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Sample records for affinity removal system

  1. Affine root systems and dual numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyakov, I. V.; Gromov, N. A.; Kuratov, V. V.

    The root systems in Carroll spaces with degenerate metric are defined. It is shown that their Cartan matrices and reflection groups are affine. Due to the geometric consideration the root system structure of affine algebras is determined by a sufficiently simple algorithm.

  2. Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andaç, Müge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

    2004-01-01

    Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 μm were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 μmol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149

  3. Bilirubin removal from human plasma by Cibacron Blue F3GA using immobilized microporous affinity membranous capillary method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Gu

    2005-07-01

    A novel affinity sorbent system for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma was developed. These new adsorbents comprise Cibacron Blue F3GA as the specific ligand, and microporous membranous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) capillary (modified by coating with a hydrophilic layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) after activation) as the carrier matrix. The affinity adsorbents carrying 126.5 micromol Cibacron Blue F3GA/g polymer was then used to remove bilirubin in a flow-injection system. Non-specific adsorption on the poly(vinyl alcohol) coated capillary remains low, and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 76.2 mg/g polymer was obtained after dye immobilization. The bilirubin adsorption capacity of the affinity capillary decreased with increase in the recirculation rate of plasma. The adsorption capacity increased with increase the temperature while decreased with increase the ionic strength. The maximum adsorption was only observed in neutral solution (pH 6-7). The adsorption isotherm fitted the Langmuir model well. These new adsorbents have higher velocity of mass transfer, better adsorption capacity, less fouling, longer service life and good reusability. The results of blood tests suggested the dye affinity capillary has good blood compatibility. PMID:15894520

  4. Application of Ni(II)-Assisted Peptide Bond Hydrolysis to Non-Enzymatic Affinity Tag Removal

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Edyta; Belczyk-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Bal, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-enzymatic method for hydrolytic peptide bond cleavage, applied to the removal of an affinity tag from a recombinant fusion protein, SPI2-SRHWAP-His6. This method is based on a highly specific Ni(II) reaction with (S/T)XHZ peptide sequences. It can be applied for the protein attached to an affinity column or to the unbound protein in solution. We studied the effect of pH, temperature and Ni(II) concentration on the efficacy of cleavage and developed an analytical protocol, which provides active protein with a 90% yield and ∼100% purity. The method works well in the presence of non-ionic detergents, DTT and GuHCl, therefore providing a viable alternative for currently used techniques. PMID:22574150

  5. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  6. Removal of PCR Error Products and Unincorporated Primers by Metal-Chelate Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kanakaraj, Indhu; Jewell, David L.; Murphy, Jason C.; Fox, George E.; Willson, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) has been used for decades to purify proteins on the basis of amino acid content, especially surface-exposed histidines and “histidine tags” genetically added to recombinant proteins. We and others have extended the use of IMAC to purification of nucleic acids via interactions with the nucleotide bases, especially purines, of single-stranded RNA and DNA. We also have demonstrated the purification of plasmid DNA from contaminating genomic DNA by IMAC capture of selectively-denatured genomic DNA. Here we describe an efficient method of purifying PCR products by specifically removing error products, excess primers, and unincorporated dNTPs from PCR product mixtures using flow-through metal-chelate affinity adsorption. By flowing a PCR product mixture through a Cu2+-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agarose spin column, 94–99% of the dNTPs and nearly all the primers can be removed. Many of the error products commonly formed by Taq polymerase also are removed. Sequencing of the IMAC-processed PCR product gave base-calling accuracy comparable to that obtained with a commercial PCR product purification method. The results show that IMAC matrices (specifically Cu2+-IDA agarose) can be used for the purification of PCR products. Due to the generality of the base-specific mechanism of adsorption, IMAC matrices may also be used in the purification of oligonucleotides, cDNA, mRNA and micro RNAs. PMID:21264292

  7. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  8. Dynamic output feedback H ∞ control for affine fuzzy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huimin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-01

    This article investigates the problem of designing H ∞ dynamic output feedback controllers for nonlinear systems, which are described by affine fuzzy models. The system outputs have been chosen as premise variables, which can guarantee that the plant and the controller always switch to the same region. By using a piecewise Lyapunov function and adding slack matrix variables, a piecewise-affine dynamic output feedback controller design method is obtained in the formulation of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be efficiently solved numerically. In contrast to the existing work, the proposed approach needs less LMI constraints and leads to less conservatism. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the new result.

  9. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  10. Development of a novel affinity membrane purification system for deoxyribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Levin, Robert E

    2014-02-01

    A membrane based affinity purification system was developed for the purification of the DNA specific nuclease, DNase I. Single stranded DNA was bound to unmodified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes which were used to purify DNase I from a solution of bovine serum albumin. Using coated membranes, a 6-fold increase in specific activity was achieved with 80 % enzyme recovery. This method provides a simple yet effective way to purify DNase I and can be very useful for the purification of other DNA specific enzymes. PMID:24318589

  11. A sodium-indpendent low affinity transport system for neutral amino acids in rabbit ileal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, J Y; Sepúlveda, F V; Smith, M W

    1980-01-01

    1. The kinetic parameters for serine, alanine and methionine uptake by rabbit ileal mucosa have been determined in the absence of Na. 2. Uptake of all three amino acids took place through a single mediated system. The apparent Km values of serine, alanine and methionine for this system were equal to their respective apparent K1 values (approximately 89, 75 and 23 mM respectively). 3. Autoradiography was used to measure the cellular location of alanine uptake by rabbit ileum. Approximately 80% of the total uptake took place in the upper third of each villus. This uptake was reduced by 75% either by removal of Na or addition of serine. The proportional distribution of Na-dependent and Na-independent alanine uptakes along the villus was found to be equal. 4. The kinetic properties of the low affinity uptake mechanism for neutral amino acids, seen in the absence of Na, were virtually identical with those of one of the uptake mechanisms seen previously in the presence of Na. 5. The low affinity uptake mechanism appears to be Na-independent. It is suggested that the Na-coupled uptake of amino acid takes place through the high affinity system. PMID:7359411

  12. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, J.H.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Butler, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of /sup 125/I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of /sup 125/I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showed that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations.

  13. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  14. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  15. Affinity-based in situ product removal coupled with co-immobilization of oily substrate and filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Dukler, A; Freeman, A

    1998-01-01

    In situ product removal (ISPR) involves actions taken for the fast removal of a product from the producing cell. ISPR is implemented to improve yield and productivity via minimization of product inhibition, minimization of product losses due to degradation or evaporation, and reduction of the number of subsequent downstream processing steps. Here we describe the implementation of affinity-based, specific ISPR as a crucial component of an integrative approach to problems associated with the biocatalytic production of a product exhibiting poor water solubility from an oily, water-insoluble precursor. Our integrative ISPR-based approach consists of co-immobilization of the oily substrate emulsion and the biocatalyst within bilayered alginate beads. A particulate-specific adsorbent, exhibiting high binding capacity of the product, is suspended in the reaction medium with periodical replacements. According to this approach, ISPR implementation is expected to shift the equilibration of product distribution between the co-immobilized oily substrate and the outer medium via specific product immobilization onto the added adsorbent. The product may subsequently be readily recovered via single-step final purification. This integrative approach was successfully demonstrated by the affinity-based ISPR of gamma-decalactone (4-decanolide). gamma-Decalactone was produced from castor oil via its beta-oxidation by the filamentous fungus Tyromyces sambuceus, co-immobilized with emulsified substrate within bilayered alginate beads. Product immobilization onto medium-suspended epichlorohydrin-crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin resulted in higher yield and easy pure product recovery. PMID:10076845

  16. Robust adaptive control for a class of uncertain non-affine nonlinear systems using affine-type neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shitie; Gao, Xianwen

    2016-08-01

    A robust adaptive control is proposed for a class of single-input single-output non-affine nonlinear systems. In order to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, a novel affine-type neural network is used, and then to compensate the approximation error and external disturbance a robust control term is employed. By Lyapunov stability analysis for the closed-loop system, it is proved that tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero. Moreover, an observer is designed to estimate the system states because all the states may not be available for measurements. Furthermore, the adaptation laws of neural networks and the robust controller are given out based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  17. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  18. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention systems effectively remove many stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate removal performance is highly variable. Bioretention media is typically coarse-grained with low organic matter content, which...

  19. Mathematical model accurately predicts protein release from an affinity-based delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vulic, Katarina; Pakulska, Malgosia M; Sonthalia, Rohit; Ramachandran, Arun; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-01-10

    Affinity-based controlled release modulates the delivery of protein or small molecule therapeutics through transient dissociation/association. To understand which parameters can be used to tune release, we used a mathematical model based on simple binding kinetics. A comprehensive asymptotic analysis revealed three characteristic regimes for therapeutic release from affinity-based systems. These regimes can be controlled by diffusion or unbinding kinetics, and can exhibit release over either a single stage or two stages. This analysis fundamentally changes the way we think of controlling release from affinity-based systems and thereby explains some of the discrepancies in the literature on which parameters influence affinity-based release. The rate of protein release from affinity-based systems is determined by the balance of diffusion of the therapeutic agent through the hydrogel and the dissociation kinetics of the affinity pair. Equations for tuning protein release rate by altering the strength (KD) of the affinity interaction, the concentration of binding ligand in the system, the rate of dissociation (koff) of the complex, and the hydrogel size and geometry, are provided. We validated our model by collapsing the model simulations and the experimental data from a recently described affinity release system, to a single master curve. Importantly, this mathematical analysis can be applied to any single species affinity-based system to determine the parameters required for a desired release profile. PMID:25449806

  20. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  1. Thymine DNA glycosylase exhibits negligible affinity for nucleobases that it removes from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Shuja S.; Coey, Christopher T.; Varney, Kristen M.; Pozharski, Edwin; Drohat, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) performs essential functions in maintaining genetic integrity and epigenetic regulation. Initiating base excision repair, TDG removes thymine from mutagenic G·T mispairs caused by 5-methylcytosine (mC) deamination and other lesions including uracil (U) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU). In DNA demethylation, TDG excises 5-formylcytosine (fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC), which are generated from mC by Tet (ten–eleven translocation) enzymes. Using improved crystallization conditions, we solved high-resolution (up to 1.45 Å) structures of TDG enzyme–product complexes generated from substrates including G·U, G·T, G·hmU, G·fC and G·caC. The structures reveal many new features, including key water-mediated enzyme–substrate interactions. Together with nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, the structures demonstrate that TDG releases the excised base from its tight product complex with abasic DNA, contrary to previous reports. Moreover, DNA-free TDG exhibits no significant binding to free nucleobases (U, T, hmU), indicating a Kd >> 10 mM. The structures reveal a solvent-filled channel to the active site, which might facilitate dissociation of the excised base and enable caC excision, which involves solvent-mediated acid catalysis. Dissociation of the excised base allows TDG to bind the beta rather than the alpha anomer of the abasic sugar, which might stabilize the enzyme–product complex. PMID:26358812

  2. C-Terminally fused affinity Strep-tag II is removed by proteolysis from recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in transgenic tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Lalgondar, Mallikarjun; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Sane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO), a desialylated form of EPO, is a potent tissue-protective agent. Recently, we and others have exploited a low cost plant-based expression system to produce recombinant human asialo-EPO (asialo-rhuEPOP). To facilitate purification from plant extracts, Strep-tag II was engineered at the C-terminus of EPO. Although asialo-rhuEPOP was efficiently expressed in transgenic tobacco plants, affinity purification based on Strep-tag II did not result in the recovery of the protein. In this study, we investigated the stability of Strep-tag II tagged asialo-rhuEPOP expressed in tobacco plants to understand whether this fused tag is cleaved or inaccessible. Sequencing RT-PCR products confirmed that fused DNA sequences encoding Strep-tag II were properly transcribed, and three-dimensional protein structure model revealed that the tag must be fully accessible. However, Western blot analysis of leaf extracts and purified asialo-rhuEPOP revealed that the Strep-tag II was absent on the protein. Additionally, no peptide fragment containing Strep-tag II was identified in the LC-MS/MS analysis of purified protein further supporting that the affinity tag was absent on asialo-rhuEPOP. However, Strep-tag II was detected on asialo-rhuEPOP that was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the Strep-tag II is removed during protein secretion or extraction. These findings together with recent reports that C-terminally fused Strep-tag II or IgG Fc domain are also removed from EPO in tobacco plants, suggest that its C-terminus may be highly susceptible to proteolysis in tobacco plants. Therefore, direct fusion of purification tags at the C-terminus of EPO should be avoided while expressing it in tobacco plants. PMID:25504272

  3. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  4. Dual affinity method for plasmid DNA purification in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, H S C; Hine, A V; Brocchini, S; Slater, N K H; Marcos, J C

    2010-02-26

    The DNA binding fusion protein, LacI-His6-GFP, together with the conjugate PEG-IDA-Cu(II) (10 kDa) was evaluated as a dual affinity system for the pUC19 plasmid extraction from an alkaline bacterial cell lysate in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/dextran (DEX) aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). In a PEG 600-DEX 40 ATPS containing 0.273 nmol of LacI fusion protein and 0.14% (w/w) of the functionalised PEG-IDA-Cu(II), more than 72% of the plasmid DNA partitioned to the PEG phase, without RNA or genomic DNA contamination as evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. In a second extraction stage, the elution of pDNA from the LacI binding complex proved difficult using either dextran or phosphate buffer as second phase, though more than 75% of the overall protein was removed in both systems. A maximum recovery of approximately 27% of the pCU19 plasmid was achieved using the PEG-dextran system as a second extraction system, with 80-90% of pDNA partitioning to the bottom phase. This represents about 7.4 microg of pDNA extracted per 1 mL of pUC19 desalted lysate. PMID:20083249

  5. OPERATION OF SMALL SCALE URANIUM REMOVAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and Operation of a small full-scale ion exchange system used to remove uranium from well water in the foothills west of Denver, Colo., are described. onsistent removal of uranium was accomplished by anion exchange treatment at a reasonable cost. ecause of a lack of cle...

  6. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  7. Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Baillie, Les W J; Zheng, Yishan; Lis, Elzbieta K; Savina, Irina N; Howell, Carol A; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R

    2015-05-01

    Polymeric cryogels are efficient carriers for the immobilization of biomolecules because of their unique macroporous structure, permeability, mechanical stability and different surface chemical functionalities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential use of macroporous monolithic cryogels for biotoxin removal using anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins, and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies. The affinity ligand (protein A) was chemically coupled to the reactive hydroxyl and epoxy-derivatized monolithic cryogels and the binding efficiencies of protein A, monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel column were determined. Our results show differences in the binding capacity of protein A as well as monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel adsorbents caused by ligand concentrations, physical properties and morphology of surface matrices. The cytotoxicity potential of the cryogels was determined by an in vitro viability assay using V79 lung fibroblast as a model cell and the results reveal that the cryogels are non-cytotoxic. Finally, the adsorptive capacities of PA from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated towards a non-glycosylated, plant-derived human monoclonal antibody (PANG) and a glycosylated human monoclonal antibody (Valortim(®)), both of which were covalently attached via protein A immobilization. Optimal binding capacities of 108 and 117 mg/g of antibody to the adsorbent were observed for PANG attached poly(acrylamide-allyl glycidyl ether) [poly(AAm-AGE)] and Valortim(®) attached poly(AAm-AGE) cryogels, respectively, This indicated that glycosylation status of Valortim(®) antibody could significantly increase (8%) its binding capacity relative to the PANG antibody on poly(AAm-AGE)-protien-A column (p < 0.05). The amounts of PA which remained in the solution after passing PA spiked PBS through PANG or Valortim bound poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel were significantly (p < 0

  8. Best approximation of functions in L{sub p} by polynomials on affine system

    SciTech Connect

    Terekhin, Pavel A

    2011-02-28

    Estimates of the best L{sub p}-approximation of functions by polynomials in an affine system (system of dilations and translations), which are similar to well-known estimates due to Ul'yanov and Golubov for approximations in the Haar system, are obtained. An analogue of A.F. Timan and M.F. Timan's inequality is shown to hold under certain conditions on the generating function of the affine system; this analogue fails for the Haar system for 1

  9. Dual-tagging system for the affinity purification of mammalian protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Giannone, Richard J; McDonald, W Hayes; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Huang, Ying; Wu, Jun; Liu, Yie; Wang, Yisong

    2007-01-01

    Although affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful tool to study protein-protein interactions, this strategy has encountered numerous difficulties when adapted to mammalian cells. Here we describe a Gateway{reg_sign}-compatible dual-tag affinity purification system that integrates regulatable expression, tetracysteine motifs, and various combinations of affinity tags to facilitate the cloning, detection, and purification of bait proteins and their interacting partners. Utilizing the human telomere binding protein TRF2 as a benchmark, we demonstrate bait protein recoveries upwards of approximately 16% from as little as 1-7 x 10{sup 7} cells and successfully identify known TRF2 interacting proteins, suggesting that our dual-tag affinity purification approach is a capable new tool for expanding the capacity to explore mammalian proteomic networks.

  10. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed. PMID:12906279

  11. Conservation of energy and momenta in nonholonomic systems with affine constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; Sansonetto, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    We characterize the conditions for the conservation of the energy and of the components of the momentum maps of lifted actions, and of their "gauge-like" generalizations, in time-independent nonholonomic mechanical systems with affine constraints. These conditions involve geometrical and mechanical properties of the system, and are codified in the so-called reaction-annihilator distribution.

  12. Determination of protein-ligand binding affinity by NMR: observations from serum albumin model systems.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee; Rutherford, Samantha; Fletcher, Dan

    2005-06-01

    The usefulness of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein for testing NMR methods for the study of protein-ligand interactions is discussed. Isothermal titration calorimetry established the binding affinity and stoichiometry of the specific binding site for L-tryptophan, D-tryptophan, naproxen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and warfarin. The binding affinities of the same ligands determined by NMR methods are universally weaker (larger KD). This is because the NMR methods are susceptible to interference from additional non-specific binding. The L-tryptophan-BSA and naproxen-BSA systems were the best behaved model systems. PMID:15816062

  13. Advanced CO2 Removal and Reduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Dubovik, Margarita; Copeland, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    An advanced system for removing CO2 and H2O from cabin air, reducing the CO2, and returning the resulting O2 to the air is less massive than is a prior system that includes two assemblies . one for removal and one for reduction. Also, in this system, unlike in the prior system, there is no need to compress and temporarily store CO2. In this present system, removal and reduction take place within a single assembly, wherein removal is effected by use of an alkali sorbent and reduction is effected using a supply of H2 and Ru catalyst, by means of the Sabatier reaction, which is CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + O2. The assembly contains two fixed-bed reactors operating in alternation: At first, air is blown through the first bed, which absorbs CO2 and H2O. Once the first bed is saturated with CO2 and H2O, the flow of air is diverted through the second bed and the first bed is regenerated by supplying it with H2 for the Sabatier reaction. Initially, the H2 is heated to provide heat for the regeneration reaction, which is endothermic. In the later stages of regeneration, the Sabatier reaction, which is exothermic, supplies the heat for regeneration.

  14. Industrial laser-based coatings removal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, David A.; Peebles, Henry C.; Case, Roger P.

    1998-09-01

    Industrial-cleaning-rate laser systems have been built and tested for removing various types of coatings, such as rad- contaminated coatings, non-rad but hazmat-contaminated coatings (e.g., Pb-based paint), and non-hazardous coatings from various types of substrates such as concrete, metals, and composite materials.

  15. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-15

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized.

  16. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    DOEpatents

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  17. IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES: DESIGN OF NEW SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...

  18. Interaction of nicotinic receptor affinity reagents with central nervous system. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin-binding entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lukas, R.J.; Bennett, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Membrane-bound ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin-binding entities derived from rat brain are found to interact specifically with the affinity reagents maleimidobenzyltrimethylammonium (MBTA) and bromoacetylcholine (BAC), originally designed to label nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from electroplax and skeletal muscle. Following treatment of membranes with dithiothreitol, all specific toxin binding sites are irreversibly blocked by reaction with MBTA or BAC. Affinity reagent labeling of dithiothreitol-reduced membranes is prevented (toxin binding sites are not blocked) by prior alkylaction with N-ethylmaleimide, by prior oxidation with dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), or by incubation with neurotoxin. Reversibly associating cholinergic agonists and antagonists retard the rate of affinity reagent interaction with toxin receptors. The apparent rates of affinity reagent alkylation of toxin receptors, and the influences of other sulfhydryl/disulfide reagents on affinity labeling are comparable to those observed for reaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the periphery. The results provide further evidence that central nervous system ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin receptors share a remarkable number of biochemical properties with nicotinic receptors from the periphery.

  19. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    BREHM, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  20. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  1. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  2. Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

  3. West Valley waste removal system study

    SciTech Connect

    Janicek, G P

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank.

  4. Nitrogen removal in recirculated duckweed ponds system.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, L; Koottatep, T

    2007-01-01

    Duckweed-based ponds (DWBPs) have the potential for nitrogen (N) removal from wastewater; however, operational problems such as duckweed die-off regularly occur. In this study, effluent recirculation was applied to the DWBPs to solve the above problem as well as to investigate N removal mechanisms. Two pilot scale recirculated DWBPs were employed to treat municipal wastewater. The average removal efficiencies for TN, TKN and NH4-N were 75%, 89% and 92%, respectively at TN loading of 1.3 g/m2.d and were 73%, 74% and 76%, respectively at TN loading of 3.3 g/m2.d. The effluent of the system under both operational conditions had stable quality and met the effluent standard. Duckweed die-off was not observed during the study, which proves the system stability and effluent recirculation which is thought to be a reason. N-mass balance revealed that nitrification-denitrification and duckweed uptake play major roles in these recirculated DWBPs. The rates of nitrification-denitrification were increased as TN loading was higher, which might be an influence from an abundance of N and a suitable condition. The rates of N uptake by duckweed were found similar and did not depend on the higher TN loading applied, as the duckweed has limited capacity to assimilate it. PMID:17591202

  5. TMI defueling project fuel debris removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Burdge, B.

    1992-08-01

    The three mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident on March 28, 1979, presented the nuclear community with many challenging remediation problems; most importantly, the removal of the fission products within the reactor containment vessel. To meet this removal problem, an air-lift system (ALS) can be used to employ compressed air to produce the motive force for transporting debris. Debris is separated from the transport stream by gravity separation. The entire method does not rely on any moving parts. Full-scale testing of the ALS at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the capability of transporting fuel debris from beneath the LCSA into a standard fuel debris bucket at a minimum rate of 230 kg/min.

  6. TMI defueling project fuel debris removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Burdge, B.

    1992-01-01

    The three mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident on March 28, 1979, presented the nuclear community with many challenging remediation problems; most importantly, the removal of the fission products within the reactor containment vessel. To meet this removal problem, an air-lift system (ALS) can be used to employ compressed air to produce the motive force for transporting debris. Debris is separated from the transport stream by gravity separation. The entire method does not rely on any moving parts. Full-scale testing of the ALS at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the capability of transporting fuel debris from beneath the LCSA into a standard fuel debris bucket at a minimum rate of 230 kg/min.

  7. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-06-12

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08.

  8. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-12-31

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  9. Development of a high-affinity GABA uptake system in embryonic amphibian spinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lamborghini, J E; Iles, A

    1985-11-01

    High-affinity uptake systems for amino acid neurotransmitter precursors have been highly correlated with the use of the particular amino acid or its derivative as a transmitter. We have found interneurons in the Xenopus embryo spinal cord which accumulate GABA by a high-affinity uptake system. They originate near the end of gastrulation and their ability to accumulate GABA first appears at the early tail bud stage. By position and appearance they are comparable to some of the embryonic interneurons described by A. Roberts and J. D. W. Clarke (1982, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 296, 195-212). GABA-accumulating neurons also develop in dissociated cell cultures made from the presumptive spinal cord of neural plate stage Xenopus embryos. GABA accumulation in cultured neurons, as in cells in vivo, occurs via a high-affinity uptake system; GABA-accumulating cells have the same time of origin as the cells in vivo, and the ability to accumulate GABA in the population of cultured neurons appears at a time equivalent to that observed in intact sibling embryos. Thus it seems likely that the population of GABA-accumulating neurons developing in cell culture corresponds to the GABA-accumulating interneurons in vivo. The development of these neurons in dissociated cell cultures permits perturbation experiments that would be difficult to perform in vivo. We have examined the development of high-affinity GABA uptake in conditions that permit no electrical impulse activity in the cultures. The onset and extent of development of GABA accumulation in the neuronal population are normal under these conditions. PMID:3932109

  10. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Brian H; Hao, Linxuan; Smaldino, Philip J; Engelke, David R

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs) using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant "CelTag" DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies. PMID:26715090

  11. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Brian H.; Hao, Linxuan; Smaldino, Philip J.; Engelke, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs) using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant “CelTag” DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies. PMID:26715090

  12. Characterization of the Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti high- and low-affinity phosphate uptake systems.

    PubMed Central

    Voegele, R T; Bardin, S; Finan, T M

    1997-01-01

    Genetic studies have suggested that Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti contains two distinct phosphate (Pi) transport systems, encoded by the phoCDET genes and the orfA-pit genes, respectively. Here we present data which show that the ABC-type PhoCDET system has a high affinity for Pi (Km, 0.2 microM) and that Pi uptake by this system is severely inhibited by phosphonates. This high-affinity uptake system was induced under Pi-limiting conditions and was repressed in the presence of excess Pi. Uptake via the OrfA-Pit system was examined in (i) a phoC mutant which showed increased expression of the orfA-pit genes as a result of a promoter-up mutation and (ii) a phoB mutant (PhoB is required for phoCDET expression). Pi uptake in both strains exhibited saturation kinetics (Km, 1 to 2 microM) and was not inhibited by phosphonates. This uptake system was active in wild-type cells grown with excess Pi and appeared to be repressed when the cells were starved for Pi. Thus, our biochemical data show that the OrfA-Pit and PhoCDET uptake systems are differentially expressed depending on the state of the cell with respect to phosphate availability. PMID:9393684

  13. General open-system quantum evolution in terms of affine maps of the polarization vector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Bishop, C. Allen; Ou, Yong-Cheng

    2011-01-15

    The operator-sum decomposition of a map from one density matrix to another has many applications in quantum information science. To this mapping there corresponds an affine map which provides a geometric description of the map of the density matrix in terms of the polarization vector representation. This has been thoroughly explored for qubits since the components of the polarization vector are measurable quantities (corresponding to expectation values of Hermitian operators) and also because it enables the description of map domains geometrically. Here we extend the operator-sum-affine-map correspondence to qudits, briefly discuss general properties of the map and the form for some particular cases, and provide several explicit results for qutrit maps. We use the affine map and a singular-value-like decomposition to find positivity constraints that provide a symmetry for small polarization vector magnitudes (states which are closer to the maximally mixed state), which is broken as the polarization vector increases in magnitude (a state becomes more pure). The dependence of this symmetry on the magnitude of the polarization vector implies the polar decomposition of the map cannot be used as it can for the qubit case. However, it still leads us to a connection between positivity and purity for general d-state systems.

  14. High affinity binding of [3H]-tyramine in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, A.

    1986-01-01

    Optimum assay conditions for the association of [3H]-para-tyramine [( 3H]-pTA) with rat brain membranes were characterized, and a saturable, reversible, drug-specific, and high affinity binding mechanism for this trace amine was revealed. The binding capacity (Bmax) for [3H]-pTA in the corpus striatum was approximately 30 times higher than that in the cerebellum, with similar dissociation constants (KD). The binding process of [3H]-pTA involved the dopamine system, inasmuch as (a) highest binding capacity was associated with dopamine-rich regions; (b) dopamine and pTA equally displaced specifically bound [3H]-pTA; (c) there was a severe loss in striatal binding capacity for [3H]-pTA and, reportedly, for [3H]-dopamine, following unilateral nigrostriatal lesion; (d) acute in vivo reserpine treatment markedly decreased the density of [3H]-pTA and, reportedly, of [3H]-dopamine binding sites. In competition experiments [3H]-pTA binding sites, though displaying nanomolar affinity for dopamine, revealed micromolar affinities for the dopamine agonists apomorphine and pergolide, and for several dopamine antagonists, while having very high affinity for reserpine, a marker for the catecholamine transporter in synaptic vesicles. The binding process of [3H]-pTA was both energy-dependent (ouabain-sensitive), and ATP-Mg2+-insensitive; furthermore, the potencies of various drugs in competing for [3H]-pTA binding to rat striatal membranes correlated well (r = 0.96) with their reported potencies in inhibiting [3H]-dopamine uptake into striatal synaptosomes. It is concluded that [3H]-pTA binds at a site located on/within synaptic vesicles where it is involved in the transport mechanism of dopamine. PMID:3801770

  15. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the removal of pollutant compounds by peroxidases: affinity and reactivity toward a bioremediation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Cristina; Torres, Juliana Arriel; Castro, Alexandre A; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Alves de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution is a significant and growing problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. In order to minimize environmental problems, catalysts have increasingly been designed to remove pollutants from the water. In an attempt to innovate by the creation of new low-cost alternatives to efficiently remove pollutants, the enzymatic treatment has been intensely studied for this purpose. Reactions catalyzed by enzymes are able to perform specific treatments, commonly with high rates of the final products. With this, the enzyme, peroxidase, is a promising candidate as a bioremediation catalyst. The efficiency of oxidoreductive enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and soybean peroxidase (SP) have been studied, given that their performance depends on the substrate. In this investigation, experimental techniques and theoretical calculations have been employed in order to investigate the oxidative process for the ferulic acid and bromophenol blue dyes, performed by HRP and SP. Both enzymes showed a comparable behavior with respect to ferulic acid substrate. On the other hand, by utilizing bromophenol blue dye as a substrate, the behavior of the employed catalysts was significantly different. Experimental data have shown that HRP was more active toward bromophenol blue when compared to ferulic acid, being more rapidly degraded by the HRP enzyme. This tendency was confirmed by our theoretical docking, PM6 semi-empirical method, and DFT calculation results, in which the interaction, binding energies, and transition states were determined. PMID:26130457

  16. Challenges and recent advances in affinity purification of tag-free proteins.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongli; Chen, Zhilei

    2014-07-01

    There is currently no generic, simple, lowcost method for affinity chromatographic purification of proteins in which the purified product is free of appended tags. Existing approaches for the purification of tagless proteins fall into two broad categories: (1) direct affinity-based capture of tag-free proteins that utilize affinity ligands specific to the target protein or class of target protein, and (2) removal of an appended affinity tag following tag-mediated protein capture. This paper reviews current state-of-the-art approaches for tagless protein purification in both categories, including specific examples of affinity ligands used for the capture of different classes of proteins and cleavage systems for affinity tag removal following chromatographic capture. A particular focus of this review is on recent developments in affinity tag removal systems utilizing split inteins. PMID:24658742

  17. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. )

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  18. Genetic evidence of a high-affinity cyanuric acid transport system in Pseudomonas sp. ADP.

    PubMed

    Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Govantes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here, we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting cyanuric acid concentrations is consistent with high-affinity transport of this substrate. Acquisition of the ability to grow at low cyanuric acid concentrations upon conjugal transfer of pADP1 to the nondegrading host Pseudomonas putida KT2442 suggests that all activities required for this phenotype are encoded in this plasmid. Co-expression of the pADP1-borne atzDEF and atzTUVW genes, encoding the cyanuric acid utilization pathway and the subunits of an ABC-type solute transport system, in P. putida KT2442 was sufficient to promote growth at cyanuric acid concentrations as low as 50 μM in batch culture. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the atzTUVW gene products are involved in high-affinity transport of cyanuric acid. PMID:24484197

  19. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  20. REMOVAL OF METALS IN COMBINED TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project assessed the variables influencing the removal of eight metals through combined industrial-municipal treatment plants. The eight metals investigated were: aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc. The metals were studied at subtoxic influent ...

  1. Identification of high- and low-affinity NGF receptors during development of the chicken central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Escandon, E.; Chao, M.V. )

    1990-12-01

    In order to study regulation of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor during embryogenesis in chick brain, we have used affinity crosslinking of tissues with {sup 125}I-NGF. NGF interacts with high- and low-affinity receptors; high-affinity receptors are required for the majority of NGF's actions. Most measurements of receptor levels do not distinguish between high- and low-affinity forms of the receptor. We have used the lipophilic crosslinking agent HSAB to identify the high-affinity, functional receptor during development of the chicken central nervous system. A peak of expression during Embryonic Days 5-10 was detected in all regions of the chicken central nervous system, but, shortly after birth, only the cerebellar region displays significant levels of NGF receptor protein. The time course of expression confirms the dramatic regulation of the NGF receptor gene during defined embryonic periods. The detection of high-affinity NGF receptors in brain and neural retina provides strong evidence that NGF is involved in essential ontogenetic events in the development of the chicken central nervous system.

  2. The tandem affinity purification method: an efficient system for protein complex purification and protein interaction identification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Song, Yuan; Li, Yuhua; Chang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hua; An, Lizhe

    2010-08-01

    Isolation and identification of protein partners in multi-protein complexes are important in gaining further insights into the cellular roles of proteins and determining the possible mechanisms by which proteins have an effect in the molecular environment. The tandem affinity purification (TAP) method was originally developed in yeast for the purification of protein complexes and identification of protein-protein interactions. With modifications to this method and many variations in the original tag made over the past few years, the TAP system could be applied in mammalian, plant, bacteria and other systems for protein complex analysis. In this review, we describe the application of the TAP method in various organisms, the modification in the tag, the disadvantages, the developments and the future prospects of the TAP method. PMID:20399864

  3. Identification and affinity of very high affinity binding sites for the phenylalkylamine series of Ca/sup +/ channel blockers in the Drosophila nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Pauron, D.; Qar, J.; Barhanin, J.; Fournier, D.; Cuany, A.; Pralavorio, M.; Berge, J.B.; Lazdunski, M.

    1987-10-06

    The interaction of putative Ca/sup 2 +/ channels of Drosophila head membranes with molecules of the phenylalkylamine series was studied from binding experiments using (-)-(/sup 3/H)D888 and (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)verapamil. These ligands recognize a single class of very high affinity binding sites. The most potent molecule in the phenylalkylamine series was (-)-verapamil with a K/sub d/ value as exceptional low as 4.7 pM. Molecules in the benzothiazepine and diphenylbutylpiperidine series of Ca/sup 2 +/ channel blockers as well as bepridil inhibited (-)-(/sup 3/H)D888 binding in a competitive way with K/sub d/ values between 12 and 190 nM, suggesting a close correlation, as in the mammalian system, between these receptor sites and those recognizing phenylalkylamines. A tritiated (arylazido)phenylalkylamine with high affinity for the Drosophila head membranes, phenylalkylamine receptor was used in photoaffinity experiments. A protein of M/sub r/ 135,000 +/- 5000 was specifically labeled after ultraviolet irradiation.

  4. Iron oxide-loaded slag for arsenic removal from aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Shen; Itoh, Hideaki

    2005-07-01

    An effective adsorbent for arsenic removal from aqueous system was synthesized by loading iron(III) oxide on municipal solid waste incinerator melted slag. The loading was accomplished via chemical processes and thermal coating technique. The key point of the technique was the simultaneous generation of amorphous FeOOH sol and silica sol in-situ and eventually led to the formation of Fe-Si surface complexes which combined the iron oxide with the melted slag tightly. The surface morphology of the iron oxide-loaded slag was examined and the loading mechanisms were discussed in detail. The adsorbent was effective for both arsenate and arsenite removal and its removal capabilities for As(V) and As(III) were 2.5 and 3 times of those of FeOOH, respectively. Both affinity adsorption and chemical reactions contributed to arsenic removal. The effects of solution pH, contact time, arsenic concentration and adsorbent dosage on arsenic removal were examined and the optimum removal conditions were established. Furthermore, leaching of hazardous elements such as Cr(VI), As, Se, Cd and Pb from the adsorbent at a pH range of 2.5-12.5 was below the regulation values. Accordingly, it is believed that the iron oxide-loaded slag developed in this study is environmentally acceptable and industrially applicable for wastewater treatment. PMID:15924950

  5. A sol-gel-integrated protein array system for affinity analysis of aptamer-target protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Young; Kim, Eunkyung; Kang, Jeehye; Kim, Soyoun

    2011-06-01

    A sol-gel microarray system was developed for a protein interaction assay with high activity. Comparing to 2-dimensional microarray surfaces, sol-gel can offer a more dynamic and broad range for proteins. In the present study, this sol-gel-integrated protein array was used in binding affinity analysis for aptamers. Six RNA aptamers and their target protein, yeast TBP (TATA-binding protein), were used to evaluate this method. A TBP-containing sol-gel mixture was spotted using a dispensing workstation under high-humidity conditions and each Cy-3-labeled aptamer was incubated. The dissociation constants (K(d)) were calculated by plotting the fluorescent intensity of the bound aptamers as a function of the TBP concentrations. The K(d) value of the control aptamer was found to be 8 nM, which agrees well with the values obtained using the conventional method, electric mobility shift assay. The sol-gel-based binding affinity measurements fit well with conventional binding affinity measurements, suggesting their possible use as an alternative to the conventional method. In addition, aptamer affinity measurements by the sol-gel-integrated protein chip make it possible to develop a simple high-throughput affinity method for screening high-affinity aptamers. PMID:21749295

  6. Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gary R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents selected recent advances in immobilization chemistry which have important connections to affinity chromatography. Discusses ligand immobilization and support modification. Cites 51 references. (CS)

  7. Reinforcement learning controller design for affine nonlinear discrete-time systems using online approximators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinmin; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, reinforcement learning state- and output-feedback-based adaptive critic controller designs are proposed by using the online approximators (OLAs) for a general multi-input and multioutput affine unknown nonlinear discretetime systems in the presence of bounded disturbances. The proposed controller design has two entities, an action network that is designed to produce optimal signal and a critic network that evaluates the performance of the action network. The critic estimates the cost-to-go function which is tuned online using recursive equations derived from heuristic dynamic programming. Here, neural networks (NNs) are used both for the action and critic whereas any OLAs, such as radial basis functions, splines, fuzzy logic, etc., can be utilized. For the output-feedback counterpart, an additional NN is designated as the observer to estimate the unavailable system states, and thus, separation principle is not required. The NN weight tuning laws for the controller schemes are also derived while ensuring uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system using Lyapunov theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the two controllers is tested in simulation on a pendulum balancing system and a two-link robotic arm system. PMID:21947529

  8. Removal of 14 N-terminal amino acids of lactoferrin enhances its affinity for parenchymal liver cells and potentiates the inhibition of beta- very low density lipoprotein binding.

    PubMed

    Ziere, G J; Bijsterbosch, M K; van Berkel, T J

    1993-12-25

    Lactoferrin inhibits the hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants, and we showed earlier that arginine residues of lactoferrin are involved. In this study, lactoferrin was treated with aminopeptidase M (APM), which resulted in removal of 14 N-terminal amino acids, including 4 clustered arginine residues at positions 2-5 (APM-lactoferrin). After intravenous injection into rats, 125I-labeled APM-lactoferrin was cleared within 10 min by the liver parenchymal cells (74.7% of the dose). In contrast to native lactoferrin, APM-lactoferrin was rapidly internalized after liver association (> 80% of the liver-associated radioactivity was internalized within 10 min). Binding of APM-lactoferrin to isolated parenchymal liver cells was saturable with a Kd of 186 nM (750,000 sites/cell). This is in striking contrast to the binding of native lactoferrin (Kd 10 microM; 20 x 10(6) sites/cell). Preinjection of rats with 20 mg of APM-lactoferrin/kg of body weight reduced the liver association of beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) by 50%, whereas lactoferrin had no effect at this dose. With isolated parenchymal liver cells, APM-lactoferrin was a more effective competitor for beta-VLDL binding than native lactoferrin (50% inhibition at 0.5 mg/ml versus 8.0 mg/ml). Selective modification of the arginines of APM-lactoferrin with 1,2-cyclohexanedione reduced the liver association by approximately 60% and abolished the capacity of APM-lactoferrin to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL in vitro. In conclusion, our data indicate that the four-arginine cluster of lactoferrin at positions 2-5 is involved in its massive, low affinity association of lactoferrin with the liver, possibly to proteoglycans, but is not essential for the inhibition of lipoprotein remnant uptake. The Arg-Lys sequence at positions 25-31, which resembles the binding site of apolipoprotein E, may mediate the high affinity binding of lactoferrin and block the binding of beta-VLDL to the remnant receptor

  9. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-03-06

    This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  11. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  12. Integral reinforcement learning for continuous-time input-affine nonlinear systems with simultaneous invariant explorations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on a class of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, named integral RL (I-RL), that solve continuous-time (CT) nonlinear optimal control problems with input-affine system dynamics. First, we extend the concepts of exploration, integral temporal difference, and invariant admissibility to the target CT nonlinear system that is governed by a control policy plus a probing signal called an exploration. Then, we show input-to-state stability (ISS) and invariant admissibility of the closed-loop systems with the policies generated by integral policy iteration (I-PI) or invariantly admissible PI (IA-PI) method. Based on these, three online I-RL algorithms named explorized I-PI and integral Q -learning I, II are proposed, all of which generate the same convergent sequences as I-PI and IA-PI under the required excitation condition on the exploration. All the proposed methods are partially or completely model free, and can simultaneously explore the state space in a stable manner during the online learning processes. ISS, invariant admissibility, and convergence properties of the proposed methods are also investigated, and related with these, we show the design principles of the exploration for safe learning. Neural-network-based implementation methods for the proposed schemes are also presented in this paper. Finally, several numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:25163070

  13. Enrichment of circulating tumor cells using a centrifugal affinity plate system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Hyun, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung-Il; Kang, Ji-Yoon; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2014-12-19

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are defined as cells that have detached from a primary tumor and are circulating in the bloodstream. Their isolation and quantification is of great value for cancer prognoses and drug testing. Here, the development of a centrifugal affinity plate (CAP) system is described, in which centrifugal force and antibody-based capture are exploited to enrich CTCs on one plate and hematological cells on the other. The CAP is rotated to exert centrifugal force on the cells in a blood sample, quickly transporting them to the anti-epithelial adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-coated and anti-CD45-coated surface of the CAP to shorten the reaction time and increase the adhesion force between the tumor and blood cells and each antibody. The effect of a rotating process on cell capture was investigated, and the capture efficiency was demonstrated using blood samples from healthy donors spiked with human non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H1650) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The CAP system was capable of rapid isolation and identification of CTCs without the requirement for pretreatment of blood samples. Finally, the CAP system was tested to evaluate the detection efficiency of CTCs in the blood samples of breast cancer patients. The number of captured CTCs in only 1ml of blood varied from 6 to 10. PMID:25435456

  14. Wash water solids removal system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    During wash water purification, surfactants tend to precipitate and foul the RO membranes, causing water flux decline and loss of salt rejection. The use of 165 to 190 ppm ferric chloride and optionally 0.25 to 1.0 ppm polymeric flocculate precipitates 92 to 96 percent of the surfactant from an Olive Leaf Soap based wash water. Crossflow filtration and pressure filtration yield good soap rejection at high water flux rates. Post-treatment of the chemically pretreated and filtered wash water with activated charcoal removes the residual soap down to an undetectable level.

  15. Regulation of a high-affinity diamine transport system in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed Central

    Le Quesne, S A; Fairlamb, A H

    1996-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes take up exogenous [3H]putrescine and [3H]cadaverine by a rapid, high-affinity, transport system that exhibits saturable kinetics (putrescine K(m) 2.0 microM, V(max) 3.3 nmol/min per 10(8) cells; cadaverine K(m) 13.4 microM, V(max) 3.9 nmol/min per 10(8) cells). Putrescine transport is temperature dependent and requires the presence of a membrane potential and thiol groups for activity. Its activity is altered in response to extracellular putrescine levels and as the cells proceed through the growth cycle. This transporter shows high specificity for the diamines putrescine and cadaverine, but low specificity for the polyamines spermidine and spermine. The existence of rapid diamine/polyamine transport systems whose activity can be adjusted in response to the growth conditions is of particular importance, as they seem unable to synthesize their own putrescine [Hunter, Le Quesne and Fairlamb (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 226, 1019-1027]. PMID:8687391

  16. Designer protein delivery: From natural to engineered affinity-controlled release systems.

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Miersch, Shane; Shoichet, Molly S

    2016-03-18

    Exploiting binding affinities between molecules is an established practice in many fields, including biochemical separations, diagnostics, and drug development; however, using these affinities to control biomolecule release is a more recent strategy. Affinity-controlled release takes advantage of the reversible nature of noncovalent interactions between a therapeutic protein and a binding partner to slow the diffusive release of the protein from a vehicle. This process, in contrast to degradation-controlled sustained-release formulations such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, is controlled through the strength of the binding interaction, the binding kinetics, and the concentration of binding partners. In the context of affinity-controlled release--and specifically the discovery or design of binding partners--we review advances in in vitro selection and directed evolution of proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides (aptamers), aided by computational design. PMID:26989257

  17. Gγ recruitment systems specifically select PPI and affinity-enhanced candidate proteins that interact with membrane protein targets

    PubMed Central

    Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Fukuda, Nobuo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are crucial for the vast majority of biological processes. We previously constructed a Gγ recruitment system to screen PPI candidate proteins and desirable affinity-altered (affinity-enhanced and affinity-attenuated) protein variants. The methods utilized a target protein fused to a mutated G-protein γ subunit (Gγcyto) lacking the ability to localize to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, the previous systems were adapted to use only soluble cytosolic proteins as targets. Recently, membrane proteins have been found to form the principal nodes of signaling involved in diseases and have attracted a great deal of interest as primary drug targets. Here, we describe new protocols for the Gγ recruitment systems that are specifically designed to use membrane proteins as targets to overcome previous limitations. These systems represent an attractive approach to exploring novel interacting candidates and affinity-altered protein variants and their interactions with proteins on the inner side of the plasma membrane, with high specificity and selectivity. PMID:26581329

  18. Gγ recruitment systems specifically select PPI and affinity-enhanced candidate proteins that interact with membrane protein targets.

    PubMed

    Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Fukuda, Nobuo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are crucial for the vast majority of biological processes. We previously constructed a Gγ recruitment system to screen PPI candidate proteins and desirable affinity-altered (affinity-enhanced and affinity-attenuated) protein variants. The methods utilized a target protein fused to a mutated G-protein γ subunit (Gγcyto) lacking the ability to localize to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, the previous systems were adapted to use only soluble cytosolic proteins as targets. Recently, membrane proteins have been found to form the principal nodes of signaling involved in diseases and have attracted a great deal of interest as primary drug targets. Here, we describe new protocols for the Gγ recruitment systems that are specifically designed to use membrane proteins as targets to overcome previous limitations. These systems represent an attractive approach to exploring novel interacting candidates and affinity-altered protein variants and their interactions with proteins on the inner side of the plasma membrane, with high specificity and selectivity. PMID:26581329

  19. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

  20. Brownian-motion based simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion systems for affinity based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulzer, Gerhard; Heitzinger, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we develop a 2D algorithm for stochastic reaction-diffusion systems describing the binding and unbinding of target molecules at the surfaces of affinity-based sensors. In particular, we simulate the detection of DNA oligomers using silicon-nanowire field-effect biosensors. Since these devices are uniform along the nanowire, two dimensions are sufficient to capture the kinetic effects features. The model combines a stochastic ordinary differential equation for the binding and unbinding of target molecules as well as a diffusion equation for their transport in the liquid. A Brownian-motion based algorithm simulates the diffusion process, which is linked to a stochastic-simulation algorithm for association at and dissociation from the surface. The simulation data show that the shape of the cross section of the sensor yields areas with significantly different target-molecule coverage. Different initial conditions are investigated as well in order to aid rational sensor design. A comparison of the association/hybridization behavior for different receptor densities allows optimization of the functionalization setup depending on the target-molecule density.

  1. Synthesis of new bivalent peptides for applications in the Affinity Enhancement System.

    PubMed

    Morandeau, L; Benoist, E; Loussouarn, A; Ouadi, A; Lesaec, P; Mougin, M; Faivre-Chauvet, A; Le Boterff, J; Chatal, J F; Barbet, J; Gestin, J F

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of two-step radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cancer by the Affinity Enhancement System (AES) has been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies. This technique, associating a bispecific antibody and a bivalent peptide radiolabeled with iodine-131, has been developed to reduce toxicity and to improve therapeutic efficacy compared to one-step targeting methods. The use of AES with different beta-emitters such as rhenium-188, samarium-153, or lutetium-177 or alpha-emitters such as actinium-225 or bismuth-213 is now considered. Thus three new peptides, designed to allow for the coupling of a variety of bifunctional chelating agents BCA, were synthesized by associating two glycyl-succinyl-histamine (GSH) arms, which are recognized by the 679 monoclonal antibody (mAb-679), with different binding agents, such as p-nitrophenylalanine or N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-4-N'-(9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl)aminobenzylamine. Immunoreactivity and serum stability evaluation were performed for each synthesized peptide. One of the three peptides (LM218) proved to be more stable than the others, and three different BCAs were coupled to LM218 (CITC-DTPA, CITC-TTHA, and CITC-CHXA''DTPA). One of these products, LM218-BzTTHA was radiolabeled with indium-111 without loss of immunoreactivity toward the mAb-679. These new peptides will allow pretargeted RIT with a large variety of radionuclides, to adapt the choice of the radionuclide (LET, half-life, penetrating emission) to the nature and size of targeted tumors. PMID:15656590

  2. Brownian-motion based simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion systems for affinity based sensors.

    PubMed

    Tulzer, Gerhard; Heitzinger, Clemens

    2016-04-22

    In this work, we develop a 2D algorithm for stochastic reaction-diffusion systems describing the binding and unbinding of target molecules at the surfaces of affinity-based sensors. In particular, we simulate the detection of DNA oligomers using silicon-nanowire field-effect biosensors. Since these devices are uniform along the nanowire, two dimensions are sufficient to capture the kinetic effects features. The model combines a stochastic ordinary differential equation for the binding and unbinding of target molecules as well as a diffusion equation for their transport in the liquid. A Brownian-motion based algorithm simulates the diffusion process, which is linked to a stochastic-simulation algorithm for association at and dissociation from the surface. The simulation data show that the shape of the cross section of the sensor yields areas with significantly different target-molecule coverage. Different initial conditions are investigated as well in order to aid rational sensor design. A comparison of the association/hybridization behavior for different receptor densities allows optimization of the functionalization setup depending on the target-molecule density. PMID:26939610

  3. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    SciTech Connect

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. )

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  4. [Removal of Phosphate by Calcite in Open-System].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-xuan; Diao, Jia-yong; Huang, Li-dong; Chen, Yan-fan; Liu, Da-gang; Xu, Zheng-wen

    2015-12-01

    Batch methods were deployed to study the removal of phosphate by calcite in an open-system. Results showed that: (1) The pre-equilibrium process of calcite in open system could be achieved within 24 hours (2) The kinetic results showed that, at initial concentration of 0.5 mg · L⁻¹, the phosphate removal was almost completed within 10 hours of the first phase. The observation may be attributed to surface adsorption. At initial concentration of 2.5 mg · L⁻¹, the phosphate removal was mainly carried out by the precipitation of phosphate at later stage of the process; (3) At initial concentration of ≤ 2.5 mg · L⁻¹ setting 10 h as reaction time, the phosphate removal process was described well by the Langmuir model. It is hypothesized that surface adsorption was the principal removal way of phosphate; (4) With the addition of phthalate, at initial concentration of < 2.5 mg · L⁻¹, the phosphate removal rate experienced a small decrease. That was because phosphate was mainly removed by surface adsorption, and thus, phthalate was a competitor to phosphate for the same adsorption site. The phosphate removal rate increased a little at initial concentration of > 2.5 mg · L⁻¹, this was because the phosphate precipitation was reinforced by the increase of calcium concentration, which was caused by phthalate addition. PMID:27011989

  5. A two-component high-affinity nitrate uptake system in barley.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yiping; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Li, Zhensheng; Miller, Anthony J

    2005-02-01

    The analysis of genome databases for many different plants has identified a group of genes that are related to one part of a two-component nitrate transport system found in algae. Earlier work using mutants and heterologous expression has shown that a high-affinity nitrate transport system from the unicellular green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii required two gene products for function. One gene encoded a typical carrier-type structure with 12 putative trans-membrane (TM) domains and the other gene, nar2 encoded a much smaller protein that had only one TM domain. As both gene families occur in plants we investigated whether this transport model has more general relevance among plants. The screening for nitrate transporter activity was greatly helped by a novel assay using (15)N-enriched nitrate uptake into Xenopus oocytes expressing the proteins. This assay enables many oocytes to be rapidly screened for nitrate transport activity. The functional activity of a barley nitrate transporter, HvNRT2.1, in oocytes required co-injection of a second mRNA. Although three very closely related nar2-like genes were cloned from barley, only one of these was able to give functional nitrate transport when co-injected into oocytes. The nitrate transport performed by this two-gene system was inhibited at more acidic external pH and by acidification of the cytoplasm. This specific requirement for two-gene products to give nitrate transport function has important implications for attempts to genetically manipulate this fundamental process in plants. PMID:15659102

  6. Nutrient release, recovery and removal from waste sludge of a biological nutrient removal system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Pei, Li-Ying; Ke, Li; Peng, Dang-Cong; Xia, Si-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of nutrients from waste sludge results in nitrogen and phosphorus overloading in wastewater treatment plants when supernatant is returned to the inlet. A controlled release, recovery and removal of nutrient from the waste sludge of a Biological Nutrient Removal system (BNR) are investigated. Results showed that the supernatant was of high mineral salt, high electrical conductivity and poor biodegradability, in addition to high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations after the waste sludge was hydrolysed through sodium dodecyl sulphate addition. Subsequently, over 91.8% of phosphorus and 10.5% of nitrogen in the supernatants were extracted by the crystallization method under the conditions of 9.5 pH and 400 rpm. The precipitate was mainly struvite according to X-ray diffraction and morphological examination. A multistage anoxic-oxic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was then adopted to remove the residual carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the supernatant. The MBBR exhibited good performance in simultaneously removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under a short aeration time, which accounted for 31.25% of a cycle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that nitrifiers presented mainly in floc, although higher extracellular polymeric substance content, especially DNA, appeared in the biofilm. Thus, a combination of hydrolysis and precipitation, followed by the MBBR, can complete the nutrient release from the waste sludge of a BNR system, recovers nutrients from the hydrolysed liquor and removes nutrients from leftovers effectively. PMID:25176308

  7. Treatment System for Removing Halogenated Compounds from Contaminated Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Yestrebsky, Cherie L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A treatment system and a method for removal of at least one halogenated compound, such as PCBs, found in contaminated systems are provided. The treatment system includes a polymer blanket for receiving at least one non-polar solvent. The halogenated compound permeates into or through a wall of the polymer blanket where it is solubilized with at least one non-polar solvent received by said polymer blanket forming a halogenated solvent mixture. This treatment system and method provides for the in situ removal of halogenated compounds from the contaminated system. In one embodiment, the halogenated solvent mixture is subjected to subsequent processes which destroy and/or degrade the halogenated compound.

  8. Zero-sum two-player game theoretic formulation of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Mehraeen, Shahab; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, S; Crow, Mariesa L

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the nearly optimal solution for discrete-time (DT) affine nonlinear control systems in the presence of partially unknown internal system dynamics and disturbances is considered. The approach is based on successive approximate solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which appears in optimal control. Successive approximation approach for updating control and disturbance inputs for DT nonlinear affine systems are proposed. Moreover, sufficient conditions for the convergence of the approximate HJI solution to the saddle point are derived, and an iterative approach to approximate the HJI equation using a neural network (NN) is presented. Then, the requirement of full knowledge of the internal dynamics of the nonlinear DT system is relaxed by using a second NN online approximator. The result is a closed-loop optimal NN controller via offline learning. A numerical example is provided illustrating the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:24273142

  9. Orbital debris removal and salvage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Four Texas A&M University projects are discussed. The first project is a design to eliminate a majority of orbital debris. The Orbital Debris and Salvage System will push the smaller particles into lower orbits where their orbits will decay at a higher rate. This will be done by momentum transfer via laser. The salvageable satellites will be delivered to the Space Station by an Orbital Transfer Vehicle. The rest of the debris will be collected by Salvage I. The second project is the design of a space based satellite system to prevent the depletion of atmospheric ozone. The focus is on ozone depletion in the Antarctic. The plan is to use an orbiting solar array system designed to transmit microwaves at a frequency of 22 GHz over the region in order to dissipate polar stratospheric clouds that form during the months beginning in August and ending in October. The third project, Project Poseidon, involves a conceptual design of a space based hurricane control system consisting of a network of 21 low-orbiting laser platforms arranged in three rings designed to heat the upper atmosphere of a developing tropical depression. Fusion power plants are proposed to provide power for the lasers. The fourth project, Project Donatello, involves a proposed Mars exploration initiative for the year 2050. The project is a conceptual design for a futuristic superfreighter that will transport large numbers of people and supplies to Mars for the construction of a full scale scientific and manufacturing complex.

  10. Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Barty, C. P. J.; Beach, R. J.; Erlandson, A. C.; Caird, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called "LIFE" laser system. Because a single "LIFE" beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

  11. Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Barty, C. P. J.; Beach, R. J.; Erlandson, A. C.; Caird, J. A.

    2010-10-08

    The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

  12. Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, A M; Barty, C P; Beach, R J; Erlandson, A C; Caird, J A

    2010-02-05

    The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

  13. Development of a regenerable metal oxide CO removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A regenerable metal oxide carbon dioxide (CO2) removal system was developed to replace the current means of a nonreusable chemical, lithium hydroxide, for removing the metabolic CO2 of an astronaut in a space suit. Testing indicates that a viable low-volume metal oxide concept can be used in the portable life support system for CO2 removal during Space Station extravehicular activity (EVA). A canister of nearly the same volume as that used for the Space Shuttle, containing 0.10 cu ft of silver-oxide-based pellets, was tested; test data analysis indicates that 0.18 cu ft of the metal oxide will result in an 8-hour EVA capability. The testing suggests that the metal oxide technology offers a low-volume approach for a reusable CO2 removal concept applicable for at least 40 EVA missions. The development and testing of the breadboard regeneration package is also described.

  14. Operability test procedure [Tank] 241-SY-101 equipment removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, J.C.

    1994-12-08

    The 241-SY-101 equipment removal system (ERS) consists of components, equipment, instrumentation and procedures that will provide the means to disconnect, retrieve, contain, load and transport the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA) from waste Tank 241-SY-101 to the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will test the interfaces between ERS components and will rehearse the procedure for MPA removal and transportation to the extent they can be mocked-up at the CTF (Cold Test Facility). At the conclusion of the OTP, the ERS components and equipment will be removed from the CTF, entered into the Component Based Recall System (CBRS), and stored until needed for actual MPA removal and transportation.

  15. Interval-type and affine arithmetic-type techniques for handling uncertainty in expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceberio, Martine; Kreinovich, Vladik; Chopra, Sanjeev; Longpre, Luc; Nguyen, Hung T.; Ludascher, Bertram; Baral, Chitta

    2007-02-01

    Expert knowledge consists of statements Sj (facts and rules). The facts and rules are often only true with some probability. For example, if we are interested in oil, we should look at seismic data. If in 90% of the cases, the seismic data were indeed helpful in locating oil, then we can say that if we are interested in oil, then with probability 90% it is helpful to look at the seismic data. In more formal terms, we can say that the implication "if oil then seismic" holds with probability 90%. Another example: a bank A trusts a client B, so if we trust the bank A, we should trust B too; if statistically this trust was justified in 99% of the cases, we can conclude that the corresponding implication holds with probability 99%. If a query Q is deducible from facts and rules, what is the resulting probability p(Q) in Q? We can describe the truth of Q as a propositional formula F in terms of Sj, i.e., as a combination of statements Sj linked by operators like &, [logical or], and [not sign]; computing p(Q) exactly is NP-hard, so heuristics are needed. Traditionally, expert systems use technique similar to straightforward interval computations: we parse F and replace each computation step with corresponding probability operation. Problem: at each step, we ignore the dependence between the intermediate results Fj; hence intervals are too wide. Example: the estimate for P(A[logical or][not sign]A) is not 1. Solution: similar to affine arithmetic, besides P(Fj), we also compute P(Fj&Fi) (or P(Fj1&...&Fjd)), and on each step, use all combinations of l such probabilities to get new estimates. Results: e.g., P(A[logical or][not sign]A) is estimated as 1.

  16. A comparison of binding surfaces for SPR biosensing using an antibody-antigen system and affinity distribution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Gorshkova, Inna I.; Fu, Gregory L.; Schuck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors in the study of macromolecular interactions requires immobilization of one binding partner to the surface. It is often highly desirable that the immobilization is uniform and does not affect the thermodynamic and kinetic binding parameters to soluble ligands. To achieve this goal, a variety of sensor surfaces, coupling strategies and surface chemistries are available. Previously, we have introduced a technique for increasing the level of detail on the immobilized sites beyond an average affinity by determining the distribution of affinities and kinetic rate constants from families of binding and dissociation traces acquired at different concentrations of soluble ligand. In the present work, we explore how this affinity distribution analysis can be useful in the assessment and optimization of surface immobilization. With this goal, using an antibody-antigen interaction as a model system, we study the activity, thermodynamic and kinetic binding parameters, and heterogeneity of surface sites produced with different commonly used sensor surfaces, at different total surface densities and with direct immobilization or affinity capture. PMID:23270815

  17. Removal of humic and tannic acids by adsorption-coagulation combined systems with activated biochar.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanil; Phal, Narong; Oh, Jeill; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-12-30

    Despite recent interest in transforming biomass into bio-oil and syngas, there is inadequate information on the compatibility of byproducts (e.g., biochar) with agriculture and water purification infrastructures. A pyrolysis at 300°C yields efficient production of biochar, and its physicochemical properties can be improved by chemical activation, resulting in a suitable adsorbent for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), including hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, such as humic acids (HA) and tannic acids (TA), respectively. In this study, the adsorption affinities of different HA and TA combinations in NOM solutions were evaluated, and higher adsorption affinity of TA onto activated biochar (AB) produced in the laboratory was observed due to its superior chemisorption tendencies and size-exclusion effects compared with that of HA, whereas hydrophobic interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate were deficient. Assessment of the AB role in an adsorption-coagulation hybrid system as nuclei for coagulation in the presence of aluminum sulfate (alum) showed a synergistic effect in a HA-dominated NOM solution. An AB-alum hybrid system with a high proportion of HA in the NOM solution may be applicable as an end-of-pipe solution. PMID:26340547

  18. Phosphorus removal from secondary effluents through integrated constructed treatment system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jibing; Qin, Yong; Mahmood, Qaisar; Liu, Hanhu; Yang, Dejun

    2011-01-01

    The treatment capacity of an integrated constructed treatment system (CTS) was explored which was designed to reduce phosphorus (P) from secondary effluents. The integrated CTS was combined with vertical-flow constructed wetland, floating bed and sand filter. The vertical wetland was filled from the bottom to the top with gravels, steel slag and peat. Vetiverzizanioides (L.) Nash was selected to grow in the vertical constructed wetland while Coixlacrymajobi L. was grown in floating bed. The results suggested that integrated CTS displayed excellent removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved phosphorus (DP), and total phosphorus (TP). The average COD removal efficiency of the integrated CTS was 90.45% after 40 days of operation, the average DP and TP removal efficiencies of the integrated CTS were 97.43% and 96.40%, respectively. The integrated CTS has good potential in removing COD as well as P from secondary effluents. PMID:21570097

  19. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, C.L.

    1993-02-01

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis`, and D&D plans` were prepared in 1991. Physical D&D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D&D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred.

  20. AGIA Tag System Based on a High Affinity Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody against Human Dopamine Receptor D1 for Protein Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Tomoya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Nomura, Shunsuke; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Iwasaki, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sawasaki, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptide tag technology is widely used for protein detection and affinity purification. It consists of two fundamental elements: a peptide sequence and a binder which specifically binds to the peptide tag. In many tag systems, antibodies have been used as binder due to their high affinity and specificity. Recently, we obtained clone Ra48, a high-affinity rabbit monoclonal antibody (mAb) against dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1). Here, we report a novel tag system composed of Ra48 antibody and its epitope sequence. Using a deletion assay, we identified EEAAGIARP in the C-terminal region of DRD1 as the minimal epitope of Ra48 mAb, and we named this sequence the “AGIA” tag, based on its central sequence. The tag sequence does not include the four amino acids, Ser, Thr, Tyr, or Lys, which are susceptible to post-translational modification. We demonstrated performance of this new tag system in biochemical and cell biology applications. SPR analysis demonstrated that the affinity of the Ra48 mAb to the AGIA tag was 4.90 × 10−9 M. AGIA tag showed remarkably high sensitivity and specificity in immunoblotting. A number of AGIA-fused proteins overexpressed in animal and plant cells were detected by anti-AGIA antibody in immunoblotting and immunostaining with low background, and were immunoprecipitated efficiently. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution of the second Glu to Asp (AGIA/E2D) enabled competitive dissociation of AGIA/E2D-tagged protein by adding wild-type AGIA peptide. It enabled one-step purification of AGIA/E2D-tagged recombinant proteins by peptide competition under physiological conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of the AGIA system makes it suitable for use in multiple methods for protein analysis. PMID:27271343

  1. AGIA Tag System Based on a High Affinity Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody against Human Dopamine Receptor D1 for Protein Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomoya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Nomura, Shunsuke; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Iwasaki, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sawasaki, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptide tag technology is widely used for protein detection and affinity purification. It consists of two fundamental elements: a peptide sequence and a binder which specifically binds to the peptide tag. In many tag systems, antibodies have been used as binder due to their high affinity and specificity. Recently, we obtained clone Ra48, a high-affinity rabbit monoclonal antibody (mAb) against dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1). Here, we report a novel tag system composed of Ra48 antibody and its epitope sequence. Using a deletion assay, we identified EEAAGIARP in the C-terminal region of DRD1 as the minimal epitope of Ra48 mAb, and we named this sequence the "AGIA" tag, based on its central sequence. The tag sequence does not include the four amino acids, Ser, Thr, Tyr, or Lys, which are susceptible to post-translational modification. We demonstrated performance of this new tag system in biochemical and cell biology applications. SPR analysis demonstrated that the affinity of the Ra48 mAb to the AGIA tag was 4.90 × 10-9 M. AGIA tag showed remarkably high sensitivity and specificity in immunoblotting. A number of AGIA-fused proteins overexpressed in animal and plant cells were detected by anti-AGIA antibody in immunoblotting and immunostaining with low background, and were immunoprecipitated efficiently. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution of the second Glu to Asp (AGIA/E2D) enabled competitive dissociation of AGIA/E2D-tagged protein by adding wild-type AGIA peptide. It enabled one-step purification of AGIA/E2D-tagged recombinant proteins by peptide competition under physiological conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of the AGIA system makes it suitable for use in multiple methods for protein analysis. PMID:27271343

  2. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-12-09

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system.

  3. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  4. Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under a system of affine equality constraints with application to portfolio management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Zinoviy

    2008-10-01

    We present an explicit closed form solution of the problem of minimizing the root of a quadratic functional subject to a system of affine constraints. The result generalizes Z. Landsman, Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under an affine equality constraint, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2007, to appear, see , articles in press, where the optimization problem was solved under only one linear constraint. This is of interest for solving significant problems pertaining to financial economics as well as some classes of feasibility and optimization problems which frequently occur in tomography and other fields. The results are illustrated in the problem of optimal portfolio selection and the particular case when the expected return of finance portfolio is certain is discussed.

  5. An affinity-structure database of helix-turn-helix: DNA complexes with a universal coordinate system

    SciTech Connect

    AlQuraishi, Mohammed; Tang, Shengdong; Xia, Xide

    2015-11-19

    Molecular interactions between proteins and DNA molecules underlie many cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, and nucleosome positioning. Computational analyses of protein-DNA interactions rely on experimental data characterizing known protein-DNA interactions structurally and biochemically. While many databases exist that contain either structural or biochemical data, few integrate these two data sources in a unified fashion. Such integration is becoming increasingly critical with the rapid growth of structural and biochemical data, and the emergence of algorithms that rely on the synthesis of multiple data types to derive computational models of molecular interactions. We have developed an integrated affinity-structure database in which the experimental and quantitative DNA binding affinities of helix-turn-helix proteins are mapped onto the crystal structures of the corresponding protein-DNA complexes. This database provides access to: (i) protein-DNA structures, (ii) quantitative summaries of protein-DNA binding affinities using position weight matrices, and (iii) raw experimental data of protein-DNA binding instances. Critically, this database establishes a correspondence between experimental structural data and quantitative binding affinity data at the single basepair level. Furthermore, we present a novel alignment algorithm that structurally aligns the protein-DNA complexes in the database and creates a unified residue-level coordinate system for comparing the physico-chemical environments at the interface between complexes. Using this unified coordinate system, we compute the statistics of atomic interactions at the protein-DNA interface of helix-turn-helix proteins. We provide an interactive website for visualization, querying, and analyzing this database, and a downloadable version to facilitate programmatic analysis. Lastly, this database will facilitate the analysis of protein-DNA interactions and the

  6. An affinity-structure database of helix-turn-helix: DNA complexes with a universal coordinate system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    AlQuraishi, Mohammed; Tang, Shengdong; Xia, Xide

    2015-11-19

    Molecular interactions between proteins and DNA molecules underlie many cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, and nucleosome positioning. Computational analyses of protein-DNA interactions rely on experimental data characterizing known protein-DNA interactions structurally and biochemically. While many databases exist that contain either structural or biochemical data, few integrate these two data sources in a unified fashion. Such integration is becoming increasingly critical with the rapid growth of structural and biochemical data, and the emergence of algorithms that rely on the synthesis of multiple data types to derive computational models of molecular interactions. We have developed an integrated affinity-structure database inmore » which the experimental and quantitative DNA binding affinities of helix-turn-helix proteins are mapped onto the crystal structures of the corresponding protein-DNA complexes. This database provides access to: (i) protein-DNA structures, (ii) quantitative summaries of protein-DNA binding affinities using position weight matrices, and (iii) raw experimental data of protein-DNA binding instances. Critically, this database establishes a correspondence between experimental structural data and quantitative binding affinity data at the single basepair level. Furthermore, we present a novel alignment algorithm that structurally aligns the protein-DNA complexes in the database and creates a unified residue-level coordinate system for comparing the physico-chemical environments at the interface between complexes. Using this unified coordinate system, we compute the statistics of atomic interactions at the protein-DNA interface of helix-turn-helix proteins. We provide an interactive website for visualization, querying, and analyzing this database, and a downloadable version to facilitate programmatic analysis. Lastly, this database will facilitate the analysis of protein-DNA interactions and the

  7. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens, also referred to as bioretention systems, are designed primarily to infiltrate stormwater flow and reduce surface runoff and peak flows to receiving streams. Additionally, they are known to remove stressors from urban stormwater runoff, including oil and grease, pho...

  8. The development of an affinity evaluation and prediction system by using protein–protein docking simulations and parameter tuning

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Hourai, Yuichiro; Fukui, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    A system was developed to evaluate and predict the interaction between protein pairs by using the widely used shape complementarity search method as the algorithm for docking simulations between the proteins. We used this system, which we call the affinity evaluation and prediction (AEP) system, to evaluate the interaction between 20 protein pairs. The system first executes a “round robin” shape complementarity search of the target protein group, and evaluates the interaction between the complex structures obtained by the search. These complex structures are selected by using a statistical procedure that we developed called ‘grouping’. At a prevalence of 5.0%, our AEP system predicted protein–protein interactions with a 50.0% recall, 55.6% precision, 95.5% accuracy, and an F-measure of 0.526. By optimizing the grouping process, our AEP system successfully predicted 10 protein pairs (among 20 pairs) that were biologically relevant combinations. Our ultimate goal is to construct an affinity database that will provide cell biologists and drug designers with crucial information obtained using our AEP system. PMID:21918611

  9. Experimental study for carbon dioxide removal system in space station

    SciTech Connect

    Etoh, T.; Nihei, T.; Otsuji, K.; Satoh, S.; Hatano, S.

    1987-01-01

    As the result of the human metabolism in the space station, the carbon dioxide is discharged into the cabin atmosphere. It is indispensable to remove the carbon dioxide and keep it below the allowable level for the life support in a closed environment. The regenerative carbon dioxide removal system is necessary for the space station to decrease the life-cycle cost. The Solid Amine Water Desorbed (SAWD) system is considered as a competitive option among several candidate systems. In the SAWD process, the carbon dioxide gas is adsorbed by the ion-exchange-type solid amine, which is bedded in the canisters, and desorbed by heating the solid amine with the direct steam flow. The adsorption and desorption stage of the canisters are proceeded alternatively by the automatic control. For the application in the space station, the SAWD system shall embody less resources as well as high performance and reliability. In the space station operated on the orbit for long periods of time, the replenishment cost of the resupplies using the Space Transportation System (STS) is very expensive. Therefore, the self-sufficient system should be developed by making the material cycle closed in the space station. Especially, the closed cycle of the materials such as H/sub 2/0, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ and Carbon (i.e., foods) should be studied. For the extended operational capability of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM), the closed cycle of oxygen is investigated. The system combined with CO/sub 2/ removal, CO/sub 2/ reduction and O/sub 2/ generation is studied as the candidate technology for the oxygen closed cycle. The fundamental investigation and testing regarding CO/sub 2/ removal system were performed. As the result, it was confirmed that the solid amine water desorbed (SAWD) system is very excellent.

  10. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY `95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  11. Bacteriophage Tailspikes and Bacterial O-Antigens as a Model System to Study Weak-Affinity Protein-Polysaccharide Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu; Gohlke, Ulrich; Engström, Olof; Hamark, Christoffer; Scheidt, Tom; Kunstmann, Sonja; Heinemann, Udo; Widmalm, Göran; Santer, Mark; Barbirz, Stefanie

    2016-07-27

    Understanding interactions of bacterial surface polysaccharides with receptor protein scaffolds is important for the development of antibiotic therapies. The corresponding protein recognition domains frequently form low-affinity complexes with polysaccharides that are difficult to address with experimental techniques due to the conformational flexibility of the polysaccharide. In this work, we studied the tailspike protein (TSP) of the bacteriophage Sf6. Sf6TSP binds and hydrolyzes the high-rhamnose, serotype Y O-antigen polysaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) as a first step of bacteriophage infection. Spectroscopic analyses and enzymatic cleavage assays confirmed that Sf6TSP binds long stretches of this polysaccharide. Crystal structure analysis and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy using an enhanced method to interpret the data permitted the detailed description of affinity contributions and flexibility in an Sf6TSP-octasaccharide complex. Dodecasaccharide fragments corresponding to three repeating units of the O-antigen in complex with Sf6TSP were studied computationally by molecular dynamics simulations. They showed that distortion away from the low-energy solution conformation found in the octasaccharide complex is necessary for ligand binding. This is in agreement with a weak-affinity functional polysaccharide-protein contact that facilitates correct placement and thus hydrolysis of the polysaccharide close to the catalytic residues. Our simulations stress that the flexibility of glycan epitopes together with a small number of specific protein contacts provide the driving force for Sf6TSP-polysaccharide complex formation in an overall weak-affinity interaction system. PMID:27045683

  12. Can a safeguards accountancy system really detect an unauthorized removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.; Ellis, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Theoretical investigations and system studies indicate safeguards material balance data from reprocessing plants can be used to detect unauthorized removals. Plant systems have been modeled and simulated data used to demonstrate the techniques. But how sensitive are the techniques when used with actual plant data. What is the effect of safeguards applications on plant operability. Can safeguards be acceptable to plant operators, and are there any benefits to be derived. The Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) has been devoted to answering these and other questions over the past several years. A computerized system of near-real-time accounting and in-process inventory has been implemented and demonstrated during actual plant test runs. Measured inventories and hourly material balance closures have been made to assess safeguards in an operating plant application. The tests have culminated in actual removals of material from the operating plant to investigate the response and measure the sensitivity of the safeguards and data evaluation system.

  13. Analysis of the high-affinity iron uptake system at the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Terzulli, Alaina; Kosman, Daniel J

    2010-05-01

    Multicopper ferroxidases play a vital role in iron metabolism in bacteria, fungi, algae, and mammals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes a channeling mechanism to couple the ferroxidase activity of Fet3p to Fe(3+) transport into the cell by Ftr1p. In contrast, the mechanisms by which mammals couple the ferroxidase reaction to iron trafficking is unclear. The human ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin are twice the size of Fet3p and interact with proteins that are not expressed in fungi. Chlamydomonas FOX1 is a homolog of the human ferroxidases but likely supports iron uptake in a manner similar to that of yeast, since Chlamydomonas reinhardtii expresses a ferric iron permease homolog, FTR1. The results presented support this hypothesis. We show that FOX1 is trafficked to the plasma membrane and is oriented with its multicopper oxidase/ferroxidase domain in the exocytoplasmic space. Our analysis of FTR1 indicates its topology is similar to that of S. cerevisiae Ftr1p, with a potential exocytoplasmic iron channeling motif and two potential iron permeation motifs in membrane-spanning regions. We demonstrate that high-affinity iron uptake is dependent on FOX1 and the copper status of the cell. Kinetic inhibition of high-affinity iron uptake by a ferric iron chelator does not reflect the strength of the chelator, supporting a ferric iron channeling mechanism for high-affinity iron uptake in Chlamydomonas. Last, recombinant FOX1 (rFOX1) has been isolated in a partially holo form that exhibits the UV-visible absorbance spectrum of a multicopper oxidase and the catalytic activity of a ferroxidase. PMID:20348389

  14. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOEpatents

    Weidner, Jerry R.; Downs, Wayne C.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Hall, H. James

    1997-01-01

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER COLLECTION/REMOVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water collection/removal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOEpatents

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  17. Immobilization of laccase by Cu(2+) chelate affinity interaction on surface-modified magnetic silica particles and its use for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiaochun; Liu, Jie; He, Furong; Wang, Ran

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic Cu(2+)-chelated silica particles that employ polyacrylamide as a metal-chelating ligand were developed and used to immobilize laccase by coordination. The particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The preparation, the enzymatic properties of the immobilized laccase, and its catalytic capacity for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation were systemically evaluated. The results showed that immobilized laccase exhibited maximum enzyme activity when it was immobilized for 1 h at a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 5 °C. The optimum laccase dose was 20 mg/g of carrier. In comparison to free laccase, the immobilized laccase had better acid adaptability and thermal stability. Higher activity was observed for immobilized laccase at a pH range of 2.0 to 3.5 and temperatures from 25 to 40 °C. The immobilized laccase that was prepared for this work exhibited a good catalytic capacity for removing 2,4-dichlorophnol from aqueous solutions. PMID:23589250

  18. Determination of the kinetic rate constant of cyclodextrin supramolecular systems by high-performance affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiwen; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Caifen

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of the association and dissociation are fundamental kinetic processes for the host-guest interactions (such as the drug-target and drug-excipient interactions) and the in vivo performance of supramolecules. With advantages of rapid speed, high precision and ease of automation, the high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) is one of the best techniques to measure the interaction kinetics of weak to moderate affinities, such as the typical host-guest interactions of drug and cyclodextrins by using a cyclodextrin-immobilized column. The measurement involves the equilibration of the cyclodextrin column, the upload and elution of the samples (non-retained substances and retained solutes) at different flow rates on the cyclodextrin and control column, and data analysis. It has been indicated that cyclodextrin-immobilized chromatography is a cost-efficient high-throughput tool for the measurement of (small molecule) drug-cyclodextrin interactions as well as the dissociation of other supramolecules with relatively weak, fast, and extensive interactions. PMID:25749964

  19. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  20. Metals removal and recovery in bioelectrochemical systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L

    2015-11-01

    Metal laden wastes and contamination pose a threat to ecosystem well being and human health. Metal containing waste streams are also a valuable resource for recovery of precious and scarce elements. Although biological methods are inexpensive and effective for treating metal wastewaters and in situ bioremediation of metal(loid) contamination, little progress has been made towards metal(loid) recovery. Bioelectrochemical systems are emerging as a new technology platform for removal and recovery of metal ions from metallurgical wastes, process streams and wastewaters. Biodegradation of organic matter by electroactive biofilms at the anode has been successfully coupled to cathodic reduction of metal ions. Until now, leaching of Co(II) from LiCoO2 particles, and removal of metal ions i.e. Co(III/II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Hg(II), Ag(I), Se(IV), and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions has been demonstrated. This article reviews the state of art research of bioelectrochemical systems for removal and recovery of metal(loid) ions and pertaining removal mechanisms. PMID:26116446

  1. Evaluation of a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Mass Spectrometry System for the Analysis of Surface Deposited and Affinity Captured Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Ford, Michael J; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Kennel, Steve J

    2006-01-01

    A combined self-aspirating electrospray emitter/surfacing-sampling probe coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used to sample and mass analyze proteins from surfaces. The sampling probe mass spectrometer system was used to sample and detect lysozyme that had been deposited onto a glass slide using a piezoelectric spotter or murine gamma-interferon affinity captured on a glass slide using surface-immobilized anti-gamma-interferon antibody. The detection level for surface-deposited lysozyme (spot size {le}200 {micro}m) was approximately 1.0 fmol ({approx}100 fmol/mm{sup 2}) as determined from the ability to measure accurately the protein molecular mass from the mass spectrum acquired by sampling the deposit. These detection limits may be sufficient for certain applications in which protein fractions from a separation method are collected onto a surface. Radiolabeled proteins were used to quantify the surface density of immobilized antibody and the efficiency of capture of the gamma-interferon on glass and higher surface area ceramic supports. The capture density of gamma-interferon at surface saturation ranged from about 23 to 50 fmol/mm{sup 2} depending on the capture surface. Nonetheless, mass spectrometric detection of affinity capture protein was successful in some cases, but the results were not reproducible. Thus, improvement of the sampling system, ionization efficiency and/or capture density will be necessary for practical sampling of affinity-captured proteins. The means to accomplish improved sampling system detection limits and to increase the absolute amounts of protein captured per unit area are discussed.

  2. Removable, hermetically-sealing, filter attachment system for hostile environments

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Glenn L [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01

    A removable and reusable filter attachment system. A filter medium is fixed o, and surrounded by, a filter frame having a coaxial, longitudinally extending, annular rim. The rim engages an annular groove which surrounds the opening of a filter housing. The annular groove contains a fusible material and a heating mechanism for melting the fusible material. Upon resolidifying, the fusible material forms a hermetic bond with the rim and groove. Remelting allows detachment and replacement of the filter frame.

  3. BOA II: pipe-asbestos insulation removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Mutschler; Boehmke, S.; Chemel, B.; Piepgras, C.

    1996-12-31

    BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal costly and inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  4. Microbial Removals by a Novel Biofilter Water Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Christopher; Ives, Rebecca; Hoyt, Anne L.; Conrad, Ken E.; Longstaff, Stephanie; Kuennen, Roy W.; Rose, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Two point-of-use drinking water treatment systems designed using a carbon filter and foam material as a possible alternative to traditional biosand systems were evaluated for removal of bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Two configurations were tested: the foam material was positioned vertically around the carbon filter in the sleeve unit or horizontally in the disk unit. The filtration systems were challenged with Cryptosporidium parvum, Raoultella terrigena, and bacteriophages P22 and MS2 before and after biofilm development to determine average log reduction (ALR) for each organism and the role of the biofilm. There was no significant difference in performance between the two designs, and both designs showed significant levels of removal (at least 4 log10 reduction in viruses, 6 log10 for protozoa, and 8 log10 for bacteria). Removal levels meet or exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for microbial purifiers. Exploratory test results suggested that mature biofilm formation contributed 1–2 log10 reductions. Future work is recommended to determine field viability. PMID:25758649

  5. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  6. Space debris removal system using a small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Kawamoto, Satomi; Okawa, Yasushi; Terui, Fuyuto; Kitamura, Shoji

    2009-07-01

    Since the number of satellites in Earth orbit is steadily increasing, space debris will eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities if left unchecked, and so effective measures to mitigate it are becoming urgent. Equipping new satellites with an end-of-life de-orbit or orbital lifetime reduction capability could be an effective means of reducing the amount of debris by reducing the probability of the collisions between objects. On the other hand, the active removal of space debris and the retrieval of failed satellites by spacecraft are other possible measures. The Institute of Aerospace Technology, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is studying a micro-satellite system for active space debris removal, and is examining the applicability of electro-dynamic tether (EDT) technology as its high efficiency orbital transfer system. A small EDT package provides a possible means for lowering the orbits of objects without the need for propellant. Capture is indispensable for the retrieval of large space debris objects, and we propose a flexible robot arm for this purpose. This paper discusses a space debris removal satellite system and describes the development status of prototypes of the EDT package and a new robot arm for capturing non-cooperative targets.

  7. DNA-affinity-purified Chip (DAP-chip) Method to Determine Gene Targets for Bacterial Two component Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric G.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01

    In vivo methods such as ChIP-chip are well-established techniques used to determine global gene targets for transcription factors. However, they are of limited use in exploring bacterial two component regulatory systems with uncharacterized activation conditions. Such systems regulate transcription only when activated in the presence of unique signals. Since these signals are often unknown, the in vitro microarray based method described in this video article can be used to determine gene targets and binding sites for response regulators. This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. The protocol involves allowing the purified tagged protein to bind to sheared genomic DNA and then affinity purifying the protein-bound DNA, followed by fluorescent labeling of the DNA and hybridization to a custom tiling array. Preceding steps that may be used to optimize the assay for specific regulators are also described. The peaks generated by the array data analysis are used to predict binding site motifs, which are then experimentally validated. The motif predictions can be further used to determine gene targets of orthologous response regulators in closely related species. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by determining the gene targets and binding site motifs and thus predicting the function for a sigma54-dependent response regulator DVU3023 in the environmental bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. PMID:25079303

  8. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Sondek, John

    2004-09-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, and for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:18429272

  9. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Brill, Allison L; Pasker, Renee L

    2013-01-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:24510596

  10. [Analysis of rice leaves proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem, mass spectrometry based on the purification using a novel affinity detergent removal spin column].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolin; Gong, Jiadi; Chen, Mingxue; Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2014-11-01

    A purification method was established for the analysis of proteomes in rice leaves based on a novel detergent removal spin column (DRSC). The proteins were extracted by phenol protein extraction method followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) lysis. The lysate was purified by the detergent removal spin column and the enzymolytic peptides were detected by the nanoflow liquid chromatography-hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). In terms of SDS removal efficiencies and protein identification, the method of DRSC was compared with those of filter aided sample preparation (FASP) and acetone precipitation. As a result, there were good efficiencies ( > 95%) of SDS removal for the three methods. With the DRSC purification strategy, 563 proteins were identified from rice leaves, while only 196 and 306 proteins were identified by FASP and acetone precipitation procedures respectively, in spite of certain complementarities among these identified proteins by the three methods. DRSC is suitable for proteins with various relative molecular masses and pI values. However, there were similar losses of proteins with different relative molecular masses and pI values with the other two methods. Using the established method, 588 proteins were identified by once injection analysis. According to the molecular functions, 296 proteins with at least two identified peptides can be classified into eight categories with binding activity, enzyme activity, transporter activity, inhibitor activity, structural constitute, catalytic activity, other and unknown functions. The method provides technical reference for conducting rice proteomes. PMID:25764651

  11. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation. PMID:12420968

  12. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RHR results.

  13. Retrofitting SBR systems to nutrient removal in sensitive tourist areas.

    PubMed

    Tasli, R; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2001-01-01

    Retrofitting of existing SBR systems for nutrient removal is evaluated and defined for small communities in sensitive coastal areas, with seasonal fluctuations in wastewater quantity and quality. The proposed approach is developed by means of basic process stoichiometry and verified using ASM2d. The efficiency of retrofitting is found to rely on the delicate balance between the overall sludge age, the initial settled sludge volume in the reactor, and the ratio of the initial volume to the feed volume in each cycle, a parameter corresponding to the recycle ratio in continuous systems. PMID:11496662

  14. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    DOEpatents

    Matchett, R.L.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Bacvinsicas, W.S.; Roof, D.R.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1988-07-28

    A robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system. 7 figs.

  15. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    DOEpatents

    Matchett, Richard L.; Roof, David R.; Kikta, Thomas J.; Wilczynski, Rosemarie; Nilsen, Roy J.; Bacvinskas, William S.; Fodor, George

    1990-01-01

    A robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system.

  16. Emergency heat removal system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Dunckel, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat removal system for nuclear reactors serving as a supplement to an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) comprises a plurality of heat pipes having one end in heat transfer relationship with either the reactor pressure vessel, the core support grid structure or other in-core components and the opposite end located in heat transfer relationship with a heat exchanger having heat transfer fluid therein. The heat exchanger is located external to the pressure vessel whereby excessive core heat is transferred from the above reactor components and dissipated within the heat exchanger fluid.

  17. Online adaptive policy learning algorithm for H∞ state feedback control of unknown affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaguang; Qin, Chunbin; Jiang, Bin; Luo, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    The problem of H∞ state feedback control of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems with unknown dynamics is investigated in this paper. An online adaptive policy learning algorithm (APLA) based on adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is proposed for learning in real-time the solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which appears in the H∞ control problem. In the proposed algorithm, three neural networks (NNs) are utilized to find suitable approximations of the optimal value function and the saddle point feedback control and disturbance policies. Novel weight updating laws are given to tune the critic, actor, and disturbance NNs simultaneously by using data generated in real-time along the system trajectories. Considering NN approximation errors, we provide the stability analysis of the proposed algorithm with Lyapunov approach. Moreover, the need of the system input dynamics for the proposed algorithm is relaxed by using a NN identification scheme. Finally, simulation examples show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25095274

  18. Conservation of `Moving' Energy in Nonholonomic Systems with Affine Constraints and Integrability of Spheres on Rotating Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; Sansonetto, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Energy is in general not conserved for mechanical nonholonomic systems with affine constraints. In this article we point out that, nevertheless, in certain cases, there is a modification of the energy that is conserved. Such a function is the pull-back of the energy of the system written in a system of time-dependent coordinates in which the constraint is linear, and for this reason will be called a `moving' energy. After giving sufficient conditions for the existence of a conserved, time-independent moving energy, we point out the role of symmetry in this mechanism. Lastly, we apply these ideas to prove that the motions of a heavy homogeneous solid sphere that rolls inside a convex surface of revolution in uniform rotation about its vertical figure axis, are (at least for certain parameter values and in open regions of the phase space) quasi-periodic on tori of dimension up to three.

  19. Nutrient removal by root zone treatment systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Sonavane, P G; Munavalli, G R; Ranade, S V

    2008-07-01

    The Root Zone Treatment System (RZTS) has been used widely for nutrient removal in European countries. In spite of having its more adaptability in tropical region like India its use to address nutrient induced issues in the country is very less. The lack of widely accepted data, non consensus of scientists over nutrient removal mechanism and inability to apply performance standards observed in other countries directly might have hampered the acceptance of this technology in India. A few technology assessment programs are being conducted in collaboration with other countries to engineer this technology but nutrient removal aspects are not essentially focused. In this context, there is need to direct lab scale research to identify potential wetland plants, bed media and comparative study of their combination specific performance under similar conditions. The field application of the data will help to understand variability in performance and disparities in the mechanism. The systems would be amended based on these studies to establish combination specific performance standards for typical Indian conditions. Maintenance strategy and optimization of design will help to foster the technology. The development strategy should give due consideration to the contributions of other countries so as to avoid repetition of work which will save time, money and efforts, and help for the real acceptance of RZTS in Indian conditions. PMID:19552081

  20. Containment hydrogen removal system for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, V.M.; Flynn, E.P.; Pokora, B.M.

    1984-02-07

    A hydrogen removal system (10) separates hydrogen from the containment atmosphere of a nuclear power plant using a hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). Water vapor is removed by condenser (14) from a gas stream withdrawn from the containment atmosphere. The gas stream is then compressed by compressor (24) and cooled (28,34) to the operating temperature of the hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). The separator (30) separates the gas stream into a first stream, rich in hydrogen permeate, and a second stream that is hydrogen depleted. The separated hydrogen is passed through a charcoal adsorber (48) to adsorb radioactive particles that have passed through the hydrogen permeable membrane (44). The hydrogen is then flared in gas burner (52) with atmospheric air and the combustion products vented to the plant vent. The hydrogen depleted stream is returned to containment through a regenerative heat exchanger (28) and expander (60). Energy is extracted from the expander (60) to drive the compressor (24) thereby reducing the energy input necessary to drive the compressor (24) and thus reducing the hydrogen removal system (10) power requirements.

  1. Optimal control of unknown affine nonlinear discrete-time systems using offline-trained neural networks with proof of convergence.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Travis; Thumati, Balaje T; Jagannathan, S

    2009-01-01

    The optimal control of linear systems accompanied by quadratic cost functions can be achieved by solving the well-known Riccati equation. However, the optimal control of nonlinear discrete-time systems is a much more challenging task that often requires solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. In the recent literature, discrete-time approximate dynamic programming (ADP) techniques have been widely used to determine the optimal or near optimal control policies for affine nonlinear discrete-time systems. However, an inherent assumption of ADP requires the value of the controlled system one step ahead and at least partial knowledge of the system dynamics to be known. In this work, the need of the partial knowledge of the nonlinear system dynamics is relaxed in the development of a novel approach to ADP using a two part process: online system identification and offline optimal control training. First, in the system identification process, a neural network (NN) is tuned online using novel tuning laws to learn the complete plant dynamics so that a local asymptotic stability of the identification error can be shown. Then, using only the learned NN system model, offline ADP is attempted resulting in a novel optimal control law. The proposed scheme does not require explicit knowledge of the system dynamics as only the learned NN model is needed. The proof of convergence is demonstrated. Simulation results verify theoretical conjecture. PMID:19596551

  2. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  3. Final design of a space debris removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Erika; Casali, Steve; Chambers, Don; Geissler, Garner; Lalich, Andrew; Leipold, Manfred; Mach, Richard; Parry, John; Weems, Foley

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the removal of medium sized orbital debris in low Earth orbits. The design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium size debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 degrees inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. This data is unloaded to the transfer vehicle, and the transfer vehicle proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit, where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground, and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the system has the ability to capture 50 pieces of orbital debris. One mission will take about six months. The system is designed to allow for a 30 degree inclination change on the outgoing and incoming trips of the transfer vehicle.

  4. Band gaps, ionization potentials, and electron affinities of periodic electron systems via the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Egor; Betzinger, Markus; Blügel, Stefan; Görling, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    An approach to calculate fundamental band gaps, ionization energies, and electron affinities of periodic electron systems is explored. Starting from total energies obtained with the help of the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, these physical observables are calculated according to their basic definition by differences of the total energies of the N -, (N -1 ) -, and (N +1 ) -electron system. The response functions entering the ACFD theorem are approximated here by the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). For a set of prototypical semiconductors and insulators it is shown that even with this quite drastic approximation the resulting band gaps are very close to experiment and of a similar quality to those from the computationally more involved G W approximation. By going beyond the dRPA in the future the accuracy of the calculated band gaps may be significantly improved further.

  5. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Fractional Occupation Systems: Applications to Ionization Potential and Electron Affinity Calculations.

    PubMed

    Su, Neil Qiang; Xu, Xin

    2016-05-10

    Recently, we have developed an integration approach for the calculations of ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of molecular systems at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) (Su, N. Q.; Xu, X. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 4677, 2015), where the full MP2 energy gradient with respect to the orbital occupation numbers was derived but only at integer occupations. The theory is completed here to cover the fractional occupation systems, such that Slater's transition state concept can be used to have accurate predictions of IPs and EAs. Antisymmetrized Goldstone diagrams have been employed for interpretations and better understanding of the derived equations, where two additional rules were introduced in the present work specifically for hole or particle lines with fractional occupation numbers. PMID:27010405

  6. VecLoader HEPA Vacuum Insulation Removal System

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE’s Office of Science and Technology sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration Projects (LSDPs) at which developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to DOE’s projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, decreased costs and shortened schedules. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project’s (FEMP’s) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Plan requires that interior and exterior walls of buildings that are being demolished be disassembled and all insulating materials removed prior to demolition. This report provides a comparative analysis of the baseline manual insulation removal technique currently employed at the FEMP, with an innovative vacuum insulation removal system.

  7. Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 μg L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity. PMID:24798922

  8. Radon removal by poe gac systems: Design, performance, and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, J.D.; Lowry, S.B.; Cline, J.K.

    1990-11-01

    The report summarizes previous research conducted by Lowry Engineering, Inc. (LEI), the Maine Department of Human Services, Division of Health Engineering, and the University of Maine, Department of civil Engineering, on the removal of Rn from drinking water supplies using granular activated carbon (GAC) in 121 point-of-entry (POE) applications. The primary focus of the work was an analysis of the existing treatment data collected over the past seven years at POE locations in 12 states. All but three systems treated private househuLd well supplies. In addition, two schools and one public water supply were included. In summary, the POE GAC treatment was very effective, with the exception of approximately 6 percent of the units that exhibited diminishing effectiveness over time. Ninety-four and 84 percent of all units exceeded 90 and 95 percent removal, respectively. The need for gamma shielding was evaluated and related to the raw water Rn level treated by the POE devices. While POE GAC installations were found to be effective, the use of GAC for Rn removal may be limited in the future to wells containing less than 5,000 to 10,000 pCi/L. This would result if the private residence desired to achieve the new MCL for Rn, which is expected to be set between 200 and 2,000 pCi/L.

  9. Dual Regulation of the Arabidopsis High-Affinity Root Iron Uptake System by Local and Long-Distance Signals1

    PubMed Central

    Vert, Grégory A.; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of the root high-affinity iron uptake system by whole-plant signals was investigated at the molecular level in Arabidopsis, through monitoring FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. These two genes encode the root ferric-chelate reductase and the high-affinity iron transporter, respectively, involved in the iron deficiency-induced uptake system. Recovery from iron-deficient conditions and modulation of apoplastic iron pools indicate that iron itself plays a major role in the regulation of root iron deficiency responses at the mRNA and protein levels. Split-root experiments show that the expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is controlled both by a local induction from the root iron pool and through a systemic pathway involving a shoot-borne signal, both signals being integrated to tightly control production of the root iron uptake proteins. We also show that IRT1 and FRO2 are expressed during the day and down-regulated at night and that this additional control is overruled by iron starvation, indicating that the nutritional status prevails on the diurnal regulation. Our work suggests, for the first time to our knowledge, that like in grasses, the root iron acquisition in strategy I plants may also be under diurnal regulation. On the basis of the new molecular insights provided in this study and given the strict coregulation of IRT1 and FRO2 observed, we present a model of local and long-distance regulation of the root iron uptake system in Arabidopsis. PMID:12805609

  10. Dual regulation of the Arabidopsis high-affinity root iron uptake system by local and long-distance signals.

    PubMed

    Vert, Grégory A; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2003-06-01

    Regulation of the root high-affinity iron uptake system by whole-plant signals was investigated at the molecular level in Arabidopsis, through monitoring FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. These two genes encode the root ferric-chelate reductase and the high-affinity iron transporter, respectively, involved in the iron deficiency-induced uptake system. Recovery from iron-deficient conditions and modulation of apoplastic iron pools indicate that iron itself plays a major role in the regulation of root iron deficiency responses at the mRNA and protein levels. Split-root experiments show that the expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is controlled both by a local induction from the root iron pool and through a systemic pathway involving a shoot-borne signal, both signals being integrated to tightly control production of the root iron uptake proteins. We also show that IRT1 and FRO2 are expressed during the day and down-regulated at night and that this additional control is overruled by iron starvation, indicating that the nutritional status prevails on the diurnal regulation. Our work suggests, for the first time to our knowledge, that like in grasses, the root iron acquisition in strategy I plants may also be under diurnal regulation. On the basis of the new molecular insights provided in this study and given the strict coregulation of IRT1 and FRO2 observed, we present a model of local and long-distance regulation of the root iron uptake system in Arabidopsis. PMID:12805609

  11. System and method for removal of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  12. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  13. FULL SCALE RADIUM REMOVAL SYSTEM FOR A SMALL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radium removal treatment plant was constructed for the small community of Redhill Forest in the central mountains of Colorado. The plant consists of iron removal using oxidation, filtration, and settling; radium and hardness removal using ion exchange; and radium removal from t...

  14. Membrane topology of the high-affinity L-glutamate transporter (GLAST- 1) of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The membrane topology of the high affinity, Na(+)-coupled L-glutamate/L- aspartate transporter (GLAST-1) of the central nervous system has been determined. Truncated GLAST-1 cDNA constructs encoding protein fragments with an increasing number of hydrophobic regions were fused to a cDNA encoding a reporter peptide with two N-glycosylation sites. The respective cRNA chimeras were translated in vitro and in vivo in Xenopus oocytes. Posttranslational N-glycosylation of the two reporter consensus sites monitors the number, size, and orientation of membrane- spanning domains. The results of our experiments suggest a novel 10- transmembrane domain topology of GLAST-1, a representative of the L- glutamate neurotransmitter transporter family, with its NH2 and COOH termini on the cytoplasmic side, six NH2-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices, and four COOH-terminal short hydrophobic domains spanning the bilayer predicted as beta-sheets. PMID:8991097

  15. Robust fuzzy output feedback controller for affine nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy bilinear model: CSTR benchmark.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, M; Hamdan, I

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a robust H∞ fuzzy output feedback controller is designed for a class of affine nonlinear systems with disturbance via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy bilinear model. The parallel distributed compensation (PDC) technique is utilized to design a fuzzy controller. The stability conditions of the overall closed loop T-S fuzzy bilinear model are formulated in terms of Lyapunov function via linear matrix inequality (LMI). The control law is robustified by H∞ sense to attenuate external disturbance. Moreover, the desired controller gains can be obtained by solving a set of LMI. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), which is a benchmark problem in nonlinear process control, is discussed in detail to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach with a comparative study. PMID:25765955

  16. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the RHR results. A highly statistically significant decreasing trend was observed for the RHR injection mode start-only unreliability. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for RHR shutdown cooling mode start-only unreliability and RHR shutdown cooling model 24-hour unreliability.

  17. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  18. Generalized hamilton-jacobi-bellman formulation -based neural network control of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of nonlinear networks towards obtaining nearly optimal solutions to the control of nonlinear discrete-time (DT) systems. The method is based on least squares successive approximation solution of the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (GHJB) equation which appears in optimization problems. Successive approximation using the GHJB has not been applied for nonlinear DT systems. The proposed recursive method solves the GHJB equation in DT on a well-defined region of attraction. The definition of GHJB, pre-Hamiltonian function, HJB equation, and method of updating the control function for the affine nonlinear DT systems under small perturbation assumption are proposed. A neural network (NN) is used to approximate the GHJB solution. It is shown that the result is a closed-loop control based on an NN that has been tuned a priori in offline mode. Numerical examples show that, for the linear DT system, the updated control laws will converge to the optimal control, and for nonlinear DT systems, the updated control laws will converge to the suboptimal control. PMID:18269941

  19. Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Rodney R.

    1985-01-01

    Supports, affinity ligands, immobilization, elution methods, and a number of applications are among the topics considered in this discussion of affinity chromatography. An outline of the basic principles of affinity chromatography is included. (JN)

  20. Two plant bacteria, S. meliloti and Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, share functional znuABC homologues that encode for a high affinity Zinc uptake system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Znu system, encoded for by znuABC, can be found in multiple genera of bacteria and has been shown to be responsible for the import of zinc under low zinc conditions. Although this high-affinity uptake system is known to be important for both growth and/or pathogenesis in bacteria, it has not bee...

  1. Tank waste removal using a high pressure waterjet system

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.D.; Rinker, M.W.; Summers, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has several tank wastes that are currently stored in inactive tanks constructed of gunite concrete. A remediation program at ORNL and a development program at PNL and UMR are collaborating to develop a system that will utilize high pressure waterjet technology for cutting and dislodging sludge beds, and for conveyance of those materials to a treatment tank. This technology for waste removal has two major advantages. First, sludge will be retrieved from one or more high risk tanks, that is tanks with a high degree of uncertainty for failure, to a single treatment tank with lower risk. Second, sludges of similar nature will be consolidated for volume reduction. ORNL and PNL are currently pursuing this technology for waste removal and transport to a single immobilization treatment facility. The ORNL remediation program is known as the Gunite And Associated Tanks Treatability Study. The PNL development program is known as Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement. UMR is developing the waste dislodging/cutting tool. This paper will describe the waterjet technology for waste dislodging and conveyance of ORNL sludges from underground storage tanks.

  2. A removable hybrid robot system for long bone fracture reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianmiao; Li, Changsheng; Hu, Lei; Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Lihai; Du, Hailong; Luan, Sheng; Wang, Lifeng; Tan, Yiming; Peng, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In traditional long bone fracture reduction surgery, there are some drawbacks such as low accuracy, high radiation for surgeons and a risk of infection. To overcome these disadvantages, a removable hybrid robot system is developed, which integrates a removable series-parallel mechanism with a motor-double cylinder (MDC) driven mode. This paper describes the mechanism in detail, analyses the principle and the method of the fracture reduction, presents the surgical procedure, and verifies the reduction accuracy by experiments with bone models. The results are shown as follows. The mean deviations of the axial displacement and lateral displacement are 1.60mm and 1.26 mm respectively. The standard deviations are 0.69 mm and 0.30 mm. The mean deviations of the side angle and turn inward are 2.06° and 2.22° respectively. The standard deviations are 0.50° and 0.99°. This minimally invasive robot features high accuracy and zero radiation for surgeons, and is able to conduct fracture reduction for long bones. PMID:24211933

  3. Dynamic simulation of sulfur-removal systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.H.; Blake, T.R.; Brownell, D.H. Jr.; Henline, W.D.; Wilkins, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized computer simulation has been developed to predict the dynamic response of alternate gas absorption systems for selective removal of sulfur compounds or ammonia from fuel gas or synthesis gas produced from coal or other fossil fuels. The models use numerical methods based upon finite difference techniques to determine the spatial distribution of process variables within both the absorption and regeneration columns of such gas cleanup processes. The simulator may be applied to systems for selective gas absorption based on either chemical or physical principles. Examples of such systems include the Benfield process based on absorption by chemical reaction with an activated alkali carbonate solvent, and the Allied SELEXOL Solvent Process based on physical absorption as a result of partial pressure differences of the gas components above an organic solvent system. Simulations of either individual process units or an entire integrated plant can be performed. This computer program has specifically been structured to permit convenient flow sheet modification, as well as addition of new units. This research has emphasized the development of a general theoretical structure which can be easily modified by substituting alternate sets of data on the physicochemical properties of the appropriate liquid solvent. This model has been applied to Selexol Solvent Processes using both published and proprietary data on solvent properties. Test calculations have been performed to simulate open loop response of individual scrubber towers, and the complete system, to input composition and flow rate transients.

  4. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yi; Wu, Si; Zhao, Rui; Zink, Erika M.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Meng, Da; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2013-06-05

    Enrichment of bacterial phosphopeptides is an essential step prior to bottom-up mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome, which is fundamental to understanding the role of phosphoproteins in cell signaling and regulation of protein activity. We developed an automated IMAC system to enrich strong cation exchange-fractionated phosphopeptides from the soluble proteome of Escherichia coli MG1655 grown on minimal medium. Initial demonstration of the system resulted in identification of 75 phosphopeptides covering 52 phosphoproteins. Consistent with previous studies, many of these phosphoproteins are involved in the carbohydrate portion of central metabolism. The automated system utilizes a large capacity IMAC column that can effectively enrich phosphopeptides from a bacterial sample by increasing peptide loading and reducing the wash time. An additional benefit of the automated IMAC system is reduced labor and associated costs.

  5. Neural network-based finite-horizon optimal control of uncertain affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the finite-horizon optimal control design for nonlinear discrete-time systems in affine form is presented. In contrast with the traditional approximate dynamic programming methodology, which requires at least partial knowledge of the system dynamics, in this paper, the complete system dynamics are relaxed utilizing a neural network (NN)-based identifier to learn the control coefficient matrix. The identifier is then used together with the actor-critic-based scheme to learn the time-varying solution, referred to as the value function, of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation in an online and forward-in-time manner. Since the solution of HJB is time-varying, NNs with constant weights and time-varying activation functions are considered. To properly satisfy the terminal constraint, an additional error term is incorporated in the novel update law such that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. Policy and/or value iterations are not needed and the NN weights are updated once a sampling instant. The uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is verified by standard Lyapunov stability theory under nonautonomous analysis. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25720005

  6. RADIUM REMOVAL FOR A SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1984, a radium removal treatment plant was constructed for the small community of Redhill Forest located in the central mountains of Colorado. The treatment plant consists of a process for removing iron and manganese ahead of an ion exchange process for the removal of radium. ...

  7. Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

    1996-05-01

    Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

  8. Global Multi-Method Analysis of Affinities and Cooperativity in Complex Systems of Macromolecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cooperativity, multi-site and multi-component interactions are hallmarks of biological systems of interacting macromolecules. Their thermodynamic characterization is often very challenging due to the notoriously low information content of binding isotherms. We introduce a strategy for the global multi-method analysis of data from multiple techniques (GMMA) that exploits enhanced information content emerging from the mutual constraints of the simultaneous modeling of orthogonal observables from calorimetric, spectroscopic, hydrodynamic, biosensing, or other thermodynamic binding experiments. We describe new approaches to address statistical problems that arise in the analysis of dissimilar data sets. The GMMA approach can significantly increase the complexity of interacting systems that can be accurately thermodynamically characterized. PMID:23020071

  9. Using Wet-FGD systems for mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Unterberger, Sven; Hein, Klaus R G

    2005-09-01

    A plan to control mercury emissions to the atmosphere and to establish mercury emission limits has recently been elaborated by the European Commission, making it necessary to devise an efficient and cost effective mercury removal technology. Towards this end wet flue gas desulfurization units appear as a promising option for multi-pollutant control. However, more investigation on mercury removal and a greater mercury removal efficiency are required to achieve this objective. In the present work scrubber chemistry and the application of various solid additives to enhance mercury removal in wet scrubbers is evaluated. The results obtained show a significant correlation between mercury removal efficiency and the pH of the scrubber slurry and SO2 concentration. A weaker correlation was observed between oxygen or slurry concentration and removal efficiency. Finally several solid oxides were found to be effective additives for enhancing mercury capture in wet scrubbers. PMID:16121271

  10. The selective equipment removal system dual arm work module

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.; Haley, D.C.; Willis, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Selective Equipment Removal System (SERS) was previously developed under the Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program to demonstrate and evaluate mobile telerobotic concepts for performing selective dismantlement using the reconfigurable dual-arm work module (DAWM). DAWM was designed for overhead transporter, crane hook, and mobile vehicle deployment. The DAWM configuration provided two 6-degree-of-freedom (D.O.F.) hydraulic manipulators with a maximum capacity of 240 lbs in the elbows-up configuration and five additional D.O.F. supplying torso rotate for the entire positioning package, linear extension of each arm base, and base rotate for each arm (which added a seventh D.O.F. to the manipulator for elbows-up, elbows-out, and elbows-down operation). Hydraulic manipulators were selected to provide the payload capacity required for anticipated tooling and material handling needs that would be typical of heavy dismantlement tasks. The original design of the dual arm manipulation system was driven by the desire to provide maximum system versatility in the study of deployment options and orientation relative to specific task performance. In FY 1996, the program was directed to provide remote systems support for the dismantlement of the CP5 reactor at Argonne National Lab (ANL) beginning in FY 1997. A study of the tasks involved and the available deployment options led to a rework of the DAWM designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP), which was specifically designed around crane hook deployment, reduced the base D.O.F.`s to four instead of five, and made use of the existing DAWM control system. This paper describes the evolution of the DAWM into the DAWP and the design philosophy involved.

  11. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    The previous activities in the field of On Orbit Servicing studied in the 1990's included in partic-ular the capability of vehicles in GEO to capture and support satellites (mainly communication satellites) to enable repair and continuation of operations, and finally the controlled transfer the target into a permanent graveyard orbit. The specific capture tools for these applications were mostly based on robotic systems to capture and fix the target under specific dynamic constraints (e.g. slowly tumbling target) without damage, and to allow the stabilization, re-orientation and potential repair of the target and subsequent release or transport to the final disposal orbit. Due to the drastically increasing number of debris particularly in the Low Earth Orbits (SSO) the active debris removal is now necessary to counteract to the predicted debris production cascade (Kessler Syndrome), which means the pollution of the total sphere in low earth orbit and not only the SSO area. In most of the debris congresses it was recommended to start removal with the still integrated systems as soon as possible. In the case of large debris objects, the soft capture system can be replaced by a simpler and robust system able to operate from a safe distance to the target and flexible enough to capture and hold different types of targets such as deactivated and/or defective satellites, upper stages and big fragments. These nominally non -cooperative targets might be partially destroyed by the capture process, but the production of additional debris shall be avoided. A major argument for the commercial applications is a multi-target mission potential, which is possible at GEO because the transfer propellant requirement to the disposal orbit and the return to the orbit of the next potential target is relative low (orbits with similar inclination and altitude). The proposed ROGER system is designed as a spacecraft with rendezvous capabilities including inspection in the vicinity of the

  12. Immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning, a method combining metal-protein interaction and partitioning of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Stigbrand, T; Kopperschläger, G

    1991-02-22

    Immobilized metal ions were used for the affinity extraction of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran or PEG and salt. Soluble chelating polymers were prepared by covalent attachment of metal-chelating groups to PEG. The effect on the partitioning of proteins of such chelating PEG derivatives coordinated with different metal ions is demonstrated. The proteins studied were alpha 2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, superoxide dismutase and monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning provides excellent potential for the extraction of proteins. PMID:1710621

  13. Breaking of Ergodicity in Expanding Systems of Globally Coupled Piecewise Affine Circle Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Bastien

    2014-02-01

    To identify and to explain coupling-induced phase transitions in coupled map lattices (CML) has been a lingering enigma for about two decades. In numerical simulations, this phenomenon has always been observed preceded by a lowering of the Lyapunov dimension, suggesting that the transition might require changes of linear stability. Yet, recent proofs of co-existence of several phases in specially designed models work in the expanding regime where all Lyapunov exponents remain positive. In this paper, we consider a family of CML composed by piecewise expanding individual map, global interaction and finite number of sites, in the weak coupling regime where the CML is uniformly expanding. We show, mathematically for and numerically for , that a transition in the asymptotic dynamics occurs as the coupling strength increases. The transition breaks the (Milnor) attractor into several chaotic pieces of positive Lebesgue measure, with distinct empiric averages. It goes along with various symmetry breaking, quantified by means of magnetization-type characteristics. Despite that it only addresses finite-dimensional systems, to some extend, this result reconciles the previous ones as it shows that loss of ergodicity/symmetry breaking can occur in basic CML, independently of any decay in the Lyapunov dimension.

  14. Identification of a PutP proline permease gene homolog from Staphylococcus aureus by expression cloning of the high-affinity proline transport system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wengender, P A; Miller, K J

    1995-01-01

    The important food-borne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is distinguished by its ability to grow at low water activity values. Previous work in our laboratory and by others has revealed that proline accumulation via transport is an important osmoregulatory strategy employed by this bacterium. Furthermore, proline uptake by this bacterium has been shown to be mediated by two distinct transport systems: a high-affinity system and a low-affinity system (J.-H. Bae, and K. J. Miller, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:471-475, 1992; D. E. Townsend and B. J. Wilkinson, J. Bacteriol. 174:2702-2710, 1992). In the present study, we report the cloning of the high-affinity proline transport system of S. aureus by functional expression in an Escherichia coli host. The sequence of the staphylococcal proline permease gene was predicted to encode a protein of 497 amino acids which shares 49% identity with the PutP high-affinity proline permease of E. coli. Analysis of hydropathy also indicated a common overall structure for these proteins. PMID:7887605

  15. A molecular recognizing system of serotonin in rat fetal axonal growth cones: uptake and high affinity binding.

    PubMed

    Mercado, R; Hernández, J

    1992-09-18

    Axonal growth cone particles (AGCP) isolated from prenatal and postnatal rat brain had different high-affinity 5-HT uptake characteristics. In postnatal AGCP the uptake behaves as in the adult rat brain, while in the prenatal AGCP the uptake characteristics seem to be in a transitional stage. Also in prenatal AGCP we observed specific, high-affinity 5-HT binding sites. These results support the idea of an important role for 5-HT during axogenesis. PMID:1424085

  16. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  17. Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorton, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen blown and air blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas. The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed.

  18. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, J.T.

    1998-04-28

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation are disclosed, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G{prime} = (I{minus}X(X{sup T} X){sup {minus}1}X{sup T})G(I{minus}A). 3 figs.

  19. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph Thaddeus

    1998-01-01

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G'=(I-X(X.sup.T X).sup.-1 X.sup.T)G(I-A)

  20. Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1988-07-12

    An exhaust particle removing system is described for an engine, comprising: (a) a filter for trapping particles in exhaust from the engine; (b) means for determining whether or not the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable; (c) means for detecting an operating condition of the engine; (d) means for when the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable, throttling the flow of intake air into the engine and thus varying the pressure of the intake air in accordance with the detected engine operating condition in cases where the detected engine operating condition resides in a first predetermined range within which the temperature of the engine exhaust would be inadequate to burn off the trapped particles if the intake air flow were not throttled, the throttling means comprising a movable throttle valve disposed in an air intake passage, a bypass passage connected to the air intake passage and bypassing the throttle valve, and a movable bypass valve disposed in the bypass passage; and (e) means for, when the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable, allowing free flow of the intake air in cases where the detected engine operating condition resides in a second predetermined range within which the temperature of the engine exhaust would be adequate to burn off the trapped particles even if the intake air flow were not throttled.

  1. Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1986-08-05

    An exhaust particle removing system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a filter disposed in an engine exhaust passage for trapping particles suspended in exhaust gas; (b) a burner for burning off the particles deposited on the filter; (c) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point upstream of the filter; (d) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point downstream of the filter; (e) means for determining whether or not the sensed upstream pressure is lower than a preset level; (f) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is not lower than the preset level, deducing the degree of clogging of the filter on the basis of the sensed upstream and downstream pressures; (g) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is lower than the preset level, measuring a time elapsed since the moment at which the sensed upstream pressure dropped below the preset level; (h) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is lower than the preset level, deducing the degree of clogging of the filter on the basis of the time elapsed and the sensed upstream and downstream pressures obtained immediately prior to the moment at which the sensed upstream pressure dropped below the preset level; and (i) means for controlling the burner on the basis of the deduced degree of clogging of the filter.

  2. Functions & Requirements for Debris Removal System Project A-2

    SciTech Connect

    PRECECHTEL, D.R.

    1999-12-29

    This revision of the Functions and Requirements Document updates the approved Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal Subproject WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-009, Rev. 0. It has been revised in its entirety to reflect the current scope of work for Debris Removal as canisters and lids under the K Basin Projects work breakdown structure (WBS). In this revision the canisters and lids will be consider debris and a new set of Functions and Requirements have been developed to remove the canisters and lids from the basin.

  3. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  4. Laser balancing system for high material removal rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Georgalas, G.; Ortiz, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A laser technique to remove material in excess of 10 mg/sec from a spinning rotor is described. This material removal rate is 20 times greater than previously reported for a surface speed of 30 m/sec. Material removal enhancement was achieved by steering a focused laser beam with moving optics to increase the time of laser energy interaction with a particular location on the circumferential surface of a spinning rotor. A neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) pulse laser was used in this work to evaluate material removal for carbon steel, 347 stainless steel, Inconal 718, and titanium 6-4. This technique is applicable to dynamic laser balancing.

  5. Development of Vapor-Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kiss, Mark; Borchers, Bruce; Tleimat, Badawi; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale; Genovese, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A report describes recent accomplishments of a continuing effort to develop the vapor-phase catalytic ammonia removal (VPCAR) process for recycling wastewater for consumption by humans aboard a spacecraft in transit to Mars.

  6. Video requirements plan for the HMT equipment removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F. Jr.

    1995-02-01

    This document is the plan defining the video coverage requirements for the equipment removal event of the Hydrogen Mitigation Test (HMT) mixer pump currently installed in high level nuclear waste storage Tank 241-SY-101. When the mixer pump fails the removal and installation of a spare pump will be a time critical event. Since the success of the HMT mixer pump has resolved the DOE safety issue it is absolutely essential that mixing be restored to the tank in a short as time possible. Therefore, the removal of the failed pump and the installation of the spare pump must be anticipated and planned well in advance. The removal, containment, transporting, and storage of the failed pump is a very complex and hazardous task. The successful completion of this task will require careful planning and monitoring. Certain events, during the removal and subsequent installation of the new pump, will require video observation and storage for safety, documenting, training, and promotional use. Furthermore, certain events will require close monitoring and observation by the event directors and key supervisory personnel for the execution of specific tasks during the equipment removal event.

  7. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. PMID:24658107

  8. Engineering a reversible, high-affinity system for efficient protein purification based on the cohesin-dockerin interaction.

    PubMed

    Karpol, Alon; Kantorovich, Lia; Demishtein, Alik; Barak, Yoav; Morag, Ely; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2009-01-01

    Efficient degradation of cellulose by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, is carried out by the multi-enzyme cellulosome complex. The enzymes on the complex are attached in a calcium-dependent manner via their dockerin (Doc) module to a cohesin (Coh) module of the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit. In this study, we have optimized the Coh-Doc interaction for the purpose of protein affinity purification. A C. thermocellum Coh module was thus fused to a carbohydrate-binding module, and the resultant fusion protein was applied directly onto beaded cellulose, thereby serving as a non-covalent "activation" procedure. A complementary Doc module was then fused to a model protein target: xylanase T-6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the binding to the immobilized Coh was only partially reversible upon treatment with EDTA, and only negligible amounts of the target protein were eluted from the affinity column. In order to improve protein elution, a series of truncated Docs were designed in which the calcium-coordinating function was impaired without appreciably affecting high-affinity binding to Coh. A shortened Doc of only 48 residues was sufficient to function as an effective affinity tag, and highly purified target protein was achieved directly from crude cell extracts in a single step with near-quantitative recovery of the target protein. Effective EDTA-mediated elution of the sequestered protein from the column was the key step of the procedure. The affinity column was reusable and maintained very high levels of capacity upon repeated rounds of loading and elution. Reusable Coh-Doc affinity columns thus provide an efficient and attractive approach for purifying proteins in high yield by modifying the calcium-binding loop of the Doc module. PMID:18979459

  9. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  10. Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lorton, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study consisted of a technical evaluation and economic comparison of sulfur removal processes for integration into a coal gasification-molten carbonate (CGMC) fuel cell power plant. Initially, the performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and screened for conformance to the conditions and requirements expected in commercial CGMC power plants. Four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen-blown and air-blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas (1 ppMv or 25 ppMv). The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed for the essentially complete removal of sulfur compounds. The impact on the overall plant performance was also determined. The total capital requirement for sulfur removal schemes ranged from $59.4/kW to $84.8/kW for the oxygen-blown cases and from $89.5/kW to $133/kW for the air-blown cases. The O and M costs for sulfur removal for 70% plant capacity factor ranged from 0.82 mills/kWh to 2.76 mills/kWh for the oxygen-blown cases and from 1.77 mills/kWh to 4.88 mills/kWh for the air-blown cases. The Selexol process benefitted the most from the addition of COS hydrolysis pretreatment.

  11. A Comparison of Past Dam Removals in Highly Sediment Impacted Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawaske, S. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to predict the effects of dam removal in highly sediment filled systems is increasingly important as the number of such dam removal cases continues to grow annually. The cost and potential impacts of dam removal are site specific and can vary substantially depending on local conditions. Of specific concern in sediment impacted removals is the volume and rate of reservoir deposit erosion. The complexity and potential accuracy of modeling methods used to forecast the effects of such dam removals varies substantially. Current methods range from predictions based on simple analysis of pre-dam channel geometry to sophisticated data intensive three dimensional numerical models. The goal of this research is to develop yet another means of predicting the rate and volume of sediment deposit erosion through the use of data collected from past dam removals. Through the analysis of sediment, discharge, deposit, removal method, channel and watershed data, in conjunction with post removal monitoring data from twelve dam removals, some significant trends in the evolution of reservoir deposits following dam removal can be seen. Results indicate that parameters such as median grain size, level of cohesion, spatial variability of the deposit, and removal method are among the most influential factors in determining the rate and volume of sediment erosion. By comparison of local conditions of dams/reservoirs slated for removal with that of past removals, it is hoped that some useful predictions of the rate and volume of sediment deposit erosion can be made.

  12. Local Affinity Release.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Obermeyer, Jaclyn; Shoichet, Molly S

    2016-07-26

    The use of hydrogels for therapeutic delivery is a burgeoning area of investigation. These water-swollen polymer matrices are ideal platforms for localized drug delivery that can be further combined with specific ligands or nanotechnologies to advance the controlled release of small-molecule drugs and proteins. Due to the advantage of hydrophobic, electrostatic, or specific extracellular matrix interactions, affinity-based strategies can overcome burst release and challenges associated with encapsulation. Future studies will provide innovative binding tools, truly stimuli-responsive systems, and original combinations of emerging technologies to control the release of therapeutics spatially and temporally. Local drug delivery can be achieved by directly injecting a therapeutic to its site of action and is advantageous because off-target effects associated with systemic delivery can be minimized. For prolonged benefit, a vehicle that provides sustained drug release is required. Hydrogels are versatile platforms for localized drug release, owing to the large library of biocompatible building blocks from which they can be formed. Injectable hydrogel formulations that gel quickly in situ and provide sustained release of therapeutics are particularly advantageous to minimize invasiveness. The incorporation of polymers, ligands or nanoparticles that have an affinity for the therapeutic of interest improve control over the release of small-molecule drugs and proteins from hydrogels, enabling spatial and temporal control over the delivery. Such affinity-based strategies can overcome drug burst release and challenges associated with protein instability, allowing more effective therapeutic molecule delivery for a range of applications from therapeutic contact lenses to ischemic tissue regeneration. PMID:27403513

  13. Application of electrical propulsion for an active debris removal system: a system engineering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio

    2012-10-01

    One of the main challenge in the design of an active removal system for space debris is the high ΔV required both to approach space debris lying in different orbits and to de-orbit/re-orbit them. Indeed if the system does not target a number of objects during its lifetime the cost of the removal will be far too high to be considered as the basis of an economically viable business case. Using a classical chemical propulsion (CP) system, the ΔV is limited by the mass of propellant that the system can carry. This limitation is greatly reduced if electrical propulsion is considered. Electrical propulsion (EP) systems are indeed characterized by low propellant mass requirements, however this comes at the cost of higher electrical power and, typically, higher complexity and mass of the power supply system. Because of this, the use of EP systems has been, therefore, primarily limited to station keeping maneuvers. However in the recent past, the success of missions using EP as primary propulsion (e.g. GOCE, SMART-1, Artemis, Deep Spcae1, Hayabusa) makes this technology a suitable candidate for providing propulsion for an active debris removal system. This study case will provide the analysis of the possible application of electrical propulsion systems in such a context, presenting a number of possible mission profiles. This paper will start with the description of possible mission concepts and the assessment of the EP technology, comparing near-term propulsion options, that best fits the mission. A more detailed analysis follows with the relevant trade-off to define the characteristics of the final system and its size in terms of mass and power required. A survey of available space qualified EP systems will be performed with the selection of the best candidates to be used and/or developed for an active debris removal system. The results of a similar analysis performed for a classical CP system are then presented and the two options are compared in terms of total cost of

  14. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOEpatents

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  15. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Schaich, Charles R.; Foster, Jr., Don

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  16. Objective shearing digital holography for removing aberration from optical system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiqing; Tian, Kehan; Zhang, Chuhang

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new digital holography based on the lateral shearing interference concept to remove the total aberrations from the reference wave, illumination wave, and the optical elements. It uses three mutually shifted image holograms of the object that are divided from each other to obtain phase differences. The phase aberration can be removed and the original sample phase can be reconstructed by the phase differences. Then, the influence of the stage moving imprecision on the reconstruction quality is analyzed. Optical experiments verified that the proposed method can totally remove the phase aberrations. As a result, the proposed method could be used for ultra-precise optical measurement through eliminating optical phase aberration to increase the measurement accuracy. PMID:26368865

  17. Human motion capturing system with MEMS accelerometers (notice of removal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Baoping; Xu, Chang; Xu, Lijun; Ouyang, Shuigeng

    2007-11-01

    This paper (672413) was removed from the SPIE Digital Library on 13 April 2010 to discovery of plagiarism. As stated in the SPIE Guidelines for Professional Conduct and Publishing Ethics, SPIE defines plagiarism as the reuse of someone else's prior ideas, processes, results, or words without explicit attribution of the original author and source, or falsely representing someone else's work as one's own. SPIE considers plagiarism in any form, at any level, to be unacceptable and a serious breach of professional conduct. It is SPIE policy to remove such papers and to take appropriate corrective or disciplinary action against the offending author(s).

  18. EVALUATION OF A LIQUID CHEMICAL SCRUBBER SYSTEM FOR STYRENE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the styrene removal efficiency o a pilot-scale version of the QUAD Chemtact scrubber, quantified by continuously measuring the total hydrocarbon (THC) content of spray both exhaust air entering and exiting the device with THC analyzers and, ...

  19. RADON REMOVAL BY POE GAC SYSTEMS: DESIGN PERFORMANCE AND COST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes previous research conducted by Lowry Engineering, Inc. (LEI), the Maine Department of Human Services, Division of Health Engineering, and the University of Maine, Department of Civil Engineering, on the removal of Rn from drinking water supplies using granu...

  20. FIELD EXPERIENCE WITH POINT-OF-USE TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point-of-use (POU) treatment devices can be effective for removing inorganic contaminants. This article describes the investigation of POU treatment systems used for arsenic removal in four homes in Alaska and Oregon. Small systems utilizing activated alumina, ion exchange, and...

  1. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  2. Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2015-01-15

    We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.

  3. Novel sorbents for removal of gadolinium-based contrast agents in sorbent dialysis and hemoperfusion: preventive approaches to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Porter, George A.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Koonsiripaiboon, View; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2010-02-01

    Gd based contrast agents in many forms of organocomplex have recently been linked to a debilitating and a potentially fatal skin disease called Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) in patients with renal failures. Free Gd released from the complexes by transmetallation is believed to be the most important trigger for NSF. Removal of Gd complex from the patients immediately after the contrast study would prevent the dissociation of Gd and should eliminate NSF as a complication. Although removal of Gd based contrast agents may be accomplished with conventional hemodialysis, it requires three hemodialysis sessions at 3 hours each to remove 98% of the contrast agents. In this work, mesoporous silica material that are functionalized with 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO-SAMMS®) has been evaluated for effective removal of both free and chelated Gd (Magnevist, a brand of gadopentetate dimeglumine) from the dialysate and sodium chloride solution. The material has high affinity, rapid removal rate, and large sorption capacity for both free and chelated Gd, the properties that are far superior to those of activated carbon and zirconium phosphate currently used in the state-of-the-art sorbent dialysis systems. 99% of both free and chelated Gd would be removed in a single pass thru the sorbent bed of 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS®. The sorbent provides an effective and predicable strategy for removing Gd from patients with impaired renal function, thus it would allow for the continued use of contrast MRI while removing the risk of NSF and would represent a safe alternative to traditional contrast studies in the patient population.

  4. Evaluation of a liquid chemical scrubber system for styrene removal

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, L.; Merritt, R.; Williamson, A.

    1994-12-01

    The report gives results of a study of the styrene removal efficiency of a pilot-scale version of the QUAD Chemtact scrubber, quantified by continuously measuring the total hydrocarbon (THC) content of spray booth exhaust air entering and exiting the device with THC analyzers and, for some tests, by collecting EPA Method 18 samples (adsorption tube procedure) at the inlet and exit of the device. Average styrene removal efficiencies approached but were never >55%. The test was carried out at a facility (Eljer Plumbingware in Wilson, NC) that manufactures polyester bathtubs and shower stalls by spraying styrene-based resins onto molds in vented, open spray booths. A side stream of air, exhausted from one of the spray booths in the gel coating part of the process, was used for the test.

  5. Comparison of Integrated AOP Systems for BTEX Removal From Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Mohammad, Jan

    2004-03-31

    This paper investigates the removal of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) from water using different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) used singly or in combination with one another. This research is an extension of our work performed under the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) which addressed treating chlorinated organic contaminated water using sonication, vapor stripping and combined sonication + vapor stripping. In our current study, various AOP processes were investigated for their ability to remove BTEX compounds from solution, including the following. ? Ultraviolet (UV) light alone ? UV light + hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ? Sonication alone ? Air sparging alone ? Air sparging + sonication ? Air sparging + UV light ? Sonication + UV light ? Sonication + H2O2 ? Sonication + air sparging + UV light ? Sonication + air sparging + H2O2 ? Sonication + air sparging + H2O2 + UV light ? Sonication + air sparging with O3 ? Sonication + O3 + H2O2 ? Sonication + O3 + H2O2 + UV light

  6. Nitrogen removal during secondary treatment by aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Erol Nalbur, B; Akça, L; Bayhan, H

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of this study, two lab-scale aquatic plant reactors consisting of duckweed (Lemna minor) ponds, were investigated for the removal of nitrogen forms during the secondary treatment of domestic wastewater. TKN, NH3-N and NO3-N parameters have been measured in both reactors for hydraulic retention times ranging from 3.3 days to 23 days and at various distances from the inlet of reactors. The results were evaluated for hydraulic retention times, hydraulic loading rates and mass loading rates. I was concluded that hydraulic and mass loading parameters were more meaningful than hydraulic retention time. Optimum nitrogen removal values of hydraulic loading rate and mass loading rate were found to be 1.2 cm/day and 90-160 mg TKN/m2-day, respectively. At the higher and lower loading rates, nitrogen removal efficiency was lower than those at optimum conditions. Effluent TKN concentration was around 2.5 to 3.0 mg/l while NH3-N concentration was almost zero at these loading conditions. On the other hand, effluent NO3-N concentrations changed between 7 mg/l to 11 mg/l. When investigating the longitudinal profile, values were reduced rapidly along the reactors. It was concluded that most of the nitrogen conversion occurred at the beginning of the reactor. PMID:14753556

  7. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows high binding affinity towards lectins on a self-assembled monolayer system.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-03-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid biosurfactants secreted by the Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions including antitumor and cell-differentiation activities. In order to address the biochemical actions, interactions between MEL-A, the major component of MEL, and different lectins were investigated using the surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The monolayer of MEL-A showed high binding affinity to concanavalin A (ConA) and Maackia amurensis lectin-I (MAL-I). The observed affinity constants for ConA and MAL-I were estimated to be 9.48 +/- 1.31 x 10(6) and 3.13 +/- 0.274 x 10(6) M(-1), respectively; the value was comparable to that of Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Man, which is one of the most specific probe to ConA. Significantly, alpha-methyl-D-mannopyranoside (1 mM) exhibited no binding inhibition between MEL-A and ConA. MEL-A is thus likely to self-assemble to give a high affinity surface, where ConA binds to the hydrophilic headgroup in a different manner from that generally observed in lectin-saccharide interactions. The binding manner should be related with the biochemical actions of MEL toward mammalian cells via protein-carbohydrate interactions. PMID:17205206

  8. Ampicillin/penicillin-binding protein interactions as a model drug-target system to optimize affinity pull-down and mass spectrometric strategies for target and pathway identification.

    PubMed

    von Rechenberg, Moritz; Blake, Brian Kelly; Ho, Yew-Seng J; Zhen, Yuejun; Chepanoske, Cindy Lou; Richardson, Bonnie E; Xu, Nafei; Kery, Vladimir

    2005-05-01

    The identification and validation of the targets of active compounds identified in cell-based assays is an important step in preclinical drug development. New analytical approaches that combine drug affinity pull-down assays with mass spectrometry (MS) could lead to the identification of new targets and druggable pathways. In this work, we investigate a drug-target system consisting of ampicillin- and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) to evaluate and compare different amino-reactive resins for the immobilization of the affinity compound and mass spectrometric methods to identify proteins from drug affinity pull-down assays. First, ampicillin was immobilized onto various amino-reactive resins, which were compared in the ampicillin-PBP model with respect to their nonspecific binding of proteins from an Escherichia coli membrane extract. Dynal M-270 magnetic beads were chosen to further study the system as a model for capturing and identifying the targets of ampicillin, PBPs that were specifically and covalently bound to the immobilized ampicillin. The PBPs were identified, after in situ digestion of proteins bound to ampicillin directly on the beads, by using either one-dimensional (1-D) or two-dimensional (2-D) liquid chromatography (LC) separation techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Alternatively, an elution with N-lauroylsarcosine (sarcosyl) from the ampicillin beads followed by in situ digestion and 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis identified proteins potentially interacting noncovalently with the PBPs or the ampicillin. The in situ approach required only little time, resources, and sample for the analysis. The combination of drug affinity pull-down assays with in situ digestion and 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis is a useful tool in obtaining complex information about a primary drug target as well as its protein interactors. PMID:15761956

  9. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  10. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Makitka, III, Alexander; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  11. Enhanced fermentation systems with continuous removal of inhibitory products

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1994-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. A major limitation of microbial fermentations is the dilute aqueous product streams that result, largely due to inhibition of the microbes by the desired products. If these inhibitory products can be removed during the ongoing fermentation, the overall rates, yields, and net product formation may be increased. Simultaneous fermentation and separation have been tested with different separation techniques, such as adsorption, liquid extraction, pervaporation, membrane separations, distillation, and others. These separations can occur directly in situ within the fermentor or indirectly using a sidestream separator with recycle of the unused substrate. These approaches are briefly reviewed. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have investigated two modified immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) to remove the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the separation by adsorption of tactic acid, and the other uses liquid solvent extraction for the production of butanol. Keywords: extractive fermentation, in situ separation, adsorption, tactic acid, butanol.

  12. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  13. BOA II: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Removal Robot System. Innovative Technology Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and demonstrate a mechanical, asbestos-removal system that can be remotely operated without a containment area. The technology, known as BOA, consists of a pipe-crawler removal head and a boom vehicle system with dual robots. BOA's removal head can be remotely placed on the outside of the pipe and can crawl along the pipe, removing lagging and insulation. The lagging and insulation is cut using a hybrid endmill water-jet cutter and then diced into 2-inch cube sections of ACM. These ACM sections are then removed from the pipe using a set of blasting fan- spray nozzles, vacuumed off through a vacuum hose, and bagged. Careful attention to vacuum and entrapment air flow ensures that the system can operate without a containment area while meeting local and federal standards for fiber count.

  14. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  15. EVALUATION OF A COMMERCIAL VACUUM SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a brief field study that included measurement of personal, area, and environmental asbestos exposures resulting from wet and dry asbestos removal using a commercial vacuum system. Personal and area (indoor) asbestos concentrations during dry removal we...

  16. PERFORMANCE AND MODELING OF A HOT POTASSIUM CARBONATE ACID GAS REMOVAL SYSTEM IN TREATING COAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance and modeling of a hot potassium carbonate (K2CO3) acid gas removal system (AGRS) in treating coal gas. Aqueous solutions of K2CO3, with and without amine additive, were used as the acid gas removal solvent in the Coal Gasification/Gas Cleaning...

  17. Capital and Operating Cost of Small Arsenic Removal System and their Most Frequent Maintenance Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will first summarize the capital and operating cost of treatment systems by type and size of the systems. The treatment systems include adsorptive media (AM) systems, iron removal (IR), coagulation/filtration (CF), ion exchange (IX) systems, and point-of-use rev...

  18. 300 GPM Solids Removal System A True Replacement for Back Flushable Powdered Filter Systems - 13607

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Mark R.; Lewis, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The EnergySolutions Solids Removal System (SRS) utilizes stainless steel cross-flow ultra-filtration (XUF) technology which allows it to reliably remove suspended solids greater than one (1) micron from liquid radwaste streams. The SRS is designed as a pre-treatment step for solids separation prior to processing through other technologies such as Ion Exchange Resin (IER) and/or Reverse Osmosis (RO), etc. Utilizing this pre-treatment approach ensures successful production of reactor grade water while 1) decreasing the amount of radioactive water being discharged to the environment; and 2) decreasing the amount of radioactive waste that must ultimately be disposed of due to the elimination of spent powdered filter media. (authors)

  19. Recent advances in nutrient removal and recovery in biological and bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous are key pollutants in wastewater to be removed and recovered for sustainable development. Traditionally, nitrogen removal is practiced through energy intensive biological nitrification and denitrification entailing a major cost in wastewater treatment. Recent innovations in nitrogen removal aim at reducing energy requirements and recovering ammonium nitrogen. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are promising for recovering ammonium nitrogen from nitrogen rich waste streams (urine, digester liquor, swine liquor, and landfill leachate) profitably. Phosphorus is removed from the wastewater in the form of polyphosphate granules by polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Alternatively, phosphorous is removed/recovered as Fe-P or struvite through chemical precipitation (iron or magnesium dosing). In this article, recent advances in nutrients removal from wastewater coupled to recovery are presented by applying a waste biorefinery concept. Potential capabilities of BES in recovering nitrogen and phosphorous are reviewed to spur future investigations towards development of nutrient recovery biotechnologies. PMID:27053446

  20. Active Debris Removal System Based on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzitelli, Federico; Valdatta, Marcelo; Bellini, Niccolo; Candini Gian, Paolo; Rastelli, Davide; Romei, Fedrico; Locarini, Alfredo; Spadanuda, Antonio; Bagassi, Sara

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an increasing problem. The exponential increase of satellite launches in the last 50 years has determined the problem of space debris especially in LEO. The remains of past missions are dangerous for both operative satellites and human activity in space. But not only: it has been shown that uncontrolled impacts between space objects can lead to a potentially dangerous situation for civil people on Earth. It is possible to reach a situation of instability where the big amount of debris could cause a cascade of collisions, the so called Kessler syndrome, resulting in the infeasibility of new space missions for many generations. Currently new technologies for the mitigation of space debris are under study: for what concerning the removal of debris the use of laser to give a little impulse to the object and push it in a graveyard orbit or to be destroyed in the atmosphere. Another solution is the use of a satellite to rendezvous with the space junk and then use a net to capture it and destroy it in the reentry phase. In a parallel way the research is addressed to the study of deorbiting solutions to prevent the formation of new space junk. The project presented in this paper faces the problem of how to deorbit an existing debris, applying the studies about the use of polyurethane foam developed by Space Robotic Group of University of Bologna. The research is started with the Redemption experiment part of last ESA Rexus program. The foam is composed by two liquid components that, once properly mixed, trig an expansive reaction leading to an increase of volume whose entity depends on the chemical composition of the two starting components. It is possible to perform two kind of mission: 1) Not controlled removal: the two components are designed to react producing a low density, high expanded, spongy foam that incorporates the debris. The A/m ratio of the debris is increased and in this way also the ballistic parameter. As a consequence, the effect of

  1. Low-Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal/Recovery System

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.; Wijams, H.; Baker, R.W.

    1997-10-01

    Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. Much raw gas is `subquality`, that is, it exceeds the pipeline specifications for nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide content, and much of this low-quality natural gas cannot be produced economically with present processing technology. Against this background, a number of industry-wide trends are affecting the natural gas industry. Despite the current low price of natural gas, long-term demand is expected to outstrip supply, requiring new gas fields to be developed. Several important consequences will result. First, gas fields not being used because of low-quality products will have to be tapped. In the future, the proportion of the gas supply that must be treated to remove impurities prior to delivery to the pipeline will increase substantially. The extent of treatment required to bring the gas up to specification will also increase. Gas Research Institute studies have shown that a substantial capital investment in facilities is likely to occur over the next decade. The estimated overall investment for all gas processing facilities up to the year 2000 alone is approximates $1.2 Billion, of which acid gas removal and sulfur recovery are a significant part in terms of invested capital. This large market size and the known shortcomings of conventional processing techniques will encourage development and commercialization of newer technologies such as membrane processes. Second, much of today`s gas production is from large, readily accessible fields. As new reserves are exploited, more gas will be produced from smaller fields in remote or offshore locations. The result is an increasing need for technology able to treat small-scale gas streams.

  2. [Technique for removal of anaesthetic vapours from the operation theater. CO2-concentrations in the Jackson Rees system using a removal unit (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kroesen, G; Sankofi, P; Geir, W; Menardi, G

    1978-04-01

    The Jackson Rees system was used for short operations in 50 infants combined with or without a system for removal of excess anaesthetic vapours developed by the authors. The CO2-concentration in the system was measured directly before the upper airway of the patients. No statistically significance difference between the CO2-concentration with or without the use of the removal system. A variable power of suction up to 61/min is thought to be sufficient and harmless. PMID:655369

  3. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  4. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: A CROSS-FLOW PERVAPORATION SYSTEM FOR REMOVAL OF VOCS FROM CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation is a process for removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from contaminated water. The performance of the cross-flow pervaporation system increases with temperature, with an equipment limitation of 35 degrees Celsius. Permeable membranes that preferentially adsor...

  5. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER - PALL CORPORATION MICROZA. MICROFILTRATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Pall Corporation Microza. Microfiltration System for arsenic removal was conducted at the Oakland County Drain Commissioner (OCDC) Plum Creek Development well station located in Oakland County, Michigan from August 19 through October 8, 2004. The sourc...

  6. Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability. PMID:25022888

  7. Effect of nickel on nutrient removal by selected indigenous protozoan species in wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient and heavy metal pollutions are major concern worldwide. This study aimed at comparing the effect of Ni(2+) on nutrient removal efficiency of four indigenous wastewater protozoan species (Aspidisca sp., Paramecium sp., Peranema sp., Trachelophyllum sp.). Specific physicochemical parameters and microbial growth/die-off were measured using standard methods. The results revealed that protozoan species were able to simultaneously remove phosphate, nitrate and Ni(2+) at concentrations ranging between 66.4-99.36%, 56.19-99.88% and 45.98-85.69%, respectively. Peranema sp. appeared to be the isolates with the highest removal of nutrients (Phosphate-99.36% and Nitrate-99.88%) while Paramecium sp. showed higher removal of Ni(2+) at 85.69% and low removal of nutrients. Aspidisca sp. was the most sensitive isolate to Ni(2+) but with significant nutrient removal (Phosphate-66.4% and Nitrate-56.19%) at 10 mg-N(2+)/L followed by an inhibition of nutrient removal at Ni(2+) concentration greater than 10 mg/L. Significant correlation between the growth rate and nutrient removal (r = 0.806/0.799, p < 0.05 for phosphate and nitrate, respectively) was noted. Except for Peranema sp. which revealed better nutrient removal ability at 10 mg-Ni(2+)/L, an increase in Ni(2+) concentration had a significant effect on nutrient removal efficiency of these indigenous protozoan species. This study suggests that although Ni(2+) appeared to be toxic to microbial isolates, its effect at a low concentration (10 mg-Ni(2+)/L) towards these isolates can be used to enhance the wastewater treatment process for the removal of nutrients. Peranema sp., which was able to remove both Ni(2+) and nutrients from wastewater mixed-liquor, can also be used for bioremediation of wastewater systems. PMID:25737645

  8. Effect of nickel on nutrient removal by selected indigenous protozoan species in wastewater systems

    PubMed Central

    Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient and heavy metal pollutions are major concern worldwide. This study aimed at comparing the effect of Ni2+ on nutrient removal efficiency of four indigenous wastewater protozoan species (Aspidisca sp., Paramecium sp., Peranema sp., Trachelophyllum sp.). Specific physicochemical parameters and microbial growth/die-off were measured using standard methods. The results revealed that protozoan species were able to simultaneously remove phosphate, nitrate and Ni2+ at concentrations ranging between 66.4–99.36%, 56.19–99.88% and 45.98–85.69%, respectively. Peranema sp. appeared to be the isolates with the highest removal of nutrients (Phosphate-99.36% and Nitrate-99.88%) while Paramecium sp. showed higher removal of Ni2+ at 85.69% and low removal of nutrients. Aspidisca sp. was the most sensitive isolate to Ni2+ but with significant nutrient removal (Phosphate-66.4% and Nitrate-56.19%) at 10 mg-N2+/L followed by an inhibition of nutrient removal at Ni2+ concentration greater than 10 mg/L. Significant correlation between the growth rate and nutrient removal (r = 0.806/0.799, p < 0.05 for phosphate and nitrate, respectively) was noted. Except for Peranema sp. which revealed better nutrient removal ability at 10 mg-Ni2+/L, an increase in Ni2+ concentration had a significant effect on nutrient removal efficiency of these indigenous protozoan species. This study suggests that although Ni2+ appeared to be toxic to microbial isolates, its effect at a low concentration (10 mg-Ni2+/L) towards these isolates can be used to enhance the wastewater treatment process for the removal of nutrients. Peranema sp., which was able to remove both Ni2+ and nutrients from wastewater mixed-liquor, can also be used for bioremediation of wastewater systems. PMID:25737645

  9. Prioritizing removal of dams for passage of diadromous fishes on a major river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Native diadromous fishes have been extirpated from much of the Susquehanna River system for nearly a century. Recent restoration efforts have focused on removal of dams, but there are hundreds of dams and presently there is no biologically based system to assist in prioritizing their removal. We present a new method that uses existing habitat suitability index models (HSI) for American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus, blueback herring A. aestivalis, and American eel Anguilla rostrata to prioritize the removal of non-hydropower dams within the Susquehanna River system. We ranked HSI scores for each of the four species, association between a landscape-scale factor and HSIs, length of river opened by removing a dam, and distance from the mouth at Chesapeake Bay for each dam and then calculated a mean rank prioritization for dam removal by averaging the ranks for the seven criteria. This prioritization method is resistant to outliers, is not strongly affected by somewhat arbitrary decisions on metrics included in the analysis, and provides a biologically based prioritization for dam removal that can be easily amended to include other metrics or adapted to other river systems and that complements other social and economic considerations that must be included in decisions to remove dams.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a membrane-based system for removing CO2 from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Scott B.; Wytcherley, Randi W.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Ray, Rod J.

    1990-01-01

    Processes to remove and/or recover CO2 from air are essential to the long-term success of the U.S. space program. The results of a preliminary investigation of the use of a novel membrane-based system for removal of CO2 from air are presented. Features of this technology that make it attractive include the following: (1) it is lightweight; (2) it requires no consumables or expendables; (3) it is relatively simple; and (4) it does not rely directly on other subsystems. Preliminary designs of systems for removing CO2 from spacecraft cabin atmospheres and from the extravehicular mobility unit are presented.

  11. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOEpatents

    Krauter, Paula A. W.; Krauter, Gordon W.

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  12. Options for transpiration water removal in a crop growth system under zero gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Kliss, M.; Yendler, B.; Borchers, B.; Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    The operation of a microgravity crop-growth system is a critical feature of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) development program. Transpiration-evolved water must be removed from the air that is recirculated in such a system, perhaps supplying potable water in the process. The present consideration of candidate systems for CELSS water removal gives attention to energy considerations and to a mechanical, inertial-operation water-separation system that was chosen due to the depth of current understanding of its operation.

  13. ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

  14. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  15. An analytical fuzzy-based approach to ?-gain optimal control of input-affine nonlinear systems using Newton-type algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milic, Vladimir; Kasac, Josip; Novakovic, Branko

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with ?-gain optimisation of input-affine nonlinear systems controlled by analytic fuzzy logic system. Unlike the conventional fuzzy-based strategies, the non-conventional analytic fuzzy control method does not require an explicit fuzzy rule base. As the first contribution of this paper, we prove, by using the Stone-Weierstrass theorem, that the proposed fuzzy system without rule base is universal approximator. The second contribution of this paper is an algorithm for solving a finite-horizon minimax problem for ?-gain optimisation. The proposed algorithm consists of recursive chain rule for first- and second-order derivatives, Newton's method, multi-step Adams method and automatic differentiation. Finally, the results of this paper are evaluated on a second-order nonlinear system.

  16. Full System Modeling and Validation of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, James; Gauto, Hernando; Gomez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was initiated in September of 2011 as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Under the ARREM project, testing of sub-scale and full-scale systems has been combined with multiphysics computer simulations for evaluation and optimization of subsystem approaches. In particular, this paper describes the testing and modeling of various subsystems of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). The goal is a full system predictive model of CDRA to guide system optimization and development. The development of the CO2 removal and associated air-drying subsystem hardware under the ARREM project is discussed in a companion paper.

  17. Isoelectric points and surface hydrophobicity of Gram-positive cocci as determined by cross-partition and hydrophobic affinity partition in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed Central

    Miörner, H; Albertsson, P A; Kronvall, G

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-nine streptococcal strains belonging to groups A, C, and G and 12 staphylococcal strains were investigated with respect to surface charge and hydrophobicity. Isoelectric points of the bacteria were determined by cross-partition experiments in dextran-polyethylene glycol two-phase systems containing charged polymers. The results obtained indicate that group A, C, and G streptococci have isoelectric points of pH 3.75 +/- 0.15 standard deviation. Staphylococci show an isoelectric point of around pH 2 and thereby differ markedly from the streptococci. Pretreatment of bacteria with human serum resulted in a significant change in the isoelectric points of streptococci. In a second series of experiments, an aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol two-phase system containing polyethylene glycol palmitate or stearate was used to study the hydrophobic surface properties of the bacterial cells. The partition of the staphylococci was not influenced by the addition of up to 1% (wt/wt) polyethylene glycol palmitate or stearate, whereas the streptococci showed a large variation in affinity for polyethylene glycol-bound hydrophobic groups. The bacterial strains included in the study were also tested for uptake of human serum proteins. A positive correlation was found between the hydrophobic affinity of group A streptococci and the density of receptors for aggregated beta-2-microglobulin. PMID:7042571

  18. Online optimal control of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems with unknown internal dynamics by using time-based policy update.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is solved forward-in-time for the optimal control of a class of general affine nonlinear discrete-time systems without using value and policy iterations. The proposed approach, referred to as adaptive dynamic programming, uses two neural networks (NNs), to solve the infinite horizon optimal regulation control of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems in the presence of unknown internal dynamics and a known control coefficient matrix. One NN approximates the cost function and is referred to as the critic NN, while the second NN generates the control input and is referred to as the action NN. The cost function and policy are updated once at the sampling instant and thus the proposed approach can be referred to as time-based ADP. Novel update laws for tuning the unknown weights of the NNs online are derived. Lyapunov techniques are used to show that all signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and that the approximated control signal approaches the optimal control input with small bounded error over time. In the absence of disturbances, an optimal control is demonstrated. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the approach. The end result is the systematic design of an optimal controller with guaranteed convergence that is suitable for hardware implementation. PMID:24807137

  19. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  20. Removal of an acid fume system contaminated with perchlorates located within hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Vroman, W.R.; Krsul, J.R.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Knighton, G.C.

    1992-09-01

    An add scrubbing system located within the confines of a highly radioactive hot cell at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was remotely removed. The acid scrubbing system was routinely used for the dissolution of irradiated reactor fuel samples and structural materials. Perchloric acid was one of the acids used in the dissolution process and remained in the system with its inherent risks. Personnel could not enter the hot cell to perform the dismantling of the acid scabbing system due to the high radiation field and the explosion potential associated with the perchlorates. A robot was designed and built at ANL-W and used to dismantle the system without the need for personnel entry into the hot cell. The robot was also used for size reduction of removed components and loading of the removed components into waste containers.

  1. Methyl-orange and cadmium simultaneous removal using fly ash and photo-Fenton systems.

    PubMed

    Visa, Maria; Duta, Anca

    2013-01-15

    Wastewaters resulting from the textile and dye finishing industries need complex treatment for efficient removal of colour and other compounds existent in the dyeing and rising baths (heavy metals, surfactants, equalizers, etc.). Modified fly ash (FA) mixed with TiO(2) photocatalyst represent a viable option for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, and the optimized conditions are discussed in this paper for synthetic wastewaters containing methyl-orange (MO) and cadmium. For a cost-effective dye removal process, further tests were done, replacing the photocatalyst with a (photo)Fenton system. The optimized technological parameters (contact time, amount of fly ash and amount of Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) allow to reach removal efficiencies up to 88% for the heavy metal and up to 70% for the dye. The adsorption mechanisms and the process kinetic are discussed, also considering the possibility of in situ generation of the Fenton system, due to the fly ash composition. PMID:23200622

  2. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    PubMed

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications. PMID:23508153

  4. Special Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Indu; Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    Describes the nature of affinity chromatography and its use in purifying enzymes, studying cell interactions, exploring hormone receptors, and other areas. The potential the technique may have in treating disease is also considered. (JN)

  5. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from the coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps the withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet jump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  6. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    SciTech Connect

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  7. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sampietro, María; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Casas, Celia; Ariño, Joaquín; Herrero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity. PMID:27618952

  8. Miniaturized reaction vessel system, method for performing site-specific biochemical reactions and affinity fractionation for use in DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Lysov, Yuri Petrovich; Dubley, Svetlana A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fractionating and sequencing DNA via affinity interaction is provided comprising contacting cleaved DNA to a first array of oligonucleotide molecules to facilitate hybridization between said cleaved DNA and the molecules; extracting the hybridized DNA from the molecules; contacting said extracted hybridized DNA with a second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the oligonucleotide molecules in the second array have specified base sequences that are complementary to said extracted hybridized DNA; and attaching labeled DNA to the second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the labeled re-hybridized DNA have sequences that are complementary to the oligomers. The invention further provides a method for performing multi-step conversions of the chemical structure of compounds comprising supplying an array of polyacrylamide vessels separated by hydrophobic surfaces; immobilizing a plurality of reactants, such as enzymes, in the vessels so that each vessel contains one reactant; contacting the compounds to each of the vessels in a predetermined sequence and for a sufficient time to convert the compounds to a desired state; and isolating the converted compounds from said array.

  9. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater.

    PubMed

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Livesley, Stephen J; Fletcher, Tim D

    2015-10-15

    Biofiltration systems are used in urban areas to reduce the concentration and load of nutrient pollutants and heavy metals entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Biofilters can, however be exposed to salt water, through intrusion of seawater in coastal areas which could decrease their ability to intercept and retain pollutants. We measured the effect of adding saline stormwater on pollutant removal by six monocotyledonous species with different levels of salt-tolerance. Carex appressa, Carex bichenoviana, Ficinia nodosa, Gahnia filum, Juncus kraussii and Juncus usitatus were exposed to six concentrations of saline stormwater, equivalent to electrical conductivity readings of: 0.09, 2.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.0 and 37.6 mS cm(-1). Salt-sensitive species: C. appressa, C. bichenoviana and J. usitatus did not survive ≥10.4 mS cm(-1), removing their ability to take up nitrogen (N). Salt-tolerant species, such as F. nodosa and J. kraussii, maintained N-removal even at the highest salt concentration. However, their levels of water stress and stomatal conductance suggest that N-removal would not be sustained at concentrations ≥10.4 mS cm(-1). Increasing salt concentration indirectly increased phosphorus (P) removal, by converting dissolved forms of P to particulate forms which were retained by filter media. Salt concentrations ≥10 mS cm(-1) also reduced removal efficiency of zinc, manganese and cadmium, but increased removal of iron and lead, regardless of plant species. Our results suggest that biofiltration systems exposed to saline stormwater ≤10 mS cm(-1) can only maintain N-removal when planted with salt-tolerant species, while P removal and immobilisation of heavy metals is less affected by species selection. PMID:26150068

  10. Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration systems at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, Belinda E.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Deletic, Ana

    2009-02-01

    SummaryBiofiltration systems are a recommended and increasingly popular technology for stormwater management; however there is a general lack of performance data for these systems, particularly at the field scale. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of three field-scale biofiltration systems in two different climates. Biofilters were shown to effectively attenuate peak runoff flow rates by at least 80%. Performance assessment of a lined biofilter demonstrated that retention of inflow volumes by the filter media, for subsequent loss via evapotranspiration, reduced runoff volumes by 33% on average. Retention of water was found to be most influenced by inflow volumes, although only small to medium storms could be assessed. Vegetation was shown to be important for maintaining hydraulic capacity, because root growth and senescence countered compaction and clogging. Suspended solids and heavy metals were effectively removed, irrespective of the design configuration, with load reductions generally in excess of 90%. In contrast, nutrient retention was variable, and ranged from consistent leaching to effective and reliable removal, depending on the design. To ensure effective removal of phosphorus, a filter medium with a low phosphorus content should be selected. Nitrogen is more difficult to remove because it is highly soluble and strongly influenced by the variable wetting and drying regime that is inherent in biofilter operation. The results of this research suggest that reconfiguration of biofilter design to manage the deleterious effects of drying on biological activity is necessary to ensure long term nitrogen removal.

  11. Elemental mercury removals observed in a laboratory-scale wet FGD scrubber system

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.; Huang, H.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Published data are limited regarding gaseous mercury removal in wet scrubber flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The data that do exist show a wide variation in reported mercury removals, from about 5 to 95%. We have performed tests for the removal of gaseous elemental mercury in a well-controlled laboratory environment by using both conventional and modified configurations of an aqueous scrubber system. Results from these tests strongly suggest that the removal of elemental mercury in a wet scrubber system is controlled by liquid-film resistance. Our results have also led us to hypothesize that the mercury-containing species in a flue-gas stream consist of only two types: elemental mercury and oxidized mercury compounds. We further assert that the differences observed in mercury removal reflect different proportions of each of these two types of mercury-containing species. We suggest that the total mercury removal will be high when the actual, but unmeasured, proportion of oxidized mercury compounds is high.

  12. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  13. Removal of nitrogen from wastewater with perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mats biofilm combined system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongjun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Liang; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-04-01

    To develop a cost-effective combined phytoremediation and biological process, a combined perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mat biofilm reactor was used to treat synthetic wastewater. Influent ammonium loading, reflux ratio, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature all had significant effects on the treatment efficiency. The results indicated that the effluent concentration of ammonium increased with increasing influent ammonium loading. The reactor temperature played an important role in the nitrification process. The ammonium removal efficiency significantly decreased from 80% to 30%-50% when the reactor temperature dropped to below 10 degrees C. In addition, the optimal nitrogen removal condition was a reflux ratio of 2. The nitrate and ammonium concentration of the effluent were consistent with the HRT of the combined system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was at a high level during the whole experiment, being almost 80% after the start-up, and then mostly above 90%. The direct uptake of N by the perennial ryegrass accounted for 18.17% of the total N removal by the whole system. The perennial ryegrass absorption was a significant contributor to nitrogen removal in the combined system. The result illustrated that the combined perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mat biofilm reactor demonstrated good performance in ammonium, total N and COD removal. PMID:23923775

  14. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  15. [Review on the main microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Zhu, Wei-Jing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is applied widely for removing phosphorus from wastewater. Studies on functional microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms are fundamental to effective regulation for stable operation and performance improvement of EBPR process. Two main types of microorganisms in EBPR systems, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were selected to summarize their metabolic mechanisms such as substrate uptake mechanisms, glycogen degradation pathways, extent of TCA cycle involvement and metabolic similarity between PAOs and GAOs. Application of molecular biology techniques in microbiology and metabolic mechanisms involved in the EBPR system was evaluated. Potential future research areas for the EBPR system and process optimization were also proposed. PMID:24984512

  16. Cathode scraper system and method of using the same for removing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments include a cathode scraper system and/or method of using the same for removing uranium. The cathode scraper system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly includes a plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper system also includes a cathode scraper assembly configured to remove purified uranium deposited on the plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper assembly includes a plurality of scrapers arranged in a lattice, and each scraper of the plurality of scrapers is arranged to correspond to a different cathode rod.

  17. Development of design information for molecular-sieve type regenerative CO2-removal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. M.; Ruder, J. M.; Dunn, V. B.; Hwang, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and analytic studies were conducted with molecular sieve sorbents to provide basic design information, and to develop a system design technique for regenerable CO2-removal systems for manned spacecraft. Single sorbate equilibrium data were obtained over a wide range of conditions for CO2, water, nitrogen, and oxygen on several molecular sieve and silica gel sorbents. The coadsorption of CO2 with water preloads, and with oxygen and nitrogen was experimentally evaluated. Mass-transfer, and some limited heat-transfer performance evaluations were accomplished under representative operating conditions, including the coadsorption of CO2 and water. CO2-removal system performance prediction capability was derived.

  18. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  19. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  20. Continuous removal of endocrine disruptors by versatile peroxidase using a two-stage system.

    PubMed

    Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Lu-Chau, Thelmo A; Eibes, Gemma; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Maria T; Lema, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    The oxidant Mn(3+) -malonate, generated by the ligninolytic enzyme versatile peroxidase in a two-stage system, was used for the continuous removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from synthetic and real wastewaters. One plasticizer (bisphenol-A), one bactericide (triclosan) and three estrogenic compounds (estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were removed from wastewater at degradation rates in the range of 28-58 µg/L·min, with low enzyme inactivation. First, the optimization of three main parameters affecting the generation of Mn(3+) -malonate (hydraulic retention time as well as Na-malonate and H2 O2 feeding rates) was conducted following a response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, the degradation of the EDCs was proven at high (1.3-8.8 mg/L) and environmental (1.2-6.1 µg/L) concentrations. Finally, when the two-stage system was compared with a conventional enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) using the same enzyme, a 14-fold increase of the removal efficiency was observed. At the same time, operational problems found during EDCs removal in the EMR system (e.g., clogging of the membrane and enzyme inactivation) were avoided by physically separating the stages of complex formation and pollutant oxidation, allowing the system to be operated for a longer period (∼8 h). This study demonstrates the feasibility of the two-stage enzymatic system for removing EDCs both at high and environmental concentrations. PMID:26033915

  1. Defective removal of ribonucleotides from DNA promotes systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Claudia; Kind, Barbara; Reijns, Martin A.M.; Berndt, Nicole; Martinez-Bueno, Manuel; Wolf, Christine; Tüngler, Victoria; Chara, Osvaldo; Lee, Young Ae; Hübner, Norbert; Bicknell, Louise; Blum, Sophia; Krug, Claudia; Schmidt, Franziska; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Koss, Sarah; Astell, Katy R.; Ramantani, Georgia; Bauerfeind, Anja; Morris, David L.; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S.; Bubeck, Doryen; Leitch, Andrea; Ralston, Stuart H.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Gahr, Manfred; Witte, Torsten; Vyse, Timothy J.; Melchers, Inga; Mangold, Elisabeth; Nöthen, Markus M.; Aringer, Martin; Kuhn, Annegret; Lüthke, Kirsten; Unger, Leonore; Bley, Annette; Lorenzi, Alice; Isaacs, John D.; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Conrad, Karsten; Dahl, Andreas; Roers, Axel; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is continuously challenged by the DNA damage that arises during normal cell metabolism. Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding the genome surveillance enzyme ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a pediatric disorder that shares features with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we determined that heterozygous parents of AGS patients exhibit an intermediate autoimmune phenotype and demonstrated a genetic association between rare RNASEH2 sequence variants and SLE. Evaluation of patient cells revealed that SLE- and AGS-associated mutations impair RNase H2 function and result in accumulation of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA. The ensuing chronic low level of DNA damage triggered a DNA damage response characterized by constitutive p53 phosphorylation and senescence. Patient fibroblasts exhibited constitutive upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and an enhanced type I IFN response to the immunostimulatory nucleic acid polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and UV light irradiation, linking RNase H2 deficiency to potentiation of innate immune signaling. Moreover, UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation was markedly enhanced in ribonucleotide-containing DNA, providing a mechanism for photosensitivity in RNase H2–associated SLE. Collectively, our findings implicate RNase H2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and suggest a role of DNA damage–associated pathways in the initiation of autoimmunity. PMID:25500883

  2. Mathematical modeling based evaluation and simulation of boron removal in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Ping, Qingyun; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Boron removal is an arising issue in desalination plants due to boron's toxicity. As an emerging treatment concept, bioelectrochemical systems (BES) can achieve potentially cost-effective boron removal by taking advantage of cathodic-produced alkali. Prior studies have demonstrated successful removal of boron in microbial desalination cells (MDCs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs), both of which are representative BES. Herein, mathematical models were developed to further evaluate boron removal by different BES and understand the key operating factors. The models delivered very good prediction of the boron concentration in the MDC integrated with Donnan Dialysis (DD) system with the lowest relative root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.00%; the predication of the MFC performance generated the highest RMSE of 18.55%. The model results of salt concentration, solution pH, and current generation were well fitted with experimental data for RMSE values mostly below 10%. The long term simulation of the MDC-DD system suggests that the accumulation of salt in the catholyte/stripping solution could have a positive impact on the removal of boron due to osmosis-driven convection. The current generation in the MDC may have little influence on the boron removal, while in the MFC the current-driven electromigration can contribute up to 40% of boron removal. Osmosis-induced convection transport of boron could be the major driving force for boron removal to a low level <2mgL(-1). The ratio between the anolyte and the catholyte flow rates should be kept >22.2 in order to avoid boron accumulation in the anolyte effluent. PMID:27387806

  3. Radiosynthesis binding affinity and biodistribution of 3-[F-18]fluoro-N-({alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluoro-m-tolyl)piperazine (FTFMPP), a radioligand for the Serotonin system

    SciTech Connect

    Mishani, E.; Cristel, M.E.; McCarthy, T.J.; Welch, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The serotonin agonist N({alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluoro-m-tolyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a potent ligand for the serotonin system. Angelini and co-workers previously synthesized the c.a [F-18]TFMPP but the low specific activity (less than 0.2GBq/mmol) limited the application of this ligand. We have recently reported the formation of phenylpiperazines by a novel alumina supported bis-alkylation. We report the application of this method and biological evaluation of 3-[F-18]FTFMPP, a fluoro derivative of TFMPP. Reaction of [F-18]fluoride with 3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride gave the 3-[F-18]fluoro-5-nitrobenzotrifluoride in 70% yield. Reduction of the nitro group with Raney nickel and hydrazine hydrate gave the [F-18]aniline derivative in 70% yield. Finally, the phenylpiperazine was constructed by reaction of the [F-18]aniline derivative with bis-2-bromoethyl-N-(ethoxy carbonyl)amine on basic alumina (pH=9) as a solid support. After extraction of the activity with basic MeOH and HPLC purification on normal phase the final product- [F-18]FTFMPP was obtained in 50% yield (98% radiochemical purity). The specific activity of the final product was 100GBq/mmol. The binding affinity of FTFMPP to 5-HT receptor was determined (Ki = 80-100 nM) and found to be similar to the binding affinity of the TFMPP (160-180 nM). The biodistribution of [F-18]FTFMPP was performed in rats.

  4. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems 2015-2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Coker, Robert; Howard, David; Peters, Warren; Watson, David; Cmarik, Gregory; Miller, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    A long-term goal for NASA is to enable crewed missions to Mars: first to the vicinity of Mars, and then to the Mars surface. These missions present new challenges for all aspects of spacecraft design in comparison with the International Space Station, as resupply is unavailable in the transit phase, and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, and volume must be minimized for all phases to reduce propulsion needs. Mass reduction is particularly crucial for Mars surface landing and liftoff due to the challenges inherent in these operations for even much smaller payloads. In this paper we describe current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support future crewed Mars missions. Activities are also described that apply to both the resolution of anomalies observed in the ISS CDRA and the design of life support systems for future missions.

  5. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems 2014-2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Coker, Robert; Huff, Timothy L.; Gatens, Robyn; Miller, Lee A.; Stanley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A long-term goal for NASA is to enable crewed missions to Mars: first to the vicinity of Mars, and then to the Mars surface. These missions present new challenges for all aspects of spacecraft design in comparison with the International Space Station, as resupply is unavailable in the transit phase, and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, and volume must be minimized for all phases to reduce propulsion needs. Mass reduction is particularly crucial for Mars surface landing and liftoff due to the challenges inherent in these operations for even much smaller payloads. In this paper we describe current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support future crewed Mars missions. Activities are also described that apply to both the resolution of anomalies observed in the ISS CDRA and the design of life support systems for future missions.

  6. Protein Delivery System Containing a Nickel-Immobilized Polymer for Multimerization of Affinity-Purified His-Tagged Proteins Enhances Cytosolic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Postupalenko, Viktoriia; Desplancq, Dominique; Orlov, Igor; Arntz, Youri; Spehner, Danièle; Mely, Yves; Klaholz, Bruno P; Schultz, Patrick; Weiss, Etienne; Zuber, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Recombinant proteins with cytosolic or nuclear activities are emerging as tools for interfering with cellular functions. Because such tools rely on vehicles for crossing the plasma membrane we developed a protein delivery system consisting in the assembly of pyridylthiourea-grafted polyethylenimine (πPEI) with affinity-purified His-tagged proteins pre-organized onto a nickel-immobilized polymeric guide. The guide was prepared by functionalization of an ornithine polymer with nitrilotriacetic acid groups and shown to bind several His-tagged proteins. Superstructures were visualized by electron and atomic force microscopy using 2 nm His-tagged gold nanoparticles as probes. The whole system efficiently carried the green fluorescent protein, single-chain antibodies or caspase 3, into the cytosol of living cells. Transduction of the protease caspase 3 induced apoptosis in two cancer cell lines, demonstrating that this new protein delivery method could be used to interfere with cellular functions. PMID:26230624

  7. Acid Gas Removal by Customized Sorbents for Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfenberger, J.; Sohnemann, J.; Schleitzer, D.; Loewen, A.

    2002-09-20

    In order to reduce exergy losses, gas cleaning at high temperatures is favored in IGFC systems. As shown by thermodynamic data, separation efficiencies of common sorbents decrease with increasing temperature. Therefore, acid gas removal systems have to be developed for IGFC applications considering sorbent capacity, operation temperature, gasification feedstock composition and fuel cell threshold values.

  8. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  9. Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Sari; Ye, Hongtu; Helm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of IgE with its high-affinity Fc receptor (FcεRI) followed by an antigenic challenge is the principal pathway in IgE mediated allergic reactions. As a consequence of the high affinity binding between IgE and FcεRI, along with the continuous production of IgE by B cells, allergies usually persist throughout life, with currently no permanent cure available. Horses, especially race horses, which are commonly inbred, are a species of mammals that are very prone to the development of hypersensitivity responses, which can seriously affect their performance. Physiological responses to allergic sensitization in horses mirror that observed in humans and dogs. In this paper we describe the development of an in situ assay system for the quantitative assessment of the release of mediators of the allergic response pertaining to the equine system. To this end, the gene encoding equine FcεRIα was transfected into and expressed onto the surface of parental Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells. The gene product of the transfected equine α-chain formed a functional receptor complex with the endogenous rat β- and γ-chains. The resultant assay system facilitated an assessment of the quantity of mediator secreted from equine FcεRIα transfected RBL-2H3.1 cells following sensitization with equine IgE and antigenic challenge using β-hexosaminidase release as a readout. Mediator release peaked at 36.68% ± 4.88% at 100 ng ml(-1) of antigen. This assay was modified from previous assays used to study human and canine allergic responses. We have also shown that this type of assay system has multiple applications for the development of diagnostic tools and the safety assessment of potential therapeutic intervention strategies in allergic disease. PMID:25406512

  10. Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams.

    PubMed

    de Wilt, Arnoud; Butkovskyi, Andrii; Tuantet, Kanjana; Leal, Lucia Hernandez; Fernandes, Tânia V; Langenhoff, Alette; Zeeman, Grietje

    2016-03-01

    Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams was studied. Batch experiments with the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana grown on urine, anaerobically treated black water and synthetic urine were performed to assess the removal of six spiked pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, paracetamol, metoprolol, carbamazepine and trimethoprim). Additionally, incorporation of these pharmaceuticals and three estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol and ethinylestradiol) into algal biomass was studied. Biodegradation and photolysis led to 60-100% removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, paracetamol and metoprolol. Removal of carbamazepine and trimethoprim was incomplete and did not exceed 30% and 60%, respectively. Sorption to algal biomass accounted for less than 20% of the micropollutant removal. Furthermore, the presence of micropollutants did not inhibit C. sorokiniana growth at applied concentrations. Algal treatment systems allow simultaneous removal of micropollutants and recovery of nutrients from source separated wastewater. Nutrient rich algal biomass can be harvested and applied as fertilizer in agriculture, as lower input of micropollutants to soil is achieved when algal biomass is applied as fertilizer instead of urine. PMID:26546707

  11. Effects of intermittent aeration on pollutants removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Fei, Hexin; Song, Siyu; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the pollutant removal performances in two pilot-scale subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration were investigated. Matrix oxidation reduction potential (ORP) results showed that intermittent aeration well developed aerobic conditions in upper matrix and anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the subsequent sections, which resulted in high NH4(+)-N and TN removal. Moreover, intermittent aeration increased removal rates of COD and TP. Microbial populations and enzyme activities analysis proved that intermittent aeration not only obviously boosted the growth and reproduction of bacteria, fungus, actinomyces, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria, but also successfully increased nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NIR) in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The results suggest that the intermittent aeration could be a widespread research and application strategy for achieving the high removal performance in SWISs. PMID:26004389

  12. System and method for removing contaminants from solid surfaces and decontaminating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.L.; Geiss, A.J.; Grieco, S.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.

    1995-10-10

    A method and system are disclosed for removing a surface layer contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous material and subsequently treating the waste to remove contaminants and provide an essentially contaminant-free final effluent. The contaminated material is removed by blasting the surface with a pressurized stream of air and sodium bicarbonate abrasive media, and the media is dissolved in water subsequent to the blasting operation. The resulting waste is treated in a sequence of steps including adjustment of pH, aeration and separation into primarily solid and liquid phases by precipitation of solids, which are removed for appropriate disposal. The primarily liquid phase is successively passed through a particle filter, a granulated activated carbon filter and a polishing unit to produce the clean final effluent. 1 fig.

  13. Manned Mission Planning Considerations when Using a Non-Regenerable CO2 Removal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    As the commercial spacecraft industry increases in size, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of manned spacecraft built and operationally flown each year. Industry teams for these new spacecraft will have multiple design and operational choices to make for each of these spacecraft s subsystems. The carbon dioxide (CO2) removal subsystem of the environmental control and life support system is one that presents such challenges. This paper seeks to aid industry in making design and operations choices by providing a document containing lessons learned by the Space Shuttle Program s Operations team, with specific focus given to the non-regenerable CO2 removal system currently used by the Space Shuttle. Carbon dioxide, one of the key byproducts of respiration, can lead to injury and death if allowed to build up in a spacecraft s habitable environment. Therefore, any spacecraft s environmental control and life support system must contain a method for removing this hazard. These removal systems can either be non-regenerable or regenerable. While this paper defines the difference between these types and presents a generic comparison of their capabilities, the focus is specifically on the Space Shuttle s CO2 removal systems. This will include a short discussion of the Space Shuttle s regenerable amine solid absorption system that was part of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) modification, however, emphasis is given to the non-regenerable Lithium Hydroxide canister system used as the prime removal method employed by the Space Shuttle, including a discussion on why this method was chosen over a regenerable system. A full exposition is given on all of the considerations required for mission planning when using a non-regenerable CO2 removal system. Key discussion items include: airflow lessons learned, recent physiological issues related to short term and long term exposure and how lower levels may be more harmful than previously thought, lithium hydroxide

  14. CO2 Removal and Atmosphere Revitalization Systems for Next Generation Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, Bernadette; Mulloth, Lila M.; Varghese, Mini M.; Hogan, John Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Removal of metabolic CO2 from breathing air is a vital process for life support in all crewed space missions. A CO2 removal processor called the Low Power CO2 Removal (LPCOR) system is being developed in the Bioengineering Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. LPCOR utilizes advanced adsorption and membrane gas separation processes to achieve substantial power and mass reduction when compared to the state-of-the-art carbon dioxide removal assembly (CORA) of the US segment of the International Space Station (ISS). LPCOR is an attractive alternative for use in commercial spacecraft for short-duration missions and can easily be adapted for closed-loop life support applications. NASA envisions a next-generation closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system that integrates advanced CO2 removal, O2 recovery, and trace contaminant control processes to improve overall system efficiency. LPCOR will serve as the front end to such a system. LPCOR is a reliable air revitalization technology that can serve both the near-term and long-term human space flight needs of NASA and its commercial partners.

  15. Two Plant Bacteria, S. meliloti and Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, Share Functional znuABC Homologues That Encode for a High Affinity Zinc Uptake System

    PubMed Central

    Vahling-Armstrong, Cheryl M.; Zhou, Huasong; Benyon, Lesley; Morgan, J. Kent; Duan, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    The Znu system, encoded for by znuABC, can be found in multiple genera of bacteria and has been shown to be responsible for the import of zinc under low zinc conditions. Although this high-affinity uptake system is known to be important for both growth and/or pathogenesis in bacteria, it has not been functionally characterized in a plant-associated bacterium. A single homologue of this system has been identified in the plant endosymbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, while two homologous systems were found in the destructive citrus pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. To understand the role of these protein homologues, a complementation assay was devised allowing the individual genes that comprise the system to be assayed independently for their ability to reinstate a partially-inactivated Znu system. Results from the assays have demonstrated that although all of the genes from S. meliloti were able to restore activity, only one of the two Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus encoded gene clusters contained genes that were able to functionally complement the system. Additional analysis of the gene clusters reveals that distinct modes of regulation may also exist between the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and S. meliloti import systems despite the intracellular-plant niche common to both of these bacteria. PMID:22655039

  16. Cloning, nucleotide sequences, and identification of products of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO bra genes, which encode the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, T; Kose, K

    1990-01-01

    A DNA fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO containing genes specifying the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I) was isolated. The fragment contained the braC gene, encoding the binding protein for branched-chain amino acids, and the 4-kilobase DNA segment adjacent to 3' of braC. The nucleotide sequence of the 4-kilobase DNA fragment was determined and found to contain four open reading frames, designated braD, braE, braF, and braG. The braD and braE genes specify very hydrophobic proteins of 307 and 417 amino acid residues, respectively. The braD gene product showed extensive homology (67% identical) to the livH gene product, a component required for the Escherichia coli high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport systems. The braF and braG genes encode proteins of 255 and 233 amino acids, respectively, both containing amino acid sequences typical of proteins with ATP-binding sites. By using a T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system together with plasmids having various deletions in the braDEFG region, the braD, braE, braF, and braG gene products were identified as proteins with apparent Mrs of 25,500, 34,000, 30,000, and 27,000, respectively. These proteins were found among cell membrane proteins on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel stained with Coomassie blue. Images PMID:2120183

  17. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery system for the Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, K.; Hirao, M.; Satoh, S.

    The Japanese Space Station Program is now under Phase B study by the National Space Development Agency of Japan in participation with the U.S. Space Station Program. A Japanese Space Station participation will be a dedicated pressurized module to be attached to the U.S. Space Station, and is called Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Astronaut scientists will conduct various experimental operations there. Thus an environment control and life support system is required. Regenerable carbon dioxide removal and collection technique as well as oxygen recovery technique has been studied and investigated for several years. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal subsystem using steam desorbed solid amine and an oxygen recovery subsystem using Sabatier methane cracking have a good possibility for the application to the Japanese Experiment Module. Basic performance characteristics of the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem are presented according to the results of a fundamental performance test program. The trace contaminant removal process is also investigated and discussed. The solvent recovery plant for the regeneration of various industrial solvents, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and so on, utilizes the multi-bed solvent adsorption and steam desorption process, which is very similar to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. Therefore, to develop essential components including adsorption tank (bed), condensor, process controller and energy saving system, the technology obtained from the experience to construct solvent recovery plant can be easily and effectively applicable to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. The energy saving efficiency is evaluated for blower power reduction, steam reduction and waste heat utilization technique. According to the above background, the entire environment control and life support system for the Japanese Experiment Module including the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem is evaluated and proposed.

  18. Demonstration [sic] of a System for Removing Malachite Green : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, Leif L.

    1989-04-01

    Activated carbon has been used effectively to remove tastes, odors, and contaminants from public water supplies. The adsorption efficiency is influenced by the size of carbon granules, flow rate, column depth, and retention time. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 /times/ 30 mesh granular carbon manufactured from bituminous coal was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 days at a flow rate of 500 gpm and for 62 days at a flow rate of 1000 gpm. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 69 mg of malachite green per gram of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 pounds of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gpm and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 hours of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2000 pounds of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gpm and also at faster flow rates. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Removal of ammonia from contaminated air in a biotrickling filter - denitrifying bioreactor combination system.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takeyuki; Jinsiriwanit, Siriwat; Hattori, Toshihiro; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-11-01

    The removal of gaseous ammonia in a system consisting of a biotrickling filter, a denitrification reactor and a polishing bioreactor for the trickling liquid was investigated. The system allowed sustained treatment of ammonia while preventing biological inhibition by accumulating nitrate and nitrite and avoiding generation of contaminated water. All bioreactors were packed with cattle bone composite ceramics, a porous support with a large interfacial area. Excellent removal of ammonia gas was obtained. The critical loading ranged from 60 to 120 gm(-3)h(-1) depending on the conditions, and loadings below 56 gm(-3)h(-1) resulted in essentially complete removal of ammonia. In addition, concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and COD in the recycle liquid of the inlet and outlet of each reactor were measured to determine the fate of nitrogen in the reactor, close nitrogen balances and calculate nitrogen to COD ratios. Ammonia absorption and nitrification occurred in the biotrickling filter; nitrate and nitrite were biologically removed in the denitrification reactor and excess dissolved COD and ammonia were treated in the polishing bioreactor. Overall, ammonia gas was very successfully removed in the bioreactor system and steady state operation with respect to nitrogen species was achieved. PMID:18823641

  20. Removal of copper in an integrated sulfate reducing bioreactor-crystallization reactor system.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Zhou, Michael S

    2007-02-15

    Removal of copper was investigated using an innovative water treatment system integrating a sulfidogenic bioreactor with a fluidized-bed crystallization reactor containing fine sand to facilitate the recovery of copper as a purified copper-sulfide mineral. The performance of the system was tested using a simulated semiconductor manufacturing wastewater containing high levels of Cu2+ (4-66 mg/L), sulfate, and a mixture of citrate, isopropanol, and polyethylene glycol (Mn 300). Soluble copper removal efficiencies exceeding 99% and effluent copper concentrations averaging 89 micog/L were demonstrated in the two-stage system, with near complete metal removal occurring in the crystallizer. Copper crystals deposited on sand grains were identified as covellite (CuS). The removal of organic constituents did not exceed 70% of the initial chemical oxygen demand due to incomplete degradation of isopropanol and its breakdown product (acetone). Taken as a whole, these results indicate the potential of this novel reactor configuration for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic constituents. The ability of this process to recover heavy metals in a purified form makes it particularly attractive for the treatment of contaminated aqueous streams, including industrial wastewaters and acid mine drainage. PMID:17593752

  1. Natural organic matter removal and fouling in a low pressure hybrid membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Uyak, Vedat; Akdagli, Muge; Cakmakci, Mehmet; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate powdered activated carbon (PAC) contribution to natural organic matter (NOM) removal by a submerged MF and UF hybrid systems. It was found that filtration of surface waters by a bare MF and UF membranes removed negligible TOC; by contrast, significant amounts of TOC were removed when daily added PAC particles were predeposited on the membrane surfaces. These results support the assumption that the membranes surface properties and PAC layer structure might have considerably influential factor on NOM removal. Moreover, it was concluded that the dominant removal mechanism of hybrid membrane system is adsorption of NOM within PAC layer rather than size exclusion of NOM by both of membrane pores. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) increases with PAC membrane systems support the view that PAC adsorption pretreatment will not prevent the development of membrane pressure; on the contrary, PAC particles themselves caused membrane fouling by blocking the entrance of pores of MF and UF membranes. Although all three source waters have similar HPI content, it appears that the PAC interaction with the entrance of membrane pores was responsible for offsetting the NOM fractional effects on membrane fouling for these source waters. PMID:24523651

  2. A new method for nutrients removal and recovery from wastewater using a bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Li, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Nutrients management is a key task of wastewater treatment and removal of nutrients is usually associated with significant energy/economic cost. A new bioelectrochemical system, named "R(2)-BES", was developed for removing and possibly recovering nutrients from wastewater. This R(2)-BES takes advantage of bioelectricity generation from oxidation of organic compounds to drive ammonium migration out of wastewater, and uses hydroxide ions produced from the cathode reaction as a medium to exchange phosphate ions from wastewater at the same time. Under an applied voltage of 0.8 V, the R(2)-BES removed 83.4 ± 1.3% of ammonium nitrogen and 52.4 ± 9.8% of phosphate, significantly higher than those (3.6 ± 3.7% and 21.1 ± 2.6%) under an open circuit condition. Applying an external voltage can increase current generation, COD removal, and nutrient removal. Those results demonstrate a proof of concept that the R(2)-BES may be potentially applied to remove and recover nutrients through appropriate integration into the existing treatment facilities. PMID:24948532

  3. Theoretical proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Bera, Narayan C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji; Viggiano, Al A

    2010-12-23

    Proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX at all of its possible sites were calculated at the RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31G* and RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels, respectively. The protonation leads to various unique structures, with H(+) attached to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms; among which the nitrogen site possesses the highest proton affinity of -ΔE ∼ 251 kcal/mol, suggesting that this is likely to be the major product. In addition some H(2), CH(4) dissociation as well as destruction channels have been found, among which the CH(4) + [Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-S-(CH(2))(2)-N(+)(iPr)═CHMe] product and the destruction product forming Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-SMe + CH(2)═N(+)(iPr)(2) are only 9 kcal/mol less stable than the most stable N-protonated product. For fluoridization, the S-P destruction channel to give Et-O-P(═O)(Me)(F) + [S-(CH(2))(2)-N-(iPr)(2)](-) is energetically the most favorable, with a fluoride affinity of -ΔE ∼ 44 kcal. Various F(-) ion-molecule complexes are also found, with the one having F(-) interacting with two hydrogen atoms in different alkyl groups to be only 9 kcal/mol higher than the above destruction product. These results suggest VX behaves quite differently from surrogate systems. PMID:21117653

  4. Nucleotide sequences and characterization of liv genes encoding components of the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, K; Ohnishi, K; Kiritani, K

    1992-07-01

    A 7.6-kb fragment of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 containing the liv gene cluster, which specifies the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I), has been isolated. The upstream region contains the livB and livC genes encoding the leucine-isoleucine-valine-threonine and leucine-specific binding proteins, respectively. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the 4-kb downstream segment was determined and found to contain four reading frames, designated as livA, livE, livF, and livG, that encode putative membrane-associated proteins. The livA and livE genes encode hydrophobic proteins composed of 308 and 425 amino acid residues, respectively. The livF and livG genes encode hydrophilic proteins of 255 and 237 amino acids, respectively; both the proteins contain consensus amino acid sequences found in proteins with ATP-binding sites. These four genes linked together have a potential rho-independent transcriptional terminator adjacent to the 3'-end of livG. No promoter sequence was found in the immediate upstream region of the livAEFG cluster. The livA, livE, livF, and livG gene products were identified as proteins with apparent M(r)s of 25,500, 34,500, 28,000, and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis. The deduced amino acid sequences of these four proteins showed strong homology to those of the corresponding membrane-associated proteins required for the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport systems from both Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:1429514

  5. Role of Fig1, a Component of the Low-Affinity Calcium Uptake System, in Growth and Sexual Development of Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cavinder, Brad

    2012-01-01

    The function of Fig1, a transmembrane protein of the low-affinity calcium uptake system (LACS) in fungi, was examined for its role in the growth and development of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The Δfig1 mutants failed to produce mature perithecia, and sexual development was halted prior to the formation of perithecium initials. The loss of Fig1 function also resulted in a reduced vegetative growth rate. Macroconidium production was reduced 70-fold in the Δfig1 mutants compared to the wild type. The function of the high-affinity calcium uptake system (HACS), comprised of the Ca2+ channels Mid1 and Cch1, was previously characterized for F. graminearum. To better understand the roles of the LACS and the HACS, Δfig1 Δmid1, Δfig1 Δcch1, and Δfig1 Δmid1 Δcch1 double and triple mutants were generated, and the phenotypes of these mutants were more severe than those of the Δfig1 mutants. Pathogenicity on wheat was unaffected for the Δfig1 mutants, but the Δfig1 Δmid1, Δfig1 Δcch1, and Δfig1 Δmid1 Δcch1 mutants, lacking both LACS and HACS functions, had reduced pathogenicity. Additionally, Δfig1 mutants of Neurospora crassa were examined and did not affect filamentous growth or female fertility in a Δfig1 mating type A strain, but the Δfig1 mating type a strain failed to produce fertile fruiting bodies. These results are the first report of Fig1 function in filamentous ascomycetes and expand its role to include complex fruiting body and ascus development. PMID:22635922

  6. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD. PMID:25940497

  7. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  8. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  9. Development of a carbon filter system for removing malachite green from hatchery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, L.L. ); Leith, D. ); Davis, J. )

    1990-04-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service was granted an investigational New Animal Drug permit by the US Food and Drug Administration for the use of malachite green as a fungicide at selected state and federal fish hatcheries. However, the permit required that the fungicide be removed from all treated water after March 1989. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient for removal of malachite green and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 {times} 30-mesh granular carbon was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 d at a flow rate of 500 gal/min and for only 62 d at a flow rate of 1,000 gal/min. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 1.1 oz of malachite green per pound of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gal/min (6.4 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 h of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be sufficient for 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gal/min (4.0 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and also at faster flow rates. Removal efficiency decreased only slightly for faster flows in both filter systems, and the efficiency improved when treated water was passed through two filter chambers in series.

  10. Fabrication of a multi-applicable removable intraoral denture system for rodent research

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeje; Yu, Alika; Johnson, Clorinda C.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective was to engineer an inexpensive intraoral removable denture system for rodents that can be utilized in numerous oral health research applications. At the forefront is biofilm research related to Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Previously described intraoral devices are primitive and inadequate. The denture system was engineered consisting of a fixed part that is anchored to the posterior palate by orthodontic wires and acrylic resin, and a removable part fitted to the anterior palate that is retained by magnets embedded in the fixed part. Both parts are custom-fitted to the rodent palate by impression making and cast fabrication. Rats fitted with the intraoral denture system maintained body weight and normal activity with the device maintaining integrity and durability for upwards of 8 weeks. The denture system was used successfully to establish a working model of denture stomatitis. This newly engineered inexpensive intraoral removable denture system for rodents can be utilized in numerous oral health research applications, including denture-associated infections, biofilms, and a variety of biomaterial applications. The removable portion is advantageous for longitudinal analyses and charging/discharging of biomaterials. PMID:21323935

  11. Suspended Sediment and Phosphorus Removal in a Woodchip Filter System Treating Agricultural Wash Water.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Tahina; Robertson, Will Dean; Finnigan, Darryl S

    2016-05-01

    Woodchip filters have received attention in recent years for their ability to sustain denitrification activity across multiyear time frames. However, in some freshwater aquatic ecosystems, P rather than N is the nutrient considered most responsible for eutrophication. Previous studies have indicated that woodchip filters have limited ability to remove dissolved P, but in agricultural terrain, P export in watercourses is often dominated by particulate P (PP). Woodchip media, because of their high porosity and permeability and the surface roughness of the particles, could be effective for PP removal. In this study, we tested a woodchip filter for its ability to remove suspended sediment and associated PP at a farm in southern Ontario, Canada, where vegetable wash water with extremely high total suspended solids (TSS) was generated. The treatment system consisted of a 12.3-m concrete sedimentation tank and a slightly larger woodchip filter (16.1 m) installed in a subsurface trench. During 7 mo of full-scale operation, treating 10.8 m d, the filter system removed 71% of influent total P (TP) averaging 8.8 mg L and 99% of TSS averaging 5800 mg L, with most of the removal occurring in the tank and a lesser amount (6-16%) occurring in the woodchip filter. Almost all of the TP removal was associated with PP (91% removal) because dissolved P, averaging 1.5 mg L in the wash water, was little changed. Woodchip filters, when coupled with a solids settling tank, have the potential to provide high-capacity, low-maintenance treatment of suspended solids and associated particulate P in turbid waters. PMID:27136144

  12. Virtual-real spatial information visualization registration using affine representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xueling; Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    Virtual-real registration in Outdoor Augmented Reality is committed to enhance user's spatial cognition by overlaying virtual geographical objects on real scene. According to analyze fiducial detection registration method in indoor AR, for the purpose of avoiding complex and tedious process of position tracking and camera calibration in traditional registration methods, it puts forward and practices a virtual-real spatial information visualization registration method using affine representations. Based on the observation from Koenderink and van Doorn, Ullman and Basri in 1991 which is given a set of four or more non-coplanar 3D points, the projection of all points in the set can be computed as a linear combination of the projection of just four of the points, it sets up global affine coordinate system in light of world coordinates, camera coordinates and virtual coordinates and extracts four feature points from scene image and calculates the global affine coordinates of key points of virtual objects. Then according to a linear homogeneous coordinates of the four feature point's projection, it calculates projection pixel coordinates of key points of virtual objects. In addition, it proposes an approach to obtain pixel relative depth for hidden surface removal. Finally, by a case study, it verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the registration methods. The method would not only explore a new research direction for Geographical Information Science, but also would provide location-based information and services for outdoor AR.

  13. Multi-input control-affine systems static feedback equivalent to a triangular form and their flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunjie; Nicolau, Florentina; Respondek, Witold

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a complete geometric characterisation of systems locally static feedback equivalent to a triangular form compatible with the chained form, for m = 1, respectively with the m-chained form, for m ≥ 2, where the number of controls is m + 1. They are x-flat systems. We provide a system of first-order PDE's to be solved in order to find all x-flat outputs, for m = 1, respectively all minimal x-flat outputs, for m ≥ 2. We illustrate our results by examples, in particular, by an application to a mechanical system: the coin rolling without slipping on a moving table.

  14. Selective encapsulation of cesium ions using the cyclic peptide moiety of surfactin: Highly efficient removal based on an aqueous giant micellar system.

    PubMed

    Taira, Toshiaki; Yanagisawa, Satohiro; Nagano, Takuto; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Koumura, Nagatoshi; Kitamoto, Dai; Imura, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    Cyclic peptide of surfactin (SF) is one of the promising environment-friendly biosurfactants abundantly produced by microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis. SF is also known to act as an ionophore, wherein alkali metal ions can be trapped in the cyclic peptide. Especially, SF is expected to show high affinity for Cs(+) because of the distinctive cavity size and coordination number. In this study, we reported the specific interaction between SF and Cs(+) and succeeded in the highly efficient removal of Cs(+) from water using giant SF micelles as a natural sorbent. The specific interaction between SF and Cs(+) to form their inclusion complex was revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. We found that SF micelles selectively encapsulate Cs(+), which was suggested by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). A highly effective separation of Cs(+) immobilized on the surface of the SF micelles was also achieved through facile centrifugal ultrafiltration in 91% even in coexisting with other alkali metal ions such as Na(+) and K(+). Thus, the use of the giant micellar system of SF with its high Cs(+) affinity and distinctive assembling properties would be a new approach for the treatment of contaminated soil and water. PMID:26142629

  15. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system, Phase 2. Topical report, January--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report explored the regulatory impact and cost-benefit of a robotic thermal asbestos pipe-insulation removal system over the current manual abatement work practice. The authors are currently in the second phase of a two-phase program to develop a robotic asbestos abatement system, comprised of a ground-based support system (including vacuum, fluid delivery, computing/electronics/power, and other subsystems) and several on-pipe removal units, each sized to handle pipes within a given diameter range. The intent of this study was to (i) aid in developing design and operational criteria for the overall system to maximize cost-efficiency, and (ii) to determine the commercial potential of a robotic pipe-insulation abatement system.

  16. Automated system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash from electric precipitator hoppers

    SciTech Connect

    V.K. Konovalov; O.V. Yashkin; V.V. Ermakov

    2008-03-15

    A system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash is examined, in which air pulses act on batches (pistons) of ash formed in a duct. Studies are made of the effect of several physical parameters on the force required to displace a piston of ash and these serve as a basis for choosing a system for removal and pneumatic transport of ash simultaneously from several hoppers of an electric precipitator. This makes it possible to separate the ash particles according to size without introducing additional components. Formulas are given for calculating the structural and dynamic parameters of this system and measurements of indirect dynamic parameters are used to calculate the input-output characteristics of the system. In order to optimize the system, configurations for summing several ducts into a single transport duct for pneumatic ash transport are proposed. Some variants of dry ash utilization and the advantages of producing of size-separated particles are considered.

  17. Process for removing carbonate from wells

    SciTech Connect

    Derowisch, R.W.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method of removing carbonate deposited in a water supply well by inflowing groundwater. It comprises: treating a supply of water by means of a membrane system for desalinization which places the water in an aggressive state of chemical inequilibrium and ion imbalance having a keen affinity for carbonate; pumping a fluid comprising the treated supply of water, without restabilization, into the well to react with the deposited carbonate; and flushing the product of the reaction from the well.

  18. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  19. RESIDUAL OXIDANTS REMOVAL FROM COASTAL POWER PLANT COOLING SYSTEM DISCHARGES: FIELD EVALUATION OF SO2 ADDITION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a dechlorination system that uses SO2 to remove residual oxidants from chlorinated sea water in a power plant cooling system. Samples of unchlorinated, chlorinated, and dechlorinated cooling water were obtained at Pa...

  20. Capital and Operating Costs of Small Arsenic Removal Adsorptive Media Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. The projects were conducted to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of arsenic remo...

  1. URANIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER USING A SMALL FULL-SCALE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents background and history of water quality, the basis for design and nine months of actual operating data for a small, full-scale strong-base ion exchange system that is used to remove uranium from a water supply serving a school in Jefferson County, CO. Informa...

  2. PROCESS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY STUDY OF A SELEXOL ACID GAS REMOVAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Se...

  3. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

  4. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  5. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  6. IRON PROCESSES: SYSTEM MODIFICATION OF EXISTING PLANTS FOR ENHANCED ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...

  7. Solids removal from a coldwater recirculating system - comparison of swirl separator and radial-flow settlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solids removal across two settling devices, i.e., a swirl separator and a radial-flow settler, and across a microscreen drum filter was evaluated in a fully recirculating system containing a single 150 m3 'Cornell-type' dual-drain tank during the production of food-size Arctic char and rainbow trout...

  8. Simultaneous removing SO2 and NO by a new system containing cobalt complex.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Qiong; Deng, Xian-He; Pan, Zhao-Qun

    2006-01-01

    Absorption and catalytic oxidation of nitric oxide can be achieved by using cobalt(III) ethylenediamine (Co(en)2(3+)). When simultaneous absorbing SO2 and NO, the precipitation of Co2(SO3)3 will be yielded and the NO removal will be decreased. A new catalyst system using Co(en)3(3+) coupled with urea has been developed to simultaneous remove NO and SO2 in the flue gas. NO is absorbed and catalytically oxidized to nitrite and nitrate by Co(en)3(3+). The dissolved oxygen in scrubbing solution from the feed stream acts as oxidant. Urea restrains the precipitation of Co2(SO3)3 by oxidizing SO3(2-) to SO4(-) as CoSO4 is more soluble in water. The experimental results proved that nearly all SO3(2-) can be oxidized to SO4(-2) and the high NO and SO2 removal could be obtained with the new system. The NO removal is influenced by gas flow rate, the concentration of Co(en)3(3+) and urea in the absorption solution, the temperature of the scrubbing solution and the content of oxygen in the flue gas. The low gas flow rate is favorable to increase the NO removal. The experiments proved that the NO removal could be maintained at more than 95% by the system of 0.02 mol/L Co(en)3(3+) and 1% urea at 50 degrees C with 10% O2 in the flue gas. PMID:17294658

  9. Physiologic effects of transfusing red blood cells with high or low affinity for oxygen to passively hyperventilated, anemic baboons: systemic and cerebral oxygen extraction.

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, C R; Rorth, M; Zaroulis, C G; Jakubowski, M S; Vescera, S V

    1975-01-01

    Anemic, passively hyperventilated baboons were given preserved red blood cells either with increased or with slightly reduced affinity for oxygen to restore the red cell volume. In the high affinity group there was a 50% increase in cerebral blood flow immediately after the transfusion, but there was no significant change in the low affinity group. The cardiac output decreased slightly in the low affinity group, and increased slightly but insignificantly in the high affinity group. Two hours after transfusion the cerebral blood flow had returned to normal in the high affinity group. In both groups there was a decrease in arterial blood pH and an increase in Po2 in blood from the pulmonary artery and the jugular vein after transfusion. A 40% restoration of the 2,3 DPG level occurred within 4 hours of the transfusion of red cells with high affinity for oxygen, and this rapid increase was associated with increases in blood pH and inorganic phosphorus levels. Preserved red cells with high affinity for oxygen and low 2, 3 DPG levels significantly increased the cerebral circulation during the 2-hour posttransfusion period. These findings lend support to the recommendation that preserved red cells with normal or elevated 2,3 DPG levels be administered to patients in hemorrhagic or septic shock, and to patients subjected to extracorporeal circulation during cardiac surgery in order to lessen the demand for increased blood flow and to ensure adequate tissue oxygenation during the postoperative period. PMID:1119857

  10. Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcɛRI.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Sari; Ye, Hongtu; Helm, Birgit

    2013-05-15

    The binding of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to its high-affinity receptor (FcɛRI) is the central protein interaction in IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The cross-linking of the IgE/FcɛRI complex, through cognate allergens, on the surface of mast cells and basophil cells results in mediator release, and thus leads to the symptoms of type I hypersensitivity responses in mammals. To develop a baseline value for subsequent equine anti-allergy drug and vaccine research, the interaction of equine IgE with its high-affinity FcɛRI receptor was investigated following the cloning and expression of equine IgE with specificity for NIP-HSA (4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenylacetic acid conjugated to human serum albumin). Receptor recognition and effector functions were assessed in Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells transfected with the α chain of equine and canine FcɛRI. Results obtained showed that the equine FcɛRI receptor recognizes both equine and canine IgE and supports similar β-hexosaminidase release levels from RBL cells transfected with equine FcɛRI, peaking at 36.68% at 100ngml(-1) antigen and 32.00% at 100ngml(-1) antigen respectively. Furthermore, the binding kinetics of the equine IgE to the equine FcɛRI receptor and the canine IgE to the same receptor was measured to be KA=6.33×10(9)M(-1) and KA=1.84×10(9)M(-1) respectively. This research established basic reagents and vitro assay systems to underpin the development of rational therapeutic intervention strategies to combat equine allergic manifestations. PMID:23485176

  11. Removal of ammonia from urine vapor by a dual-catalyst system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of removing ammonia from urine vapor by a low-temperature dual-catalyst system has been demonstrated. The process is based on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia to a mixture of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and water, followed by a catalytic decomposition of the nitrous oxide into its elements. Potential ammonia oxidation and nitrous oxide decomposition catalysts were first screened with artificial gas mixtures, then tested with the actual urine vapor produced by boiling untreated urine. A suitable dual-catalyst bed arrangement was found that achieved the removal of ammonia and also organic carbon, and recovered water of good quality from urine vapor.

  12. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  13. Computer Simulation and Modeling of CO2 Removal Systems for Exploration 2013-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, R.; Knox, J.; Gomez, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was initiated in September of 2011 as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Under the ARREM project and the follow-on Life Support Systems (LSS) project, testing of sub-scale and full-scale systems has been combined with multiphysics computer simulations for evaluation and optimization of subsystem approaches. In particular, this paper will describes the testing and 1-D modeling of the combined water desiccant and carbon dioxide sorbent subsystems of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). The goal is a full system predictive model of CDRA to guide system optimization and development.

  14. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  15. Application of biofiltration system on AOC removal: column and field studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, C C; Kao, C M; Chen, C W; Dong, C D; Wu, C Y

    2008-04-01

    The Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) is the main supplier of domestic water for the Greater Kaohsiung area, the second largest metropolis in Taiwan. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration is one of the major treatment processes in CCLWTP. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of BAC filtration on water treatment in the studied advanced water treatment plant and its capability on pollutants [e.g., AOC (assimilable organic carbon), bromide, bromate, iron] removal. In this study, water samples from each treatment process of CCLWTP were collected and analyzed periodically to assess the variations in concentrations of AOC and other water quality indicators after each treatment unit. Moreover, the efficiency of biofiltration process using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anthracite as the fillers was also evaluated through a column experiment. Results show that the removal efficiencies for AOC, bromide, bromate, and iron are 86% 100%, 17%, and 30% after the BAC filter bed, respectively. This indicates that BAC filtration plays an important role in pollutant removal. Results also show that AOC concentrations in raw water and effluent of the CCLWTP are approximately 143 and 16 microg acetate-Cl(-1), respectively. This reveals that the treatment processes applied in CCLWTP is able to remove AOC effectively. Results of column study show that the AOC removal efficiencies in the GAC and anthracite columns are 60% and 17%, respectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic images. The observed microorganisms included bacteria (rods, cocci, and filamentous bacteria), fungi, and protozoa. Results from this study provide us insight into the mechanisms of AOC removal by advanced water treatment processes. These findings would be helpful in designing a modified water treatment system for AOC removal and water quality improvement. PMID:18294674

  16. Sorbent Structural Impacts Due to Humidity on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Stanley, Christine M.; Bush, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program builds upon the work performed under the AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project focusing on the numerous technology development areas. The CO2 removal and associated air drying development efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station (ISS) utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. A component of the CO2 removal effort encompasses structural stability testing of existing and emerging sorbents. Testing will be performed on dry sorbents and sorbents that have been conditioned to three humidity levels. This paper describes the sorbent structural stability screening efforts in support of the LSS Project within the AES Program.

  17. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  18. Reclaim System Design of Indium Tin Oxide Thin-Film Removal from Color Filters of Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, Pai-Shan

    2008-09-01

    A newly design precision reclaim system using electrochemical machining as an etching process for indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film removal from the color filter surface of a displays is presented. Through the ultra precise etching of the nanostructure, the semiconductor industry can effectively recycle defective products, thereby reducing production costs. A large gyration diameter of a cathode combined with a small gap width between the cathode and a workpiece takes less time for the same amount of ITO removed. An adequate feed rate of color filters combined with a sufficient electric power produces fast machining. Pulsed direct current and higher rotational speed of the cathode can improve the effects of dregs discharge and are advantageous to be combined with a high feed rate of workpieces. Electrochemical machining only requires a short time to easily and cleanly remove ITO films.

  19. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Recently nutrients concentrations especially nitrogen in natural water is alarming in the world wide. Most of the effort is being done on the removal of high concentration of nitrogen especially from the wastewater treatment plants. The removal efficiency is targeted in all considering the effluent discharge standard set by the national environment agency. In many cases, it does not meet the required standard and receiving water is being polluted. Eutrophication in natural water bodies has been reported even if the nitrogen concentration is low and self purification of natural systems itself is not sufficient to remove the nitrogen due to complex phenomenon. In order to recover the pristine water environment, it is very essential to explore bioreactor systems for natural water systems using immobilized mix culture. Microorganism were entrapped in Polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer gel and cut into 3mm cubic immobilized pellets. Four laboratory scale micro bio-reactors having 0.1 L volumes were packed with immobilized pellets with 50% compact ratio. RUN1, RUN2, RUN3 and RUN4 were packed with immobilized pellets from reservoirs sediments, activated sludge (AS), mixed of AS, AG and biodegradable plastic and anaerobic granules (AG) respectively. Water from Shiokawa Reservoirs was feed to all reactors with supplemental ammonia and nitrite nitrogen as specified in the results and discussions. The reactors were operated dark incubated room in continuous flow mode with hydraulic retention time of 12 hours under oxygen limiting condition. Ammonium, nitrate nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were measured as described in APWA and AWWA (1998). Laboratory scale four bioreactors containing different combination of immobilized cell were monitored for 218 days. Influent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentration were 2.27±0.43 and 2.05±0.41 mg/l respectively. Average dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the reactors were 0.40-2.5 mg/l and pH 6

  20. Oxidative removal of bisphenol A using zero valent aluminum-acid system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanpeng; Zhang, Honghua; Cao, Beipei; Lin, Kunde; Gan, Jay

    2011-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a controversial endocrine disruptor, is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In this study, the oxidative degradation of BPA and its mechanism using zero valent aluminum (ZVAl)-acid system under air-equilibrated conditions was investigated. Under pH <3.5 acidic conditions, ZVAl demonstrated an excellent capacity to remove BPA. More than 75% of BPA was eliminated within 12 h in pH 1.5 reaction solutions initially containing 4.0 g/L aluminum and 2.0 mg/L BPA at 25 ± 1 °C. The removal of BPA was further accelerated with increasing aluminum loadings. Higher temperature and lower initial pH also facilitated BPA removal. The addition of Fe(2+) into the ZVAl-acid system significantly accelerated the reaction likely due to the enhancing transformation of H(2)O(2) to HO via Fenton reaction. Furthermore, the primary products or intermediates including monohydroxylated BPA, hydroquinone, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane and 4-isopropenylphenol, were identified and a possible reaction scheme was proposed. The remarkable capacity of the ZVAl-acid system in removing BPA displays its potential application in the treatment of organic compound-contaminated water. PMID:21185583

  1. A Laser Optical System to Remove Low Earth Orbit Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.; Baker, Kevin L.; Libby, Stephen B.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Olivier, Scot S.; Pleasance, Lyn D.; Rubenchik, Alexander; Nikolaev, Sergey; Trebes, James E.; George, Victor E.; Marrcovici, Bogdan; Valley, Michael T.

    2013-08-01

    Collisions between existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. As solutions, flying up and interacting with each object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, while debris removal systems using blocks of aerogel or gas-filled balloons are prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, these solutions to the debris problem address only large debris, but it is also imperative to remove 10-cm-class debris. In Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), a ground-based pulsed laser makes plasma jets on LEO debris objects, slowing them slightly, and causing them to re-enter the atmosphere and burn up. LODR takes advantage of recent advances in pulsed lasers, large mirrors, nonlinear optics and acquisition systems. LODR is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. International cooperation is essential for building and operating such a system. We also briefly discuss the orbiting laser debris removal alternative.

  2. Sorbent Structural Testing on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Bush, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Long term space missions require carbon dioxide removal systems that can function with minimal downtime required for maintenance, low power consumption and maximum efficiency for CO2 removal. A major component of such a system are the sorbents used for the CO2 and desiccant beds. Sorbents must not only have adequate CO2 and H2O removal properties, but they must have the mechanical strength to prevent structural breakdown due to pressure and temperature changes during operation and regeneration, as well as resistance to breakdown due to moisture in the system from cabin air. As part of the studies used to select future CO2 sorbent materials, mechanical tests are performed on various zeolite sorbents to determine mechanical performance while dry and at various humidified states. Tests include single pellet crush, bulk crush and attrition tests. We have established a protocol for testing sorbents under dry and humid conditions, and previously tested the sorbents used on the International Space Station carbon dioxide removal assembly. This paper reports on the testing of a series of commercial sorbents considered as candidates for use on future exploration missions.

  3. Nitrate removal in a closed marine system through the ion exchange membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina T; Sequeira, Ana M; Velizarov, Svetlozar; Crespo, João G; Reis, Maria A M

    2009-07-15

    The accumulation of nitrate in closed marine systems presents a problem for both the marine life and the environment. The present study, proposes the application of the ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) concept for removing nitrate from marine systems, such as aquaculture tanks or marine aquariums. The results obtained demonstrate that the IEMB was able to remove naturally accumulated nitrate from water taken from a public marine aquarium (Oceanário de Lisboa) and bioconvert it, in an isolated compartment (biocompartment), to molecular nitrogen, thus preventing secondary contamination of the treated water by microbial cells, metabolic by-products and excess of carbon source (ethanol). This system allowed for the removal of nitrate at concentrations of 251 and 380 mg/l down to below 27 mg/l exchanging it for chloride. Under the studied operating conditions, the IEMB proves to be a selective nitrate removing technology preserving the initial water composition with respect to cations, due to the Donnan exclusion effect from the membrane, and minimizing the counter diffusion of anions other than nitrate and chloride, due to the use of water with the same ionic composition in the biocompartment. This is an advantage of the IEMB concept, since the quality of the water produced would allow for the reutilisation of the treated water in the aquarium, thereby reducing both the wastewater volume and the use of fresh water. PMID:19111983

  4. Computerized design of removable partial dentures: a knowledge-based system for the future.

    PubMed

    Davenport, J C; Hammond, P; Fitzpatrick, F J

    1993-06-01

    Dentists frequently fail to provide dental technicians with the design information necessary for the construction of removable partial dentures. The computerization of dental practices and the development of appropriate knowledge-based systems could provide a powerful tool for improving this aspect of dental care. This article describes one such system currently under development which is an example of the kind of additional facility that will become available for those practices with the necessary hardware. PMID:8299844

  5. Organoheterotrophic Bacterial Abundance Associates with Zinc Removal in Lignocellulose-Based Sulfate-Reducing Systems.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Dina M; Almstrand, Robert; Lee, Ilsu; Landkamer, Lee; Figueroa, Linda; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic relationships between fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria are essential to lignocellulose-based systems applied to the passive remediation of mining-influenced waters. In this study, seven pilot-scale sulfate-reducing bioreactor columns containing varying ratios of alfalfa hay, pine woodchips, and sawdust were analyzed over ∼500 days to investigate the influence of substrate composition on zinc removal and microbial community structure. Columns amended with >10% alfalfa removed significantly more sulfate and zinc than did wood-based columns. Enumeration of sulfate reducers by functional signatures (dsrA) and their putative identification from 16S rRNA genes did not reveal significant correlations with zinc removal, suggesting limitations in this directed approach. In contrast, a strong indicator of zinc removal was discerned in comparing the relative abundance of core microorganisms shared by all reactors (>80% of total community), many of which had little direct involvement in metal or sulfate respiration. The relative abundance of Desulfosporosinus, the dominant putative sulfate reducer within these reactors, correlated to representatives of this core microbiome. A subset of these clades, including Treponema, Weissella, and Anaerolinea, was associated with alfalfa and zinc removal, and the inverse was found for a second subset whose abundance was associated with wood-based columns, including Ruminococcus, Dysgonomonas, and Azospira. The construction of a putative metabolic flowchart delineated syntrophic interactions supporting sulfate reduction and suggests that the production of and competition for secondary fermentation byproducts, such as lactate scavenging, influence bacterial community composition and reactor efficacy. PMID:26605699

  6. Evaluation of the role of inherent Ca(2+) in phosphorus removal from wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, Wangjin; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The role of inherent Ca(2+) in phosphorus removal from wastewater was evaluated by batch tests. Precipitates were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system. Effects of inherent Ca(2+) on phosphorus removal through basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were also analyzed. The results show that upon adjusting the pH to higher than 7.0, inherent Ca(2+) can remove phosphorus from wastewater and form Ca-P precipitates. Residual phosphorus exhibited a linear decreasing trend with increasing the pH from 7.0 to 10.0 and then remained unchanged at higher pH than 10.0. EDS determined that the precipitates contained the elements Ca, P and O. FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the functional groups of precipitates involved PO4(3-), OH(-) and CO3(2-). XRD indicated that the precipitates may consist of CaCO3 and some Ca-P phosphates such as CaHPO4, Ca4H(PO4)3, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). During the removal process of phosphorus by BOFS, due to the presence of inherent Ca(2+) in wastewater, the removal efficiency and rate of phosphorus increased by 15.5% and by a factor of about 3.0, respectively. PMID:27054736

  7. Removal of a combination of endocrine disruptors from aqueous systems by seedlings of radish and ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Gattullo, C Eliana; Cunha, Bruno Barboza; Rosa, André H; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are widespread in the environment, especially aquatic systems, and cause dangerous effects on wildlife and humans. This work was aimed to assess the capacity of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seedlings to tolerate and remove two combinations of EDs containing bisphenol A (BPA), 17alpha-ethynilestradiol (EE2), and linuron from four aqueous media: distilled water, a solution of natural organic matter (NOM), a lake water and a river water. Seeds of the two species were germinated in each contaminated medium and, at the end of germination, the seedling growth was evaluated by biometric measurements and residual EDs were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Biometric measurements revealed that the phytotoxicity of the two combinations of EDs depended on the medium used. Radish showed a discrete tolerance in distilled water and lake water but was inhibited in the solution of NOM and river water. Ryegrass was negatively affected mainly in river water. The concentration of each ED appeared significantly reduced in all media in the presence of seedlings of both species, but not in the blanks without plants. In 5 days, radish removed up to 88% of BPA, 100% of EE2 and 42% of linuron, and in 6 days ryegrass removed up to 92% of BPA, 74% of EE2 and 16% of linuron. The considerable removal capacity of radish and ryegrass in all media tested encourages the use of phytoremediation to remove EDs from waters. PMID:24617071

  8. An Improved Design for Air Removal from Aerospace Fluid Loop Coolant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Stephen M. C.; Holladay, Jon B.; Holt, J. Mike; Clark, Dallas W.

    2003-01-01

    Aerospace applications with requirements for large capacity heat removal (launch vehicles, platforms, payloads, etc.) typically utilize a liquid coolant fluid as a transport media to increase efficiency and flexibility in the vehicle design. An issue with these systems however, is susceptibility to the presence of noncondensable gas (NCG) or air. The presence of air in a coolant loop can have numerous negative consequences, including loss of centrifugal pump prime, interference with sensor readings, inhibition of heat transfer, and coolant blockage to remote systems. Hardware ground processing to remove this air is also cumbersome and time consuming which continuously drives recurring costs. Current systems for maintaining the system free of air are tailored and have demonstrated only moderate success. An obvious solution to these problems is the development and advancement of a passive gas removal device, or gas trap, that would be installed in the flight cooling system simplifying the initial coolant fill procedure and also maintaining the system during operations. The proposed device would utilize commercially available membranes thus increasing reliability and reducing cost while also addressing both current and anticipated applications. In addition, it maintains current pressure drop, water loss, and size restrictions while increasing tolerance for pressure increases due to gas build-up in the trap.

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of a pretreatment system for removing organics from produced water.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soondong; Sullivan, Enid J; Katz, Lynn E; Bowman, Robert S; Kinney, Kerry A

    2011-09-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. This "produced water" is characterized by saline water containing a variety of pollutants, including water soluble and immiscible organics and many inorganic species. To reuse produced water, removal of both the inorganic dissolved solids and organic compounds is necessary. In this research, the effectiveness of a pretreatment system consisting of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption followed by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of carboxylates and hazardous substances, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from saline-produced water. A laboratory-scale MBR, operated at a 9.6-hour hydraulic residence time, degraded 92% of the carboxylates present in synthetic produced water. When BTEX was introduced simultaneously to the MBR system with the carboxylates, the system achieved 80 to 95% removal of BTEX via biodegradation. These results suggest that simultaneous biodegradation of both BTEX and carboxylate constituents found in produced water is possible. A field test conducted at a produced water disposal facility in Farmington, New Mexico confirmed the laboratory-scale results for the MBR and demonstrated enhanced removal of BTEX using a treatment train consisting of SMZ columns followed by the MBR. While most of the BTEX constituents of the produced water adsorbed onto the SMZ adsorption system, approximately 95% of the BTEX that penetrated the SMZ and entered the MBR was biodegraded in the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (influent concentrations of 120 to 170 mg/L) ranged from 91 to 100%, and total organic carbon (influent concentrations as high as 580 mg/L) ranged from 74 to 92%, respectively. Organic removal in the MBR was accomplished at a low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. While the transmembrane pressure during the laboratory-scale tests was well-controlled, it rose

  10. A comparison of past small dam removals in highly sediment-impacted systems in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawaske, Spencer R.; Freyberg, David L.

    2012-05-01

    The ability to predict the effects of dam removal in highly sediment-filled systems is increasingly important as the number of such dam removal cases continues to grow. The cost and potential impacts of dam removal are site-specific and can vary substantially depending on local conditions. Of specific concern in sediment-impacted removals is the volume and rate of reservoir deposit erosion. The complexity and potential accuracy of modeling methods used to forecast the effects of such dam removals vary substantially. Current methods range from predictions based on simple analysis of pre-dam channel geometry to sophisticated data-intensive, three-dimensional numerical models. In the work presented here, we utilize data collected from past dam removals to develop an additional tool for predicting the rate and volume of sediment deposit erosion. Through the analysis of sediment, discharge, deposit, removal timeline, channel, and watershed data, in conjunction with post-removal monitoring data from a wide range of dam removal projects, some significant trends in the evolution of reservoir deposits following dam removal can be seen. Results indicate that parameters such as median grain size, level of cohesion, spatial variability of the deposit, and removal timeline are among the most influential factors in determining the rate and volume of sediment erosion. By comparing local conditions of dams and reservoirs slated for removal with those of past removals, we hope that predictions of the rate and volume of sediment deposit erosion can be usefully constrained.

  11. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  12. Removal of uranium (VI) from aqueous systems by nanoscale zero-valent iron particles suspended in carboxy-methyl cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu (Hoştuc), Ioana-Carmen; Filip, Petru; Humelnicu, Doina; Humelnicu, Ionel; Scott, Thomas Bligh; Crane, Richard Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC), a common "delivery vehicle" for the subsurface deployment of iron nanoparticles (INP) has been tested in the current work for the removal of aqueous uranium from synthetic water samples. A comparison of the removal of aqueous uranium from solutions using carboxy-methyl-cellulose with and without iron nanoparticles (CMC-INP and CMC, respectively) was tested over a 48 h reaction period. Analysis of liquid samples using spectrophotometry determined a maximum sorption capacity of uranium, Qmax, of 185.18 mg/g and 322.58 mg/g for CMC and CMC-INP respectively, providing strong evidence of an independent aqueous uranium removal ability exhibited by CMC. The results point out that CMC provides an additional capacity for aqueous uranium removal. Further tests are required to determine whether similar behaviour will be observed for other aqueous contaminant species and if the presence of CMC within a INP slurry inhibits or aids the reactivity, reductive capacity and affinity of INP for aqueous contaminant removal.

  13. Particle removal in a novel sequential mechanical filter system loaded with blackwater.

    PubMed

    Todt, Daniel; Jenssen, Petter D

    2015-01-01

    A novel sequential mechanical filter system was developed as an alternative primary treatment method for onsite wastewater treatment. The filter combines traditional screening with a novel type of counter-flow filter using wood-shavings as a biodegradable filter matrix. This study tested the system in a batch loading regime simulating high frequency toilet flushing using blackwater from a student dormitory. The filter removed 78-85% of suspended solids, 60-80% of chemical oxygen demand, and 42-57% of total-P in blackwater, giving a retentate with a dry matter content of 13-20%. Data analysis clearly indicated a tendency towards higher removal performance with high inlet concentrations, hence, the system seems to be most applicable to blackwater or other types of wastewater with a high content of suspended solids. PMID:25945859

  14. Comparison of four aquatic plant treatment systems for nutrient removal from eutrophied water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhengfang; Shan, Ying; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient removal behaviors of four aquatic plant treatment systems (Oenanthe javanica, Iris pseudacorus L., Canna lily, and Potamogeton crispus) were systematically examined and compared. The kinetics of nutrient uptake were conducted with the standard depletion method. All four aquatic species exhibited a strong preference of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) over nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N). Main pathways of nutrient removal in the aquatic plant treatment system were examined in details. It was estimated that direct assimilation by plants accounted for 28.2-34.5% of N reduction and 25.2-33.4% of P reduction while substrate absorption accounted for 7.2-25.5% of N reduction and 7.3-25.0% of P reduction. The activity of urease and phosphatase in the substrates could indicate the aquatic plant treatment system's capability for reducing TN and soluble P load. PMID:25514395

  15. Arsenic removal from water employing a combined system: photooxidation and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Maia; Zalazar, Cristina; Brandi, Rodolfo

    2015-03-01

    A combined system employing photochemical oxidation (UV/H2O2) and adsorption for arsenic removal from water was designed and evaluated. In this work, a bench-scale photochemical annular reactor was developed being connected alternately to a pair of adsorption columns filled with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH). The experiences were performed by varying the relation of As concentration (As (III)/As (V) weight ratio) at constant hydrogen peroxide concentration and incident radiation. Experimental oxidation results were compared with theoretical predictions using an intrinsic kinetic model previously obtained. In addition, the effectiveness of the process was evaluated using a groundwater sample. The mathematical model of the entire system was developed. It could be used as an effective tool for the design and prediction of the behaviour of these types of systems. The combined technology is efficient and promising for arsenic removal to small and medium scale. PMID:25273516

  16. Uranium removal from a contaminated effluent using a combined microbial and nanoparticle system.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Mar; Constantí, Magda; López, M Teresa; Medina, Francesc

    2013-09-25

    Reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to insoluble uranium(IV) for remediating a uranium-contaminated effluent (EF-03) was examined using a biotic and abiotic integrated system. Shewanella putrefaciens was first used and reduced U(VI) in a synthetic medium but not in the EF-03 effluent sample. Subsequently the growth of autochthonous microorganisms was stimulated with lactate. When lactate was supported on active carbon 77% U(VI) was removed in 4 days. Separately, iron nanoparticles that were 50 nm in diameter reduced U(VI) by 60% in 4 hours. The efficiency of uranium(VI) removal was improved to 96% in 30 min by using a system consisting of lactate and iron nanoparticles immobilized on active carbon. Lactate also stimulated the growth of potential uranium-reducing microorganisms in the EF-03 sample. This system can be efficiently used for the bioremediation of uranium-contaminated effluents. PMID:23689043

  17. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  18. Final Report on NASA Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment, small parts and flight components result in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from 52 to 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in numerous pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Space Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient, and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation, and non destructive evaluation (NDE) is a relatively new application of the technology that has been proven to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The novel process eliminates VOCs and blast media and captures the removed coatings with an integrated vacuum system. This means that the only waste generated are the coatings that are removed, resulting in an overall cleaner process. The development of a

  19. Development Status of the Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-Bed System (CAMRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; Nalette Tim; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with NASA, Hamilton Sundstrand has successfully designed, fabricated, tested and delivered three, state-of-the-art, solid amine prototype systems capable of continuous CO2 and humidity removal from a closed, habitable atmosphere. Two prototype systems (CAMRAS #1 and #2) incorporated a linear spool valve design for process flow control through the sorbent beds, with the third system (CAMRAS #3) employing a rotary valve assembly that improves system fluid interfaces and regeneration capabilities. The operational performance of CAMRAS #1 and #2 has been validated in a relevant environment, through both simulated human metabolic loads in a closed chamber and through human subject testing in a closed environment. Performance testing at Hamilton Sundstrand on CAMRAS #3, which incorporates a new valve and modified canister design, showed similar CO2 and humidity removal performance as CAMRAS #1 and #2, demonstrating that the system form can be modified within certain bounds with little to no effect in system function or performance. Demonstration of solid amine based CO2 and humidity control is an important milestone in developing this technology for human spaceflight. The systems have low power requirements; with power for air flow and periodic valve actuation and indication the sole requirements. Each system occupies the same space as roughly four shuttle non-regenerative LiOH canisters, but have essentially indefinite CO2 removal endurance provided a regeneration pathway is available. Using the solid amine based systems to control cabin humidity also eliminates the latent heat burden on cabin thermal control systems and the need for gas/liquid phase separation in a low gravity environment, resulting in additional simplification of vehicle environmental control and life support system process requirements.

  20. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie

    2014-08-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. PMID:24784452

  1. Removal of bacterial indicators and pathogens from dairy wastewater by a multi-component treatment system.

    PubMed

    Karpiscak, M M; Sanchez, L R; Freitas, R J; Gerba, C P

    2001-01-01

    Microbial removal by a multi-component treatment system for dairy and municipal wastewater is being studied in Arizona, USA. The system consists of paired solids separators, anaerobic lagoons, aerobic ponds and constructed wetlands cells. The organisms under study include: total coliform, fecal coliform, enterovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coliphage, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Organism removal rates from dairy wastewater varied from 13.2 per cent for fecal coliform to 94.9 per cent for coliphage. It appears that the much higher turbidity of the dairy wastewater, nearly 1,300 NTU, decreased the treatment systems' ability to remove some microbial indicators and pathogens. Information from this study can be used to determine the adequacy of multi-component treatment systems for the control of wastewater-borne pathogens, both in municipal treatment systems as well as in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). This information also can assist municipalities and the CAFO industry in the implementation of rational and efficient treatment strategies for appropriate reuse of wastewaters. PMID:11804092

  2. Ammonium Removal by the Oxygen-Limited Autotrophic Nitrification-Denitrification System

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Linping; Verstraete, Willy

    1998-01-01

    The present lab-scale research reveals the potential of implementation of an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) system with normal nitrifying sludge as the biocatalyst for the removal of nitrogen from nitrogen-rich wastewater in one step. In a sequential batch reactor, synthetic wastewater containing 1 g of NH4+-N liter−1 and minerals was treated. Oxygen supply to the reactor was double-controlled with a pH controller and a timer. At a volumetric loading rate (Bv) of 0.13 g of NH4+-N liter−1 day−1, about 22% of the fed NH4+-N was converted to NO2−-N or NO3−-N, 38% remained as NH4+-N, and the other 40% was removed mainly as N2. The specific removal rate of nitrogen was on the order of 50 mg of N liter−1 day−1, corresponding to 16 mg of N g of volatile suspended solids−1 day−1. The microorganisms which catalyzed the OLAND process are assumed to be normal nitrifiers dominated by ammonium oxidizers. The loss of nitrogen in the OLAND system is presumed to occur via the oxidation of NH4+ to N2 with NO2− as the electron acceptor. Hydroxylamine stimulated the removal of NH4+ and NO2−. Hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) or an HAO-related enzyme might be responsible for the loss of nitrogen. PMID:9797314

  3. System A amino acid transporter SNAT2 shows subtype-specific affinity for betaine and hyperosmotic inducibility in placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Yagi, Risa; Usuda, Mariko; Oda, Kenji; Yamazaki, Mai; Suda, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yu; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Sai, Yoshimichi; Higuchi, Kei; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Tomi, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Emi

    2014-05-01

    Betaine uptake is induced by hypertonic stress in a placental trophoblast cell line, and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that mediates hypertonicity-induced betaine uptake. Measurement of [(14)C]betaine uptake by HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human or rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs), SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 revealed that only human and rat SNAT2 have betaine uptake activity. The Michaelis constants (Km) of betaine uptake by human and rat SNAT2 were estimated to be 5.3 mM and 4.6 mM, respectively. Betaine exclusively inhibited the uptake activity of SNAT2 among the rat system A subtypes. We found that rat SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 were expressed at the mRNA level under isotonic conditions, while expression of SNAT2 and SNAT4 was induced by hypertonicity in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells. Western blot analyses revealed that SNAT2 expression on plasma membrane of TR-TBT 18d-1 cells was more potently induced by hypertonicity than that in total cell lysate. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the induction of SNAT2 expression in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells exposed to hypertonic conditions and indicated that SNAT2 was localized on the plasma membrane in these cells. Our results indicate that SNAT2 transports betaine, and that tonicity-sensitive SNAT2 expression may be involved in regulation of betaine concentration in placental trophoblasts. PMID:24434061

  4. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report.

  5. Genetic analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system by use of plasmids carrying the bra genes.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, T; Kose, K

    1990-01-01

    About 30 mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO defective in the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I) were isolated by the selection for resistance to 4-aza-DL-leucine, a toxic leucine analog for LIV-I. All of the mutants were complemented by plasmid pKTH24, harboring the braC gene, which encodes the branched-chain amino acid-binding protein, and the four open reading frames named braD, braE, braF, and braG (T. Hoshino and K. Kose, J. Bacteriol. 172:5531-5539, 1990). We identified five cistrons corresponding to these bra genes by complementation analysis with various derivatives of pKTH24, confirming that the braD, braE, braF, and braG genes are required for the LIV-I transport system. We also found mutations that seem likely to be mutations in a promoter region for the bra genes and those with polarity in the intercistronic region between braC and braD. Analysis with an omega interposon showed that the bra genes are organized as an operon and are cotranscribed in the order braC-braD-braE-braF-braG from a promoter located in the 5'-flanking region of the braC gene. PMID:2120184

  6. O-tert-Butyltyrosine, an NMR tag for high-molecular-weight systems and measurements of submicromolar ligand binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Na; Kuppan, Kekini Vahini; Lee, Michael David; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Huber, Thomas; Otting, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    O-tert-Butyltyrosine (Tby) is an unnatural amino acid that can be site-specifically incorporated into proteins using established orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA systems. Here we show that the tert-butyl group presents an outstanding NMR tag that can readily be observed in one-dimensional (1)H NMR spectra without any isotope labeling. Owing to rapid bond rotations and the chemical equivalence of the protons of a solvent-exposed tert-butyl group from Tby, the singlet resonance from the tert-butyl group generates an easily detectable narrow signal in a spectral region with limited overlap with other methyl resonances. The potential of the tert-butyl (1)H NMR signal in protein research is illustrated by the observation and assignment of two resonances in the Bacillus stearothermophilus DnaB hexamer (320 kDa), demonstrating that this protein preferentially assumes a 3-fold rather than 6-fold symmetry in solution, and by the quantitative measurement of the submicromolar dissociation constant Kd (0.2 μM) of the complex between glutamate and the Escherichia coli aspartate/glutamate binding protein (DEBP, 32 kDa). The outstanding signal height of the (1)H NMR signal of the Tby tert-butyl group allows Kd measurements using less concentrated protein solutions than usual, providing access to Kd values 1 order of magnitude lower than established NMR methods that employ direct protein detection for Kd measurements. PMID:25789794

  7. Final Report on Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment and small components results in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the EPA reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium. The new standard lowers OSHA's PEL for hexavalent chromium from 52 to 5 micrograms of Cr(V1) per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in the pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to remove prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation and non destructive evaluation is a relatively new technology that has shown itself to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided

  8. A RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of loss of residual heat removal system after reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanrikut, A.; Heper, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    A computational investigation of the experiment concerning the loss of the residual heat removal system (RHRS) during reduced inventory operation was simulated using the RELAP5/ MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code. The experiment was conducted at the UMCP 2 x 4 integral test loop (University of Maryland) and consisted of two parts: loss of RHRS and loss of feedwater system. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to assess the capability of the RELAP5 code to capture the phenomena observed in the experiment during the boiler-condenser mode (BCM) and the loss of feedwater (LOFW) system transient.

  9. Cooling system for removing metabolic heat from an hermetically sealed spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Vykukal, H. C.; Williams, B. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved cooling and ventilating system is described for removing metabolic heat, waste gases and water vapor generated by a wearer of an hermetically sealed spacesuit. The cooling system was characterized by a body suit, having a first circuit for simultaneously establishing a cooling flow of water through the thorax and head sections of the body suit. Circulation patches were included mounted in the thorax section and head section of the body suit. A second circuit for discharing a flow of gas throughout the spacesuit and a disconnect unit for coupling the circuits with a life support system externally related to the spacesuit were provided.

  10. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: DELTA INDUSTRIAL SERVICES, INC., CAMPWATER PORTA-5 SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CampWater system uses ozonation followed by cartridge filtration to remove arsenic via co-precipitation. The system utilizes ozone to oxidize iron and arsenic (III) to arsenic (V). The arsenic bound to the iron precipitates is then removed by cartridge filtration. No additi...

  12. MBBR system performance improvement for petroleum hydrocarbon removal using modified media with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sayyahzadeh, Amir Hossein; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Ayati, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system has a successful operation in the treatment of different types of wastewater. Since the media, i.e. the place of growth and formation of biofilm, play the main role in the treatment in this system, MBBR systems were operated in the present research with modified Bee-cell media. Activated carbon granules of almond or walnut shells were placed in media pores to improve the treatment of refinery oil wastewater and their operation with MBBR system was compared with the conventional Bee-cell media. In these experiments, the effects of organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), media filling ratio (MFR), and activated carbon concentration (ACC) used in the media were investigated on the operation of MBBR systems. The analysis of results estimated the optimal values of HRT, MFR, and ACC used in the media between the studied levels, being equal to 22 h, 50%, and 7.5 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, total petroleum hydrocarbons removal efficiencies for MBBR systems using Bee-cell media with carbon of almond, carbon of walnut shells, and a carbon-free system were 95 ± 1.17%, 91 ± 1.11%, and 57 ± 1.7%, respectively, which confirms the adsorption ability of systems with the media containing activated carbon in the removal of petroleum compounds from wastewater. PMID:27148731

  13. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic investigations of the European Fast Reactor DHR (decay heat removal) system

    SciTech Connect

    Dueweke, M.; Friedel, G.; Friedrich, H.J. ); Azarian, G. ); Thomasson, R.K. )

    1989-11-01

    With the framework of the European Fast Reactor (EFR) program, a 2-yr conceptual design study was launched in spring 1988. One major area of investigation is the decay heat removal (DHR) following a reactor trip, when the steam plant heat sink is unavailable. Decay heat will be removed from the primary sodium by a safety-grade direct rector cooling system (DRCS), which should be as independent from the emergency power supply as possible. At present, the DRCS for EFR features three identical sodium loops, each with a 30-MW rating, operating in natural circulation under all circumstances. Each loop consists of a sodium/sodium heat-exchanging U-tube dip cooler and a sodium/air heat exchanger (AHX). The thermohydraulic behavior was studied with the one-dimensional system code DYANA and with the two-dimensional thermohydraulic code ATTICA.

  15. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff. PMID:26077503

  16. Intra-canal calcium hydroxide removal by two rotary systems: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahare; Abbas, Fateme Mashhadi; Bashbaghi, Hamide; Miri, Shima Sadat; Ghorbani, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The presence of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in the root canal interferes with the apical root canal sealing and may result in periapical lesions in the long run. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of two rotary systems of Race and Mtwo in the removal of Ca (OH)2 aqueous-based from distobuccal canals of human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 distobuccal root canals of human maxillary molars were randomly distributed into two groups of 20 canals each and two control groups. Specimens in each group were instrumented with similar master apical rotary (MAR) and flexible files according to the manufacture's guidelines. The Ca (OH)2 paste was placed in canals using # 20 lentulo and radiographs were taken from the two dimensions. The roots were incubated for 1 week at 37°C and 100% humidity and Ca (OH)2 was removed from canals by MAR, afterward. Then, the roots were longitudinally split in halves by diamond disk and chisel without entering the root canals. Photos were taken from the canals’ walls by a stereomicroscope with × 10 magnification. Next, according to a defined scoring system, photos were scored by four endodontists, so that scores 1 and 2 (nonvisible remnants or scattered remnants of Ca(OH)2) were considered as acceptable and scores 3 and 4 (distinct mass or densely-packed mass of Ca(OH)2) were regarded as nonacceptable. Results: The obtained findings indicated that in coronal, middle, and apical portions of the root canal, 45, 60, and 65% of Mtwo specimens and 40, 50, and 55% of specimens prepared by the Race system acquired an acceptable score (1 and 2), respectively. Moreover, the results showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Both Mtwo and Race rotary systems with acceptable removal efficiency (score 1 and 2) were similarly able to remove Ca(OH)2 PMID:26069416

  17. Impact of butyrate on microbial selection in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-01-01

    Microbial selection in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor fed exclusively with butyrate as a carbon source. As reported in the few previous studies, butyrate uptake was slow and phosphorus (P) release occurred during the entire anaerobic period. Polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO), i.e. Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (named as Accumulibacter), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), i.e. Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis (named as Competibacter) and Defluviicoccus-related, tetrad-forming alphaproteobacteria (named as Defluviicoccus) were identified using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The results show that Accumulibacter and Defluviicoccus were selected in the butyrate-fed reactor, whereas Competibacter was not selected. P removal was efficient at the beginning of the experiment with an increasing percentage relative abundance (% RA) of PAOs. The % RA of Accumulibacter and Defluviicoccus increased from 13% to 50% and 8% to 16%, respectively, and the % RA of Competibacter decreased from 8% to 2% during the experiment. After 6 weeks, P removal deteriorated with the poor correlation between the percentage of P removal and % RA of GAOs. PMID:25189844

  18. Assessment of full-scale biological nutrient removal systems upgraded with physico-chemical processes for the removal of emerging pollutants present in wastewaters from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar; Cortés-Muñoz, Juana Enriqueta; González-Herrera, Arturo; Calderón-Mólgora, César Guillermo; de Lourdes Rivera-Huerta, Ma; Ramírez-Camperos, Esperanza; Montellano-Palacios, Leticia; Gelover-Santiago, Silvia Lucila; Pérez-Castrejón, Sara; Cardoso-Vigueros, Lina; Martín-Domínguez, Alejandra; García-Sánchez, Liliana

    2016-11-15

    Two full-scale biological nutrient removal systems upgraded with three physico-chemical processes (coagulation, chemical precipitation, and neutral Fenton) were evaluated in order to determine the removal of emerging pollutants (EPs) present in municipal wastewater from Mexico. Between 41 and 55 EPs were detected in the influents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including personal care products (PPCPs), antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, antiseptics, stimulants, and hormones. Emerging pollutants were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.69ng/L to 94,600ng/L. High concentrations of emerging pollutants were found during dry season. WWTP 1, integrated by oxidation ditches and UV light lamps, showed removal efficiencies of EPs between 20% and 22%. On the other hand, WWTP 2 consisted of anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic tanks coupled with two disinfection processes; chlorine dioxide and UV light lamps, for which the removal of EPs was significant (up to 80%). The concentrations of emerging pollutants in WWTP 1 effluent was found within a rangeremovals, compared to those of WWTP 1, due to a greater activity of the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification processes, hydraulic retention time, and solids retention time. The compounds that were more persistent with removals below 50% in both effluents were: carbamazepine, dehydronifedipine, meprobamate, sertraline, propranolol, propoxyphene, norverapamil, diazepam, alprazolam, sulfamethoxazole, metoprolol, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, fluoxetine, erythromycin-H2O, diphenhydramine, dehydronifedipine, clarithromycin, hydrochlorothiazide, and albuterol. The application of neutral Fenton reaction as post-treatment for the two effluents from the WWTPs is promising for the removal of emerging pollutants (up to 100

  19. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Natural-Circulation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Takashi

    2004-03-15

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multidimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural-circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 300-MW(thermal) lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400-MW(electric) lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactor designed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. The primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) is prepared for the JNC concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 s after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 deg. C because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporarily reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system, and the outlet temperature decreases successfully.

  20. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth Cooled Natural Circulated Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Takaaki Sakai; Yasuhiro Enuma; Takashi Iwasaki; Kazuhiro Ohyama

    2002-07-01

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth cooled natural circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 100 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled natural circulation reactor designed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. PRACS (Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System) is prepared for the JNC's concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 sec after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 Centigrade, because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporary reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system and the out let temperature decreases successfully. (authors)

  1. Cetylpyridinium chloride/magnetic alginate beads: an efficient system to remove p-nitrophenol from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, Layaly; Bee, Agnes; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sebastien; Welschbillig, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, is extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbent. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet [1, 2]. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads (called magsorbents)for p-nitrophenol (PNP), used as a hydrophobic pollutant, in presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant. First, the effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, surfactant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of CPC on the alginate beads was investigated. Adsorption of the surfactant occurs due to electrostatic attractions between its cationic head groups and negative carboxylate functions of the alginate beads. At larger surfactant concentrations, adsorption is also due to the interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC forming aggregated structures capable of solubilizing hydrophobic solutes. In a second step, we showed that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in the beads in presence of CPC, although the pollutant is poorly adsorbed by alginate in absence of the surfactant. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs as micellar solubilization is preferred over coadsorption. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove both cationic surfactant and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants. 1. A.Bee, D.Talbot, S.Abramson, V

  2. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  3. N-terminal processing of affinity-tagged recombinant proteins purified by IMAC procedures.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jane T; Fredericks, Dale P; Christensen, Thorkild; Bruun Schiødt, Christine; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-07-01

    The ability of a new class of metal binding tags to facilitate the purification of recombinant proteins, exemplified by the tagged glutathione S-transferase and human growth hormone, from Escherichia coli fermentation broths and lysates has been further investigated. These histidine-containing tags exhibit high affinity for borderline metal ions chelated to the immobilised ligand, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn). The use of this tag-tacn immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) system engenders high selectivity with regard to host cell protein removal and permits facile tag removal from the E. coli-expressed recombinant protein. In particular, these tags were specifically designed to enable their efficient removal by the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 (DAP-1), thus capturing the advantages of high substrate specificity and rates of cleavage. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the cleaved products from the DAP-1 digestion of the recombinant N-terminally tagged proteins confirmed the complete removal of the tag within 4-12 h under mild experimental conditions. Overall, this study demonstrates that the use of tags specifically designed to target tacn-based IMAC resins offers a comprehensive and flexible approach for the purification of E. coli-expressed recombinant proteins, where complete removal of the tag is an essential prerequisite for subsequent application of the purified native proteins in studies aimed at delineating the molecular and cellular basis of specific biological processes. PMID:25727088

  4. Study of high temperature removal of alkali of a pressurized gasification system: Final report. [Emathlite pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, D.M.; Alvin, M.A.; DeZubay, E.A.; Mulik, P.R.

    1986-10-01

    Advanced coal-fueled processes that use high-temperature (1500 F or more) gas cleaning have the potential for significant cost savings. Turbine corrosion control by alkali removal may be needed in such systems. A fixed bed of emathlite pellets had been identified earlier as a promising way to remove alkali metal vapors from hot gases. In the present program we examined the fundamental chemistry of the absorption reaction, demonstrated the removal concept in a bench-scale reactor, and developed the engineering basis for process scale-up. An industrial process for making emathlite pellets by slurry extrusion was defined. Pellet cost was estimated as $0.11 to $0.82 per ton of coal, depending on scale of production. The absorption mechanism was defined and shown to result in a sorbent capacity of 18 wt % sodium. A kinetic model that allows sizing of sorbent beds was developed. It was shown that absorption is effective even at very low gas-phase concentrations. The suggested process was demonstrated in a series of fixed bed tests, using up to 12 kg sorbent, at a hot gas cleanup test facility. Alkali removal of greater than 99% was demonstrated. Kinetics and capacity data indicate that even more removal could have been achieved with deeper beds. It was concluded that reduction of gas-phase sodium to the turbine tolerance of about 20 ppb is feasible with this technique. Example calculations of typical process sorbent consumption rates and reactor size requirements are presented. 7 refs., 46 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. Comparison of filter media materials for heavy metal removal from urban stormwater runoff using biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, H S; Lim, W; Hu, J Y; Ziegler, A; Ong, S L

    2015-01-01

    The filter media in biofiltration systems play an important role in removing potentially harmful pollutants from urban stormwater runoff. This study compares the heavy metal removal potential (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) of five materials (potting soil, compost, coconut coir, sludge and a commercial mix) using laboratory columns. Total/dissolved organic carbon (TOC/DOC) was also analysed because some of the test materials had high carbon content which affects heavy metal uptake/release. Potting soil and the commercial mix offered the best metal uptake when dosed with low (Cu: 44.78 μg/L, Zn: 436.4 μg/L, Cd, 1.82 μg/L, Pb: 51.32 μg/L) and high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu: 241 μg/L, Zn: 1127 μg/L, Cd: 4.57 μg/L, Pb: 90.25 μg/L). Compost and sludge also had high removal efficiencies (>90%). Heavy metal leaching from these materials was negligible. A one-month dry period between dosing experiments did not affect metal removal efficiencies. TOC concentrations from all materials increased after the dry period. Heavy metal removal was not affected by filter media depth (600 mm vs. 300 mm). Heavy metals tended to accumulate at the upper 5 cm of the filter media although potting soil showed bottom-enriched concentrations. We recommend using potting soil as the principal media mixed with compost or sludge since these materials perform well and are readily available. The use of renewable materials commonly found in Singapore supports a sustainable approach to urban water management. PMID:25261749

  6. Arsenic removal via ZVI in a hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system.

    PubMed

    Calo, Joseph M; Madhavan, Lakshmi; Kirchner, Johannes; Bain, Euan J

    2012-05-01

    The description and operation of a novel, hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system for the removal of arsenic from water are presented. The system utilizes zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles circulating in a spouted vessel that continuously generates active colloidal iron corrosion products via the "self-polishing" action between ZVI source particles rolling in the moving bed that forms on the conical bottom of the spouted vessel. This action also serves as a "surface renewal" mechanism for the particles that provides for maximum utilization of the ZVI material. (Results of batch experiments conducted to examine this mechanism are also presented.) The colloidal material produced in this fashion is continuously captured and concentrated in a fixed bed filter located within the spouted vessel reservoir wherein arsenic complexation occurs. It is demonstrated that this system is very effective for arsenic removal in the microgram per liter arsenic concentration (i.e., drinking water treatment) range, reducing 100 μg/L of arsenic to below detectable levels (≪10 μg/L) in less than an hour.A mechanistic analysis of arsenic behavior in the system is presented, identifying the principal components of the population of active colloidal material for arsenic removal that explains the experimental observations and working principles of the system. It is concluded that the apparent kinetic behavior of arsenic in systems where colloidal (i.e., micro/nano) iron corrosion products are dominant can be complex and may not be explained by simple first or zeroth order kinetics. PMID:22539917

  7. High-efficiency SO{sub 2} removal in utility FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy`s Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO{sub 2} removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO{sub 2} removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994.

  8. Arsenic removal via ZVI in a hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Joseph M.; Madhavan, Lakshmi; Kirchner, Johannes; Bain, Euan J.

    2012-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel, hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system for the removal of arsenic from water are presented. The system utilizes zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles circulating in a spouted vessel that continuously generates active colloidal iron corrosion products via the “self-polishing” action between ZVI source particles rolling in the moving bed that forms on the conical bottom of the spouted vessel. This action also serves as a “surface renewal” mechanism for the particles that provides for maximum utilization of the ZVI material. (Results of batch experiments conducted to examine this mechanism are also presented.) The colloidal material produced in this fashion is continuously captured and concentrated in a fixed bed filter located within the spouted vessel reservoir wherein arsenic complexation occurs. It is demonstrated that this system is very effective for arsenic removal in the microgram per liter arsenic concentration (i.e., drinking water treatment) range, reducing 100 μg/L of arsenic to below detectable levels (≪10 μg/L) in less than an hour. A mechanistic analysis of arsenic behavior in the system is presented, identifying the principal components of the population of active colloidal material for arsenic removal that explains the experimental observations and working principles of the system. It is concluded that the apparent kinetic behavior of arsenic in systems where colloidal (i.e., micro/nano) iron corrosion products are dominant can be complex and may not be explained by simple first or zeroth order kinetics. PMID:22539917

  9. A strategy for removal of foreign body in mandible with navigation system.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Z; Tian, W; Tang, W

    2015-07-01

    Navigation surgery in the mandible has rarely been reported because of the complexities of navigating a mobile structure. In this article, we present a simple and novel strategy for removal of a foreign body in the mandible using a navigation system. A female diagnosed with a foreign body in the left mandible underwent navigation surgery using a BrainLAB system. We used a special open splint fabricated with acrylic resin to successfully perform the mandibular navigation. This strategy may be appropriate for many types of mandibular navigation surgery. PMID:25744644

  10. A portable system for acquiring and removing motion artefact from ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, A.; Das, A.; Fernandes, B.; Gaydecki, P.

    2007-07-01

    A novel electrocardiograph (ECG) signal acquisition and display system is under development. It is designed for patients ranging from the elderly to athletes. The signals are obtained from electrodes integrated into a vest, amplified, digitally processed and transmitted via Bluetooth to a PC with a Labview ® interface. Digital signal processing is performed to remove movement artefact and electromyographic (EMG) noise, which severely distorts signal morphology and complicates clinical diagnosis. Independent component analysis (ICA) is also used to improve the signal quality. The complete system will integrate the electronics into a single module which will be embedded in the vest.

  11. Application of the selective equipment removal system to D&D tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.; Hamel, W.R.; Dixon, W.E.

    1995-02-01

    The Selective Equipment Removal System has been designed as a generic and reconfigurable remote manipulation platform to demonstrate and evaluate mobile telerobotic concepts suitable for performing selective decontamination and dismantlement functions. Both radioactive and hazardous chemical environments dictate that human presence should be minimized in many of these activities. In addition, robotic deployment of large and heavy tools should improve safety of operation by limiting human proximity to tooling. Monotonous, repetitive, and high precision activities should also benefit by robotic completion. This paper discusses the development of the Selective Equipment Retrieval System and its remote manipulation platform, the Dual Arm Work Module, applicable tooling, and application to various decontamination and dismantlement tasks.

  12. Passive removal of silicone oil through 23 gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system

    PubMed Central

    Siyal, Nisar Ahmed; Hargun, Lakhani Das; Wahab, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the outcomes of passive removal of silicone oil by 23 Gauge Transconjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy System. Methods: This prospective, consecutive case series study was conducted at Ophthalmology Department Unit I, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital Karachi from January 2011 to December 2014. Only psuedophakic eyes with silicone oil temponade were selected. Main outcome measures were intra ocular pressure, time taken for removal of silicone oil, per operative and post operative complications. Pre and post operative IOP was compared by using two-tailed paired t-test and mean values with standard deviation were computed using difference of 95% confidence interval. Chi square test was applied for correlation of different variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 79 patients who underwent passive ROSO, 38 (48.1%) were males. Mean age of patients was 47.5±7.1 (sd) years. Mean time taken for passive ROSO was 7.31±2.41 (sd) minutes. Pre and post operative intra ocular pressure shows statistically significant (p=0.000) decrease in IOP. Retinal redetachment found in 13 (16.5%) cases during follow up period. Conclusion: Passive removal of silicone oil with 23 G suture less vitrectomy system is safe and effective in terms of less per operative and post operative complications. In this simple technique, there is less tissue trauma and little time consumed so it provides more comfort to patients and surgeons as well. PMID:27375708

  13. Experimental evaluation of a breadboard heat and product-water removal system for a space-power fuel cell designed with static water removal and evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Prokipius, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the design of a heat and product-water removal system to be used with fuel cell having static water removal and evaporative cooling. The program, which was conducted on a breadboard version of the system, provided a general assessment of the design in terms of operational integrity and transient stability. This assessment showed that, on the whole, the concept appears to be inherently sound but that in refining this design, several facets will require additional study. These involve interactions between pressure regulators in the pumping loop that occur when they are not correctly matched and the question of whether an ejector is necessary in the system.

  14. The state of the art of removal of prion proteins in SD-FFP, by specific prion affinity chromatography and its impact on the hemostatic characteristics of the product.

    PubMed

    Neisser-Svae, Andrea; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    In recent Coimbra' Conference, on the pre-launch of pathogen reduced-FFP for the local clinical use, the question was raised, by the moderator, on the efficacy of the current methodology used for prion removal processes and its influence on the overall quality and safety of the final product. This brief paper put together by speaker of this session and the moderator, as a consensus of opinions, which was largely discussed during Q&A session, to make it available to a large group of readers of transfusion apheresis science, who might be interested to this topic. In short the capacity of the current process of Octaplas to remove prion is in order of 5.6 log10/ID50 reduction based on several animal studies. Moreover the changes in coagulation and inhibitors are within acceptable range and bioequivalent to untreated FFP with no sign of inferiority. This paper describes in brief a technology update on solvent/detergent treated plasma, an alternative to FFP but with increased pathogen safety. The biochemical profile of the final product is comparable with FFP and contains all clinically relevant plasma proteins. Furthermore, Octaplas is a product that, in long term, reduces health care costs. PMID:25748229

  15. Performance of Decay Heat Removal Systems in the LS-VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton; Farmer, Mitchell T.; Dunn, Floyd E.; Cahalan, James E.

    2006-07-01

    Investigations are underway to determine the viability of the Liquid Salt-Cooled - Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) concept which combines fuel and moderator similar to gas cooled VHTR concepts but utilizes liquid salt coolant which can operate at low pressures with improved heat transfer properties relative to helium. Analyses have been carried out investigating the viability of two alternative passive approaches for emergency decay heat removal for a 2400 MWt LS-VHTR: RVACS air natural circulation cooling of the exterior of the guard vessel and DRACS Direct Reactor Heat Exchangers (DRHXs) immersed in the liquid salt coolant and connected to natural draft air heat exchangers through secondary and tertiary cooling circuits. Results of first principles and integrated systems analyses of RVACS and DRACS performance are presented for a postulated accident scenario involving loss-of-normal heat removal, loss-of-forced (pumped) liquid salt flow, and successful scram of the reactor. (authors)

  16. Image haze removal using a hybrid of fuzzy inference system and weighted estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jyun-Guo; Tai, Shen-Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The attenuation of the light transmitted through air can reduce image quality when taking a photograph outdoors, especially in a hazy environment. Hazy images often lack sufficient information for image recognition systems to operate effectively. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, this study proposes a hybrid method combining fuzzy theory with weighted estimation for the removal of haze from images. A transmission map is first created based on fuzzy theory. According to the transmission map, the proposed method automatically finds the possible atmospheric lights and refines the atmospheric lights by mixing these candidates. Weighted estimation is then employed to generate a refined transmission map, which removes the halo artifact from around the sharp edges. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over existing methods with regard to contrast, color depth, and the elimination of halo artifacts.

  17. Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Klavarioti, Maria; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Kassinos, Despo

    2009-02-01

    Over the past few years, pharmaceuticals are considered as an emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end-products. The environmental applications of AOPs are numerous, including water and wastewater treatment (i.e. removal of organic and inorganic pollutants and pathogens), air pollution abatement and soil remediation. AOPs are applied for the abatement of pollution caused by the presence of residual pharmaceuticals in waters for the last decade. In this light, this paper reviews and assesses the effectiveness of various AOPs for pharmaceutical removal from aqueous systems. PMID:18760478

  18. Morphometric affinities of gigantopithecus.

    PubMed

    Gelvin, B R

    1980-11-01

    Multivariate analyses, supplemented by univariate statistical methods, of measurements from mandibular tooth crown dimensions and the mandible of Gigantopithecus blacki, G. bilaspurensis, Plio-Plelstocene hominids, Homo erectus, and seven Neogene ape species from the genera Proconsul, Sivapithecus, Ouranopithecus, and Dryopithecus were used to assess the morphometric affinities of Gigantopithecus. The results show that Gigantopithecus displays affinities to Ouranopithecus and to the hominids, particularly the Plio-Plelstocene hominids, rather than to the apes. Ouranopithecus demonstrated dental resemblances to G. bilaspurensis and the Plio-Pleistocene hominids but mandibular similarities to the apes. Results of analyses of tooth and mandibular shape indices, combined with multivariate distance and temporal relationships, suggest that Ouranopithecus is a more likely candidate for Gigantopithecus ancestry than is Silvapithecus indicus. Shape and allometric differences between G. bilaspurensis and the robust australopithecines weaken the argument for an ancestral-descendant relationship between these groups. The results support the hypothesis that Gigantopithecus is an extinct side branch of the Hominidae. PMID:7468790

  19. 5-HT1A receptor agonist-antagonist binding affinity difference as a measure of intrinsic activity in recombinant and native tissue systems

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J; Collin, L; Ho, M; Riley, G; Scott, C; Selkirk, J V; Price, G W

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported that radiolabelled agonist : antagonist binding affinity ratios can predict functional efficacy at several different receptors. This study investigates whether this prediction is true for recombinant and native tissue 5-HT1A receptors. Saturation studies using [3H]-8-OH-DPAT and [3H]-MPPF revealed a single, high affinity site (KD∼1 nM) in HEK293 cells expressing human 5-HT1A receptors and rat cortex. In recombinant cells, [3H]-MPPF labelled 3–4 fold more sites than [3H]-8-OH-DPAT suggesting the presence of more than one affinity state of the receptor. [3H]-Spiperone labelled a single, lower affinity site in HEK293 cells expressing h5-HT1A receptors but did not bind to native tissue 5-HT1A receptors. These data suggest that, in transfected HEK293 cells, human 5-HT1A receptors exist in different affinity states but in native rat cortical tissue the majority of receptors appear to exist in the high agonist affinity state. Receptor agonists inhibited [3H]-MPPF binding from recombinant 5-HT1A receptors in a biphasic manner, whereas antagonists and partial agonists gave monophasic inhibition curves. All compounds displaced [3H]-8-OH-DPAT and [3H]-spiperone binding in a monophasic manner. In rat cortex, all compounds displaced [3H]-MPPF and [3H]-8-OH-DPAT in a monophasic manner. Functional evaluation of compounds, using [35S]-GTPγS binding, produced a range of intrinsic activities from full agonism, displayed by 5-HT and 5-CT to inverse agonism displayed by spiperone. [3H]-8-OH-DPAT : [3H]-MPPF pKi difference correlated well with functional intrinsic activity (r=0.86) as did [3H]-8-OH-DPAT : [3H]-spiperone pKi difference with functional intrinsic activity (r=0.96). Thus agonist : antagonist binding affinity differences may be used to predict functional efficacy at human 5-HT1A receptors expressed in HEK293 cells where both high and low agonist affinity states are present but not at native rat cortical 5-HT1A receptors in which

  20. Integrated photo-bioelectrochemical system for contaminants removal and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Young, Erica B; Berges, John A; He, Zhen

    2012-10-16

    An integrated photobioelectrochemical (IPB) system was developed by installing a microbial fuel cell (MFC) inside an algal bioreactor. This system achieves the simultaneous removal from a synthetic solution of organics (in the MFC) and nutrients (in the algal bioreactor), and the production of bioenergy in electricity and algal biomass through bioelectrochemical and microbiological processes. During the one-year operation, the IPB system removed more than 92% of chemical oxygen demand, 98% of ammonium nitrogen, and 82% of phosphate and produced a maximum power density of 2.2 W/m(3) and 128 mg/L of algal biomass. The algal growth provided dissolved oxygen to the cathode reaction of the MFC, whereas electrochemical oxygen reduction on the MFC cathode buffered the pH of the algal growth medium (which was also the catholyte). The system performance was affected by illumination and dissolved oxygen. Initial energy analysis showed that the IPB system could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption; however, further improvement of electricity production is desired. An analysis of the attached and suspended microbes in the cathode revealed diverse bacterial taxa typical of aquatic and soil bacterial communities with functional roles in contaminant degradation and nutrient cycling. PMID:22998430

  1. Improved native affinity purification of RNA.

    PubMed

    Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2007-08-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432

  2. Electrically enhanced MBR system for total nutrient removal in remote northern applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, V; Elektorowicz, M; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of sparsely populated communities scatter in the remote areas of northern Canada. It is economically preferable to adopt the decentralized systems to treat the domestic wastewater because of the vast human inhabitant distribution and cold climatic conditions. Electro-technologies such as electrofiltration, elctrofloatation, electrocoagulation and electrokinetic separation have been applied in water and conventional wastewater treatment for decades due to the minimum requirements of chemicals as well as ease of operation. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is gaining popularity in recent years as an alternative water/wastewater treatment technology. However, few studies have been conducted to hyphenate these two technologies. The purpose of this work is to design a novel electrically enhanced membrane bioreactor (EMBR) as an alternative decentralized wastewater treatment system with improved nutrient removal and reduced membrane fouling. Two identical submerged membranes (GE ZW-1 hollow fiber module) were used for the experiment, with one as a control. The EMBR and control MBR were operated for 4 months at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) with synthetic feed and 2 months at 10 °C with real sewage. The following results were observed: (1) the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased significantly more slowly in the EMBR and the interval between the cleaning cycles of the EMBR increased at least twice; (2) the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD) or total organic carbon (TOC) in the EMBR biomass was reduced from 30 to 51%, correspondingly, concentrations of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the major suspicious membrane foulants, decreased by 26-46% in the EMBR; (3) both control and EMBR removed >99% of ammonium-N and >95% of dissolved COD, in addition, ortho-P removal in the EMBR was >90%, compared with 47-61% of ortho-P removal in the MBR; and (4) the advantage of the EMBR over the conventional MBR in terms of membrane fouling retardation and

  3. Self-Driven Decay Heat Removal in a GCR Closed Brayton Cycle Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-07-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems that are driven by Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) are being evaluated for high-efficiency electricity generation. These systems were also selected by the Naval Reactor Prime Contractor team for use as space power systems. This paper describes the decay heat removal performance of these systems. A key question for such space or terrestrial based CBC systems is how to shut down the reactor while still removing the decay heat without using substantial amounts of auxiliary power. Tests in the Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL) show that the Brayton cycle is capable of operating on sensible heat for very long times ({approx} hour) after the reactor is shut down. This paper describes the measured and predicted results of generated electrical power produced as a function of time after the heat source had been turned off in the Sandia Brayton Loop. The measured results were obtained from an electrically heated closed Brayton cycle test loop (SBL) that Sandia fabricated and has operating within the laboratories. The predicted behavior is based on integrated dynamic system models that are capable of predicting both the transient and steady state behavior of nuclear heated or electrically heated Brayton cycle systems. The measured data was obtained by running the SBL and shutting off the electrical heater while adjusting the flow through the loop to keep the system operating at (or just above) its self-sustaining operating power level. During the test we were able to produce {approx}500 W of power for over 73 minutes after the heater power was turned off. Thus the Brayton loop was able to operate at self-sustaining conditions (or better) for over one hour. During this time the turbo-compressor was transporting the sensible heat in the heater, ducting, and recuperator to the waste heat rejection system for over an hour. For a reactor-driven system in space, this would give the shutdown decay power sufficient time to decay to levels where it could be

  4. Small Community and Household Water Systems Research on Removal of Metals and Pesticides from Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation entitled “Small Community and Household Water Systems Research on Removal of Metals and Pesticides from Drinking Water Sources” provides treatment alternatives for removal of metals and pesticides from surface and ground waters before human consumption. The pres...

  5. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and burrows pond rearing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...

  6. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and Burrows pond rearing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...

  7. Portable life support system regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal by metal oxide absorbents preprototype hardware development and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Joan M.; Borghese, Joseph B.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Johnson has acquired a preprototype/full-scale metal oxide CO2 and humidity remover (MOCHR), together with its regeneration module. Tests conducted prior to delivery by the MOCHR's manufacturer have demonstrated the concurrent removal of H2O and CO2 at rates, and under conditions, that are applicable to EVA Portable Life Support Systems.

  8. A three-stage system to remove mercury and dioxins in flue gases.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Sollenberg, Hans; Westas, Håkan

    2003-03-20

    Mercury (Hg) from combustion of fossil fuels and waste is the dominant source of anthropogenic Hg emissions, globally amounting to more than 1500 t Hgyear(-1). These emissions must decrease substantially in order to counteract increasing environmental levels of Hg and reduce future toxic effects. Uppsala Energi AB, nowadays (May, 2002) Vattenfall Värme Uppsala AB, an energy company in Uppsala, Sweden, has invested in equipments for air and water pollution control of their three waste fired steam boilers. The flue gases are cleaned in three stages in series to meet the strict Swedish regulation. Electrostatic precipitators remove most dust in the first stage, wet scrubbers remove most water-soluble gases, and in the last stage a Filsorption unit removes most remaining impurities in particulate as well as gaseous form. The Filsorption process includes additives injection, sorption, and chemical reaction in a reactor and filtration with a fabric filter. The aim with this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the system to recover Hg in flue gases from boilers in routine operation. Flue gases, ashes, and water were sampled yearly for 21 years and analysed for Hg, dioxin, and other potential contaminants received at waste incineration. The results clearly demonstrate the decreasing use of Hg in society the last two decades as influenced by governmental policy regarding Hg. The results also indicate that the equipment efficiently removed Hg and dioxins from the flue gases to a final concentration of approximately 3.5 microg Hgm(-3) n and 0.01 ng dioxinsm(-3) n, corresponding to more than 97 and 99.9% reduction of Hg and dioxins, respectively, by cleaning in three stages. The electrostatic precipitators and Filsorption stages alone, with the scrubber in bypass, removed 90% of Hg in flue gases. Using the scrubber is motivated to remove acid components and additional Hg, but call for water separated after the condensers to be neutralised and cleaned, so that less than 5

  9. Dust Removal Technolgy for a Mars In Situ Resource Utilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, C. I.; Johansen, M. R.; Williams, B. S.; Hogue, M. D.; Mackey, P. J.; Clements, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Several In Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) systems being considered to enable future manned exploration of Mars require capture of Martian atmospheric gas to extract oxygen and other commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains relatively large amounts of dust which must be removed in tbe collection systems of the ISRU chambers. The amount of atmospheric dust varies largely with the presence of daily dust devils and the less frequent but much more powerful global dust storms. A common and mature dust removal technology for terrestrial systems is the electrostatic precipitator. With this technology, dust particles being captured are imparted an electrostatic charge by means of a corona discharge. Charged dust particles are then driven to a region of high electric field which forces the particles onto a collector for capture. Several difficulties appear when this technology is adapted to the Martian atmospheric environment At the low atmospheric pressure of Mars, electrical breakdown occurs at much lower voltages than on Earth and corona discharge is difficult to sustain. In this paper, we report on our efforts to obtain a steady corona/glow discharge in a simulated Martian atmosphere of carbon dioxide at 9 millibars of pressure. We also present results on the design of a dust capture system under these atmospheric conditions.

  10. Phosphorus removal of rural wastewater by the paddy-rice-wetland system in Tai Lake Basin.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Li, H; Liang, X Q; Chen, Y X; Wang, S X; Wang, F E

    2009-11-15

    A field experiment was conducted to remove the potential eutrophication effect of P from rural wastewater (RW) during the whole rice growing season of 2007. The experiments consisted of five treatments, namely black water (BW), domestic wastewater (DW), grey water (GW), surface lake water (SW) and surface lake water without P application as a check (CK), with three replicates in a randomized block design. Commercial fertilizer and RW were applied to furnish 40 kg Pha(-1) except CK. Results showed total P (TP) concentration had significantly declined after P application, from October 15 there were no significant increases in TP concentration in the floodwater. TP removal rates from RW was significantly higher (Premove P from RW by the paddy-rice-wetland system and can be widely used to improve the yield of rice. PMID:19596516

  11. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  12. Microbial nitrogen removal pathways in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; He, Feng; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-05-01

    Microbial nitrogen (N) removal pathways in planted (Canna indica L.) and unplanted integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems (IVCWs) were investigated. Results of, molecular biological and isotope pairing experiments showed that nitrifying, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria were distributed in both down-flow and up-flow columns of the IVCWs. Further, the N transforming bacteria in the planted IVCWs were significantly higher than that in the unplanted ones (p<0.05). Moreover, the potential nitrification, anammox, and denitrification rates were highest (18.90, 11.75, and 7.84nmolNg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in the down-flow column of the planted IVCWs. Significant correlations between these potential rates and the absolute abundance of N transformation genes further confirmed the existence of simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) processes in the IVCWs. The anammox process was the major N removal pathway (55.6-60.0%) in the IVCWs. The results will further our understanding of the microbial N removal mechanisms in IVCWs. PMID:26897412

  13. Phosphorus removal coupled to bioenergy production by three cyanobacterial isolates in a biofilm dynamic growth system.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Alessandra; Pippo, Francesca Di; Bruno, Laura; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study a closed incubator, designed for biofilm growth on artificial substrata, was used to grow three isolates of biofilm-forming heterocytous cyanobacteria using an artificial wastewater secondary effluent as the culture medium. We evaluated biofilm efficiency in removing phosphorus, by simulating biofilm-based tertiary wastewater treatment and coupled this process with biodiesel production from the developed biomass. The three strains were able to grow in the synthetic medium and remove phosphorus in percentages, between 6 and 43%, which varied between strains and also among each strain according to the biofilm growth phase. Calothrix sp. biofilm turned out to be a good candidate for tertiary treatment, showing phosphorus reducing capacity (during the exponential biofilm growth) at the regulatory level for the treated effluent water being discharged into natural water systems. Besides phosphorus removal, the three cyanobacterial biofilms produced high quality lipids, whose profile showed promising chemical stability and combustion behavior. Further integration of the proposed processes could include the integration of oil extracted from these cyanobacterial biofilms with microalgal oil known for high monounsaturated fatty acids content, in order to enhance biodiesel cold flow characteristics. PMID:26939844

  14. Microbial density and diversity in constructed wetland systems and the relation to pollutant removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Lv, Tao; Arias, Carlos; Brix, Hans; Chen, Zhanghe

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are believed to be at the core of the wastewater treatment processes in constructed wetlands (CWs). The aim of this study was to assess the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and Shannon's diversity index (SDI) in the substrate of CWs planted with Phragmites australis, Hymenocallis littoralis, Canna indica and Cyperus flabelliformis, and to relate MBC and SDI to the pollutant removal in the systems. Significant higher MBC was observed in CWs with H. littoralis and C. indica than in CWs with P. australis, and the MBC differed with season and substrate depth. The microbial community in the wetlands included four phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria, with a more diverse community structure in wetlands with C. flabelliformis. The MBC in the substrate and the SDI of the 15-20 cm depth correlated with the removal of biochemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and NO3-N. Our results indicate that substrate SDI and MBC can both be regarded as bioindicators of the pollutant removal ability in CWs. PMID:26877053

  15. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  16. Contaminant Removal from Oxygen Production Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, James G.; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project has been developing technologies to produce oxygen from lunar regolith to provide consumables to a lunar outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloic and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, as halide minerals are also reduced at oxide reduction conditions. Because of the stringent water quality requirements for electrolysis, there is a need for a contaminant removal process. The Contaminant Removal from Oxygen Production Systems (CROPS) team has been developing a separation process to remove these contaminants in the gas and liquid phase that eliminates the need for consumables. CROPS has been using Nafion, a highly water selective polymeric proton exchange membrane, to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. Membrane thickness, product stream flow rate, and acid solution temperature and concentration were varied with the goal of maximizing water permeation and acid rejection. The results show that water permeation increases with increasing solution temperature and product stream flow rate, while acid rejection increases with decreasing solution temperature and concentration. Thinner membranes allowed for higher water flux and acid rejection than thicker ones. These results were used in the development of the hardware built for the most recent Mars ISRU demonstration project.

  17. Characteristics of the bioreactor landfill system using an anaerobic-aerobic process for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Liu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    A sequential upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and air-lift loop sludge blanket (ALSB) treatment was introduced into leachate recirculation to remove organic matter and ammonia from leachate in a lab-scale bioreactor landfill. The results showed that the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process might remove above 90% of COD and near to 100% of NH4+ -N from leachate under the optimum organic loading rate (OLR). The total COD removal efficiency was over 98% as the OLR increased to 6.8-7.7 g/l d, but the effluent COD concentration increased to 2.9-4.8 g/l in the UASB reactor, which inhibited the activity of nitrifying bacteria in the subsequent ALSB reactor. The NO3- -N concentration in recycled leachate reached 270 mg/l after treatment by the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process, but the landfill reactor could efficiently denitrify the nitrate. After 56 days operation, the leachate TN and NH4+ -N concentrations decreased to less than 200 mg/l in the bioreactor landfill system. The COD concentration was about 200 mg/l with less than 8 mg/l BOD in recycled leachate at the late stage. In addition, it was found that nitrate in recycled leachate had a negative effect on waste decomposition. PMID:17071082

  18. Application of bacteriophages to selectively remove Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and wastewater filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hunt, Heather K; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater filtration systems often house pathogenic bacteria, which must be removed to ensure clean, safe water. Here, we determine the persistence of the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two types of filtration systems, and use P. aeruginosa bacteriophages to determine their ability to selectively remove P. aeruginosa. These systems used beds of either anthracite or granular activated carbon (GAC), which were operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 45 min. The clean bed filtration systems were loaded with an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa at a total cell number of 2.3 (± 0.1 [standard deviation]) × 10(7) cells. An immediate dose of P. aeruginosa phages (1 mL of phage stock at the concentration of 2.7 × 10(7) PFU (Plaque Forming Units)/mL) resulted in a reduction of 50% (± 9%) and >99.9% in the effluent P. aeruginosa concentrations in the clean anthracite and GAC filters, respectively. To further evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa phages, synthetic stormwater was run through anthracite and GAC biofilters where mixed-culture biofilms were present. Eighty five days after an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa (2.3 × 10(7) cells per filter) on day 1, 7.5 (± 2.8) × 10(7) and 1.1 (± 0.5) × 10(7) P. aeruginosa cells/g filter media were detected in the top layer (close to the influent port) of the anthracite and GAC biofilters, respectively, demonstrating the growth and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in the biofilters. A subsequent 1-h dose of phages, at the concentration of 5.1 × 10(6) PFU/mL and flow rate of 1.6 mL/min, removed the P. aeruginosa inside the GAC biofilters and the anthracite biofilters by 70% (± 5%) and 56% (± 1%), respectively, with no P. aeruginosa detected in the effluent, while not affecting ammonia oxidation or the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community inside the biofilters. These results suggest that phage treatment can selectively remove pathogenic bacteria with minimal impact on beneficial

  19. Nitrogen and carbon removal efficiency of a polyvinyl alcohol gel based moving bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Singh, Jasdeep; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Ali, Muntjeer; Rose, Vipin; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads in treating domestic wastewater was investigated: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) configuration (oxic-anoxic and oxic) with 10% filling fraction of biomass carriers was operated in a continuously fed regime at temperatures of 25, 20, 15 and 6 °C with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 32 h, 18 h, 12 h and 9 h, respectively. Influent loadings were in the range of 0.22-1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) (total nitrogen (TN)), 1.48-7.82 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) (organic) and 0.12-0.89 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3)d(-1) (ammonia nitrogen). MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) when the temperature and HRT were 6 °C and 9 h, respectively. The carbon removal rate at this temperature and HRT was 6.82 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Ammonium removal rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.75 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) during the study. Total phosphorus and suspended solid removal efficiency ranged from 84 to 98% and 85 to 94% at an influent concentration of 3.3-7.1 mg/L and 74-356 mg/L, respectively. The sludge wasted from the MBBR exhibited light weight features characterized by sludge volume index value of 185 mL/g. Experimental data obtained can be useful in further developing the concept of PVA gel based wastewater treatment systems. PMID:27054722

  20. In Vivo Analysis of HPr Reveals a Fructose-Specific Phosphotransferase System That Confers High-Affinity Uptake in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Nothaft, Harald; Parche, Stephan; Kamionka, Annette; Titgemeyer, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    HPr, the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS), serves multiple functions in carbohydrate uptake and carbon source regulation in low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria and in gram-negative bacteria. To assess the role of HPr in the high-G+C-content gram-positive organism Streptomyces coelicolor, the encoding gene, ptsH, was deleted. The ptsH mutant BAP1 was impaired in fructose utilization, while growth on other carbon sources was not affected. Uptake assays revealed that BAP1 could not transport appreciable amounts of fructose, while the wild type showed inducible high-affinity fructose transport with an apparent Km of 2 μM. Complementation and reconstitution experiments demonstrated that HPr is indispensable for a fructose-specific PTS activity. Investigation of the putative fruKA gene locus led to identification of the fructose-specific enzyme II permease encoded by the fruA gene. Synthesis of HPr was not specifically enhanced in fructose-grown cells and occurred also in the presence of non-PTS carbon sources. Transcriptional analysis of ptsH revealed two promoters that are carbon source regulated. In contrast to what happens in other bacteria, glucose repression of glycerol kinase was still operative in a ptsH background, which suggests that HPr is not involved in general carbon regulation. However, fructose repression of glycerol kinase was lost in BAP1, indicating that the fructose-PTS is required for transduction of the signal. This study provides the first molecular genetic evidence of a physiological role of the PTS in S. coelicolor. PMID:12533468

  1. Affine Vertex Operator Algebras and Modular Linear Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arike, Yusuke; Kaneko, Masanobu; Nagatomo, Kiyokazu; Sakai, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we list all affine vertex operator algebras of positive integral levels whose dimensions of spaces of characters are at most 5 and show that a basis of the space of characters of each affine vertex operator algebra in the list gives a fundamental system of solutions of a modular linear differential equation. Further, we determine the dimensions of the spaces of characters of affine vertex operator algebras whose numbers of inequivalent simple modules are not exceeding 20.

  2. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  3. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  4. Nitrogen removal during leachate treatment: comparison of simple and sophisticated systems.

    PubMed

    Vasel, J L; Jupsin, H; Annachhatre, A P

    2004-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) have become common in treating municipal wastewaters. Applied to leachates treatment MBR were also successful with pilot scale experiments and full-scale facilities as well. We succeeded previously in designing an efficient nitrification-denitrification process with an ethylene glycol byproduct as carbon source for denitrification. Moreover, an unexpectedly high inert COD removal efficiency was also observed in the full-scale MBR facility thereby making it possible to increase the operating time of the final GAC (Granulated Activated Carbon) adsorber. Since MBR are very sophisticated systems. Simpler and "lower" cost systems can also be considered. For example it is possible to nitrify leachates from sanitary landfill using a simple infiltration-percolation technique with a low energy cost. To validate previously published laboratory experiments, a semi industrial-scale pilot installation was installed at the Montzen landfill site (Belgium). The process is based on infiltration-percolation through a granular bed. This well known process was modified to increase the load, notably by changing the support medium, adding an electric fan that is run intermittently and maintaining temperatures greater than 15 degrees C. The new material is a type of granular calcium carbonate with a large specific surface area. These technical improvements enabled the system to nitrify up to 0.4 kg NH4+-N/m3 of reactor bed per day at a hydraulic load of 0.35 m.d(-1), with an ammonia removal rate in the range of 80 to 95%. Despite the high ammonia nitrogen inlet concentrations, this system exhibits remarkable nitrification efficiency. Moreover, these performances are achieved in a batch mode system without recirculation or dilution processes. If complete nitrification is needed, it can be obtained in a second in series of bioreactors. The system can be classified as a low cost process. An international patent is pending. Possible performances of those systems

  5. Motion artifact removal algorithm by ICA for e-bra: a women ECG measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2013-04-01

    Wearable ECG(ElectroCardioGram) measurement systems have increasingly been developing for people who suffer from CVD(CardioVascular Disease) and have very active lifestyles. Especially, in the case of female CVD patients, several abnormal CVD symptoms are accompanied with CVDs. Therefore, monitoring women's ECG signal is a significant diagnostic method to prevent from sudden heart attack. The E-bra ECG measurement system from our previous work provides more convenient option for women than Holter monitor system. The e-bra system was developed with a motion artifact removal algorithm by using an adaptive filter with LMS(least mean square) and a wandering noise baseline detection algorithm. In this paper, ICA(independent component analysis) algorithms are suggested to remove motion artifact factor for the e-bra system. Firstly, the ICA algorithms are developed with two kinds of statistical theories: Kurtosis, Endropy and evaluated by performing simulations with a ECG signal created by sgolayfilt function of MATLAB, a noise signal including 0.4Hz, 1.1Hz and 1.9Hz, and a weighed vector W estimated by kurtosis or entropy. A correlation value is shown as the degree of similarity between the created ECG signal and the estimated new ECG signal. In the real time E-Bra system, two pseudo signals are extracted by multiplying with a random weighted vector W, the measured ECG signal from E-bra system, and the noise component signal by noise extraction algorithm from our previous work. The suggested ICA algorithm basing on kurtosis or entropy is used to estimate the new ECG signal Y without noise component.

  6. Use of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage in hospital rooms.

    PubMed

    Verhougstraete, Marc; Reynolds, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major problem worldwide, and the airborne route is believed to be a contributory source of secondary health care-associated infections. This study examined the efficacy of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage virus from the air in hospitals rooms. Aerosolized coliphage concentrations were not statistically different between treatment and no treatment measurements. However, future research should focus on additional investigations in the patient rooms that incorporate fomite and air testing alongside portable air filtration devices. PMID:26905789

  7. Removal of criticality accident alarm systems at the Y-12 Plant waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses why criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs) were installed in certain waste management buildings at the Y-12 Plant, why the plant now wants to remove them, and what steps were taken to allow the US Department of Energy (DOE) to authorize the removal of the systems. To begin with, the systems in question were installed in the mid- to late-1980s. Some of the facilities were new, and there was no operating experience with the processes. A CAAS, although expensive, is an absolute necessity where criticality accidents are credible. But, they are a superfluous and unnecessary expense in those facilities where it has been determined that a criticality accident is incredible (defined as having a probability of <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr). The PRAs have been performed to evaluate six Y-12 Plant waste management facilities, five storage facilities, and a nondestructive analysis facility, with an additional study now being performed on the West End Treatment Facility. The results to date have shown that the probability of various criticality accident scenarios at these facilities is <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr and that the CAASs are not needed in these facilities.

  8. Effects of aeration position on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Wu, Qing; Yan, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Given that few studies investigated the effects of aeration position (AP) on the performance of aerated constructed wetlands, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AP on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in lab-scale combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland (OP-CW) systems. Results showed that middle aeration allowed the CW to possess more uniform oxygen distribution and to achieve greater removals of COD and NH3-N, while the CW under bottom aeration and surface aeration demonstrated more distinct stratification of oxygen distribution and surface aeration brought about better TN removal capacity for the OP-CW system. However, no significant influence of artificial aeration or AP on TP removal was observed. Overall, AP could significantly affect the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen by influencing the oxygen diffusion paths in aerated CWs, thereby influencing the removal of pollutants, especially organics and nitrogen, which offers a reference for the design of aerated CWs. PMID:26360599

  9. Sixty Percent Conceptual Design Report: Enterprise Accountability System for Classified Removable Electronic Media

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gardiner; L.Graton; J.Longo; T.Marks, Jr.; B.Martinez; R. Strittmatter; C.Woods; J. Joshua

    2003-05-03

    Classified removable electronic media (CREM) are tracked in several different ways at the Laboratory. To ensure greater security for CREM, we are creating a single, Laboratory-wide system to track CREM. We are researching technology that can be used to electronically tag and detect CREM, designing a database to track the movement of CREM, and planning to test the system at several locations around the Laboratory. We focus on affixing ''smart tags'' to items we want to track and installing gates at pedestrian portals to detect the entry or exit of tagged items. By means of an enterprise database, the system will track the entry and exit of tagged items into and from CREM storage vaults, vault-type rooms, access corridors, or boundaries of secure areas, as well as the identity of the person carrying an item. We are considering several options for tracking items that can give greater security, but at greater expense.

  10. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Mark A.

    2012-11-01

    A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n) Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n) WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n) fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  11. A region finding method to remove the noise from the images of the human hand gesture recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Jibran; Mahmood, Waqas

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems depends on the quality of the images presented to the system. Since these systems work in real time environment the images may be corrupted by some environmental noise. By removing the noise the performance of the system can be enhanced. So far different noise removal methods have been presented in many researches to eliminate the noise but all have its own limitations. We have presented a region finding method to deal with the environmental noise that gives better results and enhances the performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems so that the recognition rate of the system can be improved.

  12. In-situ nitrogen removal from the eutrophic water by microbial-plant integrated system*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-qing; Yang, Xiao-e; Fang, Yun-ying; Pu, Pei-min; Li, Zheng-kui; Rengel, Zed

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was to assess the influence of interaction of combination of immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (INCB) with aquatic macrophytes on nitrogen removal from the eutrophic waterbody, and to get insight into different mechanisms involved in nitrogen removal. Methods: The aquatic macrophytes used include Eichhornia crassipes (summer-autumn floating macrophyte), Elodea nuttallii (winter-growing submerged macrophyte), and nitrogen cycling bacteria including ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria isolated from Taihu Lake. The immobilization carriers materials were made from hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and hydrophobic 2-hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the roles of macrophytes combined with INCB on nitrogen removal from eutrophic water during different seasons. Results: Eichhornia crassipes and Elodea nuttallii had different potentials in purification of eutrophic water. Floating macrophyte+bacteria (INCB) performed best in improving water quality (during the first experiment) and decreased total nitrogen (TN) by 70.2%, nitrite and ammonium by 92.2% and 50.9%, respectively, during the experimental period, when water transparency increased from 0.5 m to 1.8 m. When INCB was inoculated into the floating macrophyte system, the populations of nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to the un-inoculated treatments, but ammonifying bacteria showed no obvious difference between different treatments. Lower values of chlorophyll a, CODMn, and pH were found in the microbial-plant integrated system, as compared to the control. Highest reduction in N was noted during the treatment with submerged macrophyte+INCB, being 26.1% for TN, 85.2% for nitrite, and 85.2% for ammonium at the end of 2nd experiment. And in the treatment, the populations of ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria

  13. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta™ POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta™ employs several compon...

  14. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARAMETERIZED SCATTER REMOVAL ALGORITHM FOR NUCLEAR MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon R

    2010-05-01

    This report presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects nonintrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials, and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons that are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized, and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements, and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using the

  16. The Development of a Parameterized Scatter Removal Algorithm for Nuclear Materials Identification System Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon R

    2010-03-01

    This dissertation presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects non-intrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross-sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons which are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using

  17. Removal of 2-ClBP from soil-water system using activated carbon supported nanoscale zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Tian; Han, Xiaolin; Ying, Weichi

    2016-09-01

    We explored the feasibility and removal mechanism of removing 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP) from soil-water system using granular activated carbon (GAC) impregnated with nanoscale zerovalent iron (reactive activated carbon or RAC). The RAC samples were successfully synthesized by the liquid precipitation method. The mesoporous GAC based RAC with low iron content (1.32%) exhibited higher 2-ClBP removal efficiency (54.6%) in the water phase. The result of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model implied that the different molecular structures between 2-ClBP and trichloroethylene (TCE) resulted in more difference in dechlorination reaction rates on RAC than adsorption capacities. Compared to removing 2-ClBP in the water phase, RAC removed the 2-ClBP more slowly in the soil phase due to the significant external mass transfer resistance. However, in the soil phase, a better removal capacity of RAC was observed than its base GAC because the chemical dechlorination played a more important role in total removal process for 2-ClBP. This important result verified the effectiveness of RAC for removing 2-ClBP in the soil phase. Although reducing the total RAC removal rate of 2-ClBP, soil organic matter (SOM), especially the soft carbon, also served as an electron transfer medium to promote the dechlorination of 2-ClBP in the long term. PMID:27593281

  18. The phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 has three high-affinity iron-scavenging systems functional under iron limitation conditions but dispensable for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander M; Wildermuth, Mary C

    2011-06-01

    High-affinity iron scavenging through the use of siderophores is a well-established virulence determinant in mammalian pathogenesis. However, few examples have been reported for plant pathogens. Here, we use a genetic approach to investigate the role of siderophores in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) virulence in tomato. DC3000, an agronomically important pathogen, has two known siderophores for high-affinity iron scavenging, yersiniabactin and pyoverdin, and we uncover a third siderophore, citrate, required for growth when iron is limiting. Though growth of a DC3000 triple mutant unable to either synthesize or import these siderophores is severely restricted in iron-limited culture, it is fully pathogenic. One explanation for this phenotype is that the DC3000 triple mutant is able to directly pirate plant iron compounds such as heme/hemin or iron-nicotianamine, and our data indicate that DC3000 can import iron-nicotianamine with high affinity. However, an alternative explanation, supported by data from others, is that the pathogenic environment of DC3000 (i.e., leaf apoplast) is not iron limited but is iron replete, with available iron of >1 μM. Growth of the triple mutant in culture is restored to wild-type levels by supplementation with a variety of iron chelates at >1 μM, including iron(III) dicitrate, a dominant chelate of the leaf apoplast. This suggests that lower-affinity iron import would be sufficient for DC3000 iron nutrition in planta and is in sharp contrast to the high-affinity iron-scavenging mechanisms required in mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:21441525

  19. Prediction of Neutral Salt Elution Profiles for Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1981-04-01

    Neutral salts exhibit very marked differences as eluants of proteins from affinity columns. We observe: (i) that the relative potencies of neutral salts as eluants are independent of the protein or the affinity ligand in the systems studied, (ii) that the absolute salt concentration necessary to elute any given protein bound to the affinity matrix is proportional to the algebraic sum of a set of elution coefficients defined herein for the separate ions present in the solution, and (iii) that the proportionality between elution potency and elution coefficient is a function of the affinity of the protein for the immobilized ligand. Given the concentration of one neutral salt required for elution of a protein of interest from an affinity column, the elution capability of any neutral salt at any temperature can be quantitatively predicted for that protein. Accordingly, application and elution protocols for affinity chromatography can be designed to optimize the yield and fold purification of proteins.

  20. The Use of Reactive Materials in Septic Systems for Pathogens and Nitrate Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhogusoff, A. V.; Hirata, R.; Aravena, R.; Stimson, J.; Robertson, W.

    2009-05-01

    The developing countries have an urgent need for cheap and efficient techniques for the improvement of sanitary conditions in areas without public water supply and sewerage system, especially in suburban regions or irregular occupation areas, where there is a great lack of social assistance. In this type of situations, the inhabitants use dug wells for water use and cesspits for disposal of sewage, which usually contaminates the groundwater with nitrate and microorganisms. As part of a study aiming to develop new sewage treatment systems in an irregular occupation area located at the District of Barragem, south region of the municipality of São Paulo (Brazil), a conventional cesspit (named as "Control") and an alternative septic system were constructed and monitored for a year. The design of the alternative septic system included a 1m thickness reactive barrier constituted by BOF (Budget Oxygen Furnace - a byproduct of the steel-making industry) for pathogens removal, then 1m sand package where the wastewater is oxidized and at the bottom the wastewater is in contact with a 0,5m thickness reactive barrier constituted by sawdust (carbon source), where redox conditions are very reducing and denitrification and even methanogenesis can take place. The chemical and biological data collected in the alternative septic system showed complete removal of the pathogens in the BOF barrier, then nitrification occurred between the BOF and the bottom of sand package. However denitrification in the sawdust barrier was incomplete because of the high pH caused by the BOF materials, which can reduced the number of denitrifiers bacteria present in the sawdust barrier. Isotope analyses that are been carried out in the residual nitrate will provided more information about the extent of the denitrification reaction in the alternative septic system. In case of the control cesspit, it was observed the occurrence of high concentration of ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, CO2, CH4 and low

  1. Removal of formaldehyde and xylene fumes from histopathology laboratories: a functional approach to the design of extraction systems.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, F P; Campbell, A R

    1984-01-01

    There have been many reports of the relative hazards of formaldehyde, xylene, and hot paraffin wax fumes in pathology laboratories. In contrast, there have been comparatively few describing efficient extraction systems for their removal. When the opportunity presented to design a new laboratory the efficient removal of these fumes was given a high priority. In designing the extraction systems described consideration was given to the physical properties of the fumes and the degree of freedom of use of the bench, with the object of achieving sub-threshold limit values for each area of exposure. The efficiency of removal of the formaldehyde and xylene was measured using infrared spectroscopy. Images PMID:6707225

  2. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems. PMID:23856224

  3. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. PMID:26233656

  4. Method for removing longitudinal chromatism in full color holographic projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Yu, Yingjie; Zheng, Huadong

    2011-09-01

    Hologram, as a type of diffractive optical element, is sensitive to wavelength in the process of optoelectronic reconstruction. Due to the different wavelengths of three prime colors used in full color holographic projections, there are chromatisms which badly spoil the reconstructed image. The chromatisms are composed of transverse and longitudinal chromatisms. For a computer generated hologram, transverse chromatism can be compensated by resampling the object information. However, it becomes more complex for longitudinal chromatism. This paper analyzes how the image is reconstructed from the phase-type hologram in a holographic projection system and the causations of longitudinal chromatism. To remove it, this paper proposes loading a specially designed phase distribution on a phase-type hologram. The advantage of this method is that it can be achieved by computer calculation and without adding any hardware such as achromatic optical element. A time-sharing system for a full-color hologram projection is developed in this paper. Comparisons have been made between the reconstructed images with and without chromatism. The experimental result shows that the method is effective in removing longitudinal chromatism and the quality of the reconstructed image is improved.

  5. Centrifugal accelerator, system and method for removing unwanted layers from a surface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A.; Fisher, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    A cryoblasting process having a centrifugal accelerator for accelerating frozen pellets of argon or carbon dioxide toward a target area utilizes an accelerator throw wheel designed to induce, during operation, the creation of a low-friction gas bearing within internal passages of the wheel which would otherwise retard acceleration of the pellets as they move through the passages. An associated system and method for removing paint from a surface with cryoblasting techniques involves the treating, such as a preheating, of the painted surface to soften the paint prior to the impacting of frozen pellets thereagainst to increase the rate of paint removal. A system and method for producing large quantities of frozen pellets from a liquid material, such as liquid argon or carbon dioxide, for use in a cryoblasting process utilizes a chamber into which the liquid material is introduced in the form of a jet which disintegrates into droplets. A non-condensible gas, such as inert helium or air, is injected into the chamber at a controlled rate so that the droplets freeze into bodies of relatively high density.

  6. Heat transfer analysis of the passive residual heat removal system in ROSA/AP600 experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka; Schultz, R.R.

    1998-10-01

    The passive residual heat removal (PRHR) system in the Westinghouse AP600 advanced passive reactor design is a natural-circulation-driven heat exchanger cooled by the water in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). During the experiments, which simulated small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the AP600 reactor using the ROSA-V Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF), the PRHR system heat removal rates well exceeded the core decay power soon after the actuation of the PRHR. This resulted in continuous cooldown and depressurization of the primary side. The PRHR heat transfer performance in these experiments was analyzed by applying heat transfer correlations available in literature to the PRHR heat exchanger tube bundle. Also, the three-dimensional natural circulation in the IRWST was simulated numerically using the FLUENT code. The total heat transfer rate of the PRHR was predicted within 5% of the measured value. The fluid temperature distribution in the IRWST was also predicted well except that the elevation of the thermally stratified region was underpredicted. The calculated flow pattern in the IRWST suggests that the atypical IRWST geometry in the LSTF may have affected the PRHR heat transfer performance during the experiments only a little.

  7. Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Removal System for EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Cates, Matthew; Dubovik, Margarita; Gershanovich, Yevgenia; Paul, Heather; Thomas, Gretchen

    2006-01-01

    NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS), requiring dramatic reductions in weight, decreased reliance on supplies and greater flexibility on the types of missions. Use of regenerable systems that reduce weight and volume of the EMU is of critical importance to NASA, both for low orbit operations and for long duration manned missions. The CO2 and humidity control unit in the existing PLSS design is relatively large, since it has to remove 8 hours worth of CO2. If the sorbent regeneration can be carried out during the extravehicular activity (EVA) with a relatively high regeneration frequency, the size of the sorbent canister and weight can be significantly reduced. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing a compact, regenerable sorbent-based system to control CO2 and humidity in the space suit ventilation loop. The sorbent can be regenerated using space vacuum during the EVA, eliminating all duration-limiting elements in the life support system. This paper summarizes the results of the sorbent development and testing, and evaluation efforts. The results of a preliminary system analysis are also included, showing the size and volume reductions provided by the new system.

  8. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  9. An artificially constructed Syngonium podophyllum-Aspergillus niger combinate system for removal of uranium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    He, Jia-dong; Wang, Yong-dong; Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Sun, Jing; Deng, Qin-wen; Li, Chang-wu; Xu, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillus niger was inoculated to the roots of five plants, and the Syngonium podophyllum-A. niger combinate system (SPANCS) was found to be the most effective in removing uranium from hydroponic liquid with initial uranium concentration of 5 mg L(-1). Furthermore, the hydroponic experiments on the removal of uranium from the hydroponic liquids with initial uranium concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1) by the SPANCS were conducted, the inhibitory effect of A. niger on the growth of S. podophyllum in the SPANCS was studied, the accumulation characteristics of uranium by S. podophyllum in the SPANCS were analyzed, and the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were measured. The results show that the removal of uranium by the SPANCS from the hydroponic liquids with initial uranium concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1) reached 98.20, 97.90, and 98.50%, respectively, after 37 days of accumulation of uranium; that the uranium concentrations in the hydroponic liquids decreased to 0.009, 0.021, and 0.045 mg L(-1), respectively, which are lower than the stipulated concentration for discharge of 0.050 mg L(-1) by the People's Republic of China; that A. niger helped to generate more groups in the root of S. podophyllum which can improve the complexing capability of S. podophyllum for uranium; and that the uranium accumulated in the root of S. podophyllum was in the form of phosphate uranyl and carboxylic uranyl. PMID:26208659

  10. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed. PMID:17234253

  11. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    PubMed

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs. PMID:26360455

  12. Metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Joan M.; Borghese, Joseph B.; Chang, Craig H.; Stonesifer, Greg T.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of Allied Signal metal oxide based absorbents demonstrated that these absorbents offer a unique capability to regeneratively remove both metabolic carbon dioxide and water vapor from breathing air; previously, metal oxides were considered only for the removal of CO2. The concurrent removal of CO2 and H2O vapor can simplify the astronaut Portable Life Support System (PLSS) by combining the CO2 and humidity control functions into one regenerative component. The use of metal oxide absorbents for removal of both CO2 ad H2O vapor in the PLSS is the focus of an ongoing program. The full scale Metal Oxide Carbon dioxide and Humidity Remover (MOCHR) and regeneration unit is described.

  13. Displacement phenomena in lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026

  14. Affinity chromatography: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hage, David S; Matsuda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most selective and versatile forms of liquid chromatography for the separation or analysis of chemicals in complex mixtures. This method makes use of a biologically related agent as the stationary phase, which provides an affinity column with the ability to bind selectively and reversibly to a given target in a sample. This review examines the early work in this method and various developments that have lead to the current status of this technique. The general principles of affinity chromatography are briefly described as part of this discussion. Past and recent efforts in the generation of new binding agents, supports, and immobilization methods for this method are considered. Various applications of affinity chromatography are also summarized, as well as the influence this field has played in the creation of other affinity-based separation or analysis methods. PMID:25749941

  15. Elucidating the removal mechanism of N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Lin

    2014-03-01

    N,N-Dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) is a typical precursor of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Based on separate hydrolysis, sorption and biodegradation studies of DMDTC, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) system was established to investigate the removal mechanism of DMDTC in this nutrient removal biological treatment system. DMDTC hydrolyzed easily in water solution under either acidic conditions or strong alkaline conditions, and dimethylamine (DMA) was the main hydrolysate. Under anaerobic, anoxic or oxic conditions, DMDTC was biodegraded and completely mineralized. Furthermore, DMA was the main intermediate in DMDTC biodegradation. In the AAO system, the optimal conditions for both nutrient and DMDTC removal were hydraulic retention time 8 hr, sludge retention time 20 day, mixed-liquor return ratio 3:1 and sludge return ratio 1:1. Under these conditions, the removal efficiency of DMDTC reached 99.5%; the removal efficiencies of chemical organic demand, ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 90%, 98%, 81% and 93%, respectively. Biodegradation is the dominant mechanism for DMDTC removal in the AAO system, which was elucidated as consisting of two steps: first, DMDTC is transformed to DMA in the anaerobic and anoxic units, and then DMA is mineralized to CO2 and NH3 in the anoxic and oxic units. The mineralization of DMDTC in the biological treatment system can effectively avoid the formation of NDMA during subsequent disinfection processes. PMID:25079269

  16. PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

  17. Macroporous molecularly imprinted polymer/cryogel composite systems for the removal of endocrine disrupting trace contaminants.

    PubMed

    Le Noir, Mathieu; Plieva, Fatima; Hey, Tobias; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo

    2007-06-22

    A new concept for the preparation of selective sorbents with high flow path properties is presented by embedding molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) into various macroporous gels (MGs). A MIP was first synthetized with 17beta-estradiol (E2) as template for the selective adsorption of this endocrine disrupter. The composite macroporous gel/MIP (MG/MIP) monoliths were then prepared at subzero temperatures. Complete recovery of E2 from a 2 microg/L aqueous solution was achieved using the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) MG/MIP monoliths whereas only 49-74% was removed with non-imprinted polymers (when no template was used). The PVA MG/MIP monolith columns were operated at almost 10 times higher flow rate (50 mL/min) compared to the MIP columns with operation flow rate of 1-5 mL/min. The possibility for processing the particulate containing wastewater effluents at high flow rates with selectivity on E2 removal, as well as the easy preparation of the monoliths, make the macroporous MG/MIP systems attractive and robust sorbents for the clean up of water from endocrine disrupting trace contaminants. PMID:17449053

  18. [Nitrate removal from recirculating aquaculture system using polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate as carbon source ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanhe; Liu, Lili; Qiu, Tianlei; Gao, Min; Han, Meilin; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Xuming

    2014-09-01

    [ OBJECTIVE] Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) was used as solid carbon source and biofilm carrier to remove nitrate from recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Dynamics of microbial community structure in biofilm coating on carbon source packed into denitrification reactor were investigated. [METHODS] Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the microbial community in biofilm from denitrifiation reactor. Bacteria degrading PHBV were isolated from the reactor using pure culture method. [RESULTS] Nitrate decreased remarkably in the RAS connected with dentrification reactor. In contrast, Nitrate increased continuously in the conventional RAS without dentrification reactor. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the microbes in the biofilm samples from denitrification reactor were divided into Proteobacteria ( p-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and δ- proteobacteria) , Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The major advantageous populations were Acidovorax and Bacillus in the 40-day reactor. The advantageous populations in the 150-day reactor were in order of Clostridium, Desulfitobacterium, Dechloromonas, Pseudoxanthomonas and Flavobacterium. Pure cultures of bacteria degrading PHBV isolated from denitrification reactor were classified into Acidovorax, Methylibium, Pseudoxanthomonas and Dechloromonas. [CONCLUSION] Nitrate could be removed effectively from RAS using PHBV as carbon source. Advantageous bacteria and their dynamic changes were ascertained in biofilm from denitrification reactor packed with PHBV. PMID:25522594

  19. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. PMID:27309772

  20. Removing meperidine from the health-system formulary--frequently asked questions.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, M Christina; Fox, Erin R; Chandramouli, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Meperidine is FDA-approved for relieving moderate to severe pain and has been widely used since its introduction in the 1930s. However, the drug is no longer considered a first-line analgesic. Many clinicians recommend that meperidine be removed from health-systems or that its use be restricted, due to concerns about adverse reactions, drug interactions, and normeperidine neurotoxicity. In addition, clinical evidence shows that meperidine has no advantage over other opioids for biliary colic or pancreatitis. The formulary status of meperidine has been extensively discussed at University of Utah Hospitals and Clinics. The Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee has been working with hospital staff to assess the impact of either removing meperidine from the formulary, or limiting its use. The Drug Information Service developed this document to help pharmacists respond to prescribers' questions and to alleviate the prescribers' concerns about these changes. Information is provided comparing meperidine with other opioids, including dosage equivalency, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, cost, adverse effects, and drug interactions. Where available, alternatives to meperidine are suggested for various indications. PMID:14640355

  1. Identification of active denitrifiers in full-scale nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Starnawska, Anna; Starnawski, Piotr; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is essential to the removal of nitrogen from wastewater during treatment, yet an understanding of the diversity of the active denitrifying bacteria responsible in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is lacking. In this study, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was applied in combination with microautoradiography (MAR)-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify previously unrecognized active denitrifying phylotypes in a full-scale WWTP with biological N and P removal. Acknowledging that different denitrifiers will have specific carbon source preferences, a fully (13)C-labelled complex substrate was used for SIP incubations, under nitrite-reducing conditions, in order to maximize the capture of the potentially metabolically diverse denitrifiers likely present. Members of the Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas, Sulfuritalea, Haliangium and Thermomonas were represented in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from DNA enriched in (13)C, with FISH probes optimized here for their in situ characterization. FISH and MAR confirmed that they were all active denitrifiers in the community. The combined approach of SIP and MAR-FISH represents an excellent approach for identifying and characterizing an un-described diversity of active denitrifiers in full-scale systems. PMID:25181571

  2. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems: Adsorption and Application

    PubMed Central

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, R. Shane

    2012-01-01

    Surface-functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS), has previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems, suggesting that they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials’ biocompatibility, and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e., blood, urine, etc.) Consequentially, thiol-functionalized SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e., variable pH and ionic strength) to gauge any potentially negative effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or the removal of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus nontoxic. The results show that organic ligand functionalized nanoporous silica could be a valuable material for a range of detoxification therapies and potentially other biomedical applications. PMID:20939537

  3. Phytoremediation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous system by riverine macrophyte, Acorus calamus: toxicity and removal rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghai; Li, Cui; Zheng, Ruilun; Que, Xiaoe

    2016-08-01

    The potential of Acorus calamus to remove chlorpyrifos from water was assessed under laboratory conditions. Toxic effects of the insecticide in A. calamus were evaluated using pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence techniques as well. At exposure concentrations above 8 mg L(-1), A. calamus showed obvious phytotoxic symptom with significant reduction in quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) in 20-day test; the inhibition of maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) was accompanied by a significant rise in initial chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) within 15-day exposures. Fv/Fm and Fo recover to the normal level after 20-day exposure. The reduced removal rate to chlorpyrifos was observed with increase of initial chlorpyrifos concentrations. At application levels of 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1), the disappearance rate of chlorpyrifos in the hydroponic system with plants was significantly greater than that without plants during the 20-day test periods. Chlorpyrifos was taken up from medium and transferred to above ground tissues by the plant and significant amounts of chlorpyrifos accumulated in plant tissues. The result indicated that A. calamus can promote the disappearance of chlorpyrifos from water and may be used for phytoremediation of water contaminated with a relatively low concentration of chlorpyrifos insecticide (<4 mg L(-1)). PMID:27154841

  4. Electrical Stimulation Improves Microbial Salinity Resistance and Organofluorine Removal in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huajun; Zhang, Xueqin; Guo, Kun; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Shen, Dongsheng; Long, Yuyang; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Fed batch bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) based on electrical stimulation were used to treat p-fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) wastewater at high salinities. At a NaCl concentration of 40 g/liter, p-FNB was removed 100% in 96 h in the BES, whereas in the biotic control (BC) (absence of current), p-FNB removal was only 10%. By increasing NaCl concentrations from 0 g/liter to 40 g/liter, defluorination efficiency decreased around 40% in the BES, and in the BC it was completely ceased. p-FNB was mineralized by 30% in the BES and hardly in the BC. Microorganisms were able to store 3.8 and 0.7 times more K+ and Na+ intracellularly in the BES than in the BC. Following the same trend, the ratio of protein to soluble polysaccharide increased from 3.1 to 7.8 as the NaCl increased from 0 to 40 g/liter. Both trends raise speculation that an electrical stimulation drives microbial preference toward K+ and protein accumulation to tolerate salinity. These findings are in accordance with an enrichment of halophilic organisms in the BES. Halobacterium dominated in the BES by 56.8% at a NaCl concentration of 40 g/liter, while its abundance was found as low as 17.5% in the BC. These findings propose a new method of electrical stimulation to improve microbial salinity resistance. PMID:25819966

  5. Centering ability and dentin removal of rotary systems in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Talati, Ali; Monajem Zadeh, Ali

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare centering ability and dentin removal of three rotary systems in curved root canals of extracted teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty root canals of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25-35o were divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. Based on pre-instrumentation radiographs that assessed the angle and the radius of canal curvatures, teeth with curvatures were equally spread between the three groups. The root canals were sectioned horizontally at two levels before preparation and then remounted onto the muffle. All root canals were prepared using a low-torque control motor with Mtwo or Medin or Race instruments. Cross sectional images were obtained before and after instrumentation. Cross-sectional area and centering ability were evaluated. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. RESULTS: Neither instrument fracture nor permanent deformation occurred during preparations. The best centering ability was obtained by Mtwo instruments compare to Race and Medin instruments. In the coronal and middle sections, Mtwo removed less dentin than Race and Medin; while the difference in the apical section was not significant. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, the debridement of root canals was more conservative with Mtwo. The canals prepared with these instruments were better centered in all three regions of the root. PMID:24003328

  6. Allelic isoforms of the H+/nucleoside co-transporter (CaCNT) from Candida albicans reveal separate high- and low-affinity transport systems for nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Slugoski, Melissa D; Loewen, Shaun K; Ng, Amy M L; Baldwin, Stephen A; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2004-11-01

    Contigs 19-10196 and 19-20196 of the Stanford Candida albicans genome sequence databank encode two putative allelic isoforms of C. albicans CaCNT, a recently characterized 608 amino acid residue H+-coupled fungal member of the CNT family of concentrative nucleoside transport proteins. The single Ser/Gly difference between CaCNT/19-20196 and CaCNT occurs at position 328 in putative TM 7, and corresponds to a Ser/Gly substitution previously shown to contribute to the contrasting pyrimidine and purine nucleoside selectivities of human (h) and rat (r) Na+-dependent CNT1 and CNT2. CaCNT/19-10196 differs from CaCNT by four amino acids, but has Gly at position 328. These new proteins were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis of CaCNT and characterized functionally by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In marked contrast to h/rCNT1/2, both CaCNT/19-10196 and CaCNT/19-20196 exhibited permeant selectivities for purine nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine and inosine) and uridine similar to that of CaCNT. However, although H+-coupled, CaCNT/19-20196 exhibited a approximately 10-fold higher apparent Km for uridine than either CaCNT or CaCNT/19-10196. CaCNT/19-20196 also exhibited a low apparent affinity for inosine. We conclude that the three proteins correspond to high-affinity (CaCNT, CaCNT/19-10196) and low-affinity (CaCNT/19-20196) allelic isoforms of the C. albicans CNT nucleoside transporter. This is the first example of a single amino acid residue substitution altering a CNT protein's overall apparent affinity for nucleosides. PMID:15543539

  7. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  8. An Integrated Model for Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth; K. M. Bryden

    2003-12-01

    Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40

  9. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  10. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process. PMID:25448945

  11. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: Single and binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process.

  12. Complications of Transfemoral Removal of Percutaneous Transfemorally Implanted Port-Catheter Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yahiro, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Naoyuki Kakizawa, Hideaki; Hieda, Masashi; Hirai, Nobuhiko; Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide

    2006-10-15

    Our purpose is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the withdrawal procedure of percutaneous transfemorally implanted port-catheter systems. Thirty-seven patients (17.7%) underwent the withdrawal procedure of this port-catheter system among 209 patients. The reasons for withdrawal were as follows: termination of intra-arterial chemotherapy (n = 7), obstruction of hepatic artery (n = 5), port infection (n = 4), catheter infection (n = 4), catheter obstruction (n = 4), lower-limb palsy and pain (n = 2), exposure of the port due to skin defect (n = 2), patient's desire (n = 2), side effect of chemotherapy (n = 1), no effectiveness of chemotherapy (n = 1), hematoma at the puncture site (n = 1), duodenum perforation by the catheter (n = 1), intermittent claudication due to severe stenosis of right common iliac artery (n = 1), dissection of common hepatic artery (n = 1), and broken catheter (n = 1). In thirty-four of the 37 cases, the port-catheter system was successfully withdrawn without any complications. Clinical success rate was 91.9%. Complications occurred in three cases (8.1%), which were a pseudoaneurysm, thromboembolism of the right common iliac artery, and continuous bleeding from the subcutaneous pocket where the port system was placed for 1 month. In 15 cases, correction of the catheter tip or exchange for dislocation of the tip had to be done without withdrawal. It is not rare to withdraw port-catheter systems in cases of infection or hematoma around the system. Although withdrawal of a percutaneous transfemorally implanted port-catheter system is a relatively safe procedure, the port-catheter system should not be removed unless absolutely indicated.

  13. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources utilizing a fixed-bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Jackson, Jeff; Clancy, Tara M; Hyun, Sung Pil; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-09-01

    A novel bioreactor system, consisting of two biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors in series, was developed for the simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from a synthetic groundwater supplemented with acetic acid. A mixed biofilm microbial community that developed on the BAC was capable of utilizing dissolved oxygen, nitrate, arsenate, and sulfate as the electron acceptors. Nitrate was removed from a concentration of approximately 50 mg/L in the influent to below the detection limit of 0.2 mg/L. Biologically generated sulfides resulted in the precipitation of the iron sulfides mackinawite and greigite, which concomitantly removed arsenic from an influent concentration of approximately 200 ug/L to below 20 ug/L through arsenic sulfide precipitation and surface precipitation on iron sulfides. This study showed for the first time that arsenic and nitrate can be simultaneously removed from drinking water sources utilizing a bioreactor system. PMID:20732708

  14. The riddell ripkord system for shoulder pad removal in a cervical spine injured athlete: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Kordecki, Michael; Smith, Danny; Hoogenboom, Barb

    2011-06-01

    Since the inception of the term Sports Medicine Athletic Trainers, Sports Physical Therapists, Paramedics, and Emergency Room Physicians have faced a number of challenges when it comes to providing care to an equipment laden athlete suspected of having a cervical spine or serious head injury. The same equipment that is designed to protect the player may significantly impede the medical team when it comes to diagnosing and treating cervical spine and head injuries. Incorrectly removing the helmet and shoulder pads from a football player with a cervical spine injury, may lead to unwanted motion of the cervical spine during removal. It is the purpose of this article to review the current concepts relating to equipment removal and to introduce a novel system for quick and easy removal of football shoulder pads called the Riddell™RipKord system. PMID:21712941

  15. Removal of PCDD/Fs and PCBs from flue gas using a pilot gas cleaning system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yuqi; Wu, Hailong; Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Jiang, Xuguang; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    A 100 Nm3/hr capacity pilot scale dual bag filter (DBF) system was tested on the flue gas from an actual hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was also studied. The first filter collected most of the fly ash and associated chlorinated organic; then activated carbon (AC) was injected and used to collect phase chlorinated organic from the gas. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs after the DBF system were 0.07 and 0.01 ng TEQ/Nm3, respectively, which were both far below the national emission standard. Comparing with the original single bag filter system, the PCDD/Fs concentration dropped a lot from 0.36 to 0.07 ng TEQ/Nm3. Increasing AC feeding rate enhanced their collection efficiency, yet reduced the AC utilization efficiency, and it still needs further study to select an appropriate feeding rate in the system. These results will be useful for industrial application and assist in controlling emissions of PCDD/Fs and other persistent organic pollutions from stationary sources in China. PMID:24520726

  16. Systemic oxidative profile after tumor removal and the tumor microenvironment in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Sara Santos; de Souza-Neto, Fernando Pinheiro; Ramalho, Leandra Náira Zambelli; Derossi, Daniela Rudgeri; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; da Silva, Cássio Fernando Nunes; Melo, Gabriella Pascoal; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço

    2015-06-01

    This study highlights the systemic oxidative changes in patients submitted to primary cutaneous melanoma removal. Cutaneous melanoma is highly aggressive and its incidence is increasing worldwide. We evaluated systemic oxidative stress (OS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) expression in melanoma tissue in relation to the Breslow thickness in patients under surveillance. Forty-three patients with cutaneous melanoma and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to the tumor's Breslow thickness: T1/T2 (<2 mm) and T3/T4 (≥2 mm). Systemic OS and inflammatory mediators were evaluated in plasma, and the 3-NT expression was analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Compared with the controls, the patients had lower blood levels of reduced glutathione, higher malondialdehyde and thiol levels, and a higher total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter to uric acid ratio. The C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased only in the T3/T4 group. High levels of 3-NT were present only in T3/T4 patients. Our data suggested that a correlation exists between the Breslow thickness and a systemic pro-oxidant status, and that oxidative changes induced by the melanoma remain in the microenvironment post-surgery, demonstrating a role for oxygen species in melanoma. PMID:25772650

  17. Design of electrocardiography measurement system with an algorithm to remove noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) is an important diagnostic tool that can provide vital information about diseases that may not be detectable with other biological signals like, SpO2(Oxygen Saturation), pulse rate, respiration, and blood pressure. For this reason, EKG measurement is mandatory for accurate diagnosis. Recent development in information technology has facilitated remote monitoring systems which can check patient's current status. Moreover, remote monitoring systems can obviate the need for patients to go to hospitals periodically. Such representative wireless communication system is Zigbee sensor network because Zigbee sensor network provides low power consumption and multi-device connection. When we measure EKG signal, another important factor that we should consider is about unexpected signals mixed to EKG signal. The unexpected signals give a severe impact in distorting original EKG signal. There are three kinds of types in noise elements such as muscle noise, movement noise, and respiration noise. This paper describes the design method for EKG measurement system with Zigbee sensor network and proposes an algorithm to remove noises from measured ECG signal.

  18. A Study on the Development of a Robot-Assisted Automatic Laser Hair Removal System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoung-woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. Methods: For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of “pick and place” automatically. Results: During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm2/spot, respectively. Conclusions: Results showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment. PMID:25343281

  19. Field performance of air-sparging system for removing TCE from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Blayden, J.M.; Ganguly, C.

    1999-01-01

    The removal of volatile organic compounds from groundwater by air sparging (AS) is well-established, although reliable methods for predicting the time required to reach site closure have not been established. To develop and improved understanding of mass transfer processes that limit AS performance, two extended controlled shutdowns of an operating AS system were performed. Monitoring of TCE concentrations in source zone groundwater indicated tailing and rebound behavior similar to that observed for pump-and-treat systems. A simple two-compartment model provided a reasonable description of the 3-year AS history, using parameters calibrated from data collected during the first shutdown period. Comparison of the calibrated rate constants with parameters estimated from laboratory soil columns suggest that, for the study site, aqueous diffusion to discrete air channels has a stronger influence on system performance than rate-limited desorption. Predictions based on the calibrated model indicated that restoration of the source zone to drinking water standards would require approximately 1 decade for the current AS system.

  20. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOEpatents

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  1. An acid-gas removal system for upgrading subquality natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.; Leppin, D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Hooper, H.M.; Emmrich, G.; Moore, T.F.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop systems to reduce the cost of treating subquality natural gas. Based on over 1,000 laboratory experiments on vapor-liquid equilibria and mass transfer and simulation studies, the use of N-Formyl Morpholine as a solvent together with structured packings has the following advantages: high capacity for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} removal; little or no refrigeration required; less loss of hydrocarbons (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6}); and dehydration potential. To verify these findings and to obtain additional data base for scale-up, a field test unit capable of processing 1MMSCF/d of natural gas has been installed at the Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) Fandango processing plant site. The results of the testing at the Fandango site will be presented when available.

  2. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture. PMID:21644158

  3. Rapid removal of nitrobenzene in a three-phase ozone loaded system with gas-liquid-liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Shiyin; Zhu, Jiangpeng; Wang, Guoxiang; Ni, Lixiao; Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the removal rate of nitrobenzene (NB) using a new gas-liquid-liquid (G-L-L) three-phase ozone loaded system consisting of a gaseous ozone, an aqueous solvent phase, and a fluorinated solvent phase (perfluorodecalin, or FDC). The removal rate of NB was quantified in relation to six factors including 1) initial pH, 2) initial NB dosage, 3) gaseous ozone dosage, 4) free radical scavenger, 5) FDC pre-aerated gaseous ozone, and 6) reuse of FDC. The NB removal rate is positively affected by the first three factors. Compared with the conventional gas-liquid (water) (G-L) two-phase ozonation system, the free radical scavenger (tertiary butyl alcohol) has much less influence on the removal rate of NB in the G-L-L system. The FDC loaded ozone acts as an ozone reservoir and serves as the main reactive phase in the G-L-L three-phase system. The reuse of FDC has little influence on the removal rate of NB. These experimental results suggest that the oxidation efficiency of ozonation in the G-L-L three-phase system is better than that in the conventional G-L two-phase system.

  4. Long-term effect of low concentration Cr(VI) on P removal in granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Su, Bin; Sun, Peide; Lou, Juqing; Han, Jingyi

    2015-02-01

    In light of the fact that most wastewater in China contained both industrial and domestic wastewater, a 52-d systematical investigation was conducted on the long-term effect of low concentration Cr(VI) (0.3-0.8 mg L(-1)) on P removal performance of granule-based EBPR system in this study. The mechanisms were likewise discussed. Results showed that high Cr(VI) concentration (⩾0.5 mg L(-1)) could significantly inhibit P removal, while this phenomenon was not found when Cr(VI) concentration was less than (or equal to) 0.4 mg L(-1). Most of the granules was disintegrated and filamentous bacteria overgrew inducing sludge bulking occurred at 0.7 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). During the exposure test, the abundance of poly-phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) significantly decreased while the populations of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other bacteria increased. Both production and degradation of poly-β-hydroxyakanoates (PHAs) were apparently inhibited. An improved polysaccharide/protein (PS/PN) ratio was observed with the increasing Cr(VI) concentration, implying excessive polysaccharide was secreted by microorganisms to support its resistance to the toxicity of Cr(VI). Besides, good linear regression between PS/PN ratio and the granule size (R(2)=-0.86, p<0.01) was obtained, indicating that high PS/PN was adverse to granule stability. Correlation analysis indicated that the accumulation of granules intracellular Cr was directly responsible for the observed inhibitory effect on P removal process. The long-term Cr(VI) treatment had irreversible effects on granule-based EBPR system as it could not revive after a 16-d recovery process. PMID:25479809

  5. Experimental and theoretical binding affinity between polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and selected phenolic compounds from food matrices.

    PubMed

    Durán-Lara, Esteban F; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Castro, Ricardo I; Avila-Salas, Fabián; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Laurie, V Felipe; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent, widely used in winemaking and brewing, whose mode of action in removing phenolic compounds has not been fully characterised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experimental and theoretical binding affinity of PVPP towards six phenolic compounds representing different types of phenolic species. The interaction between PVPP and phenolics was evaluated in model solutions, where hydroxyl groups, hydrophobic bonding and steric hindrance were characterised. The results of the study indicated that PVPP exhibits high affinity for quercetin and catechin, moderate affinity for epicatechin, gallic acid and lower affinity for 4-methylcatechol and caffeic acid. The affinity has a direct correlation with the hydroxylation degree of each compound. The results show that the affinity of PVPP towards phenols is related with frontier orbitals. This work demonstrates a direct correlation between the experimental affinity and the interaction energy calculations obtained through computational chemistry methods. PMID:25172736

  6. A comparison between the theory and reality of full-scale step-feed nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Goodwin, S; Daigger, G T; Crawford, G V

    2005-01-01

    Capacity enhancement and volume reduction benefits of step-feeding fully aerobic bioreactors has been well documented. Application of step-feed technology to biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems, particularly those removing nitrogen alone or both nitrogen and phosphorus, is relatively new to the industry. In recent years, a number of full-scale step-feed facilities have been brought into service. This paper reviews nine full-scale step-feed biological nutrient removal systems--both nitrogen removal alone, and nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The objective is to compare the theoretical benefits of such systems with their actual operation. The predicted benefits of reduced bioreactor volume or increased process capacity, reduced energy usage, more robust nitrification performance, and the flexibility to tune (or de-tune) nitrification efficiency were verified in full-scale systems. Equations are also presented that may be used in the prediction of step-feed benefits. There are two primary drivers for considering a step-feed biological reactor system: 1. Reduced bioreactor volume for a defined capacity or performance or increased process capacity given a fixed bioreactor volume. 2. More robust nitrification performance. Full-scale operation of these step-feed nutrient removal systems provides a real world basis for the claimed benefits of step-feed operation. These systems have uniformly shown additional capacity. A number of them have also exhibited more robust performance, especially during storms. Where possible, side-by-side comparisons of full-scale step-feed systems with non-step-feed systems have exhibited greater process reliability and flexibility. PMID:16459837

  7. An investigation of natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100 reactor system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    A transient thermal-hydraulic model of the decay heat removal from a 550 kWe SP-100 power system for a lunar outpost has been developed and used to assess the coolability of the system by natural circulation after reactor shutdown. Results show that natural circulation of lithium coolant is sufficient to ensure coolability of the reactor core after shutdown. Further improvement of the decay heat removal capability of the system could be achieved by increasing the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger duct. A radiator area of 10-15 m2 would be sufficient to maintain the reactor core safely coolable by natural circulation after shutdown. Increasing the area of the decay heat rejection radiator or the diameter of the heat pipes in the guard vessel wall insignificantly affects the decay heat removal capability of the system.

  8. Persistent Spinal Headache After Removal of Intrathecal Drug Delivery System: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kurnutala, Lakshmi N.; Kim, David; Sayeed, Huma; Sibai, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To report and discuss the spinal headache following insertion and removal of intrathecal drug delivery system in patients with chronic pain disorders. Case Presentation: Intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS) was initially used for the management of chronic malignant pain; it has since been used to manage pain from other nonmalignant conditions as well. Spinal headache is one of the complications during the trial, permanent placement and after removal of intrathecal drug delivery catheter systems. A 48-year-male patient with chronic pain disorder developed a refractory spinal headache after removing the intrathecal drug delivery system requiring a surgical intervention to resolve the problem. Conclusions: Conservative management is successful in the vast majority of patients with spinal headache. Interventional procedures are required in a small fraction of patients for symptomatic relief. PMID:26587409

  9. Northwest Plume Groundwater System Green-sand Media Removal and Waste Packaging Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Troutman, M.T.; Richards, C.J.; Tarantino, J.J.

    2006-07-01

    The Northwest Plume Groundwater System (NWPGS) was temporarily shut down due to high differential pressures across the green-sand filters. Increased levels of suspended solids were introduced into the system from monitoring well development water, equipment decontamination water, and secondary containment water. These waters were treated for suspended solids through a groundwater pretreatment system but were suspected of causing the high differential pressures in the green-sand filters. Prior to the system being shutdown, the NWPGS had been experiencing increasingly shorter run times between filter backwashes indicating that the normal backwash cycle was not adequately removing the fines. This condition led to the removal and replacement of green-sand media from two filter vessels. Discussions include problems with the removal process, waste packaging specifications, requirements for the disposition of green-sand media, and lessons learned. (authors)

  10. Planning study, resin and debris removal system. Three Mile Island nuclear station unit 2 make-up and purification demineralizers

    SciTech Connect

    Renkey, E.J.; Jenkins, W.W.

    1983-06-01

    Various methods were evaluated to remove the resin and debris from the makeup and purification demineralizers. There are two preferred concepts. The existing waste disposal system should be utilized if some contamination of currently clean lines is acceptable. A skid mounted, temporary, upflow/downflow system should be utilized if the demineralizers and associated piping are to be cleaned to the maximum extent practicable with minimum contamination of the existing system. Both methods provide for removal of complex organic compounds from the effluent and elution of cesium from the resin. The resin and debris will be diluted with concrete to be disposed of in accordance with 10CFR61 burial limits.

  11. Evaluation of three state-of-the-art water-jet systems for cutting/removing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, C. E.

    1982-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration project to evaluate the capability of three waterjet systems for cutting or removing concrete or both. The Corps of Engineers is interested in the potential of this technology for such applications as rapid cutting of bomb-damaged selection of airfield pavement and removing of deteriorated sections of concrete structures at Civil Works projects. Because water-jet systems are capable of transmitting, without mechanical constraint, all of the available horsepower of their power sources into the concrete cutting/removing operation, they may prove to be an extremely efficient means of conducting such operations. The low-pressure water jets were able to cut a 6-in. slot in the concrete for a distance of 1-1/2 ft. in a period of 24 minutes (a rate of 6.4 ft. per hour). The relatively high-pressure water jet cut at rates of 9.6 ft. per hour for shallow cuts (less than 5 in.) and 3 ft. per hour for deeper cuts (greater than 5 in.). In addition, one of the low-pressure systems was used to remove some surface concrete. The results of this evaluation indicate that, although these water-jet systems did not demonstrate a capability for efficiently cutting concrete airfield pavements, the technology has potential. The low-pressure system demonstrated a capability for removing surface concrete efficiently.

  12. Evaluation of acrylamide-removing properties of two Lactobacillus strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Jimenez, L; Ramírez-Ortiz, K; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; Garcia, H S; Hernandez-Mendoza, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus reuteri NRRL 14171 and Lactobacillus casei Shirota to remove dietary acrylamide (AA) under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system. The effects of different AA levels or bacteria concentration on toxin removal by Lactobacillus strains were assessed. Thereafter, AA-removing capability of bacteria strains under either fasting or postprandial simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Commercial potato chips were analyzed for their AA content, and then used as a food model. Average AA content (34,162μg/kg) in potato chips exceeded by ca. 34-fold the indicative values recommended by the EU. Toxin removal ability was dependent on AA content and bacterial cell concentration. A reduction on bacterial viability was observed in the food model and at the end of both digestive processes evaluated. However, bacteria survived in enough concentrations to remove part of the toxin (32-73%). Both bacterial strains were able to remove AA under different simulated gastrointestinal conditions, being L. casei Shirota the most effective (ca. 70% removal). These findings confirmed the risk of potato chips as dietary AA exposure for consumers, and that strains of the genus Lactobacillus could be employed to reduce the bioavailability of dietary AA. PMID:27393995

  13. REMOVING INORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When EPA sets a regulation ( a maxim contaminant level) for a contaminant, it must also specify the "best available technology" (BAT) that can be used to remove the contaminant. ecause the regulations apply to community water systems, the technologies selected are ones that are c...

  14. The lid of the container for the Mobile Base System, part of the Canadian arm, is prepared for remov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, workers prepare to remove the lid of a container holding the Mobile Base System (MBS). The MBS is part of the Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), which is part of the payload on mission STS-100 to the International Space Station.

  15. REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, HF-82-35-PMPW™ ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two Koch Membrane Systems HF-82-35-PMPW ultrafiltration membrane cartridges were tested for removal of viruses, bacteria, and protozoan cysts at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. The ETV testing was conducted as part of a series of evaluations of the Expeditiona...

  16. Respiratory Impairment and Systemic Inflammation in Cedar Asthmatics Removed from Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Pui, Mandy M.; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown that removing occupational asthmatics from exposure does not routinely lead to significant improvements in respiratory impairment. These studies were of limited duration and factors determining recovery remain obscure. Our objective was to evaluate residual respiratory impairment and associated sputum and blood biomarkers in subjects with Western red cedar asthma after exposure cessation. Methods Subjects previously diagnosed with cedar asthma, and removed from exposure to cedar dust for at least one year, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and spirometry. PC20 (methacholine concentration that produces 20% fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at 1 second)) sputum cellularity and select Th1/Th2 (T helper cells 1 and 2) cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood were determined. The asthma impairment class was determined and multivariate analyses were performed to determine its relationship with sputum cell counts and serum cytokines. Results 40 non-smoking males (mean age 62) were examined at a mean interval of 25 years from cedar asthma diagnosis and 17 years from last cedar exposure. 40% were in impairment class 2/3. On average, the PC20 had increased by 2.0 mg/ml; the FEV1 decreased by 1.5 L, with greater decrease in those with greater impairment. Higher impairment was associated with serum interferon-gamma (mean = 1.3 pg/ml in class 2/3 versus 0.62 pg/ml in class 0/1, p = 0.04), mainly due to the FEV1 component (correlation with interferon-gamma = −0.46, p = 0.005). Conclusion Years after exposure cessation, patients with Western red cedar asthma have persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory impairment, associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:23468925

  17. Performance of organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems by intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long; Huang, Linli; Fei, Hexin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Organics and nitrogen removal in four subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs), named SWIS A (without intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater), SWIS B (with intermittent aeration), SWIS C (with shunt distributing wastewater) and SWIS D (with intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater) was investigated. High average removal rates of 92.3% for COD, 90.2% for NH4-N and 88.1% for TN were achieved simultaneously in SWIS D compared with SWIS A, B and C. The excellent TN removal of SWIS D was due to intermittent aeration provided sufficient oxygen for nitrification in upper matrix and the favorable anoxic or anaerobic environment for denitrification in subsequent matrix, and moreover, shunt distributing wastewater provided sufficient carbon source for denitrification process. The results indicated that intermittent artificial aeration combined with shunt distributing wastewater could achieve high organics and nitrogen removal in SWISs. PMID:27039353

  18. Trophic complexity in aqueous systems: bacterial species richness and protistan predation regulate dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Fetzer, Ingo; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2016-02-24

    Loading of water bodies with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) affects their integrity and functioning. Microbial interactions mitigate the negative effects of high nutrient loads in these ecosystems. Despite numerous studies on how biodiversity mediates ecosystem functions, whether and how diversity and complexity of microbial food webs (horizontal, vertical) and the underlying ecological mechanisms influence nutrient removal has barely been investigated. Using microbial microcosms accommodating systematic combinations of prey (bacteria) and predator (protists) species, we showed that increasing bacterial richness improved the extent and reliability of DOC and DTN removal. Bacterial diversity drove nutrient removal either due to species foraging physiology or functional redundancy, whereas protistan diversity affected nutrient removal through bacterial prey resource partitioning and changing nutrient balance in the system. Our results demonstrate that prey-predator diversity and trophic interactions interactively determine nutrient contents, thus implying the vital role of microbial trophic complexity as a biological buffer against DOC and DTN. PMID:26888033

  19. Mechanistic Determination of Nitrogen Removal By Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems Using 15n Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current levels of nitrogen removal by onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are inadequate, with release of N from OWTS contributing to environmental N pollution, especially in coastal zones where aquatic ecosystems are sensitive to eutrophication. Current mechanistic understand of N removal are limited and mainly attributed to denitrification in the drainfield. Loss of N from N2O production during nitrification, a sparsely researched topic, may be a significant mechanism in advanced OWTS systems that enhance O2 diffusion by sand filter pre-treatment, shallow placement of infiltrative areas and timed dosing controls to prevent drainfield saturation. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used with 15N isotope to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of N removal in drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone, P&S) compared to two advanced types of drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (SND) and Geomat (GEO), a variation of a SND drainfield. Over the 11 day experiment, dissolved O2 was 1.6 mg/L for P&S and 3.0 mg/L for SND and GEO. Removal of total N was 13.5% for P&S, 4.8% for SND and 5.4% for GEO. 15NH4 labeled nitrogen inputs to drainfields were transformed primarily to 15NO3 in all outputs. Consistent low 15N2O levels were present in P&S, with increasing levels of N2 peaking 48h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting denitrification dominated N removal. By contrast, SND and GEO 15N2O levels rose quickly, peaking 8h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting N loss by nitrification. When the whole system is considered, including sand filter removal, 26 - 27% of total N was removed by the SND and GEO systems, whereas 14% of total N was removed in the P&S system. Our results suggest the SND and GEO systems as a whole are capable of removing a greater mass of N than the P&S system.

  20. The double polymethylmethacrylate filter (DELETE system) in the removal of light chains in chronic dialysis patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Grazia, Michele; Mancini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is still one of the most common haematological diseases and is associated with a poor prognosis. It is frequently worsened by acute kidney failure that, in turn, aggravates the risk of death. In the past few years, the idea has made headway that the removal of free light chains (FLC) by means of extracorporeal blood purification systems may facilitate the recovery of renal function. Up to now, many different extracorporeal techniques have been put forward in FLC removal, such as plasma exchange, dialysis with super-flux filters, and adsorption by means of cartridge of resins. In this paper, we illustrate the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dialysis membranes with a high adsorptive capacity (Toray BK-F; Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). We have evaluated light chain removal by means of an original dialysis procedure using a double-filter circuit made of PMMA working in sequential dialysis (DELETE system). The system provides satisfactory results in terms of FLC removal and, at the same time, ensures an adequate dialysis treatment (Kt/V >1.5) with significant reduction in urea, creatinine, and β2-microglobulin. The dual PMMA filter system combines an acceptable cost/efficiency ratio when compared with other methods and constitutes a concrete prospect in FLC removal. Its preferential setting of use is in patients with MM or with monoclonal gammopathies, who are on chronic dialysis and maintain high circulating levels of FLC. PMID:23676829

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  2. Study on nitrogen removal enhanced by shunt distributing wastewater in a constructed subsurface infiltration system under intermittent operation mode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Li, Haibo; Sun, Tieheng; Wang, Xin

    2011-05-15

    Subsurface wastewater infiltration system is an efficient and economic technology in treating small scattered sewage. The removal rates are generally satisfactory in terms of COD, BOD(5), TP and SS removal; while nitrogen removal is deficient in most of the present operating SWIS due to the different requirements for the presence of oxygen for nitrification and denitrification processes. To study the enhanced nitrogen removal technologies, two pilot subsurface wastewater infiltration systems were constructed in a village in Shenyang, China. The filled matrix was a mixture of 5% activated sludge, 65% brown soil and 30% coal slag in volume ratio for both systems. Intermittent operation mode was applied in to supply sufficient oxygen to accomplish the nitrification; meanwhile sewage was supplemented as the carbon source to the lower part in to denitrify. The constructed subsurface wastewater infiltration systems worked successfully under wetting-drying ratio of 1:1 with hydraulic loading of 0.081 m(3)/(m(2)d) for over 4 months. Carbon source was supplemented with shunt ratio of 1:1 and shunt position at the depth of 0.5m. The experimental results showed that intermittent operation mode and carbon source supplementation could significantly enhance the nitrogen removal efficiency with little influence on COD and TP removal. The average removal efficiencies for NH(3)-N and TN were 87.7 ± 1.4 and 70.1 ± 1.0%, increased by 12.5 ± 1.0 and 8.6 ± 0.7%, respectively. PMID:21402440

  3. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. PMID:27295254

  4. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2014-01-01

    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way. PMID:24901627

  5. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  6. Carbon dioxide removal system for closed loop atmosphere revitalization, candidate sorbents screening and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, E. M.; Knox, J. C.; Bardot, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the difficulty and expense it costs to resupply manned-spacecraft habitats, a goal is to create a closed loop atmosphere revitalization system, in which precious commodities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are continuously recycled. Our aim is to test other sorbents for their capacity for future spacecraft missions, such as on the Orion spacecraft, or possibly lunar or Mars mission habitats to see if they would be better than the zeolite sorbents on the 4-bed molecular sieve. Some of the materials being tested are currently used for other industry applications. Studying these sorbents for their specific spacecraft application is different from that for applications on earth because in space, there are certain power, mass, and volume limitations that are not as critical on Earth. In manned-spaceflight missions, the sorbents are exposed to a much lower volume fraction of CO2 (0.6% volume CO2) than on Earth. LiLSX was tested for its CO2 capacity in an atmosphere like that of the ISS. Breakthrough tests were run to establish the capacities of these materials at a partial pressure of CO2 that is seen on the ISS. This paper discusses experimental results from benchmark materials, such as results previously obtained from tests on Grade 522, and the forementioned candidate materials for the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) system.

  7. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture. PMID:27473483

  8. Affinity- and topology-dependent bound on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-08-01

    We provide a proof of a recently conjectured universal bound on current fluctuations in Markovian processes. This bound establishes a link between the fluctuations of an individual observable current, the cycle affinities driving the system into a non-equilibrium steady state, and the topology of the network. The proof is based on a decomposition of the network into independent cycles with both positive affinity and positive stationary cycle current. This formalism allows for a refinement of the bound for systems in equilibrium or with locally vanishing affinities.

  9. EVALUATING SURROGATES FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM REMOVAL IN POINT-OF-USE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium oocysts are resistant to chlorination and are particularly difficult to remove from drinking water by filtration due to their small size (4 µm to 6 µm). Filters with nominal pore sizes of 1 µm are recommended to assure effective removals. Properly designed and o...

  10. Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunlong; Jiang, Qi; Ngo, Huu H; Nghiem, Long D; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Wang, Jie; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were compared in terms of micropollutant removal efficiency and membrane fouling propensity. The results show that the hybrid MBBR-MBR system could effectively remove most of the selected micropollutants. By contrast, the CMBR system showed lower removals of ketoprofen, carbamazepine, primidone, bisphenol A and estriol by 16.2%, 30.1%, 31.9%, 34.5%, and 39.9%, respectively. Mass balance calculations suggest that biological degradation was the primary removal mechanism in the MBBR-MBR system. During operation, the MBBR-MBR system exhibited significantly slower fouling development as compared to the CMBR system, which could be ascribed to the wide disparity in the soluble microbial products (SMP) levels between MBBR-MBR (4.02-6.32 mg/L) and CMBR (21.78 and 33.04 mg/L). It is evident that adding an MBBR process prior to MBR treatment can not only enhance micropollutant elimination but also mitigate membrane fouling. PMID:26031758

  11. Nutrient removal in a closed silvofishery system using three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle).

    PubMed

    De-León-Herrera, R; Flores-Verdugo, F; Flores-de-Santiago, F; González-Farías, F

    2015-02-15

    The removal of ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrite (NO2(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and phosphate (PO4(-3)) in a closed silvofishery system was examined using three mangrove species (i.e., Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle). Specifically, six closed tanks were installed for this experiment with a population of 60 Dormitator latifrons fishes per tank. We planted 40 seedlings in each of three experimental tanks separated by species, while the remaining tanks were used as control. During 15 weeks, nutrient concentrations among the three mangrove systems presented no significant differences (P>0.05). However, nutrient removal variability was minimum during the last 2-5 weeks. Mangroves presented an average efficiency of 63% for the removal of NH4(+) and NO2(-). Contrary, the average removal potential of NO3(-) and PO4(-3) was 50%. Results from this study suggest that the three mangrove species could be used in a closed silvofishery systems for the biological removal of NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), and PO4(-3). PMID:25499182

  12. pH-dependent ammonia removal pathways in microbial fuel cell system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; An, Junyeong; Lee, Hyeryeong; Jang, Jae Kyung; Chang, In Seop

    2016-09-01

    In this work, ammonia removal paths in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) under different initial pH conditions (pH 7.0, 8.0, and 8.6) were investigated. At a neutral pH condition (pH 7.0), MFC used an electrical energy of 27.4% and removed 23.3% of total ammonia by electrochemical pathway for 192h. At the identical pH condition, 36.1% of the total ammonia was also removed by the biological path suspected to be biological ammonia oxidation process (e.g., Anammox). With the initial pH increased, the electrochemical removal efficiency decreased to less than 5.0%, while the biological removal efficiency highly increased to 61.8%. In this study, a neutral pH should be maintained in the anode to utilize MFCs for ammonia recovery via electrochemical pathways from wastewater stream. PMID:27090407

  13. Removal of toluene and benzene from flue gas by a biotrickling filtration system which uses an urethane foam filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Shigeki; Kitagawa, Mashayoshi

    1998-12-31

    A lab-scale research was conducted to study the toluene/benzene removal performance of a biotrickling filtration system. Urethane foam, which constituted a lattice-like structure internally, was used as the microbial carrier for the removal. This structure was found to be effective for minimizing drops in pressure (due to clogging), even under high space velocity conditions. The large specific surface area of the carrier (1200 m2/m3) also contributed to better removal performance. The space velocity (versus the packed bed) at 500 h-1(100 h-1 for most conventional biofiltration systems). Provided the target removal performance is obtained by such configuration, it may become possible to reduce the size of the biofiltration packed bed to one-fifth of that of conventional biofiltration systems. The test apparatus included a hard vinyl chloride column into which the microbial carrier was charged (layer of 500 mm). A nutrient solution, consisting of tap water mixed with nitrogen and phosphorus, was intermittently supplied into the column. The supply of nitrogen sources for microbial growth was regulated (ratio by weight versus the organic carbon load: Nitrogen:Carbon = 15:100) for improving removal performance. The temperature inside the column was maintained at 25. The flue gas was prepared by using reagent grade chemicals. The concentration of toluene and benzene was set at about 30 ppm. Following treatment of two months, the average removal percentages of toluene and benzene were 82% and 62%, respectively. On the other hand, average pressure drops (due to clogging) of the same were small, 12.8 mmH{sub 2}O/m and 7.2 mmH{sub 2}O/m, respectively. Such results indicated that this biotrickling filtration system using urethane foam has great potential as a considerably downsized system.

  14. Improvement of SO2 removal by the solubility change of Ca(OH)2 in the spray dryer system.

    PubMed

    Song, H C; Park, J W

    2001-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to verify the effect of the solubility change of the Ca(OH)2 sorbent on the removal of SO2 in a lab-scale spray dryer system. First, to identify the solubility effect, HNO3 was added into Ca(OH)2 slurry to increase the solubility of Ca(OH)2 by neutralization. The improvement of SO2 removal by 5-10% occurred under the condition of both 50% relative solubility and constant pH of slurry. But SO2 removal efficiency decreased steeply when the relative solubility approached 100% and the pH of the slurry decreased rapidly. For the practical application of the solubility effect, NH4Cl and NH4OH were selected as additives. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) which could improved Ca(OH)2 solubility removed more SO2 by 5-10% than NH4OH which showed no change in solubility. The optimal result was obtained when the slurry was fed at the ratio of 0.25mol NH4Cl/mol Ca(OH)2. The Ca(OH),/NH4Cl sorbent could remove more SO2 and improve Ca(OH)2 utilization than Ca(OH)2 sorbent in the Ca/S stoichiometric range of 1.0-1.4. It was concluded that the increase of sorbent solubility made the improvement in SO2 removal efficiency and Ca(OH)2 utilization. PMID:11816762

  15. Simultaneous removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by natural limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdiri, Ali; Higashi, Teruo

    2013-03-01

    Two natural limestone samples, collected from the Campanian-Maastrichtian limestones, Tunisia, were used as adsorbents for the removal of toxic metals in aqueous systems. The results indicated that high removal efficiency could be achieved by the present natural limestones. Among the metal ions studied, Pb2+ was the most preferably removed cation because of its high affinity to calcite surface. In binary system, the presence of Cu2+ effectively depressed the sorption of Cd2+ and Zn2+. Similarly Cu2+ strongly competed with Pb2+ to limestone surface. In ternary system, the removal further decreased, but considerable amount of Pb2+ and Cu2+ still occurred regardless of the limestone sample. The same behavior was observed in quadruple system, where the selectivity sequence was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+. From these results, it was concluded that the studied limestones have the required technical specifications to be used for the removal of toxic metals from wastewaters.

  16. Method and apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid in a binary power system

    DOEpatents

    Mohr, Charles M.; Mines, Gregory L.; Bloomfield, K. Kit

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid utilized in a thermodynamic system comprises a membrane having an upstream side operatively connected to the thermodynamic system so that the upstream side of the membrane receives a portion of the working fluid. The first membrane separates the non-condensible gas from the working fluid. A pump operatively associated with the membrane causes the portion of the working fluid to contact the membrane and to be returned to the thermodynamic system.

  17. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO/sub 3/ from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of HNO3 which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion.

  19. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems; Adsorption and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2010-10-01

    Functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) have previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems suggesting they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials biocompatibility and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e. blood, urine, etc.) As a result, thiol SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e. variable pH and ionic strength) as well to gauge any potentially negative cellular effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or possible chelation of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus non-toxic. As a result, it has been determined that organic ligand-functionalized nanoporous silica materials could be a valuable material for detoxification therapeutics and potentially other biomedical applications as needed.

  20. Understanding the role of extracellular polymeric substances in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal granular sludge system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Randeng; Peng, Yongzhen; Cheng, Zhanli; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process was investigated in a P-accumulating granular sludge system by analyzing the distribution and transfer of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in the sludge phase, EPS, and the bulk liquid. In the sludge phase, about 30% P, 44.7% K(+), 27.7% Mg(2+), 28% Ca(2+) accumulated in the EPS at the end of aeration. The rate of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) released from the EPS matrix into the bulk liquid in the anaerobic phase was faster than the rate they were adsorbed from the bulk liquid into the EPS in the aerobic phase. P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were retained in EPS before transferring into the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). These results suggest that EPS play a critical role in facilitating the accumulation and transfer of P, K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) between PAO cells and bulk liquid. PMID:25063972