protein quality and yield. Overall the system is simple to operate and fills a void in purification processes where a simple, efficient, automated system is needed for affinity purification of midsize research samples. PMID:27498022

  6. Development of an automated mid-scale parallel protein purification system for antibody purification and affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Long, Alexander M; Swalm, Brooke; Charest, Ken; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jiali; Schulz, Craig; Goetzinger, Wolfgang; Hall, Brian E

    2016-12-01

    Protein purification is often a bottleneck during protein generation for large molecule drug discovery. Therapeutic antibody campaigns typically require the purification of hundreds of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during the hybridoma process and lead optimization. With the increase in high-throughput cloning, faster DNA sequencing, and the use of parallel protein expression systems, a need for high-throughput purification approaches has evolved, particularly in the midsize range between 20 ml and 100 ml. To address this we modified a four channel Gilson solid phase extraction system (referred to as MG-SPE) with switching valves and sample holding loops to be able to perform standard affinity purification using commercially available columns and micro-titer format deep well blocks. By running 4 samples in parallel, the MG-SPE has the capacity to purify up to 24 samples of greater than 50 ml each using a single-step affinity purification protocol or a two-step protocol consisting of affinity chromatography followed by desalting/buffer exchange overnight (∼12 h run time). Our evaluation of affinity purification using mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins from mammalian cell supernatants demonstrates that the MG-SPE compared favorably with industry standard systems for both protein quality and yield. Overall the system is simple to operate and fills a void in purification processes where a simple, efficient, automated system is needed for affinity purification of midsize research samples.

  7. Affinity chromatography for the purification of therapeutic proteins from transgenic maize using immobilized histamine.

    PubMed

    Platis, Dimitris; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2008-03-01

    Plant molecular pharming is a technology that uses plants as bioreactors to produce recombinant molecules of medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of histamine (HIM), tryptamine (TRM), phenylamine (PHEM) and tyramine (TYRM) coupled to Sepharose CL-4B via a 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether spacer to bind and purify human monoclonal anti-HIV antibody 2F5 (mAb 2F5) from spiked maize seed and tobacco leaf extracts. Detailed studies were carried out to determine the factors that affect the chromatographic behaviour of mAb 2F5 and also maize seed and tobacco leaf proteins. All affinity adsorbents showed a reduced capacity to bind and a reduced ability to purify proteins from tobacco extract compared to maize extract. Under optimal conditions, HIM exhibited high selectivity for mAb 2F5 and allowed a high degree of purification (>95% purity) and recovery (>90%) in a single step with salt elution (0.4 M KCl) from spiked maize seed extract. Analysis of the purified antibody fraction by ELISA and Western blot showed that the antibody was fully active and free of degraded variants or modified forms. The efficacy of the system was assessed further using a second therapeutic antibody (human monoclonal anti-HIV antibody mAb 2G12) and a therapeutic enzyme (alpha-chymotrypsin). HIM may find application in the purification of a wide range of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plants.

  8. Affinity chromatography for the purification of therapeutic proteins from transgenic maize using immobilized histamine.

    PubMed

    Platis, Dimitris; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2008-03-01

    Plant molecular pharming is a technology that uses plants as bioreactors to produce recombinant molecules of medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of histamine (HIM), tryptamine (TRM), phenylamine (PHEM) and tyramine (TYRM) coupled to Sepharose CL-4B via a 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether spacer to bind and purify human monoclonal anti-HIV antibody 2F5 (mAb 2F5) from spiked maize seed and tobacco leaf extracts. Detailed studies were carried out to determine the factors that affect the chromatographic behaviour of mAb 2F5 and also maize seed and tobacco leaf proteins. All affinity adsorbents showed a reduced capacity to bind and a reduced ability to purify proteins from tobacco extract compared to maize extract. Under optimal conditions, HIM exhibited high selectivity for mAb 2F5 and allowed a high degree of purification (>95% purity) and recovery (>90%) in a single step with salt elution (0.4 M KCl) from spiked maize seed extract. Analysis of the purified antibody fraction by ELISA and Western blot showed that the antibody was fully active and free of degraded variants or modified forms. The efficacy of the system was assessed further using a second therapeutic antibody (human monoclonal anti-HIV antibody mAb 2G12) and a therapeutic enzyme (alpha-chymotrypsin). HIM may find application in the purification of a wide range of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plants. PMID:18307162

  9. High affinity nanobodies against human epidermal growth factor receptor selected on cells by E. coli display

    PubMed Central

    Salema, Valencio; Mañas, Carmen; Cerdán, Lidia; Piñero-Lambea, Carlos; Marín, Elvira; Roovers, Rob C.; Van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.P.; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most therapeutic antibodies (Abs) target cell surface proteins on tumor and immune cells. Cloning of Ab gene libraries in E. coli and their display on bacteriophages is commonly used to select novel therapeutic Abs binding target antigens, either purified or expressed on cells. However, the sticky nature of bacteriophages renders phage display selections on cells challenging. We previously reported an E. coli display system for expression of VHHs (i.e., nanobodies, Nbs) on the surface of bacteria and selection of high-affinity clones by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). Here, we demonstrate that E. coli display is also an attractive method for isolation of Nbs against cell surface antigens, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upon direct selection and screening of Ab libraries on live cells. We employ a whole cell-based strategy using a VHH library obtained by immunization with human tumor cells over-expressing EGFR (i.e., A431), and selection of bacterial clones bound to murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells transfected with human EGFR, after depletion of non-specific clones on untransfected cells. This strategy resulted in the isolation of high-affinity Nbs binding distinct epitopes of EGFR, including Nbs competing with the ligand, EGF, as characterized by flow cytometry of bacteria displaying the Nbs and binding assays with purified Nbs using surface plasmon resonance. Hence, our study demonstrates that E. coli display of VHH libraries and selection on cells enables efficient isolation and characterization of high-affinity Nbs against cell surface antigens. PMID:27472381

  10. Purification of CD47-streptavidin fusion protein from bacterial lysate using biotin-agarose affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Nasrin; Peng, Ching-An

    2016-07-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that modulates the activity of a plethora of immune cells via its extracellular domain. Therefore, CD47 plays important roles in the regulation of immune responses and may serve as targets for the development of immunotherapeutic agents. To make sure CD47 functionality is intact under the process of protein conjugation, CD47-streptavidin fusion protein was expressed and purified because it can easily bind to biotin-tagged materials via the unique biotin-streptavidin affinity. In this study, gene sequences of CD47 extracellular domain (CD47ECD) and core streptavidin (coreSA) with a total 834 bp were inserted into pET20b plasmid to construct recombinant plasmid encoding CD47-SA fusion gene. After bacteria transformation, the CD47-SA fusion protein was expressed by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The collected bacteria lysate was loaded on biotinylated agarose to proceed the purification of CD47-SA fusion protein. Due to the unexpected high affinity between biotin and coreSA, standard washing and elution approaches (e.g., varying pH, using biotin, and applying guanidine hydrochloride) reported for biotin-streptavidin affinity chromatography were not able to separate the target fusion protein. Instead, using low concentration of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 followed with alkaline buffer could efficiently weaken the binding between biotin and coreSA, thereby eluting out CD47-SA fusion protein from the biotin agarose column. The purified CD47-SA fusion protein was further characterized by molecular biology methods and its antiphagocytic functionality was confirmed by the phagocytosis assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:949-958, 2016. PMID:27110670

  11. A carbohydrate-binding affinity ligand for the specific enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; El Khoury, Graziella; Zhang, Peiqing; Rudd, Pauline M; Lowe, Christopher R

    2016-04-29

    One challenge facing the production of glycoprotein therapeutics is the lack of stable and selective affinity ligands for their enrichment. Synthetic affinity ligands based on the solid phase multi-component Ugi reaction represent a desirable option, particularly those incorporating benzoboroxole and its derivatives, which have been shown to enrich glycoproteins under physiological conditions. Thus, an Ugi ligand, A21C11I8, comprising 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenylboronic acid was synthesised on aldehyde-functionalised Sepharose™. Immobilised A21C11I8 displayed affinity for the glycosylated protein, glucose oxidase (GOx), which bound primarily through its glycan moiety. The ligand had a preference for sugar alcohols and the furanose form of the monosaccharides tested. Compared with immobilised 3-aminophenylboronic acid and Concanavalin A, the Ugi ligand was able to purify GOx from spiked Escherichia coli supernatants with retention of its maximum enzymatic activity and protein recovery. Glycan profiles of human immunoglobulin G tested on A21C11I8 columns suggested that the adsorbent possesses the potential to resolve sialylated and neutral glycoforms. The benzoboroxole-functionalised Ugi ligand may find application in selective glycoform separation.

  12. Identification of RIP-II toxins by affinity enrichment, enzymatic digestion and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Artursson, Elisabet; Bergström, Tomas; Östin, Anders; Nilsson, Calle; Åstot, Crister

    2015-01-20

    Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein toxins (RIP-II toxins) were enriched and purified prior to enzymatic digestion and LC-MS analysis. The enrichment of the RIP-II family of plant proteins, such as ricin, abrin, viscumin, and volkensin was based on their affinity for galactosyl moieties. A macroporous chromatographic material was modified with a galactose-terminated substituent and packed into miniaturized columns that were used in a chromatographic system to achieve up to 1000-fold toxin enrichment. The galactose affinity of the RIP-II proteins enabled their selective enrichment from water, beverages, and extracts of powder and wipe samples. The enriched fractions were digested with trypsin and RIP-II peptides were identified based on accurate mass LC-MS data. Their identities were unambiguously confirmed by LC-MS/MS product ion scans of peptides unique to each of the toxins. The LC-MS detection limit achieved for ricin target peptides was 10 amol and the corresponding detection limit for the full method was 10 fmol/mL (0.6 ng/mL). The affinity enrichment method was applied to samples from a forensic investigation into a case involving the illegal production of ricin and abrin toxins.

  13. Ice-active characteristics of soil bacteria selected by ice-affinity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sandra L; Kelley, Deborah L; Walker, Virginia K

    2006-10-01

    As an initial screen for microorganisms that produce ice-active macromolecules, ice-affinity was used to select microorganisms from soil consortia originating from three temperate regions. Once selected and subsequently purified to single colonies, these microbes were putatively identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and assayed for various ice-active properties. Ice-affinity selection appeared to select for bacteria with ice-associating activities: inhibition of ice recrystallization; ice nucleation; ice shaping. Although none of these activities were observed in Paenibacillus amyloliticus C8, others such as Chryseobacterium sp. GL8, demonstrated both ice recrystallization inhibition and ice-shaping activities. Pseudomonas borealis DL7 was classified as a type I ice nucleator, Flavobacterium sp. GL7, was identified as a type III ice nucleator and Acinetobacter radioresistens DL5 demonstrated ice recrystallization inhibition. In all, 19 different culturable bacteria were selected from the thousands of microbes in late-summer collected soil samples. Many of the selected microbes have been previously reported in glacial ice cores or polar sea ice, and of five isolates that were further characterized, four showed ice-associating activities. These results indicate the significant potential of ice-affinity selection even with temperate climate soils, suggesting that sampling in more extreme and remote areas is not required for the isolation of ice-active bacteria. PMID:16958762

  14. Monoclonal IgM antibody exhibiting high-affinity binding and cryoglobulin properties.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, D W; Kranz, D M; Voss, E W

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal IgM antibody (18-2-3) derived from cell fusion of (NZB X NZW) F1 splenocytes following secondary immunization with fluorescein-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin was shown to exhibit high intrinsic binding affinity and cryoinsolubility. Affinity-purified preparations were determined to be IgM by immunochemical, electrophoretic, and chromatographic analyses. An intrinsic association constant (Ka) of 2.9 X 10(10) M-1 (at 2 degrees C) was measured by first-order dissociation-rate analysis. Antibody solubility at low concentration (approximately equal to 50 micrograms/ml) was shown, by absorption spectroscopy, to be temperature dependent between 4 degrees C and 32 degrees C. Insolubility at low temperature (4 degrees C) was reversible in the presence of homologous fluorescyl hapten, indicative of active site involvement in the mechanism of cryoglobulin-18-2-3 complex formation. Characteristics of clone 18-2-3 are discussed in terms of (i) its potential use as a model for examining the mechanism of cryoprecipitation and (ii) the proposed relationship between affinity maturation and the IgM to IgG class switch. Images PMID:6348779

  15. Affinity purification of a siderophore that exhibits an antagonistic effect against soft rot bacterium.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Mohamed; Baddar, Doa; El'Masry, Mohamed Hisham

    2008-07-01

    Bacterial colonies were isolated from different Egyptian soil samples. From these isolates, one bacterial species was found to produce siderophore. Using classical and biochemical identification methods, the siderophore producing isolate was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Based on the affinity of siderophores for metal ions, an affinity chromatography system was designed for the purification of the siderophore in one step. It was possible to isolate 25 mg siderophore per liter of culture media. The purified siderophore was found to exist in two forms of approximately 30 and 90 kD. They are believed to be polymers of several siderophore molecules. Both forms were found to be active against the pathogen Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora, the causal bacteria of soft rot disease on potato tubers. The advantage of this method over other purification methods is that it uses metal ion so it can be applied for the purification of the known types of siderophores. Moreover, the purification is based on affinity chromatography, so the siderophore purity state permits several biotechnological applications without further treatments. PMID:18707585

  16. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor immobilized onto sepharose as a new strategy to purify a thermostable alkaline peptidase from cobia (Rachycentron canadum) processing waste.

    PubMed

    França, Renata Cristina da Penha; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Torquato, Ricardo José Soares; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Assis, Diego Magno; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Cavalli, Ronaldo Olivera; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra de; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2016-10-15

    A thermostable alkaline peptidase was purified from the processing waste of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) using bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) immobilized onto Sepharose. The purified enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 24kDa by both sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50°C and 8.5, respectively. The enzyme was thermostable until 55°C and its activity was strongly inhibited by the classic trypsin inhibitors N-ρ-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and benzamidine. BPTI column allowed at least 15 assays without loss of efficacy. The purified enzyme was identified as a trypsin and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this trypsin was IVGGYECTPHSQAHQVSLNSGYHFC, which was highly homologous to trypsin from cold water fish species. Using Nα-benzoyl-dl-arginine ρ-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BApNA) as substrate, the apparent km value of the purified trypsin was 0.38mM, kcat value was 3.14s(-1), and kcat/km was 8.26s(-1)mM(-1). The catalytic proficiency of the purified enzyme was 2.75×10(12)M(-1) showing higher affinity for the substrate at the transition state than other fish trypsin. The activation energy (AE) of the BApNA hydrolysis catalyzed by this enzyme was estimated to be 11.93kcalmol(-1) while the resulting rate enhancement of this reaction was found to be approximately in a range from 10(9) to 10(10)-fold evidencing its efficiency in comparison to other trypsin. This new purification strategy showed to be appropriate to obtain an alkaline peptidase from cobia processing waste with high purification degree. According with N-terminal homology and kinetic parameters, R. canadum trypsin may gathers desirable properties of psychrophilic and thermostable enzymes.

  17. Biological effect of varying peptide binding affinity to the BoLA-DRB3*2703 allele

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    MHC class I and II molecules are immunoregulatory cell surface glycoproteins, which selectively bind to and present antigenic peptides to T-lymphocytes. Murine and human studies show that variable peptide binding affinity to MHC II molecules influences Th1/Th2 responses by inducing distinctive cytokine expression. To examine the biological effects of peptide binding affinity to bovine MHC (BoLA), various self peptides (BoLA-DQ and fibrinogen fragments) and non-self peptides from ovalbumin (OVA), as well as VP2 and VP4 peptides from foot and mouth disease virus (FMD-V) were used to (1) determine binding affinities to the BoLA-DRB3*2703 allele, previously associated with mastitis susceptibility and (2) determine whether peptide binding affinity influences T-lymphocyte function. Peptide binding affinity was determined by a competitive assay using high affinity biotinylated self-peptide incubated with purified BoLA-DRB3*2703 in the presence of various concentrations of competing peptides. The concentrations of non-self peptide required to inhibit self-peptide binding by 50% (IC50) were variable, ranging from 26.92 to > 320 μM. Peptide-specific T-lymphocyte function was determined by measuring DNA synthesis, cell division, and IFN-γ production in cultures of mononuclear cells from a BoLA-DRB3*2703 homozygous cow. When compared to non-stimulated control cultures, differences in lymphocyte function were observed for all of the assessed parameters; however, peptide-binding affinity did not always account for the observed differences in lymphocyte function. PMID:12927080

  18. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with MF59-adjuvanted H5 vaccines promotes antibody affinity maturation towards the hemagglutinin HA1 domain and broad H5N1 cross-clade neutralization.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Surender; Coyle, Elizabeth M; Dimitrova, Milena; Castellino, Flora; Nicholson, Karl; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Golding, Hana

    2014-01-01

    In an open label clinical study (2007), MF59-adjuvanted hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine from H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1) was administered to subjects previously vaccinated (primed) with clade 0 H5N3 (A/duck/Singapore/97) vaccine at least 6 years earlier (in 1999 or 2001). The primed individuals responded rapidly and generated high neutralizing antibody titers against the H5N1-Vietnam strain within 7 days of a single booster vaccination. Furthermore, significant cross-neutralization titers were measured against H5N1 clade 0, 1, and 2 viruses. In the current study, the impact of MF59 adjuvant during heterologous priming on the quality of humoral polyclonal immune response in different vaccine arms were further evaluated using real time kinetics assay by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Total anti-H5N1 HA1 polyclonal sera antibody binding from the heterologous prime-boost groups after a single MF59-H5N1 boost was significantly higher compared with sera from unprimed individuals that received two MF59-H5N1 vaccinations. The antigen-antibody complex dissociation rates (surrogate for antibody affinity) of the polyclonal sera against HA1 of H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 from the MF59-H5N3 primed groups were significantly higher compared to sera from unadjuvanted primed groups or unprimed individuals that received two MF59-H5N1 vaccines. Furthermore, strong inverse correlations were observed between the antibody dissociation off-rates of the immune sera against HA1 (but not HA2) and the virus neutralization titers against H5 vaccine strains and heterologous H5N1 strains. These findings supports the use of oil-in-water-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccines to elicit long term memory B cells with high affinity BCR capable of responding to potential variant pandemic viruses likely to emerge and adapt to human transmissions.

  19. Expressing the human proteome for affinity proteomics: optimising expression of soluble protein domains and in vivo biotinylation

    PubMed Central

    Keates, Tracy; Cooper, Christopher D.O.; Savitsky, Pavel; Allerston, Charles K.; Phillips, Claire; Hammarström, Martin; Daga, Neha; Berridge, Georgina; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; Müller, Susanne; Gräslund, Susanne; Gileadi, Opher

    2012-01-01

    The generation of affinity reagents to large numbers of human proteins depends on the ability to express the target proteins as high-quality antigens. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) focuses on the production and structure determination of human proteins. In a 7-year period, the SGC has deposited crystal structures of >800 human protein domains, and has additionally expressed and purified a similar number of protein domains that have not yet been crystallised. The targets include a diversity of protein domains, with an attempt to provide high coverage of protein families. The family approach provides an excellent basis for characterising the selectivity of affinity reagents. We present a summary of the approaches used to generate purified human proteins or protein domains, a test case demonstrating the ability to rapidly generate new proteins, and an optimisation study on the modification of >70 proteins by biotinylation in vivo. These results provide a unique synergy between large-scale structural projects and the recent efforts to produce a wide coverage of affinity reagents to the human proteome. PMID:22027370

  20. Polyclonal anti-T-cell globulin as part of the preparative regimen for pediatric allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Remberger, M; Mattsson, J; Ringdén, O

    2001-08-01

    To prevent graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), 56 children were given polyclonal anti-T-cell globulin (ATG) as part of the conditioning regimen. Of the 56 children in the cohort, 27 had a non-malignant disease and 29 had different hematological malignancies. Eight were in first remission of leukemia and the remainder in later stages. Donors were in 16 cases a human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling and in 40 a matched unrelated donor (MUD). The control group comprised 16 patients with an HLA-identical donor; the children in this group were not treated with ATG. Side-effects related to the ATG treatment occurred in 63% of the patients and included fever, chills, headache, dyspnoea, nausea/vomiting, body pain, fall in blood pressure, and transient respiratory arrest. Engraftment occurred in 55 (98%) of the ATG-treated patients at a median of 17 (11-27) days after ASCT. One rejection occurred at 23 days post-SCT. The probabilities of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) of grades II-IV were 6% for patients with an HLA-identical donor, 12% for controls, and 26% for the MUD group. Chronic GvHD occured in 20%, 50%, and 50% of patients in the three groups, respectively. Transplant-related mortality rates at 100 days were 6%, 6%, and 7%, respectively. The 5-yr survival rate was 94% and 81% using sibling donors, with and without ATG respectively, and 53% using unrelated donors (p = 0.002). Disregarding donor type, among the ATG-treated patients 5-yr survival rates were 46% in patients with a malignant disease and 77% in non-malignant disorders. Relapse and relapse-free survival rates were 42% and 46%, respectively. Five out of 12 patients who showed an early full donor chimerism in the T-cell lineage developed acute GvHD of grades II-IV, compared to none out of 13 patients being mixed chimeras (p = 0.01). Hence, the use of polyclonal ATG as part of conditioning prior to ASCT in children is safe

  1. Recognition of Vipera ammodytes meridionalis neurotoxin vipoxin and its components using phage-displayed scFv and polyclonal antivenom sera.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Vishnya; Aleksandrov, Radoslav; Lukarska, Maria; Duhalov, Deyan; Atanasov, Vasil; Petrova, Svetla

    2012-10-01

    Vipoxin is a potent postsynaptic heterodimeric neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Bulgarian snake Vipera ammodytes meridionalis, whose snakebites cause different and strongly manifested pathophysiological effects (neurotoxic, hemolytic, anticoagulant, convulsant, hypotensive, hyperglycemic etc.). The neutralization of snake toxins calls for extensive research through the application of different approaches: antibodies, non-immunologic inhibitors, natural products derived from plants and animals, as well as synthetic drugs. In this study, we applied naive Tomlinson I + J (Cambridge, UK) libraries to obtain recombinant human scFv antibodies against the vipoxin's two subunits--basic and toxic phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) and acidic, non-toxic component. We found that 33 of more than hundred tested clones were positive and recognized vipoxin and its subunits. Enriched scFv-phage samples (1.2 × 10⁹ pfu/ml) were analyzed for their binding (ELISA) and enzyme-inhibiting abilities. Single chain Fv-phage clones--D₁₂, E₃, F₆, D₁₀ and G₅ exhihest binding affinity for the toxic component. Clones A₁, D₁₂ and C₁₂ recognized preferentially vipoxin's acidic component. Clones E₃, G₅ and H₄ inhibited the enzymatic activity of both vipoxin and its purified and separated toxic subunit to the highest extent. Six of the selected clones (E₃, G₅, H₄, C₁₂, D₁₀ and A₁₁) inhibited direct hemolytic activity of vipoxin and its pure PLA₂ subunit. The obtained specific scFv antibodies will be used for epitope mapping studies required to shed light on the role of the phospholipase A₂ activity for the vipoxin toxicity and its effective neutralization.

  2. Structure identification of a polysaccharide purified from Lycium barbarium fruit.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yunfei; Wang, Yan-Bo; Jiang, Yueming; Prasad, K Nagendra; Yang, Jiali; Qu, Hongxia; Wang, Ying; Jia, Yongxia; Mo, Hui; Yang, Bao

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble bioactive polysaccharides can contribute to the health benefits of Lycium barbarium fruit. However, the structure characteristics of these polysaccharides remain unclear yet. An important polysaccharide (LBPA) was isolated and purified from L. barbarium in this work. It was identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods as arabinogalactan with β-d-(1→6)-galactan as backbone, which was different to any reported polysaccharides from this species before. This arabinogalactan was comprised of Araf, Galp, GlcpA and Rhap with a molar ratio of 9.2:6.6:1.0:0.9. The side chains, including α-l-Araf-(1→, α-l-Araf-(1→5)-α-l-Araf-(1→, β-l-Araf-(1→5)-α-l-Araf-(1→ and α-l-Rhap-(1→4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→6)-β-d-Galp-(1→, were linked to β-d-(1→6)-galactan at O-3. The putative structure was drawn as below. The molecular weight was determined to be 470,000g/mol by gel permeation chromatography.

  3. Strong purifying selection at synonymous sites in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, David S; Messer, Philipp W; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2013-05-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated.

  4. Positive and purifying selection on the Drosophila Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nadia D; Koerich, Leonardo B; Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Y chromosomes, with their reduced effective population size, lack of recombination, and male-limited transmission, present a unique collection of constraints for the operation of natural selection. Male-limited transmission may greatly increase the efficacy of selection for male-beneficial mutations, but the reduced effective size also inflates the role of random genetic drift. Together, these defining features of the Y chromosome are expected to influence rates and patterns of molecular evolution on the Y as compared with X-linked or autosomal loci. Here, we use sequence data from 11 genes in 9 Drosophila species to gain insight into the efficacy of natural selection on the Drosophila Y relative to the rest of the genome. Drosophila is an ideal system for assessing the consequences of Y-linkage for molecular evolution in part because the gene content of Drosophila Y chromosomes is highly dynamic, with orthologous genes being Y-linked in some species whereas autosomal in others. Our results confirm the expectation that the efficacy of natural selection at weakly selected sites is reduced on the Y chromosome. In contrast, purifying selection on the Y chromosome for strongly deleterious mutations does not appear to be compromised. Finally, we find evidence of recurrent positive selection for 4 of the 11 genes studied here. Our results thus highlight the variable nature of the mode and impact of natural selection on the Drosophila Y chromosome.

  5. Bioavailability of purified subcellular metals to a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Yao, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the authors used a supply of naturally contaminated oysters to investigate how the subcellular metal distribution and the metal burden in prey affected the transfer of metals to a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua. The oysters, Crassostrea hongkongensis, each with different contamination histories, were collected and separated into 3 subcellular fractions: 1) metal-rich granules, 2) cellular debris, and 3) a combined fraction of organelles, heat-denatured proteins, and metallothionein-like proteins, defined as the trophically available metal (TAM). These purified fractions showed a wide range of metal concentrations and were fed to the fish for a period of 7 d at a daily comparable feeding rate of 3% of fish body weight. After 7 d exposure, the newly absorbed metals were mainly distributed in the intestine and liver, indicating a significant tissue-specific trophic transfer, especially for Cd and Cu. The trophic transfer factors (TTFs) showed a sequence of cellular debris >TAM > metal-rich granules, suggesting the impact of subcellular distribution in prey on metal bioavailability. However, significant inverse relationships between the TTFs and the metal concentrations in diets were also found in the present study, especially for Cd and Zn. The subcellular metal compartmentalization might be less important than the metal concentration in prey influencing the trophic transfer. The authors' results have important implications for bioavailability and environmental assessment of dietary metals.

  6. Characterization of human kappa-casein purified by FPLC.

    PubMed

    Dev, B C; Sood, S M; DeWind, S; Slattery, C W

    1993-08-01

    Because previous purification procedures for human kappa-casein may have caused the loss of some carbohydrate, relatively gentle methods were used. The protein was isolated by a four-step procedure which included isoelectric precipitation of whole casein, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of SDS, removal of the SDS with Extracti-Gel D, and FPLC chromatography on Mono Q with buffers containing 6 M urea. The purified protein was nearly identical in amino acid composition to that found earlier by amino acid analysis and peptide sequencing and a molar extinction coefficient of 11.2 +/- 0.1 was determined on the basis of amino acid analysis with a norleucine internal standard. Hydrolysis, acylation, and methylsilylation of the carbohydrate, followed by gas chromatographic analysis on a fused silica column, yielded approximately 5% fucose, 17% galactose, 18% N-acetylglucosamine, 8% N-acetylgalactosamine and 7% sialic acid, totaling almost 55% by weight. The percentages from two different donors were almost the same. About 1 mole phosphorus per mole of kappa-casein was also detected. Using low-speed sedimentation equilibrium methods, a molecular weight of only 33,400 was obtained for human kappa-casein, suggesting carbohydrate lability. Human beta-casein with four phosphoryls was stabilized against precipitation by 10 mM Ca+2 ions at a level greater than 95% when the molar ratio of kappa/beta exceeded 0.15. PMID:8361956

  7. Differentiation of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Homogeneous cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes provide an excellent model system for studying the regulation of glial structure and function. Recently, a chemically defined (CD) medium was developed for purified cultures of astrocytes, thus eliminating the requirement for serum and providing a controlled system for the study of astroglial properties. Due to the widespread use of astrocyte cultures and the potential benefits to be gained from using a defined medium, astrocyte cultures raised in CD medium were analyzed for purity as well as morphological and biochemical properties. Purity was assessed using immunocytochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and fibronectin. Astrocytes raised in CD medium are 95% pure using the expression of GFAP as a criterion. Fewer than 1% of the cells in CD medium stained positive for fibronectin eliminating the possibility that CD medium is selective for meningeal or endothelial cells. Astrocytes raised in CD medium exhibit a striking degree of morphological differentiation as seen in scanning electron micrographs. They also exhibit a high degree of biochemical differentiation illustrated by increases in the specific activity of S-100 protein and the induction of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids. A defined medium that supports the proliferation of rat astrocytes and enhances numerous morphological and biochemical properties should greatly facilitate the study of factors controlling glial proliferation and differentiation.

  8. [Micronized purified flavonoid fraction in treatment of pelvic varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, S G; Karalkin, A V; Moskalenko, E P; Beliaeva, E S; Ianina, A M; Kirienko, A I

    2012-01-01

    Presented herein are the results of studying efficacy of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) in treatment of pelvic varicose veins (PVV) using reference ray-tracing methods of study. We examined a total of 85 patients with PVV. Of these, 65 subjects were found to have isolated dilatation of pelvic venous plexuses (study group), and 20 were diagnosed as having combined dilation of gonadal veins and venous plexuses of the pelvis (control group). Besides clinical examination, the patients were subjected to ultrasonographic angioscanning (USAS) and emission computed tomography (ECT) of pelvic veins before treatment and 2, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months after the beginning of phlebotrophic therapy. Based on the findings of the clinical and instrumental studies, it was determined that MPFF was most efficient in patients with isolated dilatation of uterine and parametrial veins. In this group of patients, pelvic pain and other symptoms of the disease disappeared completely and the clinical effect persisted for a long time (up to 6-9 months). In the control group, venotonic therapy had a positive effect which was less pronounced as compared to the control group, and pelvic pain reappeared in the nearest time (up to 3 weeks) after withdrawal of MPFF.

  9. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL−1, specific activity 78 U mg−1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4–5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2. H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL−1 enzyme activities. PMID:24948923

  10. Analysis of cavitation effect for water purifier using electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Ko, Han Seo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-11-01

    Water is a limited and vital resource, so it should not be wasted by pollution. A development of new water purification technology is urgent nowadays since the original and biological treatments are not sufficient. The microbubble-aided method was investigated for removal of algal in this study since it overcomes demerits of the existing purification technologies. Thus, the cavitation effect in a venturi-type tube using the electrolysis was analyzed. Ruthenium-coated titanium plates were used as electrodes. Optimum electrode interval and applied power were determined for the electrolysis. Then, the optimized electrodes were installed in the venturi-type tube for generating cavitation. The cavitation effect could be enhanced without any byproduct by the bubbly flow induced by the electrolysis. The optimum mass flow rate and current were determined for the cavitation with the electrolysis. Finally, the visualization techniques were used to count the cell number of algal and microbubbles for the confirmation of the performance. As a result, the energy saving and high efficient water purifier was fabricated in this study. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  11. Physiologically acceptable resistance of an air purifying respirator.

    PubMed

    Shykoff, Barbara E; Warkander, Dan E

    2011-12-01

    Physiologically acceptable limits of inspiratory impediment for air purifying respirators (APRs) were sought.Measurements on 30 subjects included pressure in, and flow through, an APR, and respiratory and cardiovascular variables. Exercise with and without APR included ladder climbing, load lift and transfer, incremental running and endurance running, with endurance at 85% peak oxygen uptake. Resistance that did not alter minute ventilation (VE) was judged acceptable long-term. Acceptable short-term impediments were deduced from end exercise conditions. Proposed long-term limits are inspiratory work of breathing per tidal volume (WOBi/VT) ≤ 0.9 kPa and peak inspiratory pressure (P (i) peak) ≤1.2 kPa. Proposed short-term limits are: for VE ≤110 L min(-1), WOBi/VT ≤1.3 kPa and P (i) peak ≤ 1.8 kPa; and for VE >130 L min(-1), WOBi/VT ≤1.6 kPa. A design relation among VE, pressure–flow coefficients of an APR, and WOBi/VT is proposed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work generalises results from one APR by considering the altered physiological parameters related to factors inhibiting exercise. Simple expressions are proposed to connect bench-test parameters to the relation between ventilation and work of breathing. Population-based recommendations recognise that those who need more air flow can also generate higher pressures. PMID:22103726

  12. Reusability study with organic vapor air-purifying respirator cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.O.; Kissane, R.

    1997-11-01

    The question often arises about the reusability of organic vapor adsorption beds, such as air- purifying respirator cartridges, after periods of storage without use (airflow). The extremes of practice are: (1) use once and discard or (2) reuse multiple times assuming the protection is still afforded. The goal is to develop data and a model to provide guidance to decide when reuse is acceptable. They have studied the loss of protection of a commercial organic vapor cartridge after storage for varying periods of time. Three vapors (ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, and hexane) were individually loaded onto test cartridges using a breathing pump. Extents of loading, times of loading, and vapor concentrations were varied. After selected periods of storage the cartridges were again challenged with the same vapor concentration. The increases in concentration of a vapor in the effluent air (simulated breaths) from a cartridge immediately upon reuse depended on the storage period, the extent of loading during initial use, the volatility of the vapor, and the water vapor adsorbed, but not much on the vapor concentration.

  13. Estimating reusability of organic air-purifying respirator cartridges.

    PubMed

    Wood, Gerry O; Snyder, Jay L

    2011-10-01

    Reuse of organic vapor air-purifying respirator cartridges after a job or shift can provide economy and energy savings. However, standards and manufacturers' guidance discourage reuse, presumably due to a lack of quantitative objective exposure and use information. Storage and simulated reuse laboratory studies and modeling have been done to provide such information. Two important parameters of breakthrough curves, midpoint time (related to adsorption capacity) and midpoint slope (related to adsorption rate), have been shown to be unchanged during storage for reuse. Extrapolations to smaller breakthrough concentrations and times can be made from this reference breakthrough and time. Significant step increases in breakthrough concentration upon cartridge reuse have been observed in some cases. Values of immediate breakthrough concentrations upon reuse (IBURs) have been measured and correlated. The Dubinin/Radushkevich adsorption isotherm equation has been used to estimate maximum IBURs, which depend on many factors, including conditions and duration of first use. An empirical equation describing rate of approach to maximum IBUR as a function of storage time has been developed to provide intermediate IBUR estimates, which are also very dependent on the vapor identity and extent of first-use loading. Using these equations, IBUR estimates with appropriate safety factors can be compared with the allowable breakthrough concentration to help the Industrial Hygienist make reusability decisions. PMID:21936700

  14. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL(-1), specific activity 78 U mg(-1) with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+) and inhibited by Hg(+2) and Cd(+2). H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL(-1) enzyme activities.

  15. Distribution and localization of galectin purified from Rana catesbeiana oocytes.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, H; Komazaki, S; Oyama, M; Matsui, T; Ozeki, Y

    1997-12-01

    Galectins are a family of lectins that recognize beta-D-galactosides independently of calcium ions, and are widely distributed in animals. To characterize a galectin previously purified from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog), we studied its distribution and localization in several tissues from this frog. Hemagglutination assay and western blotting showed that this lectin is present in many tissues including the liver, skin, kidney, skeletal muscle, and sciatic nerve, but is particularly concentrated in the ovary. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry showed that this lectin is localized in such places as cell-cell junctions, basement membranes, extracellular matrix, or secretory substances in several organs, indicating that this galectin is mainly distributed extracellularly. However, in the ovary, light microscopy showed that this lectin is present in or associated with the yolk platelet. Electron microscopy further revealed that it is localized in the periphery of the yolk platelet (the yolk plasm), but not in the cortical granule. These results indicate that Rana oocytes contain abundant galectin in their yolk platelets in contrast to Xenopus laevis oocytes, which have been found not to contain galectins but other classes of lectins in their yolk platelets and cortical granules.

  16. Powered air-purifying respirator study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    da Roza, R.A.; Cadena-Fix, C.A.; Kramer, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    Three brands of powered air-purifying respirators were subjected to a simulated-work-place study. They were worn by six human subjects while working at 80% of their cardiac reserve on a treadmill. The air flow into the respirator was controlled to match that of a respirator with a newly charged battery and with various stages of battery discharge and filter plugging. The simulation took place in a large quantitative fit test chamber containing PEG 400 aerosol. The penetration of aerosol into the breathing zone of the respirator, the pressure in it, and the air flow were monitored while the subject was warming up as well as during the 80% tests. The exercises recommended in ANSI Z88.2 for helmets were also used after the 80% tests were completed. The subjects were tested clean shaven, with three days' growth of stubble, and with a two-month beard growth. A striking result was that the aerosol penetration into the two-helmet respirators increased dramatically as the subjects work rate increased. On the other hand, penetration into the half mask did not change with work rate. The penetration increased as the air flow was decreased in all cases for the helmets and for beard and stubble cases for the half mask. However, for he tight-fitting half mask on a clean-shaven face, the average penetration stayed below 0.001 for all flows. 18 figs, 5 tabs.

  17. Specific parasitism of purified vaginal epithelial cells by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, J F; Demeś, P; Gombosova, A; Valent, M; Fabusová, M; Jánoska, A; Stefanovic, J; Arroyo, R

    1988-01-01

    Human vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) from vaginal swabs obtained from normal women or from patients with trichomoniasis were purified, and VEC parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Trichomonads bound equally well to live or dead VECs, and up to 20% of VECs were parasitized. Trichomonal cytadherence of human VECs was time, temperature, and pH dependent. Saturation binding levels of live trichomonads to VECs gave approximately 2 organisms adherent to parasitized VEC. No differences in cytadherence levels were detected by different isolates to VECs from the same patient compared with adherence to VECs from normal individuals. Trypsinized, live T. vaginalis organisms failed to recognize VECs. A ligand assay identified four adhesin candidates, and only organisms without a prominent immunogen on the surface (negative phenotype) cytadhered to VECs and synthesized the adhesins, confirming the results of a recently published report by us on adherence to HeLa cell monolayers (J. F. Alderete and G. E. Garza, Infect. Immun. 56:28-33, 1988). These data show the ability of T. vaginalis to parasitize human vaginal epithelial cells in a specific receptor-ligand manner. PMID:3262088

  18. Inhibition of stigmasterol oxidation by antioxidants in purified sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Korczak, Józef; Gramza, Anna; Wasowicz, Erwin; Dutta, Paresh C

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the effect of the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, ethanolic extracts of rosemary, and green tea on stigmasterol resistance against degradation and formation of its oxidation products in purified triacylglycerols (TAG) from sunflower oil. The content of stigmasterol and its oxidation products 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxy, alpha- and beta-epoxy, triol, and 7-ketostigmasterol were determined during incubation at 60 degrees C for 3, 6, and 9 days. In addition, peroxide value and fatty acid composition were also determined in the samples. Correlation between the levels of the accumulated stigmasterol oxides and peroxide value of the TAG with antioxidants during incubation was significant only for rosemary extract (R = 0.6799, p < 0.05). The lack of correlation precludes the use of peroxide values to determine the level of sterol oxidation products in the used model system. Correlation between stigmasterol content and the level of stigmasterol oxides was significant for all samples (R = 0.8874, p < 0.05). The total increase of the stigmasterol oxidation products was the lowest in samples with alpha-tocopherol, but the content of stigmasterol-triol increased the most in this sample. In all the analyzed samples, alpha-epoxy-stigmasterol was formed in the highest amounts among the analyzed stigmasterol oxidation products. PMID:15164847

  19. Purified prion proteins and scrapie infectivity copartition into liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Gabizon, R; McKinley, M P; Prusiner, S B

    1987-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that the scrapie prion protein (PrP 27-30) is required for infectivity. Aggregates of PrP 27-30 form insoluble amyloid rods that resist dissociation by nondenaturing detergents. Mixtures of the detergent cholate and phospholipids were found to solubilize purified PrP 27-30 in the form of detergent-lipid-protein complexes. Removal of the cholate by dialysis resulted in the formation of closed liposomes. Both the detergent-lipid-protein complexes and the liposomes often but not always exhibited a 10-fold increase in scrapie infectivity compared to that observed with the rods. No evidence for a prion-associated nucleic acid could be found when the phospholipid vesicles containing PrP 27-30 were digested with nucleases and Zn2+ under conditions that allowed hydrolysis of exogenously added nucleic acids. No filamentous or rod-shaped particles were found amongst prion liposomes by electron microscopy in our search for a putative filamentous "scrapie virus." The partitioning of PrP 27-30 and scrapie infectivity into phospholipid vesicles contends that PrP 27-30 has a central role in scrapie pathogenesis, establishes that the prion amyloid rods are not essential for infectivity, and argues that prions are fundamentally different from viruses. Images PMID:3108886

  20. The structure of a glycopeptide purified from porcine thyroblobulin.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M; Egami, F

    1971-07-01

    1. The structure of a purified glycopeptide isolated from porcine thyroglobulin was studied by sequential hydrolysis with specific glycosidases, by periodate oxidation and by treatment with galactose oxidase. 2. Sequential hydrolysis with several combinations of neuraminidase, alpha-l-fucosidase, beta-d-galactosidase, beta-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase and alpha-d-mannosidase presented the evidence for the following structure. 3. The monosaccharide sequence of the peripheral moiety of the heteropolysaccharide chain was sialic acid-->galactose-->N-acetylglucosamine. Some of the galactose residues were non-reducing end-groups with the sequence galactose-->N-acetylglucosamine. 4. After removal of the peripheral moiety composed of sialic acid, fucose, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, alpha-mannosidase released 1.4mol of mannose/mol of glycopeptide, indicating that two of the three mannose residues were located between peripheral N-acetylglucosamine and internal N-acetylglucosamine or mannose. 5. Periodate oxidation and sodium borohydride reduction confirmed the results obtained by enzymic degradation and gave information concerning the position of substitution. 6. Based on the results obtained by enzymic hydrolysis and periodate oxidation together with the treatment with galactose oxidase, a structure is proposed for the glycopeptide.