Science.gov

Sample records for afford students chances

  1. Improving Students' Attitudes to Chance with Games and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven; Williams, Anne

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to implement a series of chance games and activities in a Year 7 classroom, and investigate the students' knowledge about probability concepts, as well as their attitudes to chance. Initially, the project involved selecting a set of appropriate learning activities to develop key probability concepts which are integral to the…

  2. Giving Students a Fighting Chance: Pragmatics in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Terrence

    2004-01-01

    In order to give language learners a fighting chance outside the classroom, teachers must provide them with consciousness-raising opportunities for developing pragmatic awareness. By attending to pragmatic factors in second-language (L2) situations, student will be better able to make informed choices in negotiating effective communication. This…

  3. A longitudinal study of student understanding of chance and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane; Kelly, Ben; Izard, John

    2006-10-01

    This study uses Partial Credit Rasch analysis to study a complex data set of student responses to survey items relating to chance and data. The items were administered in the classroom and collected from 1993 to 2003 in the Australian state of Tasmania. Data were collected from a total of 5514 individual students across Grades 3 to 11 over the decade and of these students 896 provided at least one repeated measure. As students completed a core of common items, Rasch analysis could be performed and all students were subsequently placed on the same logit scale for comparison. The purpose of the analysis is to consider average cohort change over time and trends in performance during the first 10 years after the curriculum was introduced in Tasmania. Implications for the education system and curriculum implementation are considered.

  4. Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welbeck, Rashida; Diamond, John; Mayer, Alexander; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2014-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen sharply over the last 40 years. Although more credit and grant aid have been made available to students, there are still major gaps between aid and the cost of attendance for many students in the United States, all of whom are left to figure out whether they can afford the remaining costs associated with…

  5. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  6. Disengaged Students and Dialogic Learning: The Role of CSCL Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakmon, Benzi; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have dealt with the challenge of bridging the linguistic gap between the dialogic realm and the talk of disengaged students. Bridging this gap is particularly relevant to the CSCL community since one of its utmost aims is to promote the dialogic. This study aims to articulate how to harness the CSCL design and affordances to…

  7. Enhancing Students' Critical Awareness in a Second Chance School in Greece: Reality or Wishful Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a case study investigating into a Second Chance School in Greece as an institution for raising students' social awareness along the principles of critical pedagogy. Through the prism of symbolic interactionism, students' and teachers' negotiated perspectives formulating school and classroom culture reveal that students'…

  8. Different Ways in Which Students Handle Chance Encounters in the Explorative Setting of a Dice Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ways in which Swedish seventh grade students (12 and 13 years old) handle chance encounters. Four groups of students working in pairs participated in the study. In the group discussions, which were tape-recorded and fully transcribed, the students were encouraged to explore strategies for winning a…

  9. Renegotiating Relations among Teacher, Community, and Students: A Case Study of Teaching Roma Students in a Second Chance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian; Carapanait, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Prejudice and systematic discrimination have often been mentioned as major causes for the chronic underachievement of Roma students. In this paper we present a case study of a Romanian teacher involved in Second Chance, an educational program implemented in Romania in 2004 for the benefit of disadvantaged groups such as the Roma population. Since…

  10. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  11. Inside the Virtual Classroom: Student Perspectives on Affordances and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates learners studying at a distance can experience perceptions of isolation and lack of "belonging" and support, which can adversely affect their learning experience and performance. Recently, the advent of affordable, accessible and reliable high-speed broadband has meant that a whole new array of digital tools to support…

  12. Second-chance university admission, the theory of planned behaviour and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-06-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare and interpret the academic performance of students entering a university either via direct intake or via a bridging programme. This study focuses on the UniBridge programme offered by Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), which is an intensive one-semester course that prepares students for undergraduate-level study. While direct-intake applicants pass minimum requirements for entry and are able to enrol directly into an undergraduate programme, applicants who do not meet these minimum requirements can join this bridging programme which is designed to be a "second-chance" entry option. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors subjected student performance data of both direct-intake and bridge-programme undergraduates to statistical analyses, carried out interviews and then used the theoretical framework of planned behaviour to pinpoint individual attitudes and social pressures which form an intention to prepare for entry examinations. The results were mostly consistent and showed that the two groups were competitive in terms of undergraduate academic achievement, thus proving the second-chance programme to be effective in enabling students with poor A-Level results to experience academic confidence at university level. On the strength of these findings, the authors conclude their paper with recommendations for tertiary institutions to support lifelong learning initiatives through the use of multiple channels of entry.

  13. Student Engagement and Affordances for Interaction with Diverse Peers: A Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kimberly; Glass, Chris R.; Lynch, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized a network model in order to explore the relationship between patterns of student engagement and affordances for interaction with diverse peers for 12,852 students at 7 universities. The institutions are similar in type and size, with relatively moderate levels of structural racial diversity, and a range of overall…

  14. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedik, Nuray; Kiraz, Ercan; Ozden, M. Yasar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit students' perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers) in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment.…

  15. Native American Students: Affordability and Access. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Native American students in Washington attend more than 40 postsecondary institutions and participate in college at a rate greater than their proportional presence in the population. They are just as likely to apply for and receive financial aid as other groups, a little less likely to borrow to attend college, and experience a greater gap than…

  16. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  17. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the...

  18. 78 FR 73204 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Innovation in Affordable Housing Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Innovation in Affordable Housing Student Design and Planning Competition'' AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development... and sustainable housing for low-and moderate-income people through disseminating best practices;...

  19. Fostering Students' Science Inquiry through App Affordances of Multimodality, Collaboration, Interactivity, and Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard; O'Brien, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 6th graders' use of the VoiceThread app as part of a science inquiry project on photosynthesis and carbon dioxide emissions in terms of their ability to engage in causal reasoning and their use of the affordances of multimodality, collaboration, interactivity, and connectivity. Students employed multimodal production using…

  20. Korean Students' Stories from an Aotearoa New Zealand High School: Perceived Affordances of English and Korean Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article is informed by van Lier's ecological approach to linguistics in considering the affordances Korean-born students perceived in using Korean or English language in an Aotearoa New Zealand high school setting. Here, I regard affordances as the students' perceptions of their languages as linguistic resources enabling them to…

  1. Protecting the Student: A Critique of the Procedural Protection Afforded to American and English Students in University Disciplinary Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurack, Walter

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that natural justice principles animating English procedural law and due process jurisprudence playing the same role in American law should be interpreted to protect the intrinsic values associated with fair disciplinary hearing. This approach demands that college students facing expulsion or suspension be afforded an impartial…

  2. 2YC3 - Filling the Void: Community Colleges Give Millions of Students the Chance To Succeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentsen, Ken

    1997-07-01

    In today's global, high-technology economy, one's level of education has become more important than ever before. Conversely, with tuition costs continuing to soar, more and more families are being priced out of a college education. As Congress considers ways to help more families gain access to a college education, we must work to support and enhance the special role of community colleges in providing affordable higher education.

  3. Do We Give Them a Fair Chance? Attrition among First-Year Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2012-01-01

    International research suggests that government policy, institutional culture and learner characteristics influence the attrition rate of first-year tertiary education students. These variables were investigated in relation to a cohort of 21 New Zealand students who failed a core literacy paper. The research utilised questionnaires, interviews…

  4. The CHANCE Program: Promoting Learning for Teachers and Students via Experience and Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

    2006-01-01

    Today's high school students and biology teachers alike face challenges arising from constantly-changing environments. From global warming to species reduction to energy policy, the issues the students will face will have immediate and long-lasting implications. At the same time, biology teachers are charged with achieving legislated standards,…

  5. Embedded Library Services: Beyond Chance Encounters for Students from Low SES Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Anne; Maddox, Alexia; Hagel, Pauline; Currie, Michael; Owen, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports research that examined how the embedding of library services through the learning management system contributed to the experience of students from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. To evaluate the embedded practice, the researchers used a mixed-method approach involving surveys with students and interviews with…

  6. Older Children Have a Greater Chance to Be Accepted to Gifted Student Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segev, Elad; Cahan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Selection to programmes for gifted students in Israel, performed in the second grade, relies on raw ability and achievement test scores, irrespective of age, thereby ignoring the well-known effect of within-grade age differences on test scores. Employing the entire cohort of third graders of legal age (67,366 students, 1.4% of whom were enrolled…

  7. Chaplain Rounds: A Chance for Medical Students to Reflect on Spirituality in Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Schnell, Karen; Baillie, Susan; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assesses the perceived impact of a required half-day with a hospital chaplain for first-year medical students, using qualitative analysis of their written reflections. Methods Students shadowed chaplains at the UCLA hospital with the stated goal of increasing their awareness and understanding of the spiritual aspects of health care and the role of the chaplain in patient care. Participation in the rounds and a short written reflection on their experience with the chaplain were required as part of the first-year doctoring course. Results Qualitative analysis of reflections from 166 students using grounded theory yielded four themes: 1) importance of spiritual care; 2) chaplain’s role in the clinical setting; 3) personal introspection; 4) doctors and compassion. Conclusions Going on hospital rounds with a chaplain helps medical students understand the importance of spirituality in medicine and positively influences student perceptions of chaplains and their work. PMID:25700672

  8. Affordances of play for student agency and student-centered pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolefsky, Noah S.; Rehn, Danny; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    While guided instruction can successfully focus students on concepts to be learned, this instructional approach can also reduce student agency and ownership of learning. Over the last two years, we have implemented PhET interactive computer simulations in middle school (MS) classrooms and found that "open play" can allow increased student agency and simultaneously lower barriers for student-centered pedagogy. In these MS classes, activities begin with 5-10 minutes of open play where students use the simulations without instruction. A moderately-guided, inquiry-based activity follows. In a study of classes with play versus no-play, we found that with play, the teacher focused on student ideas and science content, while without play the teacher employed more direct instruction.

  9. Chance and Probability: What Do They Mean to University Engineering Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barragues, J. I.; Guisasola, J.; Morais, A.

    2006-01-01

    The great interest aroused by the incorporation of Statistics and Probability into curricular projects has been accompanied by considerable evidence of significant difficulties in the meaningful learning and application of the concepts. These difficulties have been the subject of many studies, mostly concerning secondary school students. This…

  10. Simulating the Effects of Financial Aid Packages on College Student Stopout, Reenrollment Spells, and Graduation Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact that different financial aid packages have on student stopout, reenrollment, and graduation probabilities. The authors simulate how various financial aid packaging regimes affect the occurrence and timing of these events. Their findings indicate that the number and duration of enrollment and stopout spells affect…

  11. Second Chances: Making Meaning from Adult Literacy Students Returning to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Helene Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Sokolowski (2000) summarized the phenomenological attitude by saying, "We look at what we normally look through" (p. 50). Through interviews and document analysis, this study looked at the lives of six students and their decision to return to their education to earn a high school diploma. The purpose of this study was to illuminate how…

  12. Passageless Comprehension on the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test": Well above Chance for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Nelson, Jason; Lindstrom, William; Gregg, K. Noel

    2010-01-01

    The comprehension section of the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) is widely used to assess the reading comprehension skills of adolescents and adults in the United States. In this study, the authors explored the content validity of the NDRT Comprehension Test (Forms G and H) by asking university students (with and without at-risk status for…

  13. Student Enrollment in World Languages: "L'égalité Des Chances?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Hannah Carson

    2016-01-01

    Students enrolled in world language classes experience many positive academic and developmental outcomes, and world language classes are often gateways to institutions of higher education in the United States. However, not all learners have access to world language classes. Differences in language class availability exist not only between school…

  14. Moving from Chance and "Chemistry" to Skills: Improving Online Student Learning Outcomes in Small Group Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Anthony; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    While instructors know the importance of successful small group collaboration, and the value of the skills required to execute them, students continue to prefer to work independently. The promise and development of recent online tools, however, and streams of recent research on small group collaboration, continue to produce less-than-satisfying or…

  15. Engaging students in blended and online collaborative courses at university level through Second Life: comparative perspectives and instructional affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellas, Nikolaos; kazanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Students' opinions about the degree of impact, status, and socio-cognitive viability with the utilization of the emerging three-dimensional (3D) computer-generated technologies may vary. Indisputably, 3D technology-enhanced environments have provided considerable benefits and affordances to the contemporary e-Education. In these circumstances, virtual worlds (VWs) like second life (SL) have generally intensified with an extensive perpetuation and penetration of innovative performances that encapsulated or enacted from the vast majority of higher education fields. At the same time, there is growing widespread recognition of reasons affecting the high or low degree of students' engagement in online and blended course delivery methods held in 3D VWs. Notwithstanding that most notable studies have disclosed SL functional capabilities from a plethora of pilot case studies, however, it is still lacking an experiential-based research approach to determine the degree of students' engagement in blended and online courses at university level through SL. The present comparative study explores students' engagement overall as a multidimensional construct consisting of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors. One hundred and thirty-five undergraduate and postgraduate students in almost identical blended and online instructional conditions held in SL took part in this project. Preliminary results have decoded students' satisfaction for both methods, despite the fact that the voluntary sample composed of different educational disciplines. The quantitative analysis showed that postgraduate students of the online course had more positive results and the degree of engagement significantly increased compared to those who enrolled with the blended course delivery method. The instructional affordances from the utilization of SL were the collaborative climate between users (instructor and students) who eliminated various intractable boundaries which were predominantly observed by

  16. Students implement the Affordable Care Act: a model for undergraduate teaching and research in community health and sociology.

    PubMed

    Green, Brandn; Jones, Kristal; Boyd, Neil; Milofsky, Carl; Martin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides an opportunity for undergraduate students to observe and experience first-hand changing social policies and their impacts for individuals and communities. This article overviews an action research and teaching project developed at an undergraduate liberal arts university and focused on providing ACA enrollment assistance as a way to support student engagement with community health. The project was oriented around education, enrollment and evaluation activities in the community, and students and faculty together reflected on and analyzed the experiences that came from the research and outreach project. Student learning centered around applying concepts of diversity and political agency to health policy and community health systems. Students reported and faculty observed an unexpected empowerment for students who were able to use their university-learned critical thinking skills to explain complex systems to a wide range of audiences. In addition, because the project was centered at a university with no health professions programs, the project provided students interested in community and public health with the opportunity to reflect on how health and access to health care is conditioned by social context. The structure and pedagogical approaches and implications of the action research and teaching project is presented here as a case study for how to engage undergraduates in questions of community and public health through the lens of health policy and community engagement. PMID:25312869

  17. Students implement the Affordable Care Act: a model for undergraduate teaching and research in community health and sociology.

    PubMed

    Green, Brandn; Jones, Kristal; Boyd, Neil; Milofsky, Carl; Martin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides an opportunity for undergraduate students to observe and experience first-hand changing social policies and their impacts for individuals and communities. This article overviews an action research and teaching project developed at an undergraduate liberal arts university and focused on providing ACA enrollment assistance as a way to support student engagement with community health. The project was oriented around education, enrollment and evaluation activities in the community, and students and faculty together reflected on and analyzed the experiences that came from the research and outreach project. Student learning centered around applying concepts of diversity and political agency to health policy and community health systems. Students reported and faculty observed an unexpected empowerment for students who were able to use their university-learned critical thinking skills to explain complex systems to a wide range of audiences. In addition, because the project was centered at a university with no health professions programs, the project provided students interested in community and public health with the opportunity to reflect on how health and access to health care is conditioned by social context. The structure and pedagogical approaches and implications of the action research and teaching project is presented here as a case study for how to engage undergraduates in questions of community and public health through the lens of health policy and community engagement.

  18. Affordable at Last: A New Student Loan System. Education Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Student loan debt is fast becoming a fact of American life. Students are borrowing more money for college and are being forced to pay back large sums of their income. This report offers a new way to pay back student loans based on each individual's earnings. International Income-Contingent Loan Systems are appended. (Contains 1 figure and 40…

  19. Giving Students a Chance to Achieve: Getting Off to a Fast and Successful Start in Grade Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Timberlake, Allison

    2007-01-01

    Students who successfully complete grade nine are substantially more likely to graduate from high school than are students who fail the freshman year. However, many middle grades students are not academically prepared for ninth grade. This report addresses five questions that can help school leaders ensure that middle grades students know the…

  20. Affordances of students' using the World Wide Web as a publishing medium in project-based learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Nathan Daniel

    This dissertation investigates the emerging affordance of the World Wide Web as a place for high school students to become authors and publishers of information. Two empirical studies lay groundwork for student publishing by examining learning issues related to audience adaptation in writing, motivation and engagement with hypermedia, design, problem-solving, and critical evaluation. Two models of student publishing on the World Wide Web were investigated over the course of two 11spth grade project-based science curriculums. In the first curricular model, students worked in pairs to design informative hypermedia projects about infectious diseases that were published on the Web. Four case studies were written, drawing on both product- and process-related data sources. Four theoretically important findings are illustrated through these cases: (1) multimedia, especially graphics, seemed to catalyze some students' design processes by affecting the sequence of their design process and by providing a connection between the science content and their personal interest areas, (2) hypermedia design can demand high levels of analysis and synthesis of science content, (3) students can learn to think about science content representation through engagement with challenging design tasks, and (4) students' consideration of an outside audience can be facilitated by teacher-given design principles. The second Web-publishing model examines how students critically evaluate scientific resources on the Web, and how students can contribute to the Web's organization and usability by publishing critical reviews. Students critically evaluated Web resources using a four-part scheme: summarization of content, content, evaluation of credibility, evaluation of organizational structure, and evaluation of appearance. Content analyses comparing students' reviews and reviewed Web documents showed that students were proficient at summarizing content of Web documents, identifying their publishing

  1. Enhancing student engagement through the affordances of mobile technology: a 21st century learning perspective on Realistic Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Aibhín; Tangney, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    Several recent curriculum reforms aim to address the shortfalls traditionally associated with mathematics education through increased emphasis on higher-order-thinking and collaborative skills. Some stakeholders, such as the US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the UK Joint Mathematical Council, advocate harnessing the affordances of digital technology in conjunction with social constructivist pedagogies, contextual scenarios, and/or approaches aligned with Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). However, it can be difficult to create technology-mediated, collaborative and contextual activities within a conventional classroom setting. This paper explores how a combination of a transformative, mobile technology-mediated approach, RME, and a particular model of 21st century learning facilitates the development of mathematics learning activities with the potential to increase student engagement and confidence. An explanatory case study with multiple embedded units and a pre-experimental design was conducted with a total of 54 students in 3 schools over 25 hours of class time. Results from student interviews, along with pre-test/post-test analysis of questionnaires, suggest that the approach has the potential to increase student engagement with, and confidence in, mathematics. This paper expands on these results, proposing connections between aspects of the activity design and their impact on student attitudes and behaviours.

  2. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  3. Using Big Data to Predict Student Dropouts: Technology Affordances for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, David; Gitin, Elena

    2012-01-01

    An underlying theme of this paper is that it can be easier and more efficient to conduct valid and effective research studies in online environments than in traditional classrooms. Taking advantage of the "big data" available in an online university, we conducted a study in which a massive online database was used to predict student successes and…

  4. Online Student Evaluations of Teaching: What Are We Sacrificing for the Affordances of Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Anglica; Vaughan, Elaine; Murphy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    In the context of increased emphasis on quality assurance of teaching, it is crucial that student evaluations of teaching (SET) methods be both reliable and workable in practice. Online SETs particularly tend to raise criticisms with those most reactive to mechanisms of teaching accountability. However, most studies of SET processes have been…

  5. Independent Research Projects Using Protein Extraction: Affordable Ways to Inquire, Discover & Publish for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Rongsun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to use protein extraction, quantification, and analysis in the undergraduate teaching laboratory to engage students in inquiry-based, discovery-driven learning. Detailed instructions for obtaining proteins from animal tissues, using BCA assay to quantify the proteins, and data analysis are provided. The experimental…

  6. Lost: loss of chance.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2010-09-01

    Loss of chance claims involve an allegation that a patient has lost the chance of a better medical outcome, in terms of treatment and/or prognosis, as a result of the negligence of the medical practitioner. A recent High Court of Australia judgment confirmed that monetary damages are not available for the loss of a chance of a better medical outcome. This article discusses the judgment and its implications for medical practitioners in Australia.

  7. The Butterfly Model of Careers: Illustrating How Planning and Chance Can Be Integrated in the Careers of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Tony; Bright, Jim; Pryor, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Simple matching models of decision making are no longer sufficient as a basis for career counselling and education. The challenge for contemporary careers advisers is how to communicate some of the complexities of modern career development to their students; in particular, the apparently contradictory relationship between the need for planning and…

  8. A Second Chance to Graduate on Time: High School Students' Perceptions on Participating in an Online Credit Recovery Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    High schools in the United States are facing increased scrutiny to increase the number of students graduating with a diploma in four years. This pressure comes from many sources. First, the No Child Left Behind Act instituted graduation as a measure of a high school's success at the federal level. States soon followed by increasing accountability…

  9. Needing a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave, Lou Ann

    2003-01-01

    Temporary Assistance to Needy Families offers welfare recipients a second chance for success. How good that chance will be depends on the next version of the legislation. If its work requirements do not allow for sufficient training, achieving success may be more difficult. (Author/JOW)

  10. Student Loan Affordability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2013-05-14

    06/06/2013 Cloture on the motion to proceed to measure not invoked in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 51 - 46. Record Vote Number: 143. (consideration: CR S3977-3978) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. The Attainment of a Science Degree by African American College Students at Arizona State University: An Investigation to Identify The Barriers and Affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Quintin

    Historically, African American students have been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). If African American students continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields, they will not have access to valuable and high-paying sectors of the economy. Despite the number of African Americans in these fields being disproportionately low, there are still individuals that persist and complete science degrees. The aim of this study was to investigate African American students who excel in science at Arizona State University and examine the barriers and affordances that they encounter on their journey toward graduation. Qualitative research methods were used to address the research question of the study. My methodology included creating a case study to investigate the experiences of eight African American undergraduate college students at Arizona State University. These four male and four female students were excelling sophomores, juniors, or seniors who were majoring in a science field. Two of the males came from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, while two of the males were from higher SES backgrounds. The same applied to the four female participants. My research utilized surveys, semistructured interviews, and student observations to collect data that was analyzed and coded to determine common themes and elements that exist between the students. As a result of the data collection opportunities, peer support and financial support were identified as barriers, while, parental support, financial support, peer support, and teacher support were identified as affordances. In analyzing the data, the results indicated that for the student subjects in this study, sex and SES did not have any relationship with the barriers and affordances experienced.

  12. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It has been providing…

  13. Chances. Classroom Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Jo Anne

    2000-01-01

    To adult readers directional movement seems natural, because adults have mastered this aspect of the reading process, and it is quite automatic. For some children, directional behavior can be very complex. Such was the case for one bright little boy ("Chance") the author/educator served in Reading Recovery. This article tells the story of how…

  14. The early history of chance in evolution.

    PubMed

    Pence, Charles H

    2015-04-01

    Work throughout the history and philosophy of biology frequently employs 'chance', 'unpredictability', 'probability', and many similar terms. One common way of understanding how these concepts were introduced in evolution focuses on two central issues: the first use of statistical methods in evolution (Galton), and the first use of the concept of "objective chance" in evolution (Wright). I argue that while this approach has merit, it fails to fully capture interesting philosophical reflections on the role of chance expounded by two of Galton's students, Karl Pearson and W.F.R. Weldon. Considering a question more familiar from contemporary philosophy of biology--the relationship between our statistical theories of evolution and the processes in the world those theories describe--is, I claim, a more fruitful way to approach both these two historical actors and the broader development of chance in evolution. PMID:26466463

  15. Enhancing Student Engagement through the Affordances of Mobile Technology: A 21st Century Learning Perspective on Realistic Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Aibhín; Tangney, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Several recent curriculum reforms aim to address the shortfalls traditionally associated with mathematics education through increased emphasis on higher-order-thinking and collaborative skills. Some stakeholders, such as the US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the UK Joint Mathematical Council, advocate harnessing the affordances of…

  16. Life, Death, and Second Chances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table ... New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know / Life, Death, and Second Chances / Asthma Research: The NIH-NJRC ...

  17. A Second Chance To Learn To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiche, Nancy; Showers, Beverly

    2000-01-01

    Over 2,500 secondary students in the Torrance (California) Unified School District who read below the 30th percentile on state tests have access to a second-chance program. Participants engage in extensive recreational reading and vocabulary development, address comprehension on multiple levels, and use writing to assist comprehension. (MLH)

  18. Journey to Textbook Affordability: An Investigation of Students' Use of eTextbooks at Multiple Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eun-Ok; Monaghan, James

    2013-01-01

    eTextbooks have steadily and recently more rapidly penetrated the textbook market. In order to effectively support students' learning, it is important to comprehend students' experiences using eTextbooks. This survey study was designed to gain an understanding of students' experiences in using eTextbooks and variables that impact…

  19. Postgraduate Research Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Good Supervisory Practice at the University of Exeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Research reveals that the relationship between a student and a supervisor is so crucial that students cannot afford to leave it to chance. It must be managed. Phillips and Pugh (2000, p. 193) maintains that if students are to do this well, they must understand what their supervisors expect of them. Once they have this "inside…

  20. Diplomas Count 2013: Second Chances--Turning Dropouts into Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of "Diplomas Count," entitled "Second Chances: Turning Dropouts into Graduates," examines dropout recovery and innovative strategies for returning to the educational fold the 1 million students who leave school without a diploma each year. "Education Week's" journalists investigate interventions that provide second chances to…

  1. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  2. Seating and Grouping Choices: A Chance for Making Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Isadora Jung-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how international students negotiated their chances for making contact with other students in higher education and how such effort affected their educational experiences in Australia. In the past few decades, international students have formed part of the increasingly diverse multicultural student population in Australian…

  3. Turn the Page: Making College Textbooks More Affordable. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report notes that although textbook prices comprise just one component of the price of attending college, such outlays are very frustrating to students and their parents. There has been a groundswell of criticisms against publishers, bookstores, and institutions of higher education that has translated into a mandate for action to make…

  4. Linking Contextual Affordances: Examining Racial-Ethnic Socialization and Parental Career Support among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Sha'Kema M.; Thomas, Anita Jones

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examined the link between self-reported racial-ethnic socialization experiences and perceived parental career support among African American undergraduate and graduate students. The results of two separate multivariate multiple regression analyses found that messages about coping with racism positively predicted…

  5. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  6. Factors Influencing Affordability, Accessibility and Academic Success of Military Student Veterans in Higher Education: A Descriptive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, an increasing number of military student veterans are arriving on college campuses. Therefore, higher education administrators need to understand veterans' needs and analyze policies, procedures, and programs to determine how to create more veteran-friendly campuses. The purpose of this descriptive case study was to obtain a…

  7. Student Recognition of Visual Affordances: Supporting Use of Physics Simulations in Whole Class and Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, A. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate student interactions with simulations, and teacher support of those interactions, within naturalistic high school physics classroom settings. This study focuses on data from two lesson sequences that were conducted in several physics classrooms. The lesson sequences were conducted in a whole class…

  8. Student recognition of visual affordances: Supporting use of physics simulations in whole class and small group settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, A. Lynn

    The purpose of this study is to investigate student interactions with simulations, and teacher support of those interactions, within naturalistic high school physics classroom settings. This study focuses on data from two lesson sequences that were conducted in several physics classrooms. The lesson sequences were conducted in a whole class discussion format in approximately half of the class sections and in a hands-on-computer small group format in matched class sections. Analysis used a mixed methods approach where: (1) quantitative methods were used to evaluate pre-post data; (2) open coding and selective coding were used for transcript analysis; and (3) comparative case studies were used to consider the quantitative and qualitative data in light of each other and to suggested possible explanations. Although teachers expressed the expectation that the small group students would learn more, no evidence was found in pre-post analysis for an advantage for the small group sections. Instead, a slight trend was observed in favor of the whole class discussion sections, especially for students in the less advanced sections. In seeking to explain these results, qualitative analyses of transcript and videotape data were conducted, revealing that many more episodes of support for interpreting visual elements of the simulations occurred in the whole class setting than in the matched small group discussions; not only teachers, but, at times, students used more visual support moves in the whole class discussion setting. In addition, concepts that had been identified as key were discussed for longer periods of time in the whole class setting than in the matched small group discussions in six of nine matched sets. For one of the lesson sequences, analysis of student work on in-class activity sheets identified no evidence that any of the Honors or College Preparatory students in the small groups had made use in their thinking of the key features of the sophisticated and popular

  9. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  10. Second Chance or No Chance? A Case Study of One Urban Alternative Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy-Lewis, Brianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study focuses on a school created to educate expelled students, specifically examining the relationships between educators' beliefs and philosophies and daily school life. At this school, Kelly's ("Last chance high." Yale University Press, New Haven, 1993) competing philosophies of "traditionalism" and…

  11. One Last Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Out amid the weed-choked factory lots and the bare yards of housing projects in Birmingham, Alabama, Steve Orel has become a kind of hero. The 50-year-old Orel runs the World of Opportunity School out of an old industrial building. Affectionately known as WOO, the school is a private, shoestring operation that offers students who have fallen…

  12. Choice and Chance in Life: The Game of "Skunk."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutlag, Dan

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a game to present middle-grade students that involves both choice and chance to help them understand the significance and usefulness of mathematical probability. Discusses winning versus self-improvement and provides a student worksheet to help students in thinking about the game. (MKR)

  13. A Fair Shot/An Equal Chance. A Handbook for Vocational Students in Non-Traditional Programs. Project SCOPE Book #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Susan

    Designed for use by vocational education students in nontraditional programs, this handbook contains support group activities pertaining to group cohesion, understanding the nature of sex bias, assertiveness, group projects, sexual harassment, and laws governing sex fairness. Group cohesion activities designed to help group members get to know…

  14. Reasons Why Individuals Remain Uninsured Under the Affordable Care Act: Experiences of Patients at a Student-Run Free Clinic in Michigan, a Medicaid Expansion State.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Brian S; Laux, Molly A; Levin, Carolyn C; Huang, Jiaxin; Williams, Brent C

    2016-04-01

    Since the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many people remain uninsured. While studies have examined this population, few have explored patients' experiences seeking insurance. To elucidate these individuals' perspectives, we surveyed patients (n = 80) at the University of Michigan Student-Run Free Clinic concerning their activity accessing insurance. Over half of respondents had sought insurance in the past 6 months; 57 % of respondents qualified for Medicaid by self-reported income (≤138 % FPL) and all but one were eligible for tax credits on the Health Insurance Marketplace. However, only 35 % of apparently Medicaid-eligible respondents had recently applied. There was no significant difference in the rate of applying for those above the income cutoff (p = 0.901). Perceived expense of plans and belief of ineligibility for Medicaid discouraged respondents from actively seeking insurance. Personalized outreach emphasizing new Medicaid eligibility requirements and tax credits may be needed to facilitate Medicaid enrollment for some uninsured persons under the ACA. PMID:26512012

  15. First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

    In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

  16. Provision of Second-Chance Education: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Many students do not benefit from mainstream education and are forced to leave it. Governments and non-government organisations concerned with the social injustice and problems that such rejection could cause offer these students second-chance education programmes. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of such opportunities, using…

  17. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  18. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  19. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  20. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  1. Second Chances Academy: Alternative School or Pathway to Prison?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Powell, Keyona L.

    2016-01-01

    This case considers the leadership challenge facing district officials in a mid-sized urban-suburban school district receiving negative media coverage for the overrepresentation of poor, Black, and Latino males in its alternative high school, Second Chances Academy. Many of its students also qualify for special education and English learner…

  2. Operation Fair Chance; An Experimental Program in Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Coll., Hayward.

    This document consists of excerpts from the journals of the 40 student participants in the Operation Fair Chance (OFC) project. OFC is a year-long program designed to provide effective teachers for lower economic areas through involving teacher candidates in the classroom at the start of the public school semester and having them work throughout…

  3. Rewards versus Learning: A Response to Paul Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    1993-01-01

    Responding to Paul Chance's November 1992 "Kappan" article on motivational value of rewards, this article argues that manipulating student behavior with either punishments or rewards is unnecessary and counterproductive. Extrinsic rewards can never buy more than short-term compliance because they are inherently controlling and ineffective and make…

  4. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to "afford" an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by "breaking" the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.

  5. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  6. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to “afford” an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by “breaking” the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool. PMID:26441612

  7. Affordances of instrumentation in general chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate measuring tool for general chemistry labs. They see the probeware as easy to use, portable, and able to interact with computers. Students find that the PASCO(TM) probeware system is useful in their general chemistry labs, more advanced chemistry labs, and in other science classes, and can be used in a variety of labs done in general chemistry. Students learn the affordances of the probeware through the lab manual, the laboratory teaching assistant, by trial and error, and from each other. The use of probeware systems provides lab instructors the opportunity to focus on the concepts illustrated by experiments and the opportunity to spend time discussing the results. In order to teach effectively, the instructor must know the correct name of the components involved, how to assemble and disassemble it correctly, how to troubleshoot the software, and must be able to replace broken or missing components quickly. The use of podcasts or Web-based videos should increase student understanding of affordances of the probeware.

  8. The Influence of Affordability in Strategic Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    In state houses around the country, one of the common higher education themes is affordability. As tuition costs have increased at rates exceeding that of inflation, students and families have pressed their legislative representatives to examine these increases. Affordability is a term used by various constituent groups, and its definition varies…

  9. The Different Learning Opportunities Afforded Student Teachers in Four Secondary School Subject Departments in an Initial Teacher Education School-University Partnership in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Alaster Scott

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the learning opportunities in school subject departments for student teachers when participating in a postgraduate certificate of education (PGCE) course in England. The paper draws upon data gathered from a year-long ethnographic study to explain why learning opportunities were different for student teachers in separate…

  10. Statistics by Example, Weighing Chances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosteller, Frederick; And Others

    Part of a series of four pamphlets providing problems in probability and statistics taken from real-life situations, this booklet develops probability methods through random numbers, simulations, and simple probability models, and presents the idea of scatter and residuals for analyzing complex data. The pamphlet was designed for a student having…

  11. Chance happenings in life and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2009-01-01

    This paper will focus on chance happenings and man's struggles to make sense of those random events that occur in everyday life. There is a readiness to deny chance happenings as powerful mediators in our life course and to transfer the guidance of the world to divine providence, to anthropomorphize fate, to search for blame, and to create conspiratorial theories out of natural disasters. Emphasis will be placed on understanding chance happenings from an exploration of coincidences, experiences perceived beyond coincidences, scientific predictors of causality, and developmental perspectives, as well as the individual's psychological strategies for coping with a fateful event, an acute traumatic moment in which there is sudden awareness of a perceived threat of injury and to life itself. The role of chance and environmental happenings in psychotherapy will be discussed with clinical vignettes.

  12. First Chance Network and Technical Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trohanis, Pascal L.

    1973-01-01

    Article seeks to cover the following topics: an overview of First Chance; a description of TADS (Technical Assistance Development System); and a discussion of the organization's Media and Information division. (Author)

  13. On the meaning of chance in biology

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Chance has somewhat different meanings in different contexts, and can be taken to be either ontological (as in quantum indeterminacy) or epistemological (as in stochastic uncertainty). Here I argue that, whether or not it stems from physical indeterminacy, chance is a fundamental biological reality that is meaningless outside the context of knowledge. To say that something happened by chance means that it did not happen by design. This of course is a cornerstone of Darwin’s theory of evolution: random undirected variation is the creative wellspring upon which natural selection acts to sculpt the functional form (and hence apparent design) of organisms. In his essay Chance & Necessity, Jacques Monod argued that an intellectually honest commitment to objectivity requires that we accord chance a central role in an otherwise mechanistic biology, and suggested that doing so may well place the origin of life outside the realm of scientific tractability. While that may be true, ongoing research on the origin of life problem suggests that abiogenesis may have been possible, and perhaps even probable, under the conditions that existed on primordial earth. Following others, I argue that the world should be viewed as causally open, i.e. primordially indeterminate or vague. Accordingly, chance ought to be the default scientific explanation for origination, a universal ‘null hypothesis’ to be assumed until disproven. In this framework, creation of anything new manifests freedom (allowing for chance), and causation manifests constraint, the developmental emergence of which establishes the space of possibilities that may by chance be realized. PMID:25870720

  14. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  15. Ambitious but Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    In the beginning, optimism reigns. As planning for a new education facility gets underway, those with a stake in the process envision how the building will enhance the institution and the surrounding area. Teachers and students imagine spacious, comfortable classrooms and labs with the most up-to-date equipment and furniture. Administrators and…

  16. California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. National Center Report #07-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, William; Frankle, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights the affordability gaps faced by California's community colleges. Despite the lowest tuition in the country and tuition waivers for the lowest-income students, many California students struggle to afford the total cost of education, which includes housing, food, health care, and textbooks. And although California students are…

  17. Can consumers make affordable care affordable? The value of choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric J; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a "smart" default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  18. Can Consumers Make Affordable Care Affordable? The Value of Choice Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T.; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a “smart” default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  19. Affordable and Open Textbooks: An Exploratory Study of Faculty Attitudes. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.9.09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Diane; Lawrence, Shannon; Acord, Sophia Krzys; Dixson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Student Public Interest Research Groups (Student PIRGs)--who have been at the forefront of raising awareness about textbook affordability for much of the past decade--launched a two-year campaign (MakeTextbooksAffordable.org/statement) in 2007 to drive mainstream faculty's acceptance of open textbooks and other affordable alternatives in place…

  20. Combining Skype with Blogging: A Chance to Stop Reinforcement of Stereotypes in Intercultural Exchanges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, L. Lynette

    2015-01-01

    This papers looks into whether combining Skype, blogging and class discussions reinforces or refutes stereotypes. The hypothesis was that some students do not have an adequate chance to reflect on their skype experience and course content. To see if students have made improvements in reducing stereotypes, the Standards for Foreign Language…

  1. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  2. New Chance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "New Chance," a program for young welfare mothers who have dropped out of school, aims to improve both their employment potential and their parenting skills. Participants take GED (General Educational Development) preparation classes and complete a parenting and life skills curriculum. Once they complete this first phase of the program, they can…

  3. Response to Gelman Comments in Chance Magazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carl Blackman Letter to the Editor of Chance Magazine: I appreciate being given the opportunity to comment on an editorial column by Andrew Gelman, entitled "Ethics and Statistics", that appeared in 2011, volume 24, no. 4, pages 51-53, in which my colleagues and I and our 1988 ...

  4. Online Case-Based Discussions: Examining Coverage of the Afforded Problem Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies hold great potential for engaging students in disciplinary content. However, little is known about the extent to which students actually cover the problem space afforded by a particular case study. In this research, we compared the problem space afforded by an instructional design case study with the actual content covered by 16…

  5. Keep Student Loans Affordable Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2013-06-27

    07/17/2013 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure made in Senate. (consideration: CR S5717-5718) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. 2015 Student Affordability Report. The NDUS Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 2014-15, tuition and mandatory fee rates at the University of North Dakota (UND), North Dakota Sate University (NDSU), Minot State University (MiSU) and the four-year campuses were less than their regional counterparts. The gap differential decreased slightly at UND and NDSU and the four-year campuses, and increased slightly at MiSU. NDUS…

  7. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  8. Jacques Monod and Chance and Necessity.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod, in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 45 years ago, presented his thesis that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles but not deducible from those principles. The biosphere is therefore essentially unpredictable. In his book, Monod expounded at length on the conflict between science and religion. He saw religion as a collection of primitive myths that had been blown to shreds by science. At every turn, Monod emphasized the role of chance in human existence, an idea that is antithetical to essentially every religious doctrine that places humans as some inevitable intention of a Creator.

  9. Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.

  10. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  11. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  12. Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed. PMID:18554382

  13. Affordances of ICT in science learning: implications for an integrated pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Mary E.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how affordances of ICT-rich environments identified from a recent review of the research literature can support students in learning science in schools within a proposed framework for pedagogical practice in science education. Furthermore other pedagogical and curriculum innovations in science education (promoting cognitive change, formative assessment and lifelong learning) are examined to see how they may be supported and enhanced by affordances of ICT-rich environments. The affordances that I have identified support learning through four main effects: promoting cognitive acceleration; enabling a wider range of experience so that students can relate science to their own and other real-world experiences; increasing students' self-management; and facilitating data collection and presentation. ICT-rich environments already provide a range of affordances that have been shown to enable learning of science but integrating these affordances with other pedagogical innovations provides even greater potential for enhancement of students' learning.

  14. Reinventing Financial Aid: Charting a New Course to College Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    In this provocative volume, two experts with very different points of view address the growing concern that student loan programs are not a sustainable solution to the problem of mounting college costs. They argue that the time has come to reform the financial aid system so that it is more effective in promoting college affordability, access, and…

  15. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  16. Access and Affordability: Strategic Financial Perspectives for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, H. Peter

    The challenge to independent schools is maintaining excellent facilities and instruction while providing access to students from the widest range of financial backgrounds possible. This is difficult when many independent schools struggle to balance their budgets. There is growing evidence that independent schools are becoming less affordable and…

  17. The Affordability Challenge in California Higher Education: Options for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    California's Master Plan for Higher Education represented a promise, of an affordable college education, to every person who could benefit. For decades, California's lawmakers honored that promise. Rapidly increasing college fees, coupled with higher costs for room and board, books, transportation, and healthcare are pricing students out of higher…

  18. Making personalized medicine more affordable.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Precision medicine holds promise to solve the conundrums of clinical care. Foremost is the well-known but vexing problem of heterogeneity and the tyranny of the mean. Who will respond to a treatment? How can patients avoid the harms of treatments that will not work for them? And if we know who to treat, will that make care more efficient and less costly? But the converse can also be true: treatments become more expensive as the costs of development must be distributed across smaller populations. Next-generation sequencing is making genetic testing radically cheaper. But the costs of medical tests also include false-positive results, incidental findings, and the cascade of follow-up. The affordability of precision medicine is intertwined with the broader issue of affordability of our healthcare system, and will require all stakeholders to assume stewardship for access and sustainability. PMID:25728478

  19. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  20. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  1. A Teaching and Learning Sequence about the Interplay of Chance and Determinism in Nonlinear Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, D.; Duit, R.; Komorek, M.

    2008-01-01

    A teaching and learning sequence aimed at introducing upper secondary school students to the interplay between chance and determinism in nonlinear systems is presented. Three experiments concerning nonlinear systems (deterministic chaos, self-organization and fractals) and one experiment concerning linear systems are introduced. Thirty upper…

  2. University Tuition, Consumer Choice and College Affordability: Strategies for Addressing a Higher Education Affordability Challenge. A NASULGC Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Peter; Shulenburger, David

    2008-01-01

    With passage of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, the Higher Education Act (HEA) is now reauthorized. What effect will it have on U.S. higher education? Students receiving Pell grants will find that college is more affordable while those who feared that the government would exert control over learning outcomes have breathed a…

  3. Chance Events in Career Development: Influence, Control and Multiplicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.; Chan, Eva Wing Man; Rijanto, Jeniyanti

    2009-01-01

    This article reports three studies on the nature and impact of chance events. The first study investigated chance events in terms of the dimensions of influence and control. The second and third studies investigated the effects of multiplicity of chance events on career development are in terms of respondents' own careers and then in terms of…

  4. News and Views: The biggest 3D map of the sky - so far! Just how round is the Sun? Students have chance to name that asteroid; Simulations suggest significant close dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III has made public its latest dataset which includes the locations and distances of more than 1 million galaxies, images of 200 million and spectra of 1.35 million galaxies. Over a total volume equivalent to a cube of side 4 billion light-years. Surprisingly round, is the answer determined by researchers using a SDO instrument to track the shape of the Sun over time. This is in conflict with theories that suggest the Sun's shape should change in line with its 11-year magnetic cycle. NASA's asteroid sample-return mission OSIRIS-REx should launch in 2016 and head for asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 with the aim of bringing a sample back to Earth. Students are invited to give this asteroid a better name! The Milky Way galaxy has more dark matter than thought, when measured using a new technique. The data, useful for understanding what exactly dark matter is, also hint that the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy may not be the simple halo previously thought.

  5. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  6. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  7. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  8. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  9. The 2005 'Last Chance Bravo' bioterrorism exercise.

    PubMed

    Balch, David; Rosenthal, David; Taylor, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 'Last Chance Bravo' bioterrorism exercise provided a forum for testing advanced technologies in a simulated disaster. The four-day exercise included a 2-day simulated pneumonic plague outbreak, with 50 participants from the Montana Department of Health and Human Services, 20 participants from various hospital organizations and approximately 150 participants from over 40 telemedicine sites. Telephone communications and Web tools supported much of the critical information exchange. Videoconferencing added an element of image sharing for pathology, radiology and geospatial mapping. During the exercise three telehealth networks facilitated a telemedicine session to over 40 sites across Montana. Because of the large number of telehealth sites participating, the videoconference session became more like an informational news broadcast. The ability of telemedicine to support image and data sharing may be a significant advantage over simple telephone communications in disaster response.

  10. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  11. Educational Affordances of a Ubiquitous Learning Environment in a Natural Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Lin, Min-Sheng; Chu, Yu-Ling; Liu, Tsung-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Educational affordances are worthy of being explored because the affordances of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide the pedagogical effects for promoting cognitive acceleration, increasing the self-management of students, facilitating data collection, and presentation in science learning. This study aims to explore educational…

  12. Ecological Affordance and Anxiety in an Oral Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the affordances (van Lier, 2000) of asynchronous computer-mediated communication (ACMC) environments help reduce foreign language anxiety (FLA). However, FLA is rarely the focus of these studies and research has not adequately addressed the relationship between FLA and the affordances that students use. This study…

  13. Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

  14. Home Visitation--A Chance for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosen, Roger L.

    1976-01-01

    Some ideas for improving the effectiveness of home visitation of students by vocational agriculture instructors include: planning for the visit, getting to know the student, assessing the home situation for influencing factors, using home responsibilities for plant and animal care as learning experiences, and considering life goals. (MS)

  15. Frankie, Stoney and the Last Chance Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanners, Chuck

    This novel for youth describes the world and experiences of a group of poor inner city junior high school students and their teacher. The students are all in a remedial classroom designed to meet their special needs and led by a dedicated teacher nick-named "Harp On". The central character Frankie describes their school year and particularly the…

  16. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  17. Chance and necessity in eye evolution.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis "that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes.

  18. Loss of chance: a new development in medical negligence law.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James

    2007-08-20

    The concept of "loss of chance" as an alternative cause of action in cases of medical negligence has succeeded in recent cases where actions based on causation have failed. The plaintiff must prove negligence and loss of a chance of a better outcome. The quantity of loss of chance must be more than "speculative" (1%). Damages are awarded as a proportion of the total injury commensurate with the loss of chance. More claims may be expected, although damages will generally be less than those awarded under causation. Doctors' insurance premiums may rise.

  19. Perceived Affordances of a Technology-Enhanced Active Learning Classroom in Promoting Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xun; Yang, Yu Jin; Liao, Lihui; Wolfe, Erin G.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored students and instructors' perceptions and experience of technology affordances in an technology-enhanced Active Learning Classroom (ALC) to promote students' collaborative problem solving. Multiple case studies were conducted. Five classes of 92 students and five professors participated in this study. The data sources were…

  20. Fault system polarity: A matter of chance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, Martin; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John; Nicol, Andy; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Many normal fault systems and, on a smaller scale, fracture boudinage exhibit asymmetry so that one fault dip direction dominates. The fraction of throw (or heave) accommodated by faults with the same dip direction in relation to the total fault system throw (or heave) is a quantitative measure of fault system asymmetry and termed 'polarity'. It is a common belief that the formation of domino and shear band boudinage with a monoclinic symmetry requires a component of layer parallel shearing, whereas torn boudins reflect coaxial flow. Moreover, domains of parallel faults are frequently used to infer the presence of a common décollement. Here we show, using Distinct Element Method (DEM) models in which rock is represented by an assemblage of bonded circular particles, that asymmetric fault systems can emerge under symmetric boundary conditions. The pre-requisite for the development of domains of parallel faults is however that the medium surrounding the brittle layer has a very low strength. We demonstrate that, if the 'competence' contrast between the brittle layer and the surrounding material ('jacket', or 'matrix') is high, the fault dip directions and hence fault system polarity can be explained using a random process. The results imply that domains of parallel faults are, for the conditions and properties used in our models, in fact a matter of chance. Our models suggest that domino and shear band boudinage can be an unreliable shear-sense indicator. Moreover, the presence of a décollement should not be inferred on the basis of a domain of parallel faults only.

  1. The chances of detecting life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Carter, Jonathan N.

    2015-07-01

    Missions to Mars progressively reveal the past and present habitability of the red planet. The current priority for Mars science is the recognition of definitive biosignatures related to past or present life. Success of life detection missions requires choices of the best mission design, location on Mars and particular sample to be analyzed. It is essential therefore to incorporate as much information as possible into the mission planning stages to maximize the precious opportunities provided by robotic operation on Mars. Bayesian statistics allow us to accommodate the many unknowns associated with a mission that has yet to take place. We have used Bayesian statistics to reveal that although in situ missions are less complex the overall probabilities of a successful mission to detect biosignatures on Mars are higher for sample return. If a mission has been designed with safe landing and operation as a priority, recognizing and avoiding those samples that do not contain the target biosignature is the most important characteristic, while for a mission where the best possible samples have been targeted the probability that the sample contains the target biosignature and that it can be correctly detected is the most dominant issue. Usefully, Bayesian statistics can be used to evaluate the chances of detecting past or present life for missions to different landing sites on Mars. A comparative assessment of Eberswelde Crater and Gale Crater indicates a higher probability of success for the latter and the probabilities of success are consistently higher for the sample return mission variant. Bayesian statistics, therefore, can inform future Mars mission planning steps to help maximize the possibility of success.

  2. Chance and necessity in ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kissileff, H R

    1991-08-01

    This paper begins with the paradox of invariants arising out of random events, and its title is based on the resolution of that paradox in Monod's book Chance and Necessity. In ingestive behavior this paradox arises particularly in the emergence of constancies in intakes from small bouts of behavior. I point out that one resolution of the paradox can be obtained by the use of averaging, eliminating the necessity to search for special detectors of variables whose values appear to be set by small modifications in a variety of control systems. The apparent regulation of body weight or food intake which remains relatively constant in the aggregate while components which enter into them fluctuate widely, is an illustration of the paradox and one possible resolution. I also describe four basic paradigms that could be taken as the main starting points for a comprehensive theory of ingestive behavior. They could be called regulation, learning, reward, and neural control. To some extent each is involved, and it is impossible at present to assign primacy. I conclude by suggesting that the basic tenet of ingestive behavior is that it occurs when there is an excess of excitation over inhibition in the neural systems that control it, and that the various factors which enter into such a calculation can best be represented by a computer model that incorporates all known controls that will make more accurate predictions than can be made with verbal theorizing. Such predictions can then be used to correct or confirm the model as data is collected. Finally, I provide some specific suggestions for activities of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior.

  3. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  4. Abstraction and Finitude: Education, Chance and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Education in the west has become a very "knowing" business in which students are encouraged to cultivate self-awareness and meta-cognitive skills in pursuit of a kind of perfection. The result is the evasion of contingency and of the consciousness of human finitude. The neo-liberalism that makes education a market good exacerbates this. These…

  5. Your Chance to Live: Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Tamara C., Ed.

    This teacher's manual attempts to prepare students to respond to any disaster by providing information about natural and manmade disasters, general strategies for preparedness, survival techniques, a rationale for effective community action, the knowledge needed to face the emotional shock of disaster, and familiarity with the roles and…

  6. Hunger Games: What Are the Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and motivated…

  7. Living, Loving & Learning: Giving Them a Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvino, Peter; Hoss, Madeline

    Since 1982 migrant children in grades K-8 have participated in a McLean County (Illinois) summer program of academic instruction and recreation aimed at instilling a love for learning and a desire to grow academically. The program is administered by the state compensatory section during June, July, and August with a student/teacher ratio of 8 to…

  8. A Chance to Be Like Lance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prouty, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The authors' seventh-grade science curriculum includes a study of nutrition, anatomy, and physiology. Over several years, the authors' teaching partner and herself reworked the nine-week unit to include the Tour de France and the exploits of Lance Armstrong. What makes this unit so engaging for middle school students is that it provides an…

  9. Reading Multimodally: What is Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David; Voss, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Technological changes and the proliferation of digital devices have created new reading experiences for students. The rapid transition from print to digital texts is evident in the movement toward the adoption of an e-book standard, increasing sales of e-book readers and tablet devices, and projections that universities and public schools may use…

  10. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  11. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  12. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  13. Chance and time: Cutting the Gordian knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagar, Amit

    One of the recurrent problems in the foundations of physics is to explain why we rarely observe certain phenomena that are allowed by our theories and laws. In thermodynamics, for example, the spontaneous approach towards equilibrium is ubiquitous yet the time-reversal-invariant laws that presumably govern thermal behaviour in the microscopic level equally allow spontaneous approach away from equilibrium to occur. Why are the former processes frequently observed while the latter are almost never reported? Another example comes from quantum mechanics where the formalism, if considered complete and universally applicable, predicts the existence of macroscopic superpositions---monstrous Schrodinger cats---and these are never observed: while electrons and atoms enjoy the cloudiness of waves, macroscopic objects are always localized to definite positions. A well-known explanatory framework due to Ludwig Boltzmann traces the rarity of "abnormal" thermodynamic phenomena to the scarcity of the initial conditions that lead to it. After all, physical laws are no more than algorithms and these are expected to generate different results according to different initial conditions, hence Boltzmann's insight that violations of thermodynamic laws are possible but highly improbable. Yet Boltzmann introduces probabilities into this explanatory scheme, and since the latter is couched in terms of classical mechanics, these probabilities must be interpreted as a result of ignorance of the exact state the system is in. Quantum mechanics has taught us otherwise. Here the attempts to explain why we never observe macroscopic superpositions have led to different interpretations of the formalism and to different solutions to the quantum measurement problem. These solutions introduce additional interpretations to the meaning of probability over and above ignorance of the definite state of the physical system: quantum probabilities may result from pure chance. Notwithstanding the success of the

  14. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  15. Pregnancy Problems? Boost the Chance of Having a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chance of Having a Baby For those who dream of being parents, pregnancy problems can be tremendously ... doesn’t work, doctors may recommend medication, surgery, artificial insemination (in which a woman is injected with ...

  16. Collaborative School Innovation Project as a Pivot for Teachers' Professional Development: The Case of Acharnes' Second Chance School in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsarou, Eleni; Tsafos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative school innovation project is explored as a pivot for the professional development of the teachers involved. The Second Chance School (SCS) of Acharnes in Greece constitutes such a collaborative innovative project, regarding the underlying theory of multiliteracies, its decentralised character, respect for student individuality, and…

  17. Stochastic Water Quality Optimization Using Imbedded Chance Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. Hugh

    1987-12-01

    A chance-constrained stochastic programming model is developed for water quality optimization. It determines the least cost allocation of waste treatment plant biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiencies, subject to probabilistic restrictions on maximum allowable instream dissolved oxygen deficit. The new model extends well beyond traditional approaches that assume streamflow is the sole random variable. In addition to streamflow, other random variables in the model are initial in-stream BOD level and dissolved oxygen (DO) deficit; waste outfall flow rates, BOD levels and DO deficits; deoxygenation k1, reaeration k2, and sedimentation-scour rate k3 coefficients of the Streeter-Phelps DO sag model; photosynthetic input-benthic depletion rates Ai, and nonpoint source BOD input rate Pi for the Camp-Dobbins extensions to the Streeter-Phelps model. These random variables appear in more highly aggregated terms which in turn form part of the probabilistic constraints of the water quality optimization model. Stochastic simulation procedures for estimating the probability density functions and covariances of these aggregated terms are discussed. A new chance-constrained programming variant, imbedded chance constraints, is presented along with an example application. In effect, this method imbeds a chance constraint within a chance constraint in a manner which is loosely associated with the distribution-free method of chance-constrained programming. It permits the selection of nonexpected value realizations of the mean and variance estimates employed in the deterministic equivalents of traditional chance-constrained models. As well, it provides a convenient mechanism for generating constraint probability response surfaces. A joint chance-constrained formulation is also presented which illustrates the possibility for prescription of an overall system reliability level, rather than reach-by-reach reliability assignment.

  18. Status Report on Implementation of the Policies Recommended by the Committee To Study Affordability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This paper presents a status report on efforts by the Illinois State Board of Higher Education to implement policies to enhance academic preparation and progress among college students, assist needy students, and keep college costs affordable. The board has initiated statutory high school course requirements for admission to public universities,…

  19. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project,…

  20. Completing the Affordability Picture: The Need for More Data on Financial Aid. Report 09-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2009-01-01

    The Commission adopted two affordability reports in 2008. One report examined costs for students at a four-year public university who live on campus. The other examined costs for students living in their parent's home while studying at a community college. Costs were compared to trends in family income over the past 30 years. The resulting report…

  1. The Affordances of Blogs and Digital Video: New Potentials for Exploring Topics and Representing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents examples of two ninth-grade students' literacy processes as they used blogs and digital video (amongst other media) to inquire into the subject matter of fast food. The author discusses the students' uses of these focal media through the concept of affordances, a concept that refers to the distinct…

  2. Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

  3. Chance as an explanatory factor in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, T

    1991-01-01

    Darwinian evolutionary biology has often been criticized for appealing to the notion of 'chance' in its explanations. According to some critics, such appeals exhibit the explanatory poverty of evolutionary theory. In response, defenders of Darwinism sometimes downplay the importance of 'chance' in evolution. I believe that both of these approaches are mistaken. The main thesis of this paper is that the term 'chance' encompasses a number of distinct concepts, and that at least some of these concepts serve essential explanatory functions in evolutionary biology. This claim is defended by way of an historical survey of the major concepts of 'chance' in the history of evolutionary biology, especially the concepts used by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Darwin, and Sewall Wright. An examination of their biologies shows how the concepts of 'chance' used cohere with their major scientific objectives and methods. These concepts survive and continue to function as important explanatory factors in contemporary evolutionary biology. Examples of such usage are given, and the explanatory status of 'chance' assessed.

  4. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  5. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  6. Customization in Schooling Markets: The Relationship between Curriculum and Pedagogy in a "Pop-Up" Learning Project, and the Epistemic Opportunities Afforded by Students' Interests and Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Schooling markets prioritize the needs of valued "customers". In Australia, this has resulted in a proliferation of learning interventions aimed at attracting and holding students perceived to fall into this category, and managing those who don't. In this paper, I attempt two main tasks: a description of the large-scale processes…

  7. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  8. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford.

  9. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  10. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  11. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  12. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  13. Limb apraxia and the "affordance competition hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects "afford", based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the "affordance competition hypothesis" (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that "affordance competition" may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way of

  14. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  15. Engagement and Resistance at Last Chance High: A Case Study of Twenty-First-Century Literacies and Identities in One English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mary Beth; Kersulov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the nature of student resistance to and engagement with digital media and twenty-first-century literacies in the English classroom at Last Chance High, an alternative high school. It traces the dynamic interplay of literacy practices and identity performances with and around digital media, exploring one student's…

  16. Learning to grasp and extract affordances: the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model.

    PubMed

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The activity of certain parietal neurons has been interpreted as encoding affordances (directly perceivable opportunities) for grasping. Separate computational models have been developed for infant grasp learning and affordance learning, but no single model has yet combined these processes in a neurobiologically plausible way. We present the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model that simultaneously learns grasp affordances from visual object features and motor parameters for planning grasps using trial-and-error reinforcement learning. As in the Infant Learning to Grasp Model, we model a stage of infant development prior to the onset of sophisticated visual processing of hand-object relations, but we assume that certain premotor neurons activate neural populations in primary motor cortex that synergistically control different combinations of fingers. The ILGA model is able to extract affordance representations from visual object features, learn motor parameters for generating stable grasps, and generalize its learned representations to novel objects.

  17. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  18. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  19. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  20. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  1. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  2. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  3. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the additional monthly costs of utilities and other monthly housing costs, such as condominium and... at reasonable terms, energy conservation, and improvements that will entail low-cost maintenance. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Affordability standards....

  4. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  5. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  6. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-07-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  7. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  8. Boys and "Second Chance" Education: Same Jeans, Different Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Mark G.

    This paper examines the perceptions and interactions of disadvantaged young people returning to mainstream education through Street Kids Access Tertiary Education (SKATE), a university bridging program in Sydney, Australia. Although both males and females in the study shared common backgrounds of disadvantage, "second-chance" educational success…

  9. The Notions of Chance and Probabilities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikiforidou, Zoi; Pange, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Chance, randomness and probability constitute statistical notions that are interrelated and characterize the logicomathematical thinking of children. Traditional theories support that probabilistic thinking evolves after the age of 7. However, recent research has underlined that children, as young as 4, may possess and develop basic notions,…

  10. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists,…

  11. The Common Core Initiative: What Are the Chances of Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have been adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia. They enjoy a huge following of well-wishers and supporters who are optimistic that the standards will boost achievement in U.S. schools. Setting aside the cheerleading and fond hopes, what are the real chances of success? The most reasonable prediction is…

  12. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from school (duration dependence) and school-related factors. Using data from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth and duration…

  13. A Fourth Chance for Second Chance Programs: Lessons from the Old for the New. Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Garth; Mangum, Stephen; Sum, Andrew

    The 36-year effort to provide a second chance at labor market success for disadvantaged and dislocated youth and adults was reviewed. The following issues were considered: (1) current legislative proposals; (2) lessons from past employment and training programs; (3) the labor market challenges faced by young adults, older workers, dislocated…

  14. Chance-Constrained Guidance With Non-Convex Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Missions to small bodies, such as comets or asteroids, require autonomous guidance for descent to these small bodies. Such guidance is made challenging by uncertainty in the position and velocity of the spacecraft, as well as the uncertainty in the gravitational field around the small body. In addition, the requirement to avoid collision with the asteroid represents a non-convex constraint that means finding the optimal guidance trajectory, in general, is intractable. In this innovation, a new approach is proposed for chance-constrained optimal guidance with non-convex constraints. Chance-constrained guidance takes into account uncertainty so that the probability of collision is below a specified threshold. In this approach, a new bounding method has been developed to obtain a set of decomposed chance constraints that is a sufficient condition of the original chance constraint. The decomposition of the chance constraint enables its efficient evaluation, as well as the application of the branch and bound method. Branch and bound enables non-convex problems to be solved efficiently to global optimality. Considering the problem of finite-horizon robust optimal control of dynamic systems under Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty, with state and control constraints, a discrete-time, continuous-state linear dynamics model is assumed. Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty is a more natural model for exogenous disturbances such as wind gusts and turbulence than the previously studied set-bounded models. However, with stochastic uncertainty, it is often impossible to guarantee that state constraints are satisfied, because there is typically a non-zero probability of having a disturbance that is large enough to push the state out of the feasible region. An effective framework to address robustness with stochastic uncertainty is optimization with chance constraints. These require that the probability of violating the state constraints (i.e., the probability of

  15. Smartphones Give You Wings: Pedagogical Affordances of Mobile Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Bateman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Built on the foundation of four years of research and implementation of mobile learning projects (m-learning), this paper provides an overview of the potential of the integration of mobile Web 2.0 tools (based around smartphones) to facilitate social constructivist pedagogies and engage students in tertiary education. Pedagogical affordances of…

  16. Affordances of ICT in Science Learning: Implications for an Integrated Pedagogy. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how affordances of ICT-rich environments identified from a recent review of the research literature can support students in learning science in schools within a proposed framework for pedagogical practice in science education. Furthermore other pedagogical and curriculum innovations in science education…

  17. ICT-Based Learning Personalization Affordance in the Context of Implementation of Constructionist Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignatova, Natalija; Dagiene, Valentina; Kubilinskiene, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    How to enable students to create a personalized learning environment? What are the criteria of evaluation of the ICT-based learning process personalization affordance? These questions are answered by conducting multiple case study research of the innovative ICT-based learning process in iTEC (Innovative Technologies for Engaging Classrooms)…

  18. Sowing the Seeds of Algebraic Generalization: Designing Epistemic Affordances for an Intelligent Microworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrikis, M.; Noss, R.; Hoyles, C.; Geraniou, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a mathematical microworld to tackle the persistent difficulties that secondary school students have with the idea of algebraic generalization, which is a key stumbling block in secondary-school mathematics classrooms. Our focus is to characterize algebraic ways of thinking and to design both affordances of the…

  19. 250 ms to Code for Action Affordance during Observation of Manipulable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; D'Aniello, Guido Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that viewing graspable tools (but not other objects) activates motor-related brain regions, but the time course of affordance processing has remained relatively unexplored. In this study, EEG was continuously recorded from 128 scalp sites in 15 right-handed university students while they received stimuli in the form of 150…

  20. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  1. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  2. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  3. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  4. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  6. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA.

  7. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. A coinsidence, a chance or a misfortune? Hangman's fracture.

    PubMed

    Dalbayrak, Sedat; Yaman, Onur

    2014-01-01

    William R. Francis and Bassam El-Effendi shared a common ground: they were the first individuals to classify Hangman's Fractures. Interestingly, although they were unaware of each other, they classified and published their findings in the same year, published in the same edition of the same journal (but on different pages). This new classification system was a chance for notoriety for El-Effendi, yet it was a misfortune for Francis. Both physicians graduated in 1973 (from different universities). Also fellows at different universities in 1981, they were also both unaware they studied the same topic. Coincidentally, their paths crossed in the same edition of a journal where their studies were published in the same year, which was unprecedented in the literature. One classification scheme is well-known while the other is almost completely unheard of for no apparent reason other than chance for one and misfortune for the other.

  9. Beyond Chance? The Persistence of Performance in Online Poker

    PubMed Central

    Potter van Loon, Rogier J. D.; van den Assem, Martijn J.; van Dolder, Dennie

    2015-01-01

    A major issue in the widespread controversy about the legality of poker and the appropriate taxation of winnings is whether poker should be considered a game of skill or a game of chance. To inform this debate we present an analysis into the role of skill in the performance of online poker players, using a large database with hundreds of millions of player-hand observations from real money ring games at three different stakes levels. We find that players whose earlier profitability was in the top (bottom) deciles perform better (worse) and are substantially more likely to end up in the top (bottom) performance deciles of the following time period. Regression analyses of performance on historical performance and other skill-related proxies provide further evidence for persistence and predictability. Simulations point out that skill dominates chance when performance is measured over 1,500 or more hands of play. PMID:25729862

  10. A coinsidence, a chance or a misfortune? Hangman's fracture.

    PubMed

    Dalbayrak, Sedat; Yaman, Onur

    2014-01-01

    William R. Francis and Bassam El-Effendi shared a common ground: they were the first individuals to classify Hangman's Fractures. Interestingly, although they were unaware of each other, they classified and published their findings in the same year, published in the same edition of the same journal (but on different pages). This new classification system was a chance for notoriety for El-Effendi, yet it was a misfortune for Francis. Both physicians graduated in 1973 (from different universities). Also fellows at different universities in 1981, they were also both unaware they studied the same topic. Coincidentally, their paths crossed in the same edition of a journal where their studies were published in the same year, which was unprecedented in the literature. One classification scheme is well-known while the other is almost completely unheard of for no apparent reason other than chance for one and misfortune for the other. PMID:25168333

  11. Chance, purpose, and progress in evolution and christianity.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas J; Masel, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Evolutionary biology has a complex relationship with ideas of chance, purpose, and progress. Probability plays a subtle role; strikingly, founding figures in statistics were motivated by evolutionary questions. The findings of evolutionary biology have been used both in support of narratives of progress, and in their deconstruction. Likewise, professional biologists bring to their scientific work a set of preconceptions about chance and progress, grounded in their philosophical, religious, and/or political views. From the religious side, questions of purpose are ever-present. We explore this interplay in five broad categories: chance, progress, intelligence, eugenics, and the evolution of religious practices, each the subject of a semester long symposium. The intellectual influence of evolutionary biology has had a broad societal impact in these areas. Based on our experience, we draw attention to a number of relevant facts that, while accepted by experts in their respective fields, may be unfamiliar outside them. We list common areas of miscommunication, including specific examples and discussing causes: sometimes semantics and sometimes more substantive knowledge barriers. We also make recommendations for those attempting similar dialogue. PMID:24754485

  12. Chance, purpose, and progress in evolution and christianity.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas J; Masel, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Evolutionary biology has a complex relationship with ideas of chance, purpose, and progress. Probability plays a subtle role; strikingly, founding figures in statistics were motivated by evolutionary questions. The findings of evolutionary biology have been used both in support of narratives of progress, and in their deconstruction. Likewise, professional biologists bring to their scientific work a set of preconceptions about chance and progress, grounded in their philosophical, religious, and/or political views. From the religious side, questions of purpose are ever-present. We explore this interplay in five broad categories: chance, progress, intelligence, eugenics, and the evolution of religious practices, each the subject of a semester long symposium. The intellectual influence of evolutionary biology has had a broad societal impact in these areas. Based on our experience, we draw attention to a number of relevant facts that, while accepted by experts in their respective fields, may be unfamiliar outside them. We list common areas of miscommunication, including specific examples and discussing causes: sometimes semantics and sometimes more substantive knowledge barriers. We also make recommendations for those attempting similar dialogue.

  13. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  14. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project, a socio-political debate was designed for assessing student competences of scientific literacy in classroom practices. The debate centred on a fictive case about a lake where a decline in the yield of fish had been established. The students were assigned the task of participating in the debate from appointed roles as different stakeholders. Data were collected with video recordings of the enacted student debates. Student participation was analysed with the theoretical framework of communities of practice. The results show that multiple conflicting purposes of the socio-political debate as an assessment task emerged. The emergent purposes were (1) putting scientific knowledge on display versus staying true to one's role, (2) putting scientific knowledge on display versus expressing social responsibility, (3) putting scientific knowledge on display versus winning the debate, and (4) using sources tactically versus using sources critically. As these purposes emerged in classroom practice, tensions between different ways of enacting participation in the debates became manifest. Based on these findings, this article discusses the affordances and constraints for using a socio-political debate for classroom-based assessment of scientific literacy and argumentation in terms of validity, reliability and affordability.

  15. 75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Dependent Coverage; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure and Recordkeeping Requirement; Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act......

  16. Culturally Afforded Tensions in the Second Life Metaverse: From Sustainability Initiatives in Europe to Sustainability Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistassou, Stella K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the culturally contingent tensions afforded by the implementation of Second Life in transatlantic communications among 13 college-level students at a Southwestern academic institution in the United States and their instructor and an assistant professor and his graduate student at a Greek-speaking academic institution. The…

  17. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  18. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. PMID:26598303

  19. Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J.

    1996-11-01

    The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

  20. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding.

  1. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception.

  2. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  3. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  4. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  5. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  6. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  7. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  8. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  9. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  10. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  11. 77 FR 35743 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE... the vessel SECOND CHANCE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Small group charters.''...

  12. [Adolescents in Web 2.0: risks and chances ].

    PubMed

    Salisch, Maria von

    2014-01-01

    That almost all adolescents possess an individual access to the internet and that they use it every day, lays the foundation for the improved means of self presentation and participation that are known by the notion of Web 2.0. Social networks and other interactive internet formats give rise to new risks like cyber mobbing which is the topic of three contributions. At the same time, Web 2.0 offers chances in the form of online counseling and online therapy that cater to the preferences of media-friendly target group of adolescents. PMID:24877775

  13. [Adolescents in Web 2.0: risks and chances ].

    PubMed

    Salisch, Maria von

    2014-01-01

    That almost all adolescents possess an individual access to the internet and that they use it every day, lays the foundation for the improved means of self presentation and participation that are known by the notion of Web 2.0. Social networks and other interactive internet formats give rise to new risks like cyber mobbing which is the topic of three contributions. At the same time, Web 2.0 offers chances in the form of online counseling and online therapy that cater to the preferences of media-friendly target group of adolescents.

  14. Affordable proteomics: the two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Marc

    2003-06-01

    Numerous proteomic methodologies exist, but most require a heavy investment in expertise and technology. This puts these approaches out of reach for many laboratories and small companies, rarely allowing proteomics to be used as a pilot approach for biomarker or target identification. Two proteomic approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and the two-hybrid systems, are currently available to most researchers. The two-hybrid systems, though accommodating to large-scale experiments, were originally designed as practical screens, that by comparison to current proteomics tools were small-scale, affordable and technically feasible. The screens rapidly generated data, identifying protein interactions that were previously uncharacterized. The foundation for a two-hybrid proteomic investigation can be purchased as separate kits from a number of companies. The true power of the technique lies not in its affordability, but rather in its portability. The two-hybrid system puts proteomics back into laboratories where the output of the screens can be evaluated by researchers with experience in the particular fields of basic research, cancer biology, toxicology or drug development.

  15. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27668424

  16. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  18. Chance Fracture of the Upper Thoracic Spine in a Child.

    PubMed

    Sander, Anna L; Laurer, Helmut; El Saman, André; Ploss, Carola; Mack, Martin G; Maier, Bernd; Marzi, Ingo

    2009-06-01

    We report on a three-year-old girl who fell accidentally from the fourth floor. She suffered multiple trauma, including severe head injury, unstable T2-T3 Chance fracture, pneumothorax with lung contusion and serial rib fractures on the left side, liver laceration, splenic injury and fracture of the sacral bone on the right side. The progressive intracranial pressure was released by trepanation and bifrontal craniectomy. The abdominal injuries were treated conservatively. After stabilization of the intracranial situation, dorsal spondylodesis from T2 to T4 was performed employing the cannulated NEON system (Ulrich(®)) with CT-controlled positioning of guide wires. One year on, the implants have been removed and the patient has good function, with only a small atactic dysfunction as residuum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pediatric Chance fracture located in the upper thoracic spine following a fall from great height that describes how this treatment approach led to a very favorable outcome. PMID:26814912

  19. Entrepreneurs, chance, and the deterministic concentration of wealth.

    PubMed

    Fargione, Joseph E; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs--individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises--comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels.

  20. Entrepreneurs, chance, and the deterministic concentration of wealth.

    PubMed

    Fargione, Joseph E; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs--individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises--comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels. PMID:21814540

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging for Chance Constrained Remediation Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitsazan, N.; Tsai, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater remediation designs are heavily relying on simulation models which are subjected to various sources of uncertainty in their predictions. To develop a robust remediation design, it is crucial to understand the effect of uncertainty sources. In this research, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) framework to segregate and prioritize sources of uncertainty in a multi-layer frame, where each layer targets a source of uncertainty. The HBMA framework provides an insight to uncertainty priorities and propagation. In addition, HBMA allows evaluating model weights in different hierarchy levels and assessing the relative importance of models in each level. To account for uncertainty, we employ a chance constrained (CC) programming for stochastic remediation design. Chance constrained programming was implemented traditionally to account for parameter uncertainty. Recently, many studies suggested that model structure uncertainty is not negligible compared to parameter uncertainty. Using chance constrained programming along with HBMA can provide a rigorous tool for groundwater remediation designs under uncertainty. In this research, the HBMA-CC was applied to a remediation design in a synthetic aquifer. The design was to develop a scavenger well approach to mitigate saltwater intrusion toward production wells. HBMA was employed to assess uncertainties from model structure, parameter estimation and kriging interpolation. An improved harmony search optimization method was used to find the optimal location of the scavenger well. We evaluated prediction variances of chloride concentration at the production wells through the HBMA framework. The results showed that choosing the single best model may lead to a significant error in evaluating prediction variances for two reasons. First, considering the single best model, variances that stem from uncertainty in the model structure will be ignored. Second, considering the best model with non

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  3. Migrant Students at the Secondary Level: Issues and Opportunities for Change. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Linda

    Children of migrant farmworkers are among the segments of the population most difficult to educate. Data from 1974 indicates the average migrant student had a 40% chance of reaching ninth grade, an 11% chance of reaching 12th grade, and a less than 10% chance of graduating from high school. Factors correlated with students quitting school are…

  4. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  5. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  6. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  7. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population.

  8. Employer Reactions to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Muller, Leslie A; Isely, Paul; Levin, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Although the implementation of parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was delayed until 2015, many firms had already made changes to their health insurance plans and their business practices. This article reports results from a survey administered to western Michigan firms in October 2013 requesting information on any changes they made in response to ACA. The authors found that although 89% of employers planned to offer health insurance in 2014, that number dropped to 66% in 2015. The main ways organizations were controlling health costs were by changing prescription coverage, passing on the costs to employees through higher copays and premiums and offering more high-deductible health plans with health savings accounts. Employers also were altering business practices by decreasing future hiring and decreasing the hours of part-time workers. The authors find that many of these changes were due to the uncertainty firms were facing during the ACA implementation process. PMID:26540944

  9. Russian Higher Education: Who Can Afford It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the issue of access and equity in the Russian higher education system by examining recent government initiatives. While recently introduced measures such as the Unified State Examination and student loan project are designed to aid students and expand participation, they alone cannot ensure equitable access to higher education…

  10. Educational Opportunity Is Achievable and Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    Raising academic standards while eliminating achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students are among America's primary national educational goals. According to a growing body of research, America will attain its goals of equity and preparing students to function effectively as citizens and productive workers only through a…

  11. Software To Help the At-Risk Child's Chances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleland, Kevin R.; Carruthers, William; Wright, Susan; Blackwell, Gordon; Nippert, Mark

    This paper describes two uses of the Microsoft Access relational database software in the Wake County (North Carolina) public schools: first, to track data on students involved in the Student Support Team (SST) Process; and second, to handle the legal and procedural due process steps that occur after a student has been suspended from school. The…

  12. Life Chances, Lifestyle and Everyday Aspirational Strategies and Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Hickey-Moody, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The notion of raising the aspirations of socially disadvantaged students is a key policy strategy in for enhancing such students' participation in higher education. However, this strategy runs the risk of being simplistic and ineffective unless it is informed by research on the links between aspirations and such students' changing life experiences…

  13. Child and family safety device affordability by country income level: an 18 country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, D; Miller, T; Orlando, M; Spicer, R; Taft, C; Consunji, R; Zaloshnja, E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare availability, urban price, and affordability of child/family safety devices between 18 economically diverse countries. Design: Descriptive: urban price surveys by local safety organisations or shoppers. Setting: Retail stores and internet vendors. Main outcome measures: Prices expressed in US dollars, and affordability measured by hours of factory work needed to buy a child safety seat, a belt-positioning booster seat, a child bicycle helmet, and a smoke alarm. Results: Prices of child and family safety devices varied widely between countries but the variation for child safety seats and bicycle helmets did not relate strongly to country income. Safety devices were expensive, often prohibitively so, in lower income countries. Far more hours of factory work were required to earn a child safety device in lower income than middle income, and middle income than higher income, countries. A bicycle helmet, for example, cost 10 hours of factory work in lower income countries but less than an hour in higher income countries. Smoke alarms and booster seats were not available in many lower income countries. Conclusions: Bicycles and two-axle motor vehicles were numerous in lower and middle income countries, but corresponding child safety devices were often unaffordable and sometimes not readily available. The apparent market distortions and their causes merit investigation. Advocacy, social marketing, local device production, lowering of tariffs, and mandatory use legislation might stimulate market growth. Arguably, a moral obligation exists to offer subsidies that give all children a fair chance of surviving to adulthood. PMID:15583254

  14. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  15. Robots in the operating theatre--chances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Korb, W; Marmulla, R; Raczkowsky, J; Mühling, J; Hassfeld, S

    2004-12-01

    The use of surgical robots and manipulators is still being frequently discussed in the mass media as well as in the scientific community. Although it was already noted in 1985 that the first patient was treated by a joint team of robot and surgeon, today such systems are not routinely used. This can be explained by the high complexity of such systems and the often limited usability, but also, that it is difficult for surgeons to accept "automatic" machines. In this paper the possibilities and chances of robots and manipulators will be explained and it will be shown that robots will never work alone in the operating theatre as it is common in industry today. On the other hand, also limitations and challenges will be outlined. Therefore first a review on today's systems is given in different disciplines including oral- and cranio-maxillofacial surgery, then advantages and disadvantages are shown.

  16. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - The Role of the School Nurse: Position Statement.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students. PMID:25926418

  17. Chance and necessity in the selection of nucleic acid catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorsch, J. R.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    In Tom Stoppard's famous play [Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead], the ill-fated heroes toss a coin 101 times. The first 100 times they do so the coin lands heads up. The chance of this happening is approximately 1 in 10(30), a sequence of events so rare that one might argue that it could only happen in such a delightful fiction. Similarly rare events, however, may underlie the origins of biological catalysis. What is the probability that an RNA, DNA, or protein molecule of a given random sequence will display a particular catalytic activity? The answer to this question determines whether a collection of such sequences, such as might result from prebiotic chemistry on the early earth, is extremely likely or unlikely to contain catalytically active molecules, and hence whether the origin of life itself is a virtually inevitable consequence of chemical laws or merely a bizarre fluke. The fact that a priori estimates of this probability, given by otherwise informed chemists and biologists, ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-50), inspired us to begin to address the question experimentally. As it turns out, the chance that a given random sequence RNA molecule will be able to catalyze an RNA polymerase-like phosphoryl transfer reaction is close to 1 in 10(13), rare enough, to be sure, but nevertheless in a range that is comfortably accessible by experiment. It is the purpose of this Account to describe the recent advances in combinatorial biochemistry that have made it possible for us to explore the abundance and diversity of catalysts existing in nucleic acid sequence space.

  18. 75 FR 81659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice--Prohibition on Lifetime Limits ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act)......

  19. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary...: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act... Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act). Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  20. A general protocol to afford enantioenriched linear homoprenylic amines.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Irene; Foubelo, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gomez, Jose C

    2013-11-21

    The reaction of a readily obtained chiral branched homoprenylamonium salt with a range of aldehydes, including aliphatic substrates, affords the corresponding linear isomers in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  1. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (<138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL], 138–250 percent FPL, 250–400 percent FPL, and >400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  2. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  3. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  4. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  5. Broken affordances, broken objects: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Giovanni; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Rodà, Francesca; Riggio, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that specific components of motor programs are automatically activated when they are afforded by object related pragmatic features. Among these features the handle appears to be particularly salient for interacting with an object. The aim of this study was to test the modulation of the motor system when object features, particularly relevant for the action, like the object's handle, are violated. In order to address this issue a TMS paradigm was used in which familiar objects with a whole or broken handle, positioned to the right or to the left, were centrally presented. A control condition was also included in which a symbol ('#' character) was shown in the right or in the left visual field. Participants had to watch stimuli carefully. The left hemisphere hand motor area was magnetically stimulated 200 ms after stimulus presentation. Results showed that MEP areas were larger when the handle was located to the right side consistent with the visuomotor role of this feature, but only when the handle was complete. The present data (1) suggest a more active role of the dorsal stream in building up object knowledge and (2) allow one to rule out the role of any asymmetrical aspect of an object in motor coding. PMID:19615389

  6. Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Pérez-Blanco, C. D.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme events are becoming more frequent and intense, inflating the economic damages and social hardship set-off by natural catastrophes. Amidst budgetary cuts, there is a growing concern on societies' ability to design solvent disaster recovery strategies, while addressing equity and affordability concerns. The participation of private sector along with public one through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) has gained on importance as a means to address these seemingly conflicting objectives through the provision of (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance. This is the case of many OECD countries, notably some EU Member States such as the United Kingdom and Spain. The EU legislator has adapted to this new scenario and recently produced major reforms in the legislation and regulation that govern the framework in which PPPs for (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance develop. This paper has a dual objective: (1) review the complex legal background that rules the provision of insurance against natural catastrophes in the EU after these major reforms, (2) assess the implications of the reforms and offer concise Policy Guiding Principles.

  7. Scaling affordances for human reach actions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeg Joo; Mark, Leonard S

    2004-12-01

    A methodology developed by Cesari and Newell [Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (1999). The scaling of human grip configuration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25, 927-935; Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (2000). The body-scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years. Developmental Psychobiology 36, 301-310] was used to delineate the roles of an object's weight (W) and distance (D) as well as the actor's strength (S) in determining the macroscopic action used to reach for the object. Participants reached for objects of five different weights placed at 10 distances. The findings of a single discriminant analysis revealed that when object weight is scaled in terms of each individual's strength and reach distance is scaled in terms of each individual's maximum-seated reach distance, a single discriminant analysis was able to predict 90% of the reach modes used by both men and women. The result of the discriminant analysis was used to construct a body-scaled equation, K=lnD+ln(W/S)/36, similar in form to the one derived by Cesari and Newell, accurately predicted the reach action used. Our findings indicate that Cesari and Newell's method can identify a complex relationship between geometric and dynamic constraints that determine the affordances for different reach actions. PMID:15664673

  8. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    PubMed

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Do Shy Kids Have a Chance of Getting to College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Thomas A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of teacher recommendations for students who exhibit extreme shyness during college interviews. Admission committees at some colleges are apparently questioning the propensity to favor students who evidence leadership, and who are naturally outgoing, in seeking to balance and diversify the…

  10. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  11. Wealthy Colleges Must Make Themselves More Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassley, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Americans have decided that the work of nonprofit colleges and universities is so invaluable that they should be exempt from taxes. Those tax exemptions involve a social compact: In exchange, colleges are obliged to carry out the charitable purpose of providing the best education to the most students at the lowest cost. In this article, the author…

  12. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  13. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  14. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn't appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  15. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn`t appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  16. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios.

  17. The science of healthy aging: genes, milieu, and chance.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2007-10-01

    Healthy aging and longevity depend on successful and dynamic interactions among biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Biological aging occurs mainly during the period of survival beyond the evolutionarily required essential lifespan (ELS). Natural selection processes for survival and successful reproduction have selected for a range of genetically determined ELS-assuring maintenance and repair systems (MRSs). The progressive failure of MRSs, and the consequent accumulation of molecular heterogeneity and damage, underlie the biological basis of aging, age-related diseases, and eventual death. However, the genetic processes of MRSs operate in a complex hierarchy of factors which range from intracellular molecular factors to physiological, psychological, environmental, and other stochastic factors, including chance. This view also facilitates setting up a framework for understanding, researching, and developing effective and realistic strategies for aging intervention, prevention, and therapies. Manipulating genes and the milieu in which genes and gene products operate opens up novel possibilities of aging intervention and prevention. Gene therapy, stem cells, and modulation through functional foods, nutriceuticals, cosmeceuticals and lifestyle alterations, including mild stress-induced hormesis, are examples of such strategies at various levels of development and practice.

  18. [The story of biosimilars--chance or threat?].

    PubMed

    Woroń, Jaroslaw; Kocić, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Patent protection on some key biologic drugs is going to expire soon. Therefore, chances are rising for biopharmaceutical manufacturers to develop and market biosimilars (follow-on biologics). These drugs are approved when similarity to reference biological medicine is proven: in terms of quality, safety or efficacy. In September 2013 European Medicines Agency authorized the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody-infliximab. Doubts considering follow-on biologics are related to their safety and efficacy. The majority of them are associated with the new phenomenon for biological products in clinical use and drug approval processes. These are: extrapolation of indications, immunogenicity and interchangeability. The case of interchangeability poses a threat that it would be impossible to determine which drug is responsible for adverse event, even if brand names and batch numbers of reference and biosimilar products are known. Biosimilar product is authorized if it has shown efficacy and safety in some of indications. When approved, its use will be extrapolated on other indications of the reference product. The aim of following article is to describe some current issues on biosimilars safety, approval procedures and legal solutions in Poland. PMID:25546996

  19. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios. PMID:22273322

  20. [The story of biosimilars--chance or threat?].

    PubMed

    Woroń, Jaroslaw; Kocić, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Patent protection on some key biologic drugs is going to expire soon. Therefore, chances are rising for biopharmaceutical manufacturers to develop and market biosimilars (follow-on biologics). These drugs are approved when similarity to reference biological medicine is proven: in terms of quality, safety or efficacy. In September 2013 European Medicines Agency authorized the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody-infliximab. Doubts considering follow-on biologics are related to their safety and efficacy. The majority of them are associated with the new phenomenon for biological products in clinical use and drug approval processes. These are: extrapolation of indications, immunogenicity and interchangeability. The case of interchangeability poses a threat that it would be impossible to determine which drug is responsible for adverse event, even if brand names and batch numbers of reference and biosimilar products are known. Biosimilar product is authorized if it has shown efficacy and safety in some of indications. When approved, its use will be extrapolated on other indications of the reference product. The aim of following article is to describe some current issues on biosimilars safety, approval procedures and legal solutions in Poland.

  1. Affordance Analysis--Matching Learning Tasks with Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of "affordances" is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology…

  2. One Hand, Two Objects: Emergence of Affordance in Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on affordances typically focus on single objects. We investigated whether affordances are modulated by the context, defined by the relation between two objects and a hand. Participants were presented with pictures displaying two manipulable objects linked by a functional (knife-butter), a spatial (knife-coffee mug), or by no relation. They…

  3. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  4. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  7. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  8. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  9. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  10. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  11. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures. PMID:27342945

  12. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  13. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  14. Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings.

  15. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick. PMID:25265646

  16. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  17. Second-Chance Signal Transduction Explains Cooperative Flagellar Switching

    PubMed Central

    Zot, Henry G.; Hasbun, Javier E.; Van Minh, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    The reversal of flagellar motion (switching) results from the interaction between a switch complex of the flagellar rotor and a torque-generating stationary unit, or stator (motor unit). To explain the steeply cooperative ligand-induced switching, present models propose allosteric interactions between subunits of the rotor, but do not address the possibility of a reaction that stimulates a bidirectional motor unit to reverse direction of torque. During flagellar motion, the binding of a ligand-bound switch complex at the dwell site could excite a motor unit. The probability that another switch complex of the rotor, moving according to steady-state rotation, will reach the same dwell site before that motor unit returns to ground state will be determined by the independent decay rate of the excited-state motor unit. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the energy coupling between a switch complex and a motor unit of the stator complex of a flagellum, and demonstrate that this model accounts for the cooperative switching response without the need for allosteric interactions. The analytical result can be reproduced by simulation when (1) the motion of the rotor delivers a subsequent ligand-bound switch to the excited motor unit, thereby providing the excited motor unit with a second chance to remain excited, and (2) the outputs from multiple independent motor units are constrained to a single all-or-none event. In this proposed model, a motor unit and switch complex represent the components of a mathematically defined signal transduction mechanism in which energy coupling is driven by steady-state and is regulated by stochastic ligand binding. Mathematical derivation of the model shows the analytical function to be a general form of the Hill equation (Hill AV (1910) The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv–vii). PMID:22844429

  18. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  19. Affordances and Limitations of Immersive Participatory Augmented Reality Simulations for Teaching and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunleavy, Matt; Dede, Chris; Mitchell, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document how teachers and students describe and comprehend the ways in which participating in an augmented reality (AR) simulation aids or hinders teaching and learning. Like the multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) interface that underlies Internet games, AR is a good medium for immersive collaborative simulation, but has different strengths and limitations than MUVEs. Within a design-based research project, the researchers conducted multiple qualitative case studies across two middle schools (6th and 7th grade) and one high school (10th grade) in the northeastern United States to document the affordances and limitations of AR simulations from the student and teacher perspective. The researchers collected data through formal and informal interviews, direct observations, web site posts, and site documents. Teachers and students reported that the technology-mediated narrative and the interactive, situated, collaborative problem solving affordances of the AR simulation were highly engaging, especially among students who had previously presented behavioral and academic challenges for the teachers. However, while the AR simulation provided potentially transformative added value, it simultaneously presented unique technological, managerial, and cognitive challenges to teaching and learning.

  20. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  1. 5 CFR 831.684 - Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second chance elections to provide... Noncodified Statutes § 831.684 Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits. (a) A married retiree who... election which cannot be revoked after 30 days after the annuity check in which the annuity reduction...

  2. 5 CFR 831.684 - Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Second chance elections to provide... Noncodified Statutes § 831.684 Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits. (a) A married retiree who... election which cannot be revoked after 30 days after the annuity check in which the annuity reduction...

  3. 5 CFR 831.684 - Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Second chance elections to provide... Noncodified Statutes § 831.684 Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits. (a) A married retiree who... election which cannot be revoked after 30 days after the annuity check in which the annuity reduction...

  4. 5 CFR 831.684 - Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Second chance elections to provide... Noncodified Statutes § 831.684 Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits. (a) A married retiree who... election which cannot be revoked after 30 days after the annuity check in which the annuity reduction...

  5. 5 CFR 831.684 - Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Second chance elections to provide... Noncodified Statutes § 831.684 Second chance elections to provide survivor benefits. (a) A married retiree who... election which cannot be revoked after 30 days after the annuity check in which the annuity reduction...

  6. Youth Chance. A Program of the San Francisco Mayor's Office of Employment and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser & Ogden Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The San Francisco-based YMCA Youth Chance began in 1978 as a Youth Community Conservation and Improvement "sweat program"--a means of providing unemployed high school dropouts with CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act)-funded jobs. Youth Chance continues to train males and females, 16-19 years of age, who meet CETA requirements.…

  7. Taking a Chance: Education for Aesthetic Judgment and the Criticism of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of the antifoundationalist thought of Cavell with a particular focus on his idea of "chance in aesthetic experience," as a framework through which to destabilize the prevailing discourse of education centering on freedom and control. I try to present the idea of chance in a particular way, which…

  8. Starting a Second Chance Home: A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Kathy; Kelly, Lisa M.

    This guide outlines 10 basic steps for policymakers and practitioners interested in creating Second Chance Homes in their areas. Second Chance Homes provide stable, nurturing environments for teen families with access to child care, education, job training, counseling, and advice on parenting and life skills. The guide is based on interviews with…

  9. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of…

  10. On Similarity Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Correction for Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance in coefficients that are linear functions of the observed proportion of agreement. The paper unifies and extends various results on correction for chance in the literature. A specific class of coefficients is used to illustrate the results derived in this paper. Coefficients in this class, e.g. the simple…

  11. Transferring Experience through Team Teaching: The Chance of a Lifetime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lindsey M.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2015-01-01

    While team teaching has its difficulties and is used relatively infrequently, research suggests potential benefits. An innovative team teaching approach was designed where faculty and industry professionals coordinate instruction and are in the classroom at the same time. Students associated this approach with greater depth of knowledge and a…

  12. Learning Together. A Study Skills Handbook. Second Chance to Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Judith

    This handbook is designed for adults who left school at minimum leaving age with few or no qualifications and are returning to education many years later. Its focus is on a particular course in history, politics, and economics offered to students in Liverpool, England. The handbook is intended for use as the basis for group work, not for…

  13. "Second Chance" Education: Accessing Opportunity or Recycling Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Mark G.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an ethnographic project examining an Australian program designed to provide homeless adolescents with access to secondary education. Focuses on the relationships among groups of students within the program and explores the way that education can either reinforce disadvantage or offer access to opportunity. (MJP)

  14. Object Affordances Potentiate Responses but Do Not Guide Attentional Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Ariga, Atsunori; Yamada, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Handled objects automatically activate afforded responses. The current experiment examined whether objects that afford a response are also prioritized for attentional processing in visual search. Targets were pictures of coffee cups with handles oriented either to the right or the left. Subjects searched for a target, a right-handled vs. left-handled coffee cup, among a varying number of distractor cups oriented in the opposite direction. Responses were faster when the direction of target handle and the key press were spatially matched than mismatched (stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect), but object affordance did not moderate slopes of the search functions, indicating the absence of attentional prioritization effect. These findings imply that handled objects prime afforded responses without influencing attentional prioritization. PMID:26793077

  15. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  16. Why the affordable care act needs a better name: 'Americare'.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2010-08-01

    The culmination of a century's effort to enact universal coverage in the United States is a law with an uninspiring title, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and an even more awkward acronym, PPACA. The Obama administration has decided to call the legislation the Affordable Care Act, but the expansion of health coverage that the law sets in motion has no name, and therefore no identity. It badly needs one.

  17. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behavior goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects. PMID:26150778

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  19. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. Joseph; Cooke, Doug; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing opinion that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget scenarios, with sustained international participation, and --- especially --- without requiring those first missions to achieve a burdensome number of goals. In response to this view, a group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December 2013. Participants reviewed scenarios for proposed affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" or "transition" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and usable definitions of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop. In the context of affordable early missions to Mars, we also discuss the recent report of the National Research Council on human space flight and a pair of recent scenarios that appear to promise reduced costs.

  20. Who plays what? Participation profiles in chance versus skill-based gambling.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether gambling participation falls into skill and chance-based categories and, if so, to determine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with these different categories. A cross-sectional analysis of all respondents to the 2005 Northern Territory Gambling Prevalence Survey who gambled in the 12 months prior to the survey. Factor analysis was employed to determine whether a chance versus skill-based dichotomy described the structure of gambling participation. Gambler preference groups were constructed using the median of rotated factor scores. Multinomial logit regression was then used to determine independent associations between explanatory variables and categories of gambler preferences. The skill and chance-based dichotomy did describe player preferences for the sample of adult gamblers in the Northern Territory, Australia. Gender, age, household income, household structure and the geographic location (access to gambling opportunities) of respondents were all associated with different degrees of participation in skill and chance based gambling activities. Notably, respondents 35 years and over were significantly over-represented in the low-skill/high-chance participation group, and under-represented in the high-skill/low-chance group. It is clear that the term gambling is a confounding rubric that hides differences both in the type of activity and the socio-demographic profiles of participants. An examination of the latter raises important questions about the role of chance in later life, as well as the role of self-determination in gambling for other groups, particularly younger men.

  1. Affordability of Meteorology Graduate Programs in the United States and Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Matthew S.; Toracinta, E. Richard

    1998-06-01

    The authors surveyed 55 university departments in the United States and Canada that grant doctor of philosophy and/or master of science degrees in meteorology or the atmospheric sciences. Two-thirds of university departments responded. Survey topics included graduate student income (stipends and health insurance benefits) and mandatory costs (tuition, fees, and health insurance costs) incurred for fall 1996.Results show that most graduate students do have funding but only one-quarter of departments indicate that health insurance benefits are provided to graduate assistants. The largest mandatory cost is typically housing, which was estimated (except for Canadian schools) with 1996 Fair Market Rent data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. For schools not providing it, the second largest cost is typically health insurance. The smallest costs are typically tuition (waived for graduate assistants in most cases) and fees.The difference between income and mandatory costs over a nine-month period gives an "effective income." Evidence was found associating greater effective income with larger departments and with locations where housing costs are larger. No significant evidence was found to associate differences in effective income with city size or geographic region. The broad range in effective income between the departments suggests that some graduate programs may be much more affordable than others.This information can aid university departments in planning budgets that keep them competitive with one another. This paper will also help prospective graduate students by raising awareness about important issues of graduate program affordability.

  2. Ulcerative Colitis in University Students (A 20 Year Interim Report)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Mary M.

    1970-01-01

    In order to give students with colitis the best chance of completing school, a very close relationship between previous physicians and student health services, and university physicians and consulting gastroenterologists must be developed. (Author)

  3. 76 FR 4377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Extension of Dependent Coverage ACTION: Notice... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... Collection: Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Extension of Dependent......

  4. Explicating a gut feel--Benchmarking the chance for exploration success

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.A. )

    1994-12-26

    There is a 50--50 chance for adequate trap, seal, source, reservoir, and the likelihood for oil. So, the probability for a successful oil find is 3%. A checklist of 33 inquiries is offered as a yardstick for measuring the adequacy of petroleum prospect factor conditions. Each of the inquiries is a part of an overall test that good prospects should pass. Application of the checklist results in probability assignments to the chance for commercial exploration success. The paper discusses exploration forecasts, industry standards, prospect assessment critical paths, historical rates of success, exploration yardsticks, the checklist, applying the checklist, a case study, and its chance for commerciality.

  5. CHANCE: comprehensive software for quality control and validation of ChIP-seq data.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Aaron; Nellore, Abhinav; Song, Jun S

    2012-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful method for obtaining genome-wide maps of protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic modifications. CHANCE (CHip-seq ANalytics and Confidence Estimation) is a standalone package for ChIP-seq quality control and protocol optimization. Our user-friendly graphical software quickly estimates the strength and quality of immunoprecipitations, identifies biases, compares the user's data with ENCODE's large collection of published datasets, performs multi-sample normalization, checks against quantitative PCR-validated control regions, and produces informative graphical reports. CHANCE is available at https://github.com/songlab/chance.

  6. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change.

  7. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  8. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  9. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change. PMID:25347659

  10. Chance between holism and reductionism: tensions in the conceptualisation of Life.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Charles T

    2012-09-01

    In debates between holism and reductionism in biology, from the early twentieth century to more recent re-enactments involving genetic reductionism, developmental systems theory or systems biology, the role of chance - the presence of theories invoking chance as a strong explanatory principle - is hardly ever acknowledged. Conversely, Darwinian models of chance and selection (Dennett, 1995; Kupiec, 1996, 2009) sit awkwardly with reductionist and holistic concepts, which they alternately challenge or approve of. I suggest that the juxtaposition of chance and the holism-reductionism pair (at multiple levels, ontological and methodological, pertaining to the vision of scientific practice as well as to the foundations of a vision of Nature, implicit or explicit) allows the theorist to shed some new light on these perennial tensions in the conceptualisation of Life. PMID:22613260

  11. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  12. The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is important to recognize the political and policy accomplishments of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), anticipate its limitations, and use the levers it provides strategically to address the problems it does not resolve. Passage of the ACA broke the political logjam that long stymied national progress toward equitable, quality, universal, affordable health care. It extends coverage for the uninsured who are disproportionately low income and people of color, curbs health insurance abuses, and initiates improvements in the quality of care. However, challenges to affordability and cost control persist. Public health advocates should mobilize for coverage for abortion care and for immigrants, encourage public-sector involvement in negotiating health care prices, and counter disinformation by opponents on the right. PMID:23409911

  13. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition.

  14. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  15. Essential kinematic information, athletic experience, and affordance perception for others.

    PubMed

    Weast, Julie A; Walton, Ashley; Chandler, Braylen C; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the role of different types of movement in affordance perception, as well as the influence of sports experience. Perception of another actor's maximum vertical jumping height and horizontal long-jumping distance was evaluated for basketball players, soccer players, and nonplayer controls after viewing point-light representations of the actors' movements. Perceptual reports were more accurate after jumping-related movements (walking and squatting) were viewed than after nonrelated movements (standing and twisting). Vertical jump reports were more accurate than horizontal jump reports. Basketball and soccer players demonstrated higher accuracy than did controls. This research establishes that point-light displays contain essential kinematic information sufficient to support accurate affordance perception, and athletes appear better attuned to kinematic information specifying affordances for others as a result of their sports experience.

  16. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    PubMed Central

    Calderón- Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. Methodology An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011–2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test–Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. Results An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = − 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. Conclusions The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way. PMID:26844079

  17. Postcoital Contraception: Student Choices and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Lee H.

    1984-01-01

    Information was gathered from college students to observe choice of postcoital contraception (PCC) and the effectiveness of the choice. Results indicate that PCC is an effective second chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Research methodology is presented. (Author/DF)

  18. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  19. Second-Chance University Admission, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare…

  20. Improving Chances for College Success for Low Income and Minority High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Education Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The high school diploma is no longer the credential for a lifetime and it has not been for decades. Since the 1970s, there has been a growing consensus that training or education beyond high school is necessary to qualify for "family wage" jobs, jobs that pay enough for a family to live reasonably comfortably. Despite this widespread realization,…

  1. Jumping at the Chance: The Effects of Accountability Incentives on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2013-01-01

    Pay for performance plans are spreading across the country due to the Obama administration's $4 billion Race to the Top initiative, which places a high priority on merit pay. Through a program that involved public accountability and bonuses, the state of North Carolina awarded more than $1 billion in school-based performance bonuses for meeting…

  2. Can Low-Income Americans Afford a Healthy Diet?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra

    2010-11-01

    Many nutritional professionals believe that all Americans, regardless of income, have access to a nutritious diet of whole grains, lean meats, and fresh vegetables and fruit. In reality, food prices pose a significant barrier for many consumers who are trying to balance good nutrition with affordability. The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), commonly cited as a model of a healthy low-cost diet, achieves cost goals by relaxing some nutrition constraints and by disregarding the usual eating habits of the American population. Diet optimization techniques, when sensitive to cost and social norms, can help identify affordable, good tasting, nutrient-rich foods that are part of the mainstream American diet.

  3. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  4. Society News: PhD theses could win prizes; Last chance for IYA2009 grants; New Fellows; RAS Fellows win prizes; Need a job? Need staff? RAS Library Saturdays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Fellows who are PhD student supervisors should be on the lookout for exceptionally good work from research students submitting their theses this year, for nomination for the RAS Michael Penston Astronomy Prize and the RAS Keith Runcorn Prize. The RAS is offering one last chance to apply for grants towards International Year of Astronomy activities, but you'll have to apply soon. The Society sends congratulations to Fellows of the RAS who have recently received prestigious awards for their work.

  5. 76 FR 20354 - Notice of Intent To Award Supplemental Affordable Care Act Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Affordable Care Act Funding Notice of Intent to award supplemental Affordable Care Act funding to support...: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to use Affordable Care Act (ACA....'' Funding is appropriated under the Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148), Title IV, Section...

  6. 75 FR 77002 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... for Public Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) that are discussed below. A copy of the... collection requests (ICRs) contained in the rule described below that relates to the Affordable Care......

  7. Le milieu social des eleves et leurs chances de succes a l'ecole (The Social Background of Students and Their Chance of Success at School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a French report in response to an IBE questionnaire. Studies conducted by the Ministry of Information have revealed that particularly serious educational wastage has been taking place on both the elementary and secondary levels, and the French education system is not well…

  8. Learning to Identify and Actualize Affordances in a New Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Keeping abreast of new technologies and the opportunities they offer is a challenge for inservice teachers (Blake, 2008; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hanson-Smith, 2006; Hubbard, 2007; Robb, 2006). An important aspect of teacher learning about the use of technology is the ability to identify the affordances of new tools and how they can…

  9. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (b) Use or commitment of funds. Approval of applications for AHP subsidies... year-end are deemed to be used or committed if, in combination with AHP subsidies that have been... highest scoring AHP application in the Bank's final funding period of the year for its...

  10. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  11. Can Canadian Seniors on Public Pensions Afford a Nutritious Diet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Johnson, C. Shanthi; Blum, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether Canada's public pensions (Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan) provided adequate income for seniors living in Nova Scotia in 2005 to afford a basic nutritious diet. Monthly incomes were compared to essential monthly expenses for four household scenarios: (a) married couple, 80 years and 78 years, in urban Nova…

  12. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  13. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  14. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  15. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  16. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  17. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  18. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  19. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  20. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fannie Mae and $4.60 billion for Freddie Mac. In addition, as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 14 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by that Enterprise's mortgage purchases shall be home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas which count toward...

  1. 24 CFR 954.307 - Homeownership: qualification as affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... whose family qualifies as a low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.307... (1- to 4-family residence, condominium unit, cooperative unit, combination manufactured home and...

  2. Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From its conception, Richardsville Elementary was designed to be an affordable net zero facility. The design team explored numerous energy saving strategies to dramatically reduce energy consumption. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing…

  3. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  4. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  5. Federal Home Visiting under the Affordable Care Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Kathleen; Counts, Jacqueline; Filene, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program is part of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and provides $1.5 billion over 5 years to states, territories, and tribes with the goal of delivering evidence-based home visiting services as part of a high-quality, comprehensive early childhood system that promotes…

  6. Conceptual and Physical Object Qualities Contribute Differently to Motor Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingerhoets, G.; Vandamme, K.; Vercammen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Priming studies have demonstrated that an object's intrinsic and extrinsic qualities (size, orientation) influence subsequent motor behavior thus suggesting that these object qualities "afford" actions that are congruent with the prime. We present four experiments that aim to evaluate the relative effect of conceptual and physical object qualities…

  7. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  8. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies.

  9. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  10. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies. PMID:22065686

  11. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  12. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  13. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for affordable housing activities. 1006.20 Section 1006.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  14. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-03-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  15. Voters and the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M

    2014-11-13

    In this analysis of data from 27 public opinion polls, the authors examine the role of the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 congressional elections. The outcome of the elections is likely to influence implementation of the ACA and future U.S. health care policy. PMID:25353968

  16. A Few Reflections on Accountability, Affordability, and Access Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Considering accountability, affordability, and access through the experiences in Chile, East Asia, Australia, Croatia, and the United States offers a clear reminder that trends and issues in higher education are often more similar across national contexts than they are distinct. Across higher education, institutions and systems are responding to…

  17. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  18. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  19. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  20. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  1. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  2. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  3. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  4. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  5. Abduction and Affordance: A Semiotic View of Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Donald J.

    The shortcomings of the dominant information processing models of cognition are outlined, and two alterative models derived from semiotics are presented. In addition, the possibility of incorporating J. J. Gibson's ecological theory of affordance within the semiotic models is explored as a means of addressing some criticism of the latter models.…

  6. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  7. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  8. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  9. Early Visual Perception Potentiated by Object Affordances: Evidence From a Temporal Order Judgment Task

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Yamani, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Perceived objects automatically potentiate afforded action. Object affordances also facilitate perception of such objects, and this occurrence is known as the affordance effect. This study examined whether object affordances facilitate the initial visual processing stage, or perceptual entry processes, using the temporal order judgment task. The onset of the graspable (right-handled) coffee cup was perceived earlier than that of the less graspable (left-handled) cup for right-handed participants. The affordance effect was eliminated when the coffee cups were inverted, which presumably conveyed less affordance information. These results suggest that objects preattentively potentiate the perceptual entry processes in response to their affordances.

  10. The Music Student with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Matthew C.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Laverghetta, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship can afford the music educator an opportunity to be the first to identify behaviors associated with epilepsy. A case of a student with epilepsy, based on the authors' experience, is described in which the music educators were the first and only individuals to become aware of a change in the student's behavior, after…

  11. Assessment through the Student's Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiggins, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Traditional assessments--which detect and highlight differences in student learning and rank students according to their achievement--inevitably produce winners and losers. Because today's schools cannot afford to leave any child behind, educators need to embrace a new vision of assessment--one that enables all students to become winners. The…

  12. On the Intentionality of Cultural Products: Representations of Black History As Psychological Affordances

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Phia S.; Adams, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U.S. In studies 1 and 2, we considered whether mainstream BHM artifacts reflect the preferences and understandings of White Americans (i.e., psychological constitution of cultural worlds). Consistent with the psychological constitution hypothesis, White American participants reported more positive affect, better recognition, and greater liking for BHM representations from the schools where White Americans were the majority than BHM representations from the schools where Black students and other students of color were the majority. Moreover, as an indication of the identity relevance of BHM representations, White identification was more positively associated with judgments of positive affect and preference in response to BHM representations from White schools than BHM representations from the schools where Black students were in the majority. In studies 3 and 4, we considered whether BHM representations from different settings differentially afford support or opposition to anti-racism policies (i.e., cultural constitution of psychological experience). In support of the cultural constitution hypothesis, BHM representations typical of schools where Black students were in the majority were more effective at promoting support for anti-racism policies compared to BHM representations typical of predominately White schools and a control condition. This effect was mediated by the effect of (different) BHM

  13. On the Intentionality of Cultural Products: Representations of Black History As Psychological Affordances

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Phia S.; Adams, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U.S. In studies 1 and 2, we considered whether mainstream BHM artifacts reflect the preferences and understandings of White Americans (i.e., psychological constitution of cultural worlds). Consistent with the psychological constitution hypothesis, White American participants reported more positive affect, better recognition, and greater liking for BHM representations from the schools where White Americans were the majority than BHM representations from the schools where Black students and other students of color were the majority. Moreover, as an indication of the identity relevance of BHM representations, White identification was more positively associated with judgments of positive affect and preference in response to BHM representations from White schools than BHM representations from the schools where Black students were in the majority. In studies 3 and 4, we considered whether BHM representations from different settings differentially afford support or opposition to anti-racism policies (i.e., cultural constitution of psychological experience). In support of the cultural constitution hypothesis, BHM representations typical of schools where Black students were in the majority were more effective at promoting support for anti-racism policies compared to BHM representations typical of predominately White schools and a control condition. This effect was mediated by the effect of (different) BHM

  14. On the Intentionality of Cultural Products: Representations of Black History As Psychological Affordances.

    PubMed

    Salter, Phia S; Adams, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U.S. In studies 1 and 2, we considered whether mainstream BHM artifacts reflect the preferences and understandings of White Americans (i.e., psychological constitution of cultural worlds). Consistent with the psychological constitution hypothesis, White American participants reported more positive affect, better recognition, and greater liking for BHM representations from the schools where White Americans were the majority than BHM representations from the schools where Black students and other students of color were the majority. Moreover, as an indication of the identity relevance of BHM representations, White identification was more positively associated with judgments of positive affect and preference in response to BHM representations from White schools than BHM representations from the schools where Black students were in the majority. In studies 3 and 4, we considered whether BHM representations from different settings differentially afford support or opposition to anti-racism policies (i.e., cultural constitution of psychological experience). In support of the cultural constitution hypothesis, BHM representations typical of schools where Black students were in the majority were more effective at promoting support for anti-racism policies compared to BHM representations typical of predominately White schools and a control condition. This effect was mediated by the effect of (different) BHM

  15. On the Intentionality of Cultural Products: Representations of Black History As Psychological Affordances.

    PubMed

    Salter, Phia S; Adams, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U.S. In studies 1 and 2, we considered whether mainstream BHM artifacts reflect the preferences and understandings of White Americans (i.e., psychological constitution of cultural worlds). Consistent with the psychological constitution hypothesis, White American participants reported more positive affect, better recognition, and greater liking for BHM representations from the schools where White Americans were the majority than BHM representations from the schools where Black students and other students of color were the majority. Moreover, as an indication of the identity relevance of BHM representations, White identification was more positively associated with judgments of positive affect and preference in response to BHM representations from White schools than BHM representations from the schools where Black students were in the majority. In studies 3 and 4, we considered whether BHM representations from different settings differentially afford support or opposition to anti-racism policies (i.e., cultural constitution of psychological experience). In support of the cultural constitution hypothesis, BHM representations typical of schools where Black students were in the majority were more effective at promoting support for anti-racism policies compared to BHM representations typical of predominately White schools and a control condition. This effect was mediated by the effect of (different) BHM

  16. [Britton Chance (1913-2010)--from sailing to biophysics and biochemistry and back].

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Lech

    2011-01-01

    A short CV of Britton Chance, an outstanding American biophysicist and biochemists, who has passed away in November 2010, is presented. Chance invented and applied in biochemical research fast recording of difference spectra during chemical reactions. Due to this technique he discovered and studied formation of enzyme-substrate complexes as exemplified by the peroxidase reaction. He also described spectral changes of electron carriers of mitochondrial respiratory chain that accompany transition from the resting to the active (phosphorylating) states. Applying vibrating platinum electrode, he recorded changes in the rate of oxygen uptake by isolated mitochondria in resting and phosphorylating states and defined the so-called respiratory states, called after his name. He was the first to describe formation of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. Britton Chance was a devoted yachtsman and won a gold medal for the United States in sailing at the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki.

  17. Pediatric chance fractures from lapbelts: unique case report of three in one accident.

    PubMed

    Voss, L; Cole, P A; D'Amato, C

    1996-01-01

    In 1948, G. Q. Chance described a traumatic spinal injury as a "horizontal splitting of the spine," which has since come to be known as the Chance fracture. In 1965, the first such fracture was described by Howland et al. in a passenger as a result of a lap seatbelt during a motor vehicle accident. Until 1980, there were 36 such injuries reported, but the number of reports has since risen with the advent of mandatory seatbelt laws. We report three cases occurring in a single accident when a popular 4-wheel drive vehicle moving at only approximately 25 mph struck a tree, causing flexion-distraction fractures in all three children wearing lapbelts while seated in the rear seat. All three had a different Chance fracture variant and associated intraabdominal injuries. One child was rendered paraplegic. The purpose of this report is to promote awareness of the associated injuries, and to encourage appropriate use and development of passenger restraints for children.

  18. Higher Education State Funding Trends and Policies on Affordability. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. GAO-15-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emrey-Arras, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that the rising costs of higher education are making college unaffordable for many students and their families. Federal and state support is central to promoting college affordability; however, persistent state budget constraints have limited funding for public colleges. GAO was asked to study state policies affecting…

  19. Using Law-Related Education to Engage Marginalized Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examines the perspectives of a teacher and a set of students in a U.S. history classroom in a "last chance" public New York City high school--with "last chance" being a common term used to describe schools designed for struggling students, those who have a history of truancy, or those who have dropped out. The research question is…

  20. Lumbar Chance fracture associated with use of the lap belt restraint in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A; Sheehan, E; Walsh, M G

    2003-05-01

    The use of the 2-point seat belt or lap belt in motor vehicles, particularly to restrain young rear seat passengers, remains an issue of some concern. The occurrence of lumbar spinal flexion-distraction injuries in lap belt restrained children and adolescents during road traffic accidents is a well known phenomenon, but is still occurring. High velocity paediatric Chance fractures are frequently associated with significant intra-abdominal trauma. We present the case of a Chance fracture sustained by a 15 year old girl, involved in a motor vehicle collision, while wearing a lap belt. We emphasise the need to develop safer seat belt designs for juvenile car passengers.

  1. Nesting in perception of affordances for stepping and leaping.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Bai, Jiuyang; Smith, Peter J K

    2016-08-01

    Perception of affordances for a given behavior typically reflects the task-specific action capabilities of the perceiver. However, many experiments have shown a discrepancy between the perceptual and behavioral boundaries for a given behavior. One possibility for such a discrepancy is that the context of many experimental tasks transformed what is typically a dynamic perception-action task into an analytical or reflective judgment. We investigated this hypothesis with respect to perception of maximum stepping and leaping distance. For both behaviors, perception of these affordances more closely reflected action capabilities when the perceptual task was nested within a superordinate task than when it was not (regardless of whether the behavior itself was performed). Additionally, verbal reports of perception of maximum leaping distance more closely reflected action capabilities when there was an explicit time limit on such reports. The results are discussed in the context of the ecological principle of nesting and in attentional focus during motor control tasks. PMID:27220935

  2. Small businesses and the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Nicholson, Jennifer L; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several short- and long-term provisions designed to help small businesses pay for and maintain health insurance for their workers, and to allow workers without employer coverage to gain access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance. Provisions include a small business tax credit to offset premium costs for firms that offer coverage starting this taxable year, establishment of state-based insurance exchanges that promise to lower administrative costs and pool risk more broadly, and creation of new market rules and an essential benefit standard to protect small firms and their workers. Analysis shows that up to 16.6 million workers are in firms that would be eligible for the tax credit in 2010 to 2013. Over the next 10 years, small businesses and organizations could receive an estimated $40 billion in federal support through the premium credit program. PMID:20812427

  3. Motivational Affordance and Risk-Taking Across Decision Domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Scholer, Abigail A

    2016-03-01

    We propose a motivational affordance account to explain both stability and variability in risk-taking propensity in major decision domains. We draw on regulatory focus theory to differentiate two types of motivation (prevention, promotion) that play a key role in predicting risk-taking. Study 1 demonstrated that prevention motivation is negatively associated with risk-taking across six key decision domains, including health/safety, ethics, recreation, gambling, investment, and social. In contrast, promotion motivation is positively associated with risk-taking in the social and investment domains. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and provided direct evidence that promotion motivation is a strong predictor of risk-taking only in domains where there is true potential for gains. Study 3 manipulated promotion (vs. prevention) motivation experimentally to demonstrate that motivational affordance is a critical mechanism for understanding risk-taking behaviors. PMID:26802189

  4. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities. PMID:26501969

  5. Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

  6. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness. PMID:23237245

  7. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  8. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities.

  9. Radiation Shielding Options for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2009-03-16

    The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) is a proposed power source for an outpost capable of housing six humans for up to six weeks on the lunar surface and emphasizes the design principles of low risk and affordability over high performance. The radiation shield is the most massive component of the reactor system and its effect on launch mass greatly affects the affordability of the AFSPS. Potential shielding materials include lithium hydride, enriched boron-10 carbide, water, borated water, beryllium, boron-doped beryllium and zirconium hydride. Zirconium hydride is the most effective neutron attenuator and also significantly attenuates gamma radiation, but at a significant mass penalty. The other neutron attenuating materials all require the addition of a tungsten layer to provide significant gamma attenuation. Based on neutron radiation alone, lithium hydride is the lightest of the potential attenuators, followed by water and borated water. When gamma radiation is also considered, the lithium hydride/tungsten shield is shown to be the lightest composite shield with a combined mass of 3246 kg, followed by the borated water/tungsten shield (3479 kg). The boron carbide/tungsten shield has a total mass of 4129 kg, but represents significantly less development risk.

  10. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  11. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  12. Coverage of certain preventive services under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    This document contains final regulations regarding coverage of certain preventive services under section 2713 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act), added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. Section 2713 of the PHS Act requires coverage without cost sharing of certain preventive health services by non-grandfathered group health plans and health insurance coverage. Among these services are women's preventive health services, as specified in guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). As authorized by the current regulations, and consistent with the HRSA guidelines, group health plans established or maintained by certain religious employers (and group health insurance coverage provided in connection with such plans) are exempt from the otherwise applicable requirement to cover certain contraceptive services. These final regulations simplify and clarify the religious employer exemption. These final regulations also establish accommodations with respect to the contraceptive coverage requirement for group health plans established or maintained by eligible organizations (and group health insurance coverage provided in connection with such plans), as well as student health insurance coverage arranged by eligible organizations that are institutions of higher education. These regulations also finalize related amendments to regulations concerning Affordable Insurance Exchanges.

  13. Second Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Karen Anne

    2007-01-01

    Accommodating change in existing buildings on a college campus or in a school district is challenging, but manageable. The key to successful adaptive reuse is thoughtful and thorough decision-making. Why consider recycling existing buildings? There are many reasons, including limited institutional resources, the increasing cost of new…

  14. A New Model for Recruiting International Students: The 2 + 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Kent

    2005-01-01

    The system of higher education in the United States offers an opportunity that is not available in quite the same way to any of the major English-speaking competitors for international students: a nationwide network of community colleges. This network affords the option to present to students abroad a much more affordable baccalaureate degree…

  15. The visual encoding of tool-object affordances.

    PubMed

    Natraj, N; Pella, Y M; Borghi, A M; Wheaton, L A

    2015-12-01

    The perception of tool-object pairs involves understanding their action-relationships (affordances). Here, we sought to evaluate how an observer visually encodes tool-object affordances. Eye-movements were recorded as right-handed participants freely viewed static, right-handed, egocentric tool-object images across three contexts: correct (e.g. hammer-nail), incorrect (e.g. hammer-paper), spatial/ambiguous (e.g. hammer-wood), and three grasp-types: no hand, functional grasp-posture (grasp hammer-handle), non-functional/manipulative grasp-posture (grasp hammer-head). There were three areas of interests (AOI): the object (nail), the operant tool-end (hammer-head), the graspable tool-end (hammer-handle). Participants passively evaluated whether tool-object pairs were functionally correct/incorrect. Clustering of gaze scanpaths and AOI weightings grouped conditions into three distinct grasp-specific clusters, especially across correct and spatial tool-object contexts and to a lesser extent within the incorrect tool-object context. The grasp-specific gaze scanpath clusters were reasonably robust to the temporal order of gaze scanpaths. Gaze was therefore automatically primed to grasp-affordances though the task required evaluating tool-object context. Participants also primarily focused on the object and the operant tool-end and sparsely attended to the graspable tool-end, even in images with functional grasp-postures. In fact, in the absence of a grasp, the object was foveally weighted the most, indicative of a possible object-oriented action priming effect wherein the observer may be evaluating how the tool engages on the object. Unlike the functional grasp-posture, the manipulative grasp-posture caused the greatest disruption in the object-oriented priming effect, ostensibly as it does not afford tool-object action due to its non-functional interaction with the operant tool-end that actually engages with the object (e.g., hammer-head to nail). The enhanced attention

  16. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults.

  17. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults. PMID:26445739

  18. Conspirators in a Neo-Liberal Agenda? Adult Educators in Second-Chance Private Training Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that explored the impact of neo-liberal policy and ideology on educators and directors working in second-chance Private Training Establishments (PTEs) which were created at the height of the neo-liberal reforms in New Zealand. By examining the experiences of 14 educators and directors in four…

  19. Small bowel entrapment and ureteropelvic junction disruption associated with L3 Chance fracture-dislocation.

    PubMed

    Pesenti, Sebastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Faure, Alice; Peltier, Emilie; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-16

    Paediatric Chance fracture are rare lesions but often associated with abdominal injuries. We herein present the case of a seven years old patient who sustained an entrapment of small bowel and an ureteropelvic disruption associated with a Chance fracture and spine dislocation following a traffic accident. Initial X-rays and computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a Chance fracture with dislocation of L3 vertebra, with an incarceration of a small bowel loop in the spinal canal and a complete section of the left lumbar ureter. Paraplegia was noticed on the initial neurological examination. A posterior L2-L4 osteosynthesis was performed firstly. In a second time she underwent a sus umbilical laparotomy to release the incarcerated jejunum loop in the spinal canal. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed on a JJ probe to suture the left injured ureter. One month after the traumatism, she started to complain of severe headaches related to a leakage of cerebrospinalis fluid. Three months after the traumatism there was a clear regression of the leakage. One year after the trauma, an anterior intervertebral fusion was done. At final follow-up, no neurologic recovery was noticed. In case of Chance fracture, all physicians should think about abdominal injuries even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial abdominal CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging provide in such case crucial info for management of the spine and the associated lesions. PMID:27672641

  20. Small bowel entrapment and ureteropelvic junction disruption associated with L3 Chance fracture-dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Pesenti, Sebastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Faure, Alice; Peltier, Emilie; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric Chance fracture are rare lesions but often associated with abdominal injuries. We herein present the case of a seven years old patient who sustained an entrapment of small bowel and an ureteropelvic disruption associated with a Chance fracture and spine dislocation following a traffic accident. Initial X-rays and computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a Chance fracture with dislocation of L3 vertebra, with an incarceration of a small bowel loop in the spinal canal and a complete section of the left lumbar ureter. Paraplegia was noticed on the initial neurological examination. A posterior L2-L4 osteosynthesis was performed firstly. In a second time she underwent a sus umbilical laparotomy to release the incarcerated jejunum loop in the spinal canal. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed on a JJ probe to suture the left injured ureter. One month after the traumatism, she started to complain of severe headaches related to a leakage of cerebrospinalis fluid. Three months after the traumatism there was a clear regression of the leakage. One year after the trauma, an anterior intervertebral fusion was done. At final follow-up, no neurologic recovery was noticed. In case of Chance fracture, all physicians should think about abdominal injuries even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial abdominal CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging provide in such case crucial info for management of the spine and the associated lesions. PMID:27672641

  1. "Technology: Chance or Choice?"--A Museum Exhibit on the Impact of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucko, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago) has created a new exhibit, "Technology: Chance or Choice?," which emphasizes the human impact on technology. Development of and techniques used in the exhibit are discussed. The latter include microcomputers placed throughout the exhibit to pose questions about critical issues raised by particular…

  2. Kindergarten Readiness Impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance State Prekindergarten Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Williams, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Enrollment in state-funded pre-K programs prior to kindergarten entry has become increasingly common. As each state develops its own model for pre-K, rigorous studies of the impacts of state-specific programs are needed. This study investigates impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance (ABC) initiative at kindergarten entry using a…

  3. Unequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell; Milana, Marcella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to document cross-national patterns of adult learning, and in particular the unequal chances to participate in adult learning. In so doing, an effort is made to identify important motivating factors for participating in adult learning. The specific objectives of the booklet are to: (1) make available the…

  4. Teaching and Learning the Interplay between Chance and Determinism in Nonlinear Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Dimitrios; Duit, Reinders

    2014-01-01

    That the interplay of random and deterministic processes may result in both the limited predictability of nonlinear systems and the formation of structures seems to be a most valuable general insight into the nature of science. This study investigates the possibility of teaching and learning the interplay of chance and determinism in nonlinear…

  5. 30 CFR 203.61 - How do I assess my chances for getting relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application on an authorized field. This field must have a qualifying well under 30 CFR part 550, subpart A...? 203.61 Section 203.61 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... General § 203.61 How do I assess my chances for getting relief? You may ask for a nonbinding assessment...

  6. 30 CFR 203.61 - How do I assess my chances for getting relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application on an authorized field. This field must have a qualifying well under 30 CFR part 550, subpart A...? 203.61 Section 203.61 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... General § 203.61 How do I assess my chances for getting relief? You may ask for a nonbinding assessment...

  7. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  8. Youth and the Workplace: Second-Chance Programs and the Hard-to-Serve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.; And Others

    The task of addressing the complex and deeply rooted problems faced by the nation's at-risk youth is one that largely falls outside the scope of traditional institutions. Investment in the development and operation of "second-chance" education and employment programs has historically been inadequate, haphazard, and uncertain. The gains in the area…

  9. Project First Chance: Arizona Behavior Analysis Interactive Outreach Program, July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jeanne McRae

    The final report describes activities of Project First Chance, Interactive Outreach Project, a program to stimulate the development of improvement of educational services to preschool handicapped children and their families. The project was also designed to provide outreach to culturally diverse populations (primarily Navajos) and to programs in…

  10. Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

    1994-01-01

    The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

  11. Don't Take a Chance with a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast

    MedlinePlus

    heart attack Know the symptoms. Take action. call Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast “ One evening ... didn’t think I could be having a heart attack. I didn’t expect it to happen to ...

  12. Chance in Science: The Discovery of Electromagnetism by H. C. Oersted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2005-01-01

    Ignoring the role of chance in science distorts the nature of the scientific process. Teachers can address this issue by means of several in-depth historical case studies, such as the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted. Oersted was led to his lecture experiment by logic (two new hypotheses), but its success from the first trial was largely…

  13. Programme Content Orientation in Vocational Education and Training and Life Chances--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kap, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of vocational education and training systems rarely conduct systematic comparisons of the content of educational programmes, partly because of methodological difficulties. Yet, comparing the organisation of curricula can increase our understanding of how programme design reflects orientation towards various life chances in…

  14. Importance of record length with respect to estimating the 1-percent chance flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gages have been established in every State in the Nation, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. From these st reamflow records, estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are often developed and used to design transportation and water- conveyance structures to protect lives and property, and to determine flood-insurance rates. Probably the most recognizable flood statistic computed from USGS stream gaging records is the 1- percent (%) chance flood; better known has the 100-year flood. By definition, this is a flood that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year. The 1% chance flood is a statistical estimate that can be significantly influenced by length of record and extreme flood events captured in that record. Consequently, it is typically recommended that flood statistics be updated on some regular interval such as every 10 years. This paper examines the influence of record length on the 1% chance flood for the Broad River in Georgia and the substantial difference that can occur in the estimate based on record length and the hydrologic conditions under which that record was collected. 

  15. Education's Effects on Individual Life Chances and on Development: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.; Oketch, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of human capital skills largely created through education on life's chances over the life cycle. Qualifications as a measure of these skills affect earnings, and schooling affects private and social non-market benefits beyond earnings. Private non-market benefits include better own-health, child health, spousal…

  16. Second Chance Schools: The Results of a European Pilot Project. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    Thirteen Second Chance Schools in 11 countries attempt to fight school failure and social exclusion in the European Union (EU) by enabling pupils who have at most completed lower secondary school to acquire basic skills that will allow them to embark on a strategy of lifelong learning while supporting the innovation and the growth of the European…

  17. Leadership Distinctions: The Impact of Leadership on Teachers of "Second Chance Reading"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rebecca Sue

    2012-01-01

    For as long as time, struggling adolescent readers have filled classrooms and communities. In many cases, these functional aliterates typically could read, yet could not understand or evaluate text, provide relevant details, or support inferences about the written documents they had read. "Second Chance Reading" (SCR), an instructional…

  18. Second Chance Programmes: A Response to Educational Needs in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asin, Antonio Sanchez; Peinado, Jose Luis Boix

    2008-01-01

    This paper asks whether the integrated training provision currently offered through the different Spanish Second Chance Programmes (SCPs) constitutes a valid response to the educational needs and deficits known to exist among those young people who do not satisfactorily complete the Compulsory Secondary Education stage (ESO). The objectives of the…

  19. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of the multi-state plan program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges.

    PubMed

    2013-03-11

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final regulation establishing the Multi-State Plan Program (MSPP) pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. Through contracts with OPM, health insurance issuers will offer at least two multi-State plans (MSPs) on each of the Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges). One of the issuers must be non-profit. Under the law, an MSPP issuer may phase in the States in which it offers coverage over 4 years, but it must offer MSPs on Exchanges in all States and the District of Columbia by the fourth year in which the MSPP issuer participates in the MSPP. This rule aims to balance adhering to the statutory goals of MSPP while aligning its standards to those applying to qualified health plans to promote a level playing field across health plans.

  20. Construction of an affordable and easy-to-build zebrafish facility.

    PubMed

    Paige, Candler; Hill, Bailey; Canterbury, Joseph; Sweitzer, Sarah; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2014-11-22

    In vivo biomedical research is pivotal to translate in vitro findings into clinical advances. Small academic institutions with limited resources find it virtually impossible to build and maintain typical rodent facilities for research. Zebrafish research has been demonstrated to be a valuable alternative for in vivo research in pharmacology, physiology, development and genetic studies. This article demonstrates that a functional zebrafish facility can be built in an easy and affordable manner. We demonstrate that such a facility could be built in about one working day with minimal tools and expertise. The cost of the 27 1.8 L fish tank zebrafish facility constructed in this study was approximately $1,500. We estimate that the maintenance of an initial working 150 fish colony for 3 months is $1,000. This project involved students, who were introduced to aquaculturing of zebrafish for research proposes.

  1. Where Student, Teacher, and Content Meet: Student Engagement in the Secondary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Michael J.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Quaglia, Russell J.; Haywood, Dawn E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which students think, feel, and act engaged in school plays a vital role in their chances for academic and life success, yet levels of student engagement remain low. In this article, we focus specifically on how engagement works in the classroom, namely as a function of the interactions between students, teachers, and the class…

  2. Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

    PubMed

    Bakwatanisa, Bosco; Enywaku, Alfred; Kiwanuka, Martin; Lamunu, Claire; Mbowa, Nicholas; Mukiibi, Denis; Namayega, Catherine; Ngabirano, Beryl; Ntambi, Henry; Reichert, William

    2016-01-01

    Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is emblematic of large public hospitals across East Africa. Information gathering was conducted through student interviews with Mulago physicians because there were no archival records. The students divided themselves into seven project groups covering biomaterials use in the areas of wound closure, dental and oral surgery, cardiology, burn care, bone repair, ophthalmology and total joint replacement. As in the developed world, the majority of biomaterials used in Mulago are basic wound closure materials, dental materials, and bone fixation materials, all of which are comparatively inexpensive, easy to store, and readily available from either the government or local suppliers; however, there were significant issues with the implant supply chain, affordability, and patient compliance and follow-up in cases where specialty expertise and expensive implants were employed. PMID:26190587

  3. On Affordability: Public Higher Education in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syverud, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    As the lowest-priced higher education institutions serving the greatest share of students in New England, public institutions are a crucial access point for the region's students who may not have other opportunities to enroll in college. Maintaining the cost of attending a public institution in New England is imperative for students, families,…

  4. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  5. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  6. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  7. Three Words and the Future of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    As an essential part of its effort to achieve near universal coverage, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) extends sizable tax credits to most people who buy insurance on the newly established health care exchanges. Yet several lawsuits have been filed challenging the availability of those tax credits in the thirty-four states that refused to set up their own exchanges. The lawsuits are premised on a strained interpretation of the ACA that, if accepted, would make a hash of other provisions of the statute and undermine its effort to extend coverage to the uninsured. The courts should reject this latest effort to dismantle a critical feature of the ACA.

  8. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  9. The Affordable Care Act versus Medicare for All.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Laurence

    2015-08-01

    Many problems facing the Affordable Care Act would disappear if the nation were instead implementing Medicare for All - the extension of Medicare to every age group. Every American would be automatically covered for life. Premiums would be replaced with a set of Medicare taxes. There would be no patient cost sharing. Individuals would have free choice of doctors. Medicare's single-payer bargaining power would slow price increases and reduce medical cost as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Taxes as a percentage of GDP would rise from below average to average for economically advanced nations. Medicare for All would be phased in by age.

  10. Affordable Manufacturing Technologies Being Developed for Actively Cooled Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to improve the performance of modern gas turbine engines have imposed increasing service temperature demands on structural materials. Through active cooling, the useful temperature range of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines has been extended, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, high processing costs have proven to be a major obstacle to their widespread application. Advanced rapid prototyping technology, which is developing rapidly, offers the possibility of an affordable manufacturing approach.

  11. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  12. New affordable options for infrastructure and asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Securitas is one of the leaders evolving with technology and delivering new forms of affordable security for mining facilities. It was called in to protect a large mothballed coal mine in the central USA, the victim of repeated thefts. First, Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs) were installed but thefts continued. Later, a new wireless video security system called Videofied which used MotionViewers which use infrared detectors to detect movement and send a 10 second clip of the intrusion to an operator. This led to the thieves being caught. 2 photos.

  13. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  14. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... 2590-AA04 Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority... Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010, to use Affordable Housing Program (AHP) homeownership..., 2798. B. The Banks' Affordable Housing Program Section 10(j) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act...

  15. 76 FR 59702 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act (ACA) Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Notice of Intent to Award Affordable Care Act (ACA...: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to award Affordable Care Act...

  16. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice,'' to the Office of... Security Administration (EBSA). Title of Collection: Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice....

  17. 76 FR 11283 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal... Affordable Care Act added Public Health Service Act section 2719, which provides rules relating to......

  18. 77 FR 10781 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public Law 111-148, (the Affordable Care Act) was enacted by President Obama on March 23, 2010. As part of the...

  19. 77 FR 31513 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 155, 156, and 157 RIN 0938-AQ67 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... Federal Register on March 27, 2012, entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment... rule regarding the codification of section 1413(c) of the Affordable Care Act. To align the...

  20. 78 FR 71667 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure, Recordkeeping Requirement, and Change in Carrier..., ``Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure, Recordkeeping Requirement, and Change in Carrier... Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), Public Law 111-148, section 1251 provides that certain plans...

  1. 77 FR 26046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal...: Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-grandfathered...

  2. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission,'' to the..._PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  3. Learning Outcomes Afforded by Self-Assessed, Segmented Video-Print Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumi, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video-print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational…

  4. College Student Access: How Articulation Agreements Support Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Dixon, Karrie Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Students from rural areas face additional burdens, such as affordability, academic preparation, and lack of college-going resources that make seeking, enrolling, and attending college more difficult. Community colleges offer hope to achieve a college degree for many rural students, and well-developed articulation agreements can be one way of…

  5. Interaction between affordance and handedness recognition: a chronometric study

    PubMed Central

    Lameira, A.P.; Pereira, A.; Conde, E.; Gawryszewski, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of tools and manipulable objects activates motor-related areas in the cortex, facilitating possible actions toward them. This pattern of activity may underlie the phenomenon of object affordance. Some cortical motor neurons are also covertly activated during the recognition of body parts such as hands. One hypothesis is that different subpopulations of motor neurons in the frontal cortex are activated in each motor program; for example, canonical neurons in the premotor cortex are responsible for the affordance of visual objects, while mirror neurons support motor imagery triggered during handedness recognition. However, the question remains whether these subpopulations work independently. This hypothesis can be tested with a manual reaction time (MRT) task with a priming paradigm to evaluate whether the view of a manipulable object interferes with the motor imagery of the subject's hand. The MRT provides a measure of the course of information processing in the brain and allows indirect evaluation of cognitive processes. Our results suggest that canonical and mirror neurons work together to create a motor plan involving hand movements to facilitate successful object manipulation. PMID:25714894

  6. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  7. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO2-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important ``affordability'' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  8. Affordable health benefits for workers without employer coverage.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L; Jones, S B

    1998-02-01

    With 42 million individuals lacking health insurance in 1996, an increase of 1.1 million uninsured from the previous year, new initiatives to deal with health insurance problems merit a high priority among domestic policy initiatives. This paper examines the opportunities for assisting full-time workers (and their families) who do not receive employer-paid health insurance-a group that now includes 49 million individuals-by using three policy tools that Congress and President Clinton have already agreed to use in recent healthcare legislation: (a) equitable tax assistance; (b) market reforms; and (c) competition among health plans that offer economical benefits. Estimates for a model plan illustrate that such strategies could make decent private health insurance more affordable and more accessible for workers and their families who want to purchase it; family insurance protection, with guaranteed issue of insurance and large-group-rated premiums, could be offered at potential savings of 42% (or more). Premiums for worker's coverage, after tax assistance, would be below $1,200 per year, i.e., less than 60 cents per hour. These market-oriented reforms can be accomplished with a limited government role, and, after start-up costs, ongoing federal expenses would be modest, predictable, and controllable. When combined with the new $24 billion child health initiative to assist low-income families, the proposed plan would provide considerable progress toward universal access to affordable insurance coverage.

  9. Affordance-controlled bifurcations of action patterns in martial arts.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Robert; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte

    2006-10-01

    Effects of participant-target distance and perceived handstriking efficiency on emergent behavior in the martial art of boxing were investigated, revealing affordance-controlled nonlinear dynamical effects (i.e. bifurcations) within the participant--target system. Results established the existence of critical values of scaled distances for emergence of first time excitations and annihilations of a diverse range of boxing actions i.e. on the appearance and dissolution of jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the action diversity were twofold: (a) topological discontinuous changes (bifurcations) in the number of possible handstrikes, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; (b) fine modification of probabilities of emergence of striking patterns. Exploitation of a 'strikeability' affordance available in scaled distance-to-target information by boxers led to a diversity of emergent actions through a cascade of bifurcations in the task perceptual-motor work space. Data suggested that perceived efficiency (E) of an action changed as a function of scaled distance (D) and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of action patterns (P), exhibiting the following dependence P = P(E(D)). The implication is that probability of occurrence (P) depends on efficiency (E), which in turn depends on scaled distance (D) to the target. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems a viable candidate for a contextual (control) parameter to describe the nonlinear dynamics of striking actions in boxing.

  10. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-21

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO{sub 2}-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  11. Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandyke, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

  12. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  13. Balancing adoption and affordability of medical devices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Bäumler, Michael; Busse, Reinhard

    2009-10-01

    Dramatic increases in health expenditures have led to a substantial number of regulatory interventions in the markets for devices over the last years. However, little attention has been paid thus far to the regulation of medical devices and its effects. This article explores the policies pursued by European countries to find the right balance between improving access to new medical devices and restricting market forces to contain costs and ensure affordability. We outline the medical device policies of the four European countries with the largest expenditures on devices: Germany, France, Italy, and the UK. Subsequently, we discuss how these policies attempt to balance technological adoption and affordability by illustrating two case studies from Italy and Germany. We find that reference prices, if defined as maximum reimbursement levels, can help to achieve balance, because they are supposed to contain costs effectively, but do not necessarily act as a hurdle for the adoption of innovations. We also find that policy tools that encourage technological adoption should be used carefully since the benefits of a new technology are often difficult to predict. Finally, we draw a number of policy implications based on our observations.

  14. Student-Designed Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permaul, Jane S.

    1976-01-01

    Opportunities should be made available for students to design their own field experiences with the use of learning contracts. This approach affords the student flexibility, emphasizes initiative and involvement, and aids in the resolution of the problem of school-to-work transition. (Author/JDS)

  15. Involving Students in Curriculum Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Arthur E.; Acklen, Leila M.

    1979-01-01

    Described are several methods which have been used successfully to involve students in curriculum planning. Methods include: the game approach of Bonanza; a simulation game, Marquis; and the committee approach. The conclusion is that curriculum planners cannot afford to deny students the right to help direct their own destiny. (KC)

  16. Behavioral health problems, ex-offender reentry policies, and the "Second Chance Act".

    PubMed

    Pogorzelski, Wendy; Wolff, Nancy; Pan, Ko-Yu; Blitz, Cynthia L

    2005-10-01

    The federal "Second Chance Act of 2005" calls for expanding reentry services for people leaving prison, yet existing policies restrict access to needed services for those with criminal records. We examined the interaction between individual-level characteristics and policy-level restrictions related to criminal conviction, and the likely effects on access to resources upon reentry, using a sample of prisoners with Axis I mental disorders (n=3073). We identified multiple challenges related to convictions, including restricted access to housing, public assistance, and other resources. Invisible punishments embedded within existing policies were inconsistent with the call for second chances. Without modification of federal and state policies, the ability of reentry services to foster behavioral health and community reintegration is limited. PMID:16131635

  17. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  18. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  19. Double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained linear fractional programming approach for water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Liang; Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe

    2016-06-01

    A double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained fractional programming (DFCFP) method is developed for planning water resources management under uncertainty. In DFCFP the system marginal benefit per unit of input under uncertainty can also be balanced. The DFCFP is applied to a real case of water resources management in the Zhangweinan River Basin, China. The results show that the amounts of water allocated to the two cities (Anyang and Handan) would be different under minimum and maximum reliability degrees. It was found that the marginal benefit of the system solved by DFCFP is bigger than the system benefit under the minimum and maximum reliability degrees, which not only improve economic efficiency in the mass, but also remedy water deficiency. Compared with the traditional double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming (DFCP) method, the solutions obtained from DFCFP are significantly higher, and the DFCFP has advantages in water conservation.

  20. Stock management in hospital pharmacy using chance-constrained model predictive control.

    PubMed

    Jurado, I; Maestre, J M; Velarde, P; Ocampo-Martinez, C; Fernández, I; Tejera, B Isla; Prado, J R Del

    2016-05-01

    One of the most important problems in the pharmacy department of a hospital is stock management. The clinical need for drugs must be satisfied with limited work labor while minimizing the use of economic resources. The complexity of the problem resides in the random nature of the drug demand and the multiple constraints that must be taken into account in every decision. In this article, chance-constrained model predictive control is proposed to deal with this problem. The flexibility of model predictive control allows taking into account explicitly the different objectives and constraints involved in the problem while the use of chance constraints provides a trade-off between conservativeness and efficiency. The solution proposed is assessed to study its implementation in two Spanish hospitals. PMID:26724992

  1. Behavioral health problems, ex-offender reentry policies, and the "Second Chance Act".

    PubMed

    Pogorzelski, Wendy; Wolff, Nancy; Pan, Ko-Yu; Blitz, Cynthia L

    2005-10-01

    The federal "Second Chance Act of 2005" calls for expanding reentry services for people leaving prison, yet existing policies restrict access to needed services for those with criminal records. We examined the interaction between individual-level characteristics and policy-level restrictions related to criminal conviction, and the likely effects on access to resources upon reentry, using a sample of prisoners with Axis I mental disorders (n=3073). We identified multiple challenges related to convictions, including restricted access to housing, public assistance, and other resources. Invisible punishments embedded within existing policies were inconsistent with the call for second chances. Without modification of federal and state policies, the ability of reentry services to foster behavioral health and community reintegration is limited.

  2. Colorectal cancer with liver metastases -- is there a chance for cure?

    PubMed

    Parau, A; Vlad, L

    2014-01-01

    Combined treatment with chemotherapy and surgery is the currently accepted standard for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer which can be rendered to resectability and a very efficient way to increase survival of patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Cooperation between surgeons and oncologists is mandatory to insure these patients' best chance for survival. Patients with resectable disease must follow adjuvant chemotherapy, while patients with initially unresectable marginally resectable disease after downsizing with the help of chemotherapy must be given the chance of surgical reevaluation for having the metastatic disease resected,and then follow adjuvant chemotherapy. An impressive amount of new surgical techniques warrants the success of hepatic resection in metastatic disease while a whole constellation of novel chemotherapeutical and even more effective targeted agents assure better response rates, surgical resection rates and overall survival in these patients.

  3. Inexact fuzzy integer chance constraint programming approach for noise control within an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Huang, Gordon; Dai, Liming; Fan, Yurui

    2016-08-01

    This article introduces an inexact fuzzy integer chance constraint programming (IFICCP) approach for identifying noise reduction strategy under uncertainty. The IFICCP method integrates the interval programming and fuzzy chance constraint programming approaches into a framework, which is able to deal with uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzziness. The proposed IFICCP model can be converted into two deterministic submodels corresponding to the optimistic and pessimistic conditions. The modelling approach is applied to a hypothetical control measure selection problem for noise reduction. Results of the case study indicate that useful solutions for noise control practices can be acquired. Three acceptable noise levels for two communities are considered. For each acceptable noise level, several decision alternatives have been obtained and analysed under different fuzzy confidence levels, which reflect the trade-offs between environmental and economic considerations.

  4. Chance Constrained Input Relaxation to Congestion in Stochastic DEA. An Application to Iranian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Hooshang; Matin, Behzad Karami; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    This article developed an approached model of congestion, based on relaxed combination of inputs, in stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA) with chance constrained programming approaches. Classic data envelopment analysis models with deterministic data have been used by many authors to identify congestion and estimate its levels; however, data envelopment analysis with stochastic data were rarely used to identify congestion. This article used chance constrained programming approaches to replace stochastic models with "deterministic equivalents". This substitution leads us to non-linear problems that should be solved. Finally, the proposed method based on relaxed combination of inputs was used to identify congestion input in six Iranian hospital with one input and two outputs in the period of 2009 to 2012.

  5. Stock management in hospital pharmacy using chance-constrained model predictive control.

    PubMed

    Jurado, I; Maestre, J M; Velarde, P; Ocampo-Martinez, C; Fernández, I; Tejera, B Isla; Prado, J R Del

    2016-05-01

    One of the most important problems in the pharmacy department of a hospital is stock management. The clinical need for drugs must be satisfied with limited work labor while minimizing the use of economic resources. The complexity of the problem resides in the random nature of the drug demand and the multiple constraints that must be taken into account in every decision. In this article, chance-constrained model predictive control is proposed to deal with this problem. The flexibility of model predictive control allows taking into account explicitly the different objectives and constraints involved in the problem while the use of chance constraints provides a trade-off between conservativeness and efficiency. The solution proposed is assessed to study its implementation in two Spanish hospitals.

  6. A robust approach to chance constrained optimal power flow with renewable generation

    DOE PAGES

    Lubin, Miles; Dvorkin, Yury; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2015-11-20

    Optimal Power Flow (OPF) dispatches controllable generation at minimum cost subject to operational constraints on generation and transmission assets. The uncertainty and variability of intermittent renewable generation is challenging current deterministic OPF approaches. Recent formulations of OPF use chance constraints to limit the risk from renewable generation uncertainty, however, these new approaches typically assume the probability distributions which characterize the uncertainty and variability are known exactly. We formulate a robust chance constrained (RCC) OPF that accounts for uncertainty in the parameters of these probability distributions by allowing them to be within an uncertainty set. The RCC OPF is solved usingmore » a cutting-plane algorithm that scales to large power systems. We demonstrate the RRC OPF on a modified model of the Bonneville Power Administration network, which includes 2209 buses and 176 controllable generators. In conclusion, deterministic, chance constrained (CC), and RCC OPF formulations are compared using several metrics including cost of generation, area control error, ramping of controllable generators, and occurrence of transmission line overloads as well as the respective computational performance.« less

  7. A robust approach to chance constrained optimal power flow with renewable generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, Miles; Dvorkin, Yury; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2015-11-20

    Optimal Power Flow (OPF) dispatches controllable generation at minimum cost subject to operational constraints on generation and transmission assets. The uncertainty and variability of intermittent renewable generation is challenging current deterministic OPF approaches. Recent formulations of OPF use chance constraints to limit the risk from renewable generation uncertainty, however, these new approaches typically assume the probability distributions which characterize the uncertainty and variability are known exactly. We formulate a robust chance constrained (RCC) OPF that accounts for uncertainty in the parameters of these probability distributions by allowing them to be within an uncertainty set. The RCC OPF is solved using a cutting-plane algorithm that scales to large power systems. We demonstrate the RRC OPF on a modified model of the Bonneville Power Administration network, which includes 2209 buses and 176 controllable generators. In conclusion, deterministic, chance constrained (CC), and RCC OPF formulations are compared using several metrics including cost of generation, area control error, ramping of controllable generators, and occurrence of transmission line overloads as well as the respective computational performance.

  8. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ – the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities. PMID:27390552

  9. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  10. Supporting the Students of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Underprepared students come to community colleges and many four-year colleges because they have hope for a better life and the courage to attempt something difficult. But having dreams and aspirations is not enough: Without some sort of intervention and support, a student's chances of completing college are poor. Many challenged students…

  11. Reaching Nonscience Students through Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 I had the chance to design a physics course for students not majoring in scientific fields. I chose to shape the course around science fiction, not as a source for quantitative problems but as a means for conveying important physics concepts. I hoped that, by encountering these concepts in narratives, students with little or no science or…

  12. Setting the Stage for Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Gifted teachers possess a talent for generating an atmosphere of connectedness and focus in the classroom, and state standards emphasize the importance of student engagement. This article presents suggestions for teachers that can increase the chances that their students will be fully engaged during a lesson. The issues of time (length of…

  13. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  14. Students' Views of Example Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…

  15. Design and Construction of an Affordable Rotating Table for Classroom Demonstrations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Principles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNoldy, Brian D.; Cheng, Anning; Eitzen, Zachary A.; Moore, Richard W.; Persing, John; Schaefer, Kevin; Schubert, Wayne H.

    2003-12-01

    Rotating tables have been in use for many years because of their ability to demonstrate fluid dynamical phenomena, shedding insight on the sometimes complicated or esoteric mathematics used to describe such processes. A small team of students at the Colorado State University (CSU) Department of Atmospheric Science constructed a rotating table, or “spin tank,” assembly that is simple and affordable, yet instructive.The apparatus is designed to be easy to maintain and operate. The number of moving parts is kept at a minimum, and the electrical components chosen are of high quality. With the aid of a brief instruction manual or tutorial, students and faculty can operate the rotating table and easily perform many demonstrations, with the freedom to vary fluid depth, rotation rate, and acceleration. The entire design and construction process was conducted on a limited budget of &;3,000.A spin tank such as this has practical applications for the qualitative study of fluid dynamics. Fundamental concepts in rotating flow dynamics can be demonstrated to supplement the more rigorous mathematical treatment typically given in oceanography or atmospheric physics graduate-level courses. Topics that have been explored thus far are Ekman pumping, Taylor columns, and barotropic instability, but could be broadened to include subjects such as Rossby waves, baroclinic instability, vortex merger, and thermal convection.

  16. How Insurers Competed in the Affordable Care Act's First Year.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Katherine; Hall, Mark A; Jost, Timothy S

    2015-06-01

    Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), most states' individual health insurance markets were dominated by one or two insurance carriers that had little incentive to compete by providing efficient services. Instead, they competed mainly by screening and selecting people based on their risk of incurring high medical costs. One of the ACA's goals is to encourage carriers to participate in the health insurance marketplaces and to shift the focus from competing based on risk selection to processes that increase consumer value, like improving efficiency of services and quality of care. Focusing on six states--Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Maryland, Montana, and Texas--this brief looks at how carriers are competing in the new marketplaces, namely through cost-sharing and composition of provider networks. PMID:26159009

  17. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  18. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoinT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based ceramic and composite components in a number of demanding and high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. An affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT) for joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technique. These joints maintain their mechanical strength up to 1350 C in air. This technology is suitable for the joining of large and complex shaped ceramic and composite components and with certain modifications, can be applied to repair ceramic components damaged in service.

  19. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  20. Health Care Affordability: How to Make It a Reality.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a big business. US health care expenditures reached $2.9 trillion in 2013. Patient spending accounted for 28% of the total, which means patients spent approximately $810 billion in 2013 for insurance premiums, deductibles, copays, coinsurance, and noncovered health care services. How are patients expected to pay almost a trillion dollars in health care expenses? There is a need to find a health care financing methodology that will make health care affordable for all patients and families. An alternative method for funding health care is discussed that includes creating a government-funded annuity during the first decade of one's life. When this annuity matures later in life, many individuals will have amassed a large pot of money with which to pay for their (and their family's) health care treatment and products.