Science.gov

Sample records for affordable energy laptops

  1. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  2. Can industry afford solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

    1983-03-01

    Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

  3. Laptops and Inspired Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Arada, Kathleen; Zheng, Binbin

    2010-01-01

    Can daily access to laptop computers help students become better writers? Are such programs affordable? Evidence from the Inspired Writing program in Littleton Public Schools, Colorado, USA, provides a resounding yes to both questions. The program employs student netbooks, open-source software, cloud computing, and social media to help students in…

  4. Teaching with Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.; King, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    The declining cost of computers and wireless networks has made laptop programs more affordable than ever. At the same time, the internet resources available to teachers and students have grown exponentially in the 15 years since web browsers first became practical. As a result of these trends, growing numbers of students nationwide are provided…

  5. Laptop Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    All of the seventh-grade students in Lisa Gilman's school have laptop computers. She wanted them to use the computers not just as a research tool, but also as a tool for artistic expression. Since Impressionism is part of the seventh-grade curriculum, she had them identify parallels between the Impressionists' use of technology and artists' use of…

  6. Energy Servers Deliver Clean, Affordable Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    K.R. Sridhar developed a fuel cell device for Ames Research Center, that could use solar power to split water into oxygen for breathing and hydrogen for fuel on Mars. Sridhar saw the potential of the technology, when reversed, to create clean energy on Earth. He founded Bloom Energy, of Sunnyvale, California, to advance the technology. Today, the Bloom Energy Server is providing cost-effective, environmentally friendly energy to a host of companies such as eBay, Google, and The Coca-Cola Company. Bloom's NASA-derived Energy Servers generate energy that is about 67-percent cleaner than a typical coal-fired power plant when using fossil fuels and 100-percent cleaner with renewable fuels.

  7. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  8. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  9. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  10. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  11. Getting the Perfect Laptop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    For most districts, the dream of arming their students and fellow educators with laptops--perhaps reaching the vaunted status of being a one-to-one school--holds a powerful appeal. Yet whether a district is making that push to get laptops into the hands of each student or simply considering upgrades to mobile carts, districts are facing no…

  12. Laptop programs for students.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Andrew A; Light, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    With the continuing decline in costs of technology, programs are proliferating worldwide to put networked laptop computers into the hands of millions of students on a routine basis. The reasons policy-makers support these programs are based on economic arguments, equity concerns, and widespread interest in education reform. Studies of laptop programs in schools report that they increase students' engagement in school, improve technology skills, and have positive effects on students' writing. However, evidence of the effectiveness of large-scale laptop programs in other learning domains is scarce. Research in many nations suggests that laptop programs will be most successful as part of balanced, comprehensive initiatives that address changes in education goals, curricula, teacher training, and assessment.

  13. Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

    2012-04-30

    The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of

  14. Envisioning Effective Laptop Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Jon M.; Britten, Jody; Ring, Gail

    2008-01-01

    A recent survey of 74 building-level school administrators in Indiana challenged many of the assumptions regarding 1:1 laptop initiatives and how 1:1 access would affect teaching and learning. It also revealed disturbing realities regarding instructional practices of teachers, as well as efforts to improve school technology integration. The intent…

  15. The Laptop Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    1995-01-01

    Looks at the latest tools for trainers such as laptop computers, fold-up overhead projectors, LCD panels with built-in computers, and digital converters. Suggests that these products can make training portable by combining functions in single pieces of equipment and allowing trainers to make last-minute adjustments to their programs. (JOW)

  16. Laptop Program Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Students entering Steve Speier's Spanish class pull their personal laptops from their packs and begin preparing for the lesson. Some review Speier's board notes containing a combination of typed phrases and dozens of handdrawn vocabulary words saved as PDF files from his interactive white board Notebook program. Others don headphones and listen to…

  17. Adventures in Laptop Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Gregg G.

    2003-01-01

    Middle school principal describes unanticipated problems associated with providing every student with a laptop computer. Discusses efforts to solve problems related to computer-assisted instruction such as weak student keyboarding skills, improper room configuration, and overuse of shared printers. (PKP)

  18. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  19. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education: The Laptop Use Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; Lauricella, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The laptop computer is considered one of the most used and important technological devices in higher education, yet limited systematic research has been conducted to develop a measure of laptop use in college and university. The purpose of the following study was to develop a research-based, theoretically grounded scale to assess student use of…

  20. Launching a Wireless Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignano, Domenic

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, as a technology director for East Rock Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, a federal government test site for laptop learning, shares his secrets to a successful implementation of a wireless laptop program: (1) Build a wireless foundation; (2) Do not choose the cheapest model just because of budget; (3) A sturdy…

  1. Implementing a Successful Laptop Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Pete; Dobson, Lindsey

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences in instituting a personal ownership laptop programme for 10 and 11 year-olds. Argues that learning with laptops captivates and empowers students, making them more self-motivated and task-oriented. There is increased risk-taking, as students work at their own pace, and in their own time. Furthermore, creativity is encouraged.…

  2. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, C V; Pinto, I; Bogi, A; Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D; Buonocore, G

    2012-01-01

    Portable computers are often used at tight contact with the body and therefore are called "laptop." The authors measured electromagnetic fields (EMFs) laptop computers produce and estimated the induced currents in the body, to assess the safety of laptop computers. The authors evaluated 5 commonly used laptop of different brands. They measured EMF exposure produced and, using validated computerized models, the authors exploited the data of one of the laptop computers (LTCs) to estimate the magnetic flux exposure of the user and of the fetus in the womb, when the laptop is used at close contact with the woman's womb. In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8-6 μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation) and TCO (Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees), and those considered risky for tumor development. When close to the body, the laptop induces currents that are within 34.2% to 49.8% ICNIRP recommendations, but not negligible, to the adult's body and to the fetus (in pregnant women). On the contrary, the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182-263% and 71-483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects. Laptop is paradoxically an improper site for the use of a LTC, which consequently should be renamed to not induce customers towards an improper use.

  3. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances

    PubMed Central

    Bruineberg, Jelle; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism's tendency toward an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston's work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the system “brain-body-landscape of affordances.” Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism's selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients. PMID:25161615

  4. An integrated approach to low-income energy affordability for a restructured world

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, B.; Carroll, D.; Adams, B.; Ringhof, S.

    1998-07-01

    In the context of retail electric competition, various mechanisms have been proposed to address threats to low-income energy affordability. Most proposals include the use of ratepayer for (a) low-income bill payment support (e.g., rate discounts) and/or (b) energy efficiency programs specifically designated for low-income customers. An integrated approach to both energy efficiency and low-income bill payment is being tested in New Jersey. The program specifically targets payment-troubled customers and those with the lowest incomes. It combines a three-part approach to energy affordability: (1) deep and comprehensive gas and electric efficiency measures; (2) extensive customer energy education, with the goals of both (a) empowering participants with the skills and knowledge to gain control of their energy situation and (b) securing action commitment that the customer carries out as a partner to save energy and lower their utility bills; and (3) an affordable payment plan which includes extended payment of arrearages, partial arrearage forgiveness, and a bill discount for those in the lowest income tier who maintain their partnership obligations. This paper describes the E-Team Partners program design, presents preliminary impact evaluation results for the first 7,000 participants, and discusses the attributes of this model in a restructured environment.

  5. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  6. Laptops + Challenging Curriculum = Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Modern day education reform, impacted by the No Child Left Behind Act, is dominated by accountability and results. At Polaris Career Center in Middleburg Heights, Ohio, student results are front and center. Students participating in a laptop and online curriculum initiative have documented astonishing achievement gains. Prior to the 2004 school…

  7. Laptops and Lipsticks: Feminising Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper brings learning, mass media and technology together in a critical analysis of advertising and its gendered implications in terms of women's desires and investments in technology. It uses two advertisements for laptop computers that appeared in the same weekend news magazine as an analytical opportunity to examine collisions and…

  8. Laptops for Teachers: Practices and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Bronwen; Jones, Alister; Harlow, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Laptops for Teachers scheme in New Zealand provides teachers whose schools opt into the scheme access to a laptop for their exclusive use. This paper reports on the findings of the three-year evaluation of the impact of the laptops on secondary teachers' work. The findings indicate that school leadership has been pivotal to the provision of…

  9. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  10. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-07-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  11. Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

    2006-10-01

    Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

  12. Laptops in Classroom Interaction: The Dynamic Reach of the Laptoped Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, Tomas; Lundin, Johan; Svensson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Laptops and other networked technologies are commonplace at university campuses. While a range of studies researches the negative effects of multitasking, screenpeeking and other laptop related side effects this article emphasize the situational impact of student-laptop interaction. Departing from Goffman's framework on unfocused interaction and…

  13. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education Classrooms: The Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauricella, Sharon; Kay, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted examining the use of laptops in higher education, however, a reliable and valid scale to assess in-class use of laptops has yet to be developed. The purpose of the following study was to develop and evaluate the "Laptop Effectiveness Scale" (LES). The scale consisted of four constructs: academic use and…

  14. Laptops to Go: A Student Assessment of a Library Laptop Lending Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summey, Terri; Gutierrez, Art

    2012-01-01

    Approximately five years ago, the library at Emporia State University started a laptop lending service to provide laptops for use in the library. The program has been highly successful. In the last few years, some modifications were made to the program, and netbooks were added. In this article, the authors will explore laptop programs in a variety…

  15. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  16. Laptop Use in University Common Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

  17. Expect Surprises with 1-to-1 Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusch, Erich G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, prior to the launch of their 1-to-1 laptop program, the superintendent expressed some anxiety about the prospect of radically changing teaching and learning by issuing a laptop computer to every student and teacher. Although the concept was exciting, it carried big risks and would take time and thorough planning to execute well. Even with…

  18. Ubiquitous Wireless Laptops in Upper Elementary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-experimental investigation considers the second year of implementation of wireless laptops (1:1 ratio) in three 6th grade mathematics classrooms in one school compared to non-laptop classrooms (5:1 ratio) in seven other schools in the district. Comprehensive mathematics software from CompassLearning delivered via the internet was…

  19. Laptop Computers for Third World Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The nonprofit organization One Laptop per Child (OLPC) has a mission that is easy to articulate but very challenging to achieve: Provide laptop computers to the almost 2 billion children who live in parts of the world where poverty and the lack of a structured educational system deprive them of an adequate education. To further complicate the…

  20. Energy from Water and Sunlight: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Sun Catalytix is developing wireless energy-storage devices that convert sunlight and water into renewable fuel. Learning from nature, one such device mimics the ability of a tree leaf to convert sunlight into storable energy. It is comprised of a silicon solar cell coated with catalytic materials, which help speed up the energy conversion process. When this cell is placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, it splits the water into bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen and oxygen can later be recombined to create electricity, when the sun goes down for example. The Sun Catalytix device is novel in many ways: it consists primarily of low-cost, earth-abundant materials where other attempts have required more expensive materials like platinum. Its operating conditions also facilitate the use of less costly construction materials, whereas other efforts have required extremely corrosive conditions.

  1. Affordable housing through energy conservation: A guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. This data base was compiled using over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. This extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Regression techniques in PEAR permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to over 800 US locations based on climate parameters. PEAR is designed as a user-friendly program that can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts, and as a nontechnical energy calculation method by architects, homebuilders, homeowners, and others in the building industry. Technical documentation of the PEAR program and the database is given elsewhere (see References). 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance into residential design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of: energy efficiency; affordability; indoor air quality; sustainability; and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two story structure. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. The first floor would be constructed using insulated strong high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second story would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimize thermal bridging across studs. Optimizing floor plan such as separating living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction; selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation; and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as prudent duct selection, design and location, use of radon barriers, omission of carpeting, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence will be addressed and illustrated.

  3. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  4. Some Activities with Polarized Light from a Laptop LCD Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The LCD screen of a laptop computer provides a broad, bright, and extended source of polarized light. A number of demonstrations on the properties of polarized light from a laptop computer screens are presented here.

  5. Laptops as Instructional Tools: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan-Coultas, Dustin L.

    2012-01-01

    For six years, a college of health professions at a southern medical university has made student computing an integral component of its academic environment by requiring all residential students to own laptops. While most faculty members have acknowledged that access to a computer is necessary for most students to complete coursework, both faculty…

  6. How Laptops Digitize and Transform Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Jenifer; Tingen, Jennifer; Argueta, Rodolfo; Patel, Ruchi; Stanhope, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Laptops have been shown to improve 21st century skills such as life and career skills, learning and innovation skills, and group collaboration, but how does this ever-present technology affect the thinking of today's "screenager"? Through an analysis of focus groups and surveys with students in 1:1 initiatives across North Carolina, researchers…

  7. Keep Laptop Cool with Simple Custom Riser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynone, William

    2012-01-01

    Although the author's netbook computer--a diminished capacity laptop computer--uses less power than its big brother, when working with it on his lap, his thighs are roasted, even in the winter. When using the unit on a flat surface, such as a table top, the bottom surface of the computer and table top become quite warm--and it is generally…

  8. Increase in Stolen Laptops Endangers Data Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    Patrick A. Grant was stolen in April. A thief walked away with a laptop containing the University of Virginia biochemist's name and Social Security number, as well as those of more than 7,000 other professors, staff members, and students. The machine belonged to a university employee who had taken it off campus--and then it was simply taken. The…

  9. Expect Surprises with 1-to-1 Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusch, Erich G.

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of radically changing teaching and learning by issuing a laptop computer to every student and teacher is an exciting one, but it carried big risks and would take time and thorough planning to execute well. But even thorough planning can't prevent the unanticipated. In this article, the author counts six major surprises during his time…

  10. Can a Laptop Change How the World Teaches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the XO laptop was launched in Uruguay. The XO laptop is an inexpensive computer created by the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) Foundation, which the founders hope will advance education in the developing world. In the frenzy to light up children's faces with the glow of an LCD, it is the librarians and teachers and their role in…

  11. Laptop Use during Class: A Review of Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cismaru, Romulus; Cismaru, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Laptop use in class is a characteristic of universities that is changing rapidly. Although much of the attention and research regarding this issue has focused on the debate of whether to impose mandatory laptop programs, the reality of wireless campuses allows students to use their laptops in class for class related and non-class related…

  12. Circulating Laptops: Lessons Learned in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Laptops have become ubiquitous in academic libraries, as has the practice of circulating laptops for student use. Several studies have analyzed the how-to of loaning laptops, and a number of surveys have focused on how they are being used. However, little has been written of the practical lessons learned; the trial and error of those on the…

  13. Focused Ubiquity: A Purposeful Approach to Providing Students with Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Mike; Weiler, Spencer C.; Maas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Laptops have been introduced into classroom across the nation as a way to improve teaching and learning. In 2007 Littleton Public Schools (LPS) introduced a focused approach to providing all students with a laptop at a significantly lower cost to the traditional ubiquitous laptop programs. The purpose of this study was to document the LPS model…

  14. Teacher Training and Teacher Use of Laptops in a 1:1 Laptop Program: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship, if any, between teacher training and teacher use of a laptop in a one-to-one laptop program. Teachers recorded their training weekly throughout the twelve-week study. Teacher use of laptops was measured through self-reporting in a pretest and posttest design,…

  15. Final Report for Clean, Reliable, Affordable Energy that Reflects the Values of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Lenora; Sampsel, Zachary N

    2014-07-21

    This report aims to present and analyze information on the potential of renewable energy power systems and electric vehicle charging near the Pinoleville Pomo Nation in Ukiah, California to provide an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective energy and transportation options for development. For each renewable energy option we examine, solar, wind, microhydro, and biogas in this case, we compiled technology and cost information for construction, estimates of energy capacity, and data on electricity exports rates.

  16. Use of laptop computers in an academic medical library.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Michel C; Garza, Felix; Hinshaw, Ren

    2007-01-01

    Who borrows laptop computers in an academic health sciences library? Why do they choose to check out laptops? In a survey, laptop computer users responded that the laptops were used most frequently to do class-related work. Laptops were most often checked out because they could be taken to a quiet area of the library or to where the user had more room to work. The majority of such borrowers were satisfied or very satisfied with the laptops and the service from the library. The majority of those completing the survey were medical school students and graduate students. The circulation of laptop computers at this academic health sciences library is a very successful and popular program.

  17. Performance Results from a Cold Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2007-11-01

    The design of this 1280 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, a photovoltaic system, and passive and active solar thermal features to exceed the net zero energy goal. In January 2006, a data acquisition system was installed in the home to monitor its performance over the course of a year. This paper presents full year of energy performance data on the home.

  18. Identifying perceived barriers and benefits to reducing energy consumption in an affordable housing complex using the Community-Based Social Marketing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaves, Daniel

    Energy production and consumption has a negative impact on both environmental and human health. Energy consumption can be directly impacted by human behavior, especially in the residential sector. As a result, this sector has been studied significantly; however, energy reducing behavior change research focusing on the affordable housing sector has not been studied thoroughly to date. This study seeks to implement the first two phases of the Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM) framework in an affordable housing setting. The goals were to identify the optimal behaviors for energy reduction based on phase one survey results and to identify the perceived benefits and barriers associated with those behaviors. Additionally, this study identified nuances in the CBSM process that researchers should take into consideration when implementing CBSM in an affordable housing environment.

  19. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  20. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James; Moore, Mike; Thompson, Margo

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit (DER) at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  1. Reflections on Teaching in a Wireless Laptop Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, William; Dobda, Kathyanne W.; Wang, Lih-Ching Chen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years laptop computers have become increasingly popular in educational settings; wireless connectivity is a more recent development which is only now being fully explored, and which has led to the creation of the "wireless laptop lab." In this article, the authors share some of the experiences and concerns that they have encountered…

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause.

  3. Laptop Initiative Impact: Assessed Using Student, Parent and Teacher Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Diane M.; King, Frederick B.; Brown, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Several university researchers were invited to assist in the implementation and study of a Laptop Initiative for high school students. This initiative provided laptop computers for 247 students and 24 teachers who were grouped into ninth grade learning clusters at three schools. The research on the program's impact focused on student, teacher, and…

  4. Laptop Classes in Some Australian Government Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Australia was once a world leader for laptop adoption in schools. Now overtaken by extensive roll-outs of laptops in Maine and Uruguay, this paper seeks to explain why this lead was lost. Six case studies of government primary schools were undertaken to gather data about current initiatives. Comparative analysis shows how the potential of…

  5. Fitting the Pieces Together: Successful Technology Integration with Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Two and a half years ago, the author relates how their middle schools embarked on a student laptop initiative that began as a pilot program and has continued to develop into a model for successful technology integration. Although they entered uncharted waters as far as laptop technology is concerned, there were some known principles that have…

  6. Laptopers in an Educational Practice: Promoting the Personal Learning Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, Tomas; Bergquist, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    In this article an ethnographical study of laptopers' activities during lectures in a university milieu is analyzed as different kinds of involvements. Through interviews and observations we have focused on how these involvements influence the laptopers' alignment towards the educational practice. The analysis shows the importance of separating…

  7. Effectiveness of Laptop Usage in UAE University Undergraduate Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awwad, Falah; Ayesh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Laptop use for undergraduate students is increasingly becoming commonplace, and is often deemed a necessity. Students are using laptops for academic as well as non-academic activities. Researchers are debating the effect of this trend on students' educational and learning outcomes, thus, there is a need for investigation to determine how…

  8. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  9. Do Ubiquitous Laptop Initiatives Decrease the High School Dropout Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Misty Dawn

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Mooresville Graded School District developed a strategic plan to infuse twenty-first-century learning skills into the schools by providing staff and students in grades four through twelve with a laptop computer. In late fall of 2007, Mooresville High School deployed laptops to all certified staff and to the entire student body in the…

  10. Evaluation of a Laptop Program: Successes and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.

    The overall purpose of this evaluation study was to determine the effectiveness of providing 5th and 6th grade students in Walled Lake Consolidated Schools (WLCS) (Tennessee) with access to laptop computers with regard to classroom learning activities, technology usage, and writing achievement. The Laptop Program classrooms were equipped with…

  11. Getting Wired for Wireless: The Student Laptop Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Presents a director of information technology's insight concerning the reasons his school district went wireless, including funding and cost issues. Also discussed is the decision making on going from 3-megabit cards to 11-megabit cards, renovating versus new construction, providing laptops to the students, and the benefits of laptops in large…

  12. Lessons Learned About Providing Laptops for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifaz, Alejandra; Zucker, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    As a way of helping states and districts interested in laptop initiatives, the Northeast and the Islands Regional Technology in Education Consortium (NEIRTEC) has reviewed lessons learned to date from many laptop initiatives around the country and has prepared this guide. Drawn from articles and reports about current and past programs (see…

  13. Designing a Virtual Classroom through the Use of Laptop Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Al; Massey, Joanne

    Laptop computers offer a unique way to package a course so that students will learn academic communication skills using the latest technological tools. Laptops can be programmed to be compatible with a school's computer system, eliminating many potential problems students might face in adapting their home computers. Additionally, a level playing…

  14. Law Professors Rule Laptops out of Order in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    The forbidden-laptop zone is territory into which few professors dare tread. Students have been known to protest when laptops are banned from a classroom, and even claim that they are being denied a proper education. Professors who have taken the bold step, though, sound like they've experienced an epiphany. A professor at the University, Don…

  15. NREL/Habitat for Humanity Zero Energy Home: A Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2008-06-01

    The design of this 1,280-square-foot, three-bedroom Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed with an early version (July 22, 2004) of the BEOpt building optimization software; DOE2 and TRNSYS were used to perform additional analysis. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design toward simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques. A data acquisition system was installed in the completed home to monitor its performance.

  16. The Impact of Laptop-Free Zones on Student Performance and Attitudes in Large Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Williams, Adrienne E.; O'Dowd, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if laptop use in lecture negatively impacts learning outcomes of surrounding students taking notes on paper. Two sections of a large introductory biology course (greater than 400 students/section) were zoned into a laptop-permitted and a laptop-free area. Two sections in which laptop users could sit anywhere…

  17. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in

  18. The Laptop and the Lecture: The Effects of Multitasking in Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrooke, Helene; Gay, Geri

    2003-01-01

    Compared the test results of students allowed and not allowed to use their laptops while listening to a lecture. Students using their laptops performed more poorly on measures of memory for lecture content. (EV)

  19. Can "Withitness Skills" Be Applied to Teaching with Laptops?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura; Shim, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    It may amaze those in education that in this age of technology and computers, how basic concepts of classroom teaching are similar or even more important than they were 40 years ago when Kounin first defined withitness elements. New challenges, related to laptop Internet instruction, require instructors to develop "withitness" skills and…

  20. Professional Learning during a One-to-One Laptop Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip Alexander; Wan, Fareed

    2012-01-01

    Many consider one-to-one laptop computing empowering and exciting but this type of educational equipping also raises questions about how teachers can develop and learn professionally to meet challenging and changing classroom conditions, "in situ." In this paper we draw illustrative findings from a study of high school English teachers during the…

  1. Laptop Requirement Usage and Impact in Graduate ILS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Bin; Newby, Gregory B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that evaluated the impact and use of laptop computers when they were required for graduate information and library science (ILS) students at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Topics include results of online and email surveys; student perspectives; previous computer experience; computer skills; and institutional…

  2. Four Years of Portability: Perspectives on a Laptop Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a laptop computer technology program that has been in effect for nearly four years in a middle school in Bethesda, Maryland. Topics include initial opposition from parents; benefits to teachers, students, and learning; copyright issues; problems with plagiarism; accessibility; accountability; and email issues. (LRW)

  3. New Patterns of Student Engagement: Lessons from a Laptop University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Bridget D.

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2002, the author conducted a qualitative study that used student engagement as a lens through which to analyze the effects of technology on campus. The setting was a four-year private institution that had, three years prior, instituted a laptop computer requirement for undergraduate students. The study used focus groups of…

  4. The Impact on Homes with a School-Provided Laptop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bu Shell, Shawna M.

    2012-01-01

    For decades, educational policy advocates have argued for providing technology to students to enhance their learning environments. From filmstrips (Oppenheimer, 1997) to desktop computers (Cuban, 2002) to laptops (Silvernail, 2009; Warschauer, 2006), they have attempted to change the environment and style in which students learn, and how tools can…

  5. Evolution of a Laptop University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Gloria J.; Snyder, Kimberlee D.; Graetz, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Technology is integral to carrying out many types of business transactions and has become entwined in the very fabric of everyday life. In the educational environmentparticularly higher educationtechnology is underutilised as a pedagogical tool and in many cases remains largely untapped. Winona State University and its laptop programme learned…

  6. Comparability of Testing Using Laptop and Desktop Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Potenza, Maria T.

    The degree to which laptop and standard-size desktop computers are likely to produce comparable test results for the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test was studied. Verbal, quantitative, and writing sections of a retired version of the GRE were used, since it was expected that performance on reading passages or mathematics items might…

  7. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight Director Robert E. Castle uses a laptop computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead Flight Director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  8. A Modified Laptop Program: Putting the Carts in the Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Michael M.; Ross, Steven M.; Wan, Weiping; Potter, Allison; Wilson, Yola

    2004-01-01

    Four fifth grade classrooms embarked on a modified ubiquitous computing initiative in Fall 2003. Two 15-computer wireless laptop carts were shared among the four classrooms in an effort to integrate technology across the curriculum and affect change in student learning and teacher pedagogy. This initiative?in contrast to other 1:1 programs and…

  9. Student Perceptions of the Value of a University Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Claudia; Sherony, Bruce; Steinhaus, Carol

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2000, when a mandatory laptop program was initiated at a Midwest regional university, a faculty research team began a longitudinal study to determine student perceptions of the value of the program. Value was defined as usefulness of the computer, reasonable price for the computer and the quality of the computer. A survey of 1,000…

  10. Wireless Laptops in English Classrooms: A SWOT Analysis from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vaish, Viniti

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents illustrative findings from a one-year pilot study undertaken in the English department of a high school in Singapore that was in the first year of implementing a one-to-one wireless laptop programme. The findings show that learning was often constrained by lecture-style presentations and overt test preparation. Despite…

  11. Teaching in a Laptop Classroom: Merging Traditional with Technological

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredlund, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This section will reflect on two different classroom designs from my own teaching experience: one that required students to bring laptops and one that required only paper and pen. Because traditional classrooms were likely designed without taking technology into consideration, teachers should be aware of what the design of the classroom says about…

  12. Unstructured vs. Structured Use of Laptops in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Lauricella, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A majority of today's higher education students have been nurtured on a steady diet of technology and Internet access, leading to the increased presence of laptops in higher education classrooms. However, many instructors are unsure whether or how to assimilate this technology into their lessons. The purpose of the following study was to examine…

  13. Copernicus Project: Learning with Laptops: Year 1 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Jeffrey T.; Stuen, Carol

    The Copernicus Project is a multi-district effort designed to incorporate technology, specifically the laptop computer, into the instructional and learning process of the public schools. Participants included six school districts in Washington state, the Toshiba and Microsoft Corporations, and parents. The project called for a 1 to 1…

  14. 1:1 Laptop Implications and District Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauers, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The state of Iowa has seen a drastic increase in the number of schools that provide one laptop for each student. These 1:1 schools have invested large amounts of time and money into becoming a 1:1 school. The current research on 1:1 schools is sparse, and policy makers are actively trying to evaluate those programs. Purpose. To…

  15. Domestication of a Laptop on a Wireless University Campus: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuojarvi, Hanna; Isomaki, Hannakaisa; Hynes, Deirdre

    2010-01-01

    This study reports how university students domesticate their personal laptops at the beginning of studies on a wireless campus. The aim was to examine how students integrate the laptop into their personal education experience, what sort of processes were experienced to render the laptop useful and meaningful, and how gender and IT proficiency…

  16. Cognitive, Social, Motivational and Health Aspects of Students in Laptop Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimmel, Michael; Bachmann, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Effects on cognitive performance, social atmosphere, communication, motivation and aspects of strain were investigated when laptops were integrated in classrooms. According to a quasi-experimental design 27 laptop students were compared with 22 non-laptop students from the same high school, aged 17-18 years. Results of tests and questionnaires…

  17. Laptops in Class: What Are They Good for? What Can You Do with Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara E.; Nilson, Linda B.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes Clemson University's Laptop Faculty Development Program and its assessment, offering the program as one model for designing faculty development to successfully implement laptop mandates. The chapter also acquaints readers with the many types of in-class, laptop-based activities that meet best-practice criteria for effective…

  18. In-Class Laptop Use and Its Effects on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Carrie B.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a debate has begun over whether in-class laptops aid or hinder learning. While some research demonstrates that laptops can be an important learning tool, anecdotal evidence suggests more and more faculty are banning laptops from their classrooms because of perceptions that they distract students and detract from learning. The current…

  19. Laptop Multitasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Both Users and Nearby Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sana, Faria; Weston, Tina; Cepeda, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not…

  20. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit, Annapolis, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, the BA-PIRC research team evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This case study summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete.

  1. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  2. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  3. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  4. Elementary Reading Fluency and Comprehension: Do Laptops Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…

  5. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  6. The pen is mightier than the keyboard: advantages of longhand over laptop note taking.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Pam A; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2014-06-01

    Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning.

  7. A Laptop Computer Application for Neonatal Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckeler, Joel S.; Ellis, Lynda B.M.

    1989-01-01

    A laptop computer system has been developed for the acquisition, calculation, and reporting of pediatric health care maintenance parameters used to assess fluid and caloric metabolic balance in ward and intensive care environments. A pilot study with inexperienced users of the system demonstrated shorter calculation and report generation times at all but the least complex test cases. More importantly, the system significantly reduces the proportion of errors made at all levels of complexity (p < 0.001). This system has proved to be a valuable bedside companion.

  8. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  9. Miracle or Menace: Teaching and Learning with Laptop Computers in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efaw, James; Hampton, Scott; Martinez, Silas; Smith, Scott

    2004-01-01

    All freshmen at the United States Military Academy at West Point now have laptop computers to use in class. Several instructors for the General Psychology course that all freshmen take are currently incorporating classroom learning activities and strategies to leverage the technology tools available with laptop computers. This article reports on a…

  10. Comparison of Technology Use between Biology and Physics Teachers in a 1:1 Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach the authors compared the associated practices of senior physics teachers (n = 7) and students (n = 53) in a 1:1 laptop environment with those of senior biology teachers (n = 10) and students (n = 125) also in a 1:1 laptop environment, in seven high schools in Sydney, NSW, Australia. They found that the physics…

  11. Investigating the Benefits and Challenges of Using Laptop Computers in Higher Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin Holding; Lauricella, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits and challenges using laptop computers (hereafter referred to as laptops) inside and outside higher education classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 156 university students (54 males, 102 females) enrolled in either education or communication studies. Benefits of…

  12. A Chicken in Every Pot; One Laptop per Child: The Trouble with Global Campaign Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Linda Smith

    2008-01-01

    The object of this article is to analyse the possible viability of the global education project One Laptop per Child (OLPC), and to trace some of the recent events impacting the project. The XO laptop, a unique machine, has itself become an iconic symbol. Its impact as a cultural product in a global market that targets the transformation of…

  13. Laptop Ownership and Use among Educators: Reflections from School Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khambari, Mas Nida Md.; Moses, Priscilla; Luan, Wong Su

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the experiences of owning and using laptops among three secondary school teachers in Malaysia. They were granted personal laptops by the Ministry of Education through the Teaching and Learning of Science and Mathematics in English, or known as Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains dan Matematik dalam Bahasa Inggeris (PPSMI)…

  14. Authentic Instruction in Laptop Classrooms: Sample Lessons that Integrate Type II Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine

    2006-01-01

    Laptop computers and Type II applications can provide powerful tools for elementary classrooms, especially if they are combined with authentic instruction. This article provides information and lessons learned from a laptop initiative in an urban elementary school. The goal of the initiative was to develop lesson plans and document techniques that…

  15. Laptop Usage Affects Abstract Reasoning of Children in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nina; Koudenburg, Namkje; Hiersemann, Rena; Tellegen, Peter J.; Kocsev, Marton; Postmes, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is a rising trend to provide low-cost laptops to children in developing countries. Notwithstanding strong claims about the educational effectiveness of these programs, there is very little systematic evidence. Given the level of modernization and the teacher-led learning environment in developing countries, the usage of laptops in such…

  16. Perceptions of Change in Teaching Styles during a One-to-One Laptop Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Karl Russell

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to provide solid quantitative data demonstrating how teachers are perceived to change in a one-to-one laptop environment, both as a whole and by subject area, during a laptop initiative that includes significant investments in professional development. The main research question is "Do teachers change their…

  17. The Teacher's Laptop as a Hub for Learning in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Judy M.; Ward, Lorrae

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from a longitudinal study of the effects of providing teachers with personal laptop computers. It considers the role of teacher laptops in learning and teaching in three schools selected because technology was widely used there. Using multiple methods of data collection (observation in classrooms; interviews with…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Sanctioned and Unsanctioned Laptop Use in a 1:1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallvid, Martin; Lundin, Johan; Svensson, Lars; Lindström, Berner

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores and discusses students' use of laptops in a 1:1 setting. A problem experienced by teachers is that the laptops are possible distractors and tempt students to engage in use that is not in line with the teacher's idea of what would be suitable in relation to the current assignment. Three annual surveys…

  19. Laptops and Fourth-Grade Literacy: Assisting the Jump over the Fourth-Grade Slump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Kurt A.; Hernandez, David A.; Grimes, Douglas; Warschauer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    School districts throughout the country are considering how to best integrate technology into instruction. There has been a movement in many districts toward one-to-one laptop instruction, in which all students are provided a laptop computer, but there is concern that these programs may not yield sufficiently improved learning outcomes to justify…

  20. Everyday Personal Laptop Usage in Secondary Schools in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Georgette; Blair, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The e-Connect And Learn (eCAL) programme is a Trinidad and Tobago government-led initiative, launched in 2010, that grants personal laptop computers to students entering secondary school. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of how students are using these government-issued personal laptops 3 years after the programme's launch. This…

  1. Growing in Digital Maturity: Students and Their Computers in an Academic Laptop Programme in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip; Fareed, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Using data collected through two focus group interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds involved in a one-to-one laptop academic programme in a Singapore secondary school, this paper shows some student disengagement and dissatisfaction in class, and this poses questions about the relevance of the school's laptop programme. Our findings illustrate low…

  2. Balancing the One-to-One Equation: Equity and Access in Three Laptop Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Zheng, Binbin; Niiya, Melissa; Cotten, Shelia; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    Seeking to improve teaching and learning and to narrow gaps between students of high and low socioeconomic status, many school districts in the United States are implementing one-to-one laptop programs. In this comparative case study, we examine one-to-one laptop programs in Colorado, California, and Alabama, all of which deployed low-cost netbook…

  3. Learning with Laptops: Implementation and Outcomes in an Urban, Under-Privileged School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouza, Chrystalla

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and outcomes of a laptop program initiative in a predominantly low-income, minority school. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected, analyzed, and compared with students in non-laptop classrooms within the same school. Results of the study revealed that in the hands of well prepared teachers,…

  4. One-to-One Laptop Programs: Is Transformation Occurring in Mathematics Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackley, Susan; Walker, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    There is a body of research around the uptake of digital technologies in secondary schools, and a growing body of research specifically designed to investigate the use of one-to-one laptop programs. However this research focused on the initial uptake of the digital technology or initial implementation of a one-to-one (1:1) laptop policy. Given the…

  5. Integrating Laptops into Multiple Subject Areas: Thoughts from Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Linda; Meltesen, Kristen; Fisher, Emily; Milam, Allison; Gregory, Kate; McLaughlin, Ryan; Ramsey, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Provides perspectives of an eighth grade teacher and her students on the use and perceived benefits of laptops. Describes how the laptops have changed the class. Presents the students' views of how technology has affected their learning in English class, as well as in content areas. (PM)

  6. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the additional monthly costs of utilities and other monthly housing costs, such as condominium and... at reasonable terms, energy conservation, and improvements that will entail low-cost maintenance. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Affordability standards....

  7. A Case Study on Use of One-to-One Laptops in English as Second Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Guliz

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one laptop programs, where each student has their own laptop to use in classroom, are becoming popular in schools especially in Australia and the United States. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the limited knowledge base explaining the implementation of laptop programs specifically with English language learners. Four ESL…

  8. The initial response of secondary mathematics teachers to a one-to-one laptop program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Edward Nordin; Anderson, Judy

    2013-06-01

    Studies of one-to-one programs consistently report lower use of laptops in mathematics classrooms compared to other subjects but do not elaborate reasons for these observations. This mixed-method study investigated the experiences and beliefs of 28 mathematics teachers at five secondary schools during the second year of the New South Wales Digital Education Revolution laptop program. While some mathematics teachers planned for students to use their laptops up to once a week, most reported less frequent use in the classroom. Teachers were grouped into categories "Non Adopters," "Cautious Adopters," and "Early Adopters" according to reported classroom use of laptops, then analysed for differences in confidence, knowledge, and beliefs relating to technology for teaching and learning mathematics. A prevalent belief limiting laptop use is that students authentically learn mathematics only using pen and paper. Cautious Adopters and Non Adopters expressed beliefs that laptops exacerbate classroom management problems, especially for lower-achieving students. In the context of ability-streamed classes these beliefs effectively ruled out use of laptops for entire classrooms.

  9. Should laptops be allowed in the classroom? Two viewpoints: viewpoint 1: laptops in classrooms facilitate curricular advancement and promote student learning and viewpoint 2: deconstructing and rethinking the use of laptops in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Heiko; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2014-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the pros and cons of deploying one aspect of instructional technology in dental education: the use of laptops in the classroom. Two opposing viewpoints, written by different authors, evaluate the arguments. Viewpoint 1 argues that laptops in classrooms can be a catalyst for rapid curricular advancement and prepare dental graduates for the digital age of dentistry. As dental education is not limited to textual information, but includes skill development in spatial relationships and hands-on training, technology can play a transformative role in students' learning. Carefully implemented instructional technology can enhance student motivation when it transforms students from being the objects of teaching to the subjects of learning. Ubiquitous access to educational material allows for just-in-time learning and can overcome organizational barriers when, for instance, introducing interprofessional education. Viewpoint 2 argues that, in spite of widespread agreement that instructional technology leads to curricular innovation, the notion of the use of laptops in classrooms needs to be deconstructed and rethought when effective learning outcomes are sought. Analyzing the purpose, pedagogy, and learning product while applying lessons learned from K-12 implementation leads to a more complex picture of laptop integration in dental classrooms and forms the basis for questioning the value of such usage. For laptop use to contribute to student learning, rather than simply providing opportunity for students to take notes and access the Internet during class, this viewpoint emphasizes that dental educators need to think carefully about the purpose of this technology and to develop appropriate pedagogical strategies to achieve their objectives. The two viewpoints agree that significant faculty development efforts should precede any introduction of technology into the educational process and that technology alone cannot change education

  10. Should laptops be allowed in the classroom? Two viewpoints: viewpoint 1: laptops in classrooms facilitate curricular advancement and promote student learning and viewpoint 2: deconstructing and rethinking the use of laptops in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Heiko; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2014-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the pros and cons of deploying one aspect of instructional technology in dental education: the use of laptops in the classroom. Two opposing viewpoints, written by different authors, evaluate the arguments. Viewpoint 1 argues that laptops in classrooms can be a catalyst for rapid curricular advancement and prepare dental graduates for the digital age of dentistry. As dental education is not limited to textual information, but includes skill development in spatial relationships and hands-on training, technology can play a transformative role in students' learning. Carefully implemented instructional technology can enhance student motivation when it transforms students from being the objects of teaching to the subjects of learning. Ubiquitous access to educational material allows for just-in-time learning and can overcome organizational barriers when, for instance, introducing interprofessional education. Viewpoint 2 argues that, in spite of widespread agreement that instructional technology leads to curricular innovation, the notion of the use of laptops in classrooms needs to be deconstructed and rethought when effective learning outcomes are sought. Analyzing the purpose, pedagogy, and learning product while applying lessons learned from K-12 implementation leads to a more complex picture of laptop integration in dental classrooms and forms the basis for questioning the value of such usage. For laptop use to contribute to student learning, rather than simply providing opportunity for students to take notes and access the Internet during class, this viewpoint emphasizes that dental educators need to think carefully about the purpose of this technology and to develop appropriate pedagogical strategies to achieve their objectives. The two viewpoints agree that significant faculty development efforts should precede any introduction of technology into the educational process and that technology alone cannot change education

  11. Laptops in Psychology: Conducting Flexible In-Class Research and Writing Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Benjamin R.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes an undergraduate psychology research methods course in which laptops facilitated online organization, electronic portfolios, and flexible laboratories to improve student engagement, capability, and understanding. (Contains 3 figures.)

  12. Experience using radio frequency laptops to access the electronic medical record in exam rooms.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, L. A.; Krall, M.; Chin, H.; Robertson, N.; Harris, J.; Hughes, J.

    1999-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente, Northwest, evaluated the use of laptop computers to access our existing comprehensive Electronic Medical Record in exam rooms via a wireless radiofrequency (RF) network. Eleven of 22 clinicians who were offered the laptops successfully adopted their use in the exam room. These clinicians were able to increase their exam room time with the patient by almost 4 minutes (25%), apparently without lengthening their overall work day. Patient response to exam room computing was overwhelmingly positive. The RF network response time was similar to the hardwired network. Problems cited by some laptop users and many of the eleven non-adopters included battery issues, different equipment layout and function, and inadequate training. IT support needs for the RF laptops were two to four times greater than for hardwired desktops. Addressing the reliability and training issues should increase clinician acceptance, making a successful general roll-out for exam room computing more likely. PMID:10566458

  13. Teacher Perceptions of the Integration of Laptop Computers in Their High School Biology Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundy, Morag S.

    2011-12-01

    Studies indicate that teachers, and in particular science teachers in the senior high school grades, do not integrate laptop computers into their instruction to the extent anticipated by researchers. This technology has not spread easily to other teachers even with improved access to hardware and software, increased support, and a paradigm shift from teacher-centred to student-centred education. Although a number of studies have focused on the issues and problems related to the integration of laptops in classroom instruction, these studies, largely quantitative in nature, have tended to bypass the role teachers play in integrating laptop computers into their instruction. This thesis documents and describes the role of Ontario high school science teachers in the integration of laptop computers in the classroom. Ten teachers who have successfully integrated laptop computers into their biology courses participated in this descriptive study. Their perceptions of implementing laptops into their biology courses, key factors about the implementation process, and how the implementation was accomplished are examined. The study also identifies the conditions which they feel would allow this innovation to be implemented by other teachers. Key findings of the study indicate that teachers must initiate, implement and sustain an emergent and still evolving innovation; teacher perceptions change and continue to change with increased experience using laptops in the science classroom; changes in teaching approaches are significant as a result of the introduction of laptop technology; and, the teachers considered the acquisition and use of new teaching materials to be an important aspect of integrating laptop computers into instruction. Ongoing challenges for appropriate professional development, sharing of knowledge, skills and teaching materials are identified. The study provides a body of practical knowledge for biology teachers who are considering the integration of laptops into

  14. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US140 for the Li-ion battery and US362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be 16.65 W -1 and 0.77 W h -1, and the energy consumption costs to be 0.00051 W h -1 and 0.00032 W h -1, respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under 0.5 kg -1. Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to 6.30 W -1, then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea.

  15. Fostering Girls' Computer Literacy through Laptop Learning: Can Mobile Computers Help To Level Out the Gender Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumburg, Heike

    The goal of this study was to find out if the difference between boys and girls in computer literacy can be leveled out in a laptop program where each student has his/her own mobile computer to work with at home and at school. Ninth grade students (n=113) from laptop and non-laptop classes in a German high school were tested for their computer…

  16. Seeing Eye-to-Eye on ICT: Science Student and Teacher Perceptions of Laptop Use across 14 Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel; Muller, Derek A.

    2013-01-01

    As schools start investigating and investing in the idea of 1:1 iPads and tablets, are there any lessons that can be learnt from recent 1:1 laptop deployments? In Australia, since 2008, 1:1 laptops have been introduced into every secondary school. This study reports on a survey designed to investigate frequency and type of laptop use, and the…

  17. The Energy - Water Connection: Can We Sustain Critical Resources and Make them Reliable, Affordable, and Environmentally Sound?(LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    McMahon, Jim

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Jim McMahon of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD) is head of the Energy Analysis Department in EETD, which provides technical analysis to the Department of Energy on things like energy efficiency appliance standards. McMahon and his colleagues helped the nation save tens of billions of dollars in energy costs since the standards program began. Now his Water-Energy Technology Team (WETT) is applying its expertise to the linked problem of energy and water. Each of us requires more than 500 gallons per person per day for food production, plus an additional 465 gallons to produce household electricity. WETT hopes to mine some of the numerous opportunities to save energy and water by applying new technologies.

  18. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  19. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  20. Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From its conception, Richardsville Elementary was designed to be an affordable net zero facility. The design team explored numerous energy saving strategies to dramatically reduce energy consumption. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing…

  1. Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed. PMID:18554382

  2. Preparing Teachers for One-to-One: Ten Tips to Help Educators Working in Laptop Environments Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    More districts are turning to one-to-one computing, which puts a laptop in the hands of every student. This ambitious undertaking can bring challenges when it comes to training teachers how to use the technology--and how to teach students to use it. In 2005, Springfield Public Schools in Springfield, Oregon, provided Apple laptops for 300 middle…

  3. Leveling the Playing Field: Using a One-to-One Laptop Initiative to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Luke Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the one-to-one laptop initiative affected student achievement gaps for students at a single high school in Mooresville, NC. The variable in this study was the preexisting End of Course exams for Algebra I and English I for the two school years prior to the one-to-one laptop implementation year…

  4. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions about Using Mobile Phones and Laptops in Education as Mobile Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat; Göktas, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate preservice teachers' perceptions about using m-phones and laptops in education as mobile learning tools. A total of 1087 preservice teachers participated in the study. The results indicated that preservice teachers perceived laptops potentially stronger than m-phones as m-learning tools. In…

  5. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  6. Experience of Using Laptop in Higher Education Institutions: Effects with and of Ubiquitous Computing under Natural Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2004-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth description of adult learners' perceptions and experiences using laptop computers in higher education institutions. The study also examines the influence on human beings' cognitive activity by using laptops. The results are organized into seven themes and four classifications: usage, benefits, limitations, and…

  7. Making personalized medicine more affordable.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Precision medicine holds promise to solve the conundrums of clinical care. Foremost is the well-known but vexing problem of heterogeneity and the tyranny of the mean. Who will respond to a treatment? How can patients avoid the harms of treatments that will not work for them? And if we know who to treat, will that make care more efficient and less costly? But the converse can also be true: treatments become more expensive as the costs of development must be distributed across smaller populations. Next-generation sequencing is making genetic testing radically cheaper. But the costs of medical tests also include false-positive results, incidental findings, and the cascade of follow-up. The affordability of precision medicine is intertwined with the broader issue of affordability of our healthcare system, and will require all stakeholders to assume stewardship for access and sustainability. PMID:25728478

  8. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  9. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  10. Results & Lessons Learned from 1:1 Laptop Initiatives: A Collective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Lori B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the emergence of 1:1 programs has grown increasingly in popularity. More and more schools are implementing 1:1 programs as a means for increasing student achievement and performance. In fact, few modern educational initiatives have been as widespread and costly as the integration of laptop initiatives into education. As a…

  11. Technology Integration in a One-to-One Laptop Initiative: A Multiple Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marsha B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study analysis was to examine teachers' experiences and perceptions in order to understand what actions and interactions supported or inhibited technology integration during a one-to-one laptop initiative. This research sought to gain teachers' perspectives on the challenges and successes they faced as classroom…

  12. Life among the Laptops: A Texas School Experiences the Joy of Going Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathers, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes experiences of a school whose students use laptop computers to access school library resources, online databases, and local university online catalogs for research projects. Discusses use of a local area network that is partly wireless; and presents issues librarians should consider, including requiring print and electronic resources and…

  13. Does Maine's Middle School Laptop Program Improve Learning? A Review of Evidence to Date. Occasional Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This brief describes how Maine's introduction of its ubiquitous 1-to-1 laptop program has been beneficial to learning, if one looks in the right places. There is growing positive evidence from teachers, parents, classroom assignments and tests, and even in one case, on a standardized test, all pointing toward a similar conclusion. Students are…

  14. The Effect of Using Laptops on the Spelling Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Sigal; Shamir, Adina; Fershtman, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of using laptops on the spelling skills of students with learning disabilities (LD). It was conducted as part of the Israeli "Katom" (A Computer for Every Class, Student, and Teacher) Program. Participants included 93 Hebrew-speaking students with LD aged 13-16, who attend 10 special education classes in a…

  15. Laptops for High-Risk Students: Empowerment and Personalization in a Standards-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Linda; Snow, Juna Z.

    2006-01-01

    "Cooltown@Roosevelt," an instructional technology program implemented in 2002-04 based on a five-year collaboration involving Vancouver School District in Washington state, Hewlett-Packard Corporation, and Comcast, provided high-risk students in six elementary classrooms with laptops and wireless internet access at school and at home. A two-year…

  16. Tossing out Textbooks: How a Tucson High School Customized Its Curriculum around Its Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, Tucson, Arizona's Empire High School made headlines for its decision to forgo textbooks in favor of the digital resources that a wireless one-to-one environment could make possible. Now in its third year, this "inverted" curricular model designed around the laptop program has proven key to innovation and is recognized community-wide as…

  17. The Intersection between 1:1 Laptop Implementation and the Characteristics of Effective Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, John M.; Bishop, Penny A.

    2015-01-01

    The number of middle level schools adopting 1:1 laptop programs has increased considerably during the past decade (e.g., Lowther, Strahl, Inan, & Bates, 2007; Storz & Hoffman, 2013; Texas Center for Educational Research, 2009). The cornerstone practices of the middle school concept (National Middle School Association, 2010), therefore,…

  18. Emerge One-to-One Laptop Learning Initiative: Year One Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Emerge One-to-One Laptop Learning Project (Emerge) was established in 2006 by Alberta Education to investigate the efficacy of wireless computing for learning and teaching. In 2007, the Alberta provincial government awarded 3-year grants to 20 Alberta jurisdictions. Based on the projections in the awardees' applications, the project…

  19. Teachers' First-Year Experience with Chromebook Laptops and Their Attitudes towards Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Top, Namik; Delen, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Because mobile technology has become so obvious in a child's life, use of it for teaching and learning has become a necessity. This study investigates use of Chromebook laptops in 6-12 grade classrooms in relation to teachers' experience. We employ a mixed method approach. First, we study how teachers' years of teaching and numbers of…

  20. Laptop Computers in Teacher Preparation: Lessons Learned from the University of South Florida Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann E.; Feyten, Carine M.; Venable, Melissa; Hilbelink, Amy; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Lang, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the successful laptop implementation in the College of Education at the University of South Florida (USF). The pilot initiative began with one cohort of preservice teachers in 2003; since then, the program has expanded throughout the college. Through a chronological outline of the issues, formative evaluations,…

  1. Laptop Computers and Wireless University Campus Networks: Is Flexibility and Effectiveness Improved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Miikka J.; Vuojarvi, Hanna; Ruokamo, Heli

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether university students find that laptop computers and networks increase flexibility and effectiveness of studying. Special attention has been paid to non-traditional students who have extra commitments, such as taking care of children or term-time employment. Questionnaire data was collected from students who had the…

  2. Wireless Laptops as Means for Promoting Active Learning in Large Lecture Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Lipson, Alberta; Lerman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the use of wireless laptops for promoting active learning in lecture halls. The study examined students' behavior in class and their perceptions of the new learning environment throughout three consecutive semesters. An online survey revealed that students have highly positive perceptions about the use…

  3. Circulation on the Go-Implementing Wireless Laptop Circulation in a State University Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, Sampson-Livermore Library at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, began circulating laptops to its patrons. After a small pilot project, full-scale implementation occurred and the service proved to be very popular. Policies and procedures were adjusted at several steps along the way to accommodate lessons learned from the…

  4. Transforming an Introductory Programming Course: From Lectures to Active Learning via Wireless Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Harward, Judson; Kocur, George; Lerman, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of MIT's course 1.00: Introduction to Computers and Engineering Problem Solving, this paper describes an innovative project entitled: "Studio 1.00" that integrates lectures with in-class demonstrations, active learning sessions, and on-task feedback, through the use of wireless laptop computers. This paper also describes a…

  5. Writing Essays on a Laptop or a Desktop Computer: Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming; Bridgeman, Brent

    2013-01-01

    To explore the potential effect of computer type on the Test of English as a Foreign Language-Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) Writing Test, a sample of 444 international students was used. The students were randomly assigned to either a laptop or a desktop computer to write two TOEFL iBT practice essays in a simulated testing environment, followed…

  6. Implementing One-to-One Laptop Learning in Alberta's Schools: A Support Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Research continues to support the many teaching and learning benefits of one-to-one laptop learning. Benefits range from improved student engagement and teacher-student interactions to the attainment of 21st century skills and the transformation of teacher practice. Additional benefits include improved student writing skills, increased teacher…

  7. Practical Skills in Laptop Computer Repairs for Curriculum Innovation in Technical Education Programmes in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukwuedo, Samson O.; Omofonmwan, Godwin O.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the use of laptop computer in Nigeria with their corresponding incessant breakdown calls for the preparation of competent technicians/technologists to carry out such repairs at the downtime of the appliance. This is one of the responsibilities of technology education programmes. This study therefore determined the practical skills…

  8. What's New in Computer Hardware? The Laptop Computer and the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N.; Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews laptop computers from under $1000 to over $3500 in terms of appropriateness for disabled students. Software compatability, price of add-ons, speed, memory and memory expansion options, screen, keyboard battery and disk drive features, and ease of attachment to printers and other computers are discussed as selection factors.…

  9. Examining the Affects of Student Multitasking with Laptops during the Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, James M.; Novak, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines undergraduate student use of laptop computers during a lecture-style class that includes substantial problem-solving activities and graphic-based content. The study includes both a self-reported use component collected from student surveys as well as a monitored use component collected via activity monitoring "spyware"…

  10. Assessment Made Easy: Students Flourish in a One-to-One Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    By all accounts, the Denver School of Science and Technology (DSST) is a special school. It was the first public charter high school in Denver to become a one-to-one laptop school, thanks to a $1 million gift from Hewlett-Packard. Even though the school accepts applicants via a lottery system and its charter requires that 40% of its students come…

  11. Laptops in the K-12 Classrooms: Exploring Factors Impacting Instructional Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Fethi A.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting teachers' integration of laptops into classroom instruction. A research-based path model was tested based on data gathered from 379 K-12 school teachers to examine direct and indirect contributions of relevant institutional factors (overall support for school technology, technical support,…

  12. Understanding Parent Perceptions of a 1:1 Laptop Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some initial findings from a current longitudinal study that examines the implementation of a student-owned 1:1 laptop program in a school for boys in Perth, Western Australia. This research tracks 196 students, their families and associated teachers for a 3-year period (2010-2012). Underpinning this research is a mixed methods…

  13. Digital Writing and Diversity: The Effects of School Laptop Programs on Literacy Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Binbin; Warschauer, Mark; Farkas, George

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in U.S. schools has steadily increased. Though technology advocates believe that such programs can assist student writing, there has been little systematic evidence for this claim, and even less focused on technology use by at-risk learners. This study examined the effect of daily…

  14. A Case of a Laptop Learning Campus: How Do Technology Choices Affect Perceptions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, Jennifer; Percival, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Laptop learning programs have been developed to create ubiquitous online learning environments. Given the infancy of many programs, there is little understanding of aspects of the program are perceived to provide value to faculty and students. This paper focuses on the value proposition (with respect to perceived benefits versus capital…

  15. Laptops Meet Schools, One-One Draw: M-Learning for Secondary Students with Literacy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.; Amberson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology-enhanced literacy initiatives have become a focus of efforts to support learning for students with literacy difficulties. The "Laptops Initiative for Post-Primary Students with Dyslexia or other Reading/Writing Difficulties" offers insights into and addresses questions about ICT policy making regarding m-learning technologies for…

  16. The Initial Response of Secondary Mathematics Teachers to a One-to-One Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Edward Nordin; Anderson, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Studies of one-to-one programs consistently report lower use of laptops in mathematics classrooms compared to other subjects but do not elaborate reasons for these observations. This mixed-method study investigated the experiences and beliefs of 28 mathematics teachers at five secondary schools during the second year of the New South Wales Digital…

  17. Linking Laptops to Learning: Analysis of a 1:1 Environment with Intermediate Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottone, Mark Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the 1:1 laptop initiative impacted student achievement for the students at a single intermediate school (grades 4-6) in Mooresville, North Carolina. Researchers Dunleavy, Dexter, & Heinecke, 2007; Mouza, 2008; O'Dwyer, Russell, Bebell & Tucker-Seeley, 2005 have called for additional research…

  18. An Evaluation of the Conditions, Processes, and Consequences of Laptop Computing in K-12 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how laptop computing technology, teacher professional development, and systematic support resulted in changed teaching practices and increased student achievement in 47 K-12 schools in 11 Florida school districts. The overview of a large-scale study documents the type and magnitude of change in student-centered teaching,…

  19. Exploring the Benefits and Challenges of Using Laptop Computers in Higher Education Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Lauricella, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Because of decreased prices, increased convenience, and wireless access, an increasing number of college and university students are using laptop computers in their classrooms. This recent trend has forced instructors to address the educational consequences of using these mobile devices. The purpose of the current study was to analyze and assess…

  20. Gender Differences in the Use of Laptops in Higher Education: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Lauricella, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 18 years, a number of large scale reviews of the literature have documented that gender differences in computer attitudes, ability, and use tend to favor males. Since the use of laptops in higher education classrooms is increasing, it is important to examine whether this use is disproportionally advantageous to males and…

  1. One-to-One Laptop Teacher Education: Does Involvement Affect Candidate Technology Skills and Dispositions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim; Hansen, Laurie E.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares teacher candidates' initial and changed beliefs, dispositions, and uses of technology in two credential program models: a one-to-one laptop program with ubiquitous technology use and a traditional credential program in which students are expected to have specific technology experiences and requirements in each course (a model…

  2. Impactful Student Learning Outcomes of One-to-One Student Laptop Programs in Low Socioeconomic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Matthew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    At present, a majority of one-to-one student laptop programs exist in schools that serve affluent communities, which denies low socioeconomic students the learning benefits of ubiquitous access to technology. Using a "Studying Up-Studying Down" paradigm, this multi-site case study collected mixed method data from program participants at five…

  3. The Development and Validation of an End-User Satisfaction Measure in a Student Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung; Meng, Juan; Kalinowski, Jon; Shin, Dooyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the development and validation of a measurement model for student user satisfaction in a laptop environment. Using a "quasi Delphi" method in addition to contributions from prior research we used EFA and CFA (LISREL) to identify a five factor (14 item) measurement model that best fit the data. The…

  4. Technology Connection: 1-to-1 Laptop Initiative--Leveling the Playing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidham, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Imagine a school where every student has global wireless access and a visa to high tech, personalized instruction. Enter Baxter Springs, Kansas, where all the teachers and their students have individual laptops in a 24/7 environment. Such 1-to-1 initiatives actually meet the expectations of the digital generation and these students aren't forced…

  5. Transforming the Daily Life of the Classroom: The District Six Laptop Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa

    The Community School District Six Laptop Project (New York, NY) was created in order to increase access to technology for families in a low-income area with a large immigrant population. As part of the project, the sixth-grade students in this study received IBM ThinkPads. Trends that appear in the literature on integrating technology into the…

  6. Introducing Laptops to Children: An Examination of Ubiquitous Computing in Grade 3 Reading, Language, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Bethel, Edward Clement; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-­called "ubiquitous computing" program in a Quebec school district. CAT­3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer…

  7. Accessing Flexible Learning Opportunities: Children's and Young People's Use of Laptops in a Paediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisselle, Amy; Hanns, Shaun; Green, Julie; Jones, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Hospitalised children and young people not only face challenges to their health but also to their continued education and social connections. These challenges can impact on future life trajectories, so it is crucial to maintain learning and socialising. Educational technologies, such as laptops and iPads, are used in the multidisciplinary…

  8. Taming the Wireless Frontier: PDAs, Tablets, and Laptops at Home on the Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Explains how Texas A&M University libraries developed a wireless network, including problems encountered, and describes three wireless services currently being delivered using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), tablet PCs, and wireless laptop computers. Topics include costs versus value; data security and access; wireless access points;…

  9. Teaching and Learning Physics in a 1:1 Laptop School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Hug, Sarah T.

    2008-01-01

    1:1 laptop programs, in which every student is provided with a personal computer to use during the school year, permit increased and routine use of powerful, user-friendly computer-based tools. Growing numbers of 1:1 programs are reshaping the roles of teachers and learners in science classrooms. At the Denver School of Science and Technology, a…

  10. STS-43 MS Adamson conducts DTO 1208 using laptop on OV-104's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Mission Specialist (MS) James C. Adamson conducts Development Test Objective (DTO) 1208, Space Station Cursor Control Device Evaluation II and Advanced Applications, at the payload station on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Adamson is using the thumbball/handgrip control device along with a portable laptop computer.

  11. STS-43 Commander Blaha conducts DTO 1208 using laptop on OV-104's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Commander John E. Blaha conducts Development Test Objective (DTO) 1208, Space Station Cursor Control Device Evaluation II and Advanced Applications, at the payload station on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Blaha is using the thumbball/handgrip control device along with a portable laptop computer.

  12. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low.

  13. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low. PMID:19564072

  14. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  15. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  16. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  17. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Michel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e., 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag) and display condition (single vs. motion imaging). There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others), the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop) and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view). In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening. PMID:24151457

  18. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  19. STS-46 Italian Payload Specialist Malerba uses laptop PGSC on OV-104 middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing communications kit assembly headset (HDST), uses laptop payload and general support computer (PGSC) on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Malerba is positioned in front of the airlock and surrounded by the interdeck access ladder (foreground), a cycle ergometer (directly behind him), the forward lockers (background), and the sleep station (at his left). Food, candy, hygiene kits, beverage containers, and film reels are attached to the forward lockers.

  20. Teaching and Learning Physics in a 1:1 Laptop School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Hug, Sarah T.

    2008-12-01

    1:1 laptop programs, in which every student is provided with a personal computer to use during the school year, permit increased and routine use of powerful, user-friendly computer-based tools. Growing numbers of 1:1 programs are reshaping the roles of teachers and learners in science classrooms. At the Denver School of Science and Technology, a public charter high school where a large percentage of students come from low-income families, 1:1 laptops are used often by teachers and students. This article describes the school's use of laptops, the Internet, and related digital tools, especially for teaching and learning physics. The data are from teacher and student surveys, interviews, classroom observations, and document analyses. Physics students and teachers use an interactive digital textbook; Internet-based simulations (some developed by a Nobel Prize winner); word processors; digital drop boxes; email; formative electronic assessments; computer-based and stand-alone graphing calculators; probes and associated software; and digital video cameras to explore hypotheses, collaborate, engage in scientific inquiry, and to identify strengths and weaknesses of students' understanding of physics. Technology provides students at DSST with high-quality tools to explore scientific concepts and the experiences of teachers and students illustrate effective uses of digital technology for high school physics.

  1. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  2. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2004-08-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  3. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  4. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  5. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  6. Perception of Affordance during Short-Term Exposure to Weightlessness in Parabolic Flight.

    PubMed

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Morio, Cédric; Despretz, Pascal; Luyat, Marion

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of the visual eye-height (VEH) in the perception of affordance during short-term exposure to weightlessness. Sixteen participants were tested during parabolic flight (0g) and on the ground (1g). Participants looked at a laptop showing a room in which a doorway-like aperture was presented. They were asked to adjust the opening of the virtual doorway until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising the level of the floor in the visual room by 25 cm. The results showed effects of VEH and of gravity on the perceived critical aperture. When VEH was reduced (i.e., when the floor was raised), the critical aperture diminished, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger. The critical aperture was also lower in 0g, for a given VEH, suggesting that participants perceived apertures to be wider or themselves to be smaller in weightlessness, as compared to normal gravity. However, weightlessness also had an effect on the subjective level of the eyes projected into the visual scene. Thus, setting the critical aperture as a fixed percentage of the subjective visual eye-height remains a viable hypothesis to explain how human observers judge visual scenes in terms of potential for action or "affordances".

  7. Perception of Affordance during Short-Term Exposure to Weightlessness in Parabolic Flight.

    PubMed

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Morio, Cédric; Despretz, Pascal; Luyat, Marion

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of the visual eye-height (VEH) in the perception of affordance during short-term exposure to weightlessness. Sixteen participants were tested during parabolic flight (0g) and on the ground (1g). Participants looked at a laptop showing a room in which a doorway-like aperture was presented. They were asked to adjust the opening of the virtual doorway until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising the level of the floor in the visual room by 25 cm. The results showed effects of VEH and of gravity on the perceived critical aperture. When VEH was reduced (i.e., when the floor was raised), the critical aperture diminished, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger. The critical aperture was also lower in 0g, for a given VEH, suggesting that participants perceived apertures to be wider or themselves to be smaller in weightlessness, as compared to normal gravity. However, weightlessness also had an effect on the subjective level of the eyes projected into the visual scene. Thus, setting the critical aperture as a fixed percentage of the subjective visual eye-height remains a viable hypothesis to explain how human observers judge visual scenes in terms of potential for action or "affordances". PMID:27097218

  8. The design and evaluation of a 5.8 ghz laptop-based radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Kevin Chi-Ming

    This project involves design and analysis of a 5.8 GHz laptop-based radar system. The radar system measures Doppler, ranging and forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images utilizing Matlab software provided from MIT Open Courseware and performs data acquisition and signal processing. The main purpose of this work is to bring new perspective to the existing radar project by increasing the ISM band frequency from 2.4 GHz to 5.8 GHz and to carry out a series of experiments on the implementation of the radar kit. Demonstrating the radar at higher operating frequency is capable of providing accurate data results in Doppler, ranging and SAR images.

  9. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock with HFA-EPROC laptop computer in SPACEHAB-01 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock, positioned in front of SPACEHAB-01 (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) aft lockers, enters data on a portable laptop computer in conjunction with Human Factors Assessment (HFA) Electronic Procedures (EPROC) experiment. Computer portion of HFA-EPROC simulated a space station propulsion system task. HFA-EPROC is sponsored by Crew Interface Analysis Section, Flight Crew Support Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, JSC. Working in the background in the shirt-sleeve environment of SPACEHAB-01 is Pilot Brian J. Duffy. SPACEHAB-01 is located in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105.

  10. Posture, Musculoskeletal Activities, and Possible Musculoskeletal Discomfort Among Children Using Laptops or Tablet Computers for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binboğa, Elif; Korhan, Orhan

    2014-10-01

    Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by school children and beginning to be used effectively for educational purposes. As the latest generation of laptops and tablet computers are mobile and lightweight compared to conventional personal computers, they support student-centred interaction-based learning. However, these technologies have been introduced into schools with minimal adaptations to furniture or attention to ergonomics. There are increasing reports of an association between increased musculoskeletal (MSK) problems in children and use of such technologies. Although children are among the users of laptops and tablet computers both in their everyday lives and at schools, the literature investigating MSK activities and possible MSK discomfort regarding children using portable technologies is limited. This study reviews the literature to identify published studies that investigated posture, MSK activities, and possible MSK discomfort among children using mobile technologies (laptops or tablet computers) for educational purposes. An electronic search of the literature published in English between January 1994 and January 2014 was performed in several databases. The literature search terms were identified and combined to search the databases. The search results that the resources investigating MSK outcomes of laptop or tablet use of children are very scarce. This review points out the research gaps in this field, and identifying areas for future studies.

  11. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  12. Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

  13. An Evaluation of the Impact of 1:1 Laptops on Student Attainment in Senior High School Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Our study capitalized on a unique natural experiment rather than a researcher-designed, randomized experiment whereby, thanks to the Australian Government's Digital Education Revolution, half of grade 9 students in 2008 received laptops and half did not. Consequently in late 2011, when these students sat for their grade 12 external examinations based on the same curriculum implemented across the state of New South Wales, half of them had been schooled with 1:1 laptops for over three years, and half without. With school principals and district administrators asking the question 'what will these laptops do to our examination results?' this dichotomous scenario presented us with a unique opportunity to find out. The aim of this study was to evaluate if having 1:1 laptops was a predictor of success in the sciences in the external examinations. The science students (N = 967) from 12 high schools in Sydney, Australia were studied. Using socio-demographic, school and examination data, multiple regression analyses were performed to measure the impact of the 1:1 laptop provision and other variables on student attainment in biology, chemistry and physics. We found that being schooled with 1:1 laptops had statistically significant and positive standardized regression coefficients with student attainment, with a medium effect size in physics (0.38), and small effect sizes in biology (0.26) and chemistry (0.23). Upon further investigation, exploring data provided by student and teacher questionnaires, we found that the greater effect size in physics corresponded with greater use of simulations and spreadsheets by students and teachers.

  14. The Impact of the One to One Laptop Initiative on High School Students' Academic Performance in Algebra I and English I--A Meta-Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Quincita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using laptops to teach and deliver instruction to students. The meta-analytic approach was employed to compare the means of End-of Course Test scores from North Carolina one-to-one high schools during the traditional teaching period and the laptop teaching period in order to determine if there are…

  15. Student-Issued One-to-One Laptop Computers on Secondary Campuses in Four Texas School Districts: A Phenomenological Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyer, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to investigate the impact of one-to-one student issued laptop computers on secondary campuses in four rural Texas school districts. Data were collected using focus groups which included 27 leaders in four rural Texas school districts that had implemented the one-to-one laptop initiative. The…

  16. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  17. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford.

  18. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn't appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  19. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn`t appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  20. Expanded serial communication capability for the transport systems research vehicle laptop computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, Wesley C.

    1991-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) operated by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center included installation of a number of Grid 1500 series laptop computers. Each unit is a 80386-based IBM PC clone. RS-232 data busses are needed for TSRV flight research programs, and it has been advantageous to extend the application of the Grids in this area. Use was made of the expansion features of the Grid internal bus to add a user programmable serial communication channel. Software to allow use of the Grid bus expansion has been written and placed in a Turbo C library for incorporation into applications programs in a transparent manner via function calls. Port setup; interrupt-driven, two-way data transfer; and software flow control are built into the library functions.

  1. Posture, Musculoskeletal Activities, and Possible Musculoskeletal Discomfort among Children Using Laptops or Tablet Computers for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binboga, Elif; Korhan, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by…

  2. Evolving Pedagogical Perceptions of Teachers Integrating Ubiquitous Computing in Their Classrooms: A Case Study of the South Dakota Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogany, Wade S.

    2009-01-01

    With technology changing the world at a rapid rate, the impact of ubiquitous computing in the classroom has had an influence on education. As the number of one-to-one laptop initiatives grows, the need for further research on the effects of teaching and learning also increases. This case study sought to examine changes in teaching that resulted…

  3. Supporting Student Teachers with Laptop Computers: A Project of the School of Education at Columbus State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggsby, Dutchie

    This paper describes a project at Columbus State University (Columbus, Georgia) to have students in the School of Education develop an electronic resume. A grant proposal was written which requested laptops for the development of electronic portfolios, and funding was received. Student participants were selected and were provided with Macintosh…

  4. Year One of Project Pulse: Pupils Using Laptops in Science and English. A Final Report. Technical Report No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Katie; Honey, Margaret

    A year-long study was conducted with a class of 25 eighth graders, their English and science teachers, and the school computer supervisor at a school in Roselle (New Jersey). The structure and goals of the project, called PULSE, for Pupils Using Laptops in Science and English, are described. Research questions focused on the development of…

  5. A Corpus Approach for Autonomous Teachers and Learners: Implementing an On-Line Concordancer on Teachers' Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho; Lee, Hansol; Sert, Cetin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with the issue of how to create and operate a customizable on-line concordancer from viewpoints of language teachers and with their own laptops. It aims to introduce how to use and manage this application without relying on computer engineers for various pedagogical purposes, focusing on the four beneficial dimensions of…

  6. Using a Shared Workspace and Wireless Laptops to Improve Collaborative Project Learning in an Engineering Design Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David J.; MacLeod, Iain A.

    2005-01-01

    Two different technologies, groupware (a shared workspace) and shared wireless laptop computers, were implemented in a project design class in a civil engineering course. The research interest was in the way these technologies supported resource sharing within and across project groups and in the forms of group collaboration that resulted. The…

  7. Computer Labs Get Rebooted as Lounges: New Gathering Places for Laptop Users Help Colleges Save on Upkeep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terris, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Colleges are looking for ways to cut costs, and most students now own laptops. As a result, many campus technology leaders are taking a hard look at those brightly lit rooms with rows of networked computers, which cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a year to maintain. More than 11% of colleges and universities are phasing out computer labs or…

  8. Innovation Configuration Mapping as a Professional Development Tool: The Case of One-to-One Laptop Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Fareed, Wan

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how findings from a study of teachers' and students' uses of laptop computers in a secondary school in Singapore informed the development of an Innovation Configuration (IC) Map--a tool for identifying and describing alternative ways of implementing innovations based on teachers' unique feelings, preoccupations, thoughts…

  9. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  10. An Evaluation of the Impact of 1:1 Laptops on Student Attainment in Senior High School Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Our study capitalized on a unique natural experiment rather than a researcher-designed, randomized experiment whereby, thanks to the Australian Government's Digital Education Revolution, half of grade 9 students in 2008 received laptops and half did not. Consequently in late 2011, when these students sat for their grade 12 external…

  11. The Views and Attitudes of Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Initiative in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Dimitris; Sofos, Alivisos

    2015-01-01

    Students having participated in a one-to-one laptop initiative, indicate they have higher motivation, greater interest at school (Bebell and Kay 2010) and feel more organised (McKeeman 2008). This research focuses on the views and attitudes of the students who participated in the first such initiative in Greece. The differences in the views of…

  12. In-Class Use of Laptop Computers to Enhance Engagement within an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Findings and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Kirsten; Smit, Julie; Higgs, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Laptop computers were provided for use in three biology classes with differing formats (a second year lecture course of 100 students, a third/fourth year lecture course of 50 students, and a second year course with greater than 250 students, in groups of 25 during the laboratory portion of the class) to assess their impact on student learning and…

  13. Students' Perceptions of Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation While Learning in a 1:1 Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, Joan M.

    2014-01-01

    1:1 Laptop initiatives continue to grow throughout Nebraska schools. There are many questions regarding their effectiveness in improving student learning, justifications for expenses, and the process to guide such an initiative. The purpose of this case study was to explore students' perceptions of academic self-efficacy and self-regulation while…

  14. The End of Techno-Critique: The Naked Truth about 1:1 Laptop Initiatives and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Mark E.; Bain, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This analysis responds to a generation of criticism leveled at 1:1 laptop computer initiatives. The article presents a review of the key themes of that criticism and offers suggestions for reframing the conversation about 1:1 computing among advocates and critics. Efforts at changing, innovating, and reforming education provide the context for…

  15. From a Knowledge Container to a Mobile Learning Platform: What RULA Learned from the Laptop Lending Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weina; Dermody, Kelly; Burgess, Colleen; Wang, Fangmin

    2014-01-01

    Technology lending has proven to be one of the most popular services that the Ryerson University Library and Archives (RULA) has offered in the past few years. Given the number of commuting digital natives comprising our student body, the library wanted to know how these students were using our current laptop loan program and how this service…

  16. Adults' Prior Exposure to Print as a Predictor of the Legibility of Text on Paper and Laptop Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Deborah B.; Fisher, Sylvia K.; Eliot, John

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of variations in font, leading, and justification that account for differences in speed and accuracy between reading aloud from paper versus laptop computer. Finds that: (1) subjects' prior exposure to print significantly and positively related to predicting speed and miscue performance; (2) educational attainment…

  17. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  18. Limb apraxia and the "affordance competition hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects "afford", based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the "affordance competition hypothesis" (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that "affordance competition" may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way of

  19. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  20. Learning to grasp and extract affordances: the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model.

    PubMed

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The activity of certain parietal neurons has been interpreted as encoding affordances (directly perceivable opportunities) for grasping. Separate computational models have been developed for infant grasp learning and affordance learning, but no single model has yet combined these processes in a neurobiologically plausible way. We present the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model that simultaneously learns grasp affordances from visual object features and motor parameters for planning grasps using trial-and-error reinforcement learning. As in the Infant Learning to Grasp Model, we model a stage of infant development prior to the onset of sophisticated visual processing of hand-object relations, but we assume that certain premotor neurons activate neural populations in primary motor cortex that synergistically control different combinations of fingers. The ILGA model is able to extract affordance representations from visual object features, learn motor parameters for generating stable grasps, and generalize its learned representations to novel objects.

  1. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  2. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  3. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  4. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  5. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  6. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  7. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  8. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  9. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  10. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  11. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-07-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  12. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  13. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  14. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to "afford" an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by "breaking" the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.

  15. Perception of Affordance during Short-Term Exposure to Weightlessness in Parabolic Flight

    PubMed Central

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Morio, Cédric; Despretz, Pascal; Luyat, Marion

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of the visual eye-height (VEH) in the perception of affordance during short-term exposure to weightlessness. Sixteen participants were tested during parabolic flight (0g) and on the ground (1g). Participants looked at a laptop showing a room in which a doorway-like aperture was presented. They were asked to adjust the opening of the virtual doorway until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising the level of the floor in the visual room by 25 cm. The results showed effects of VEH and of gravity on the perceived critical aperture. When VEH was reduced (i.e., when the floor was raised), the critical aperture diminished, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger. The critical aperture was also lower in 0g, for a given VEH, suggesting that participants perceived apertures to be wider or themselves to be smaller in weightlessness, as compared to normal gravity. However, weightlessness also had an effect on the subjective level of the eyes projected into the visual scene. Thus, setting the critical aperture as a fixed percentage of the subjective visual eye-height remains a viable hypothesis to explain how human observers judge visual scenes in terms of potential for action or “affordances”. PMID:27097218

  16. Perception of affordances during long-term exposure to weightlessness in the International Space station.

    PubMed

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Luyat, Marion

    2015-09-01

    On Earth, visual eye height (VEH)--the distance from the observer's line of gaze to the ground in the visual scene--constitutes an effective cue in perceiving affordance such as the passability through apertures, based on the assumption that one's feet are on the ground. In the present study, we questioned whether an observer continues to use VEH to estimate the width of apertures during long-term exposure to weightlessness, where contact with the floor is not required. Ten astronauts were tested in preflight, inflight in the International Space Station, and postflight sessions. They were asked to adjust the opening of a virtual doorway displayed on a laptop device until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising and lowering the level of the floor in the visual scene. We observed an effect of VEH manipulation on the critical aperture. When VEH decreased, the critical aperture decreased too, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger when VEH was smaller. There was no overall significant session effect, but the analysis of between-subjects variability revealed two participant profile groups. The effect of weightlessness was different for these two groups even though the VEH strategy remained operational during spaceflight. This study shows that the VEH strategy appears to be very robust and can be used, if necessary, in inappropriate circumstances such as free-floating, perhaps promoted by the nature of the visual scene.

  17. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  18. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  19. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  20. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  2. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to “afford” an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by “breaking” the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool. PMID:26441612

  3. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA.

  4. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  6. Affordances of instrumentation in general chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate measuring tool for general chemistry labs. They see the probeware as easy to use, portable, and able to interact with computers. Students find that the PASCO(TM) probeware system is useful in their general chemistry labs, more advanced chemistry labs, and in other science classes, and can be used in a variety of labs done in general chemistry. Students learn the affordances of the probeware through the lab manual, the laboratory teaching assistant, by trial and error, and from each other. The use of probeware systems provides lab instructors the opportunity to focus on the concepts illustrated by experiments and the opportunity to spend time discussing the results. In order to teach effectively, the instructor must know the correct name of the components involved, how to assemble and disassemble it correctly, how to troubleshoot the software, and must be able to replace broken or missing components quickly. The use of podcasts or Web-based videos should increase student understanding of affordances of the probeware.

  7. Habitat Metro Denver -- Perfecting Award-Winning Affordable Homes Using Building America's Integrated Design Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-12-01

    Habitat for Humanity's goal is to supply quality housing to poor families while reducing their energy cost burden, especially in light of ever-increasing energy prices. Habitat Metro Denver partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Project and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to improve their construction and design process to create an affordable home that is not only cost-effective and volunteer friendly to build but highly energy efficient and a comfortable place to live.

  8. Integrating Laptop Computers into Classroom: Attitudes, Needs, and Professional Development of Science Teachers—A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klieger, Aviva; Ben-Hur, Yehuda; Bar-Yossef, Nurit

    2010-04-01

    The study examines the professional development of junior-high-school teachers participating in the Israeli "Katom" (Computer for Every Class, Student and Teacher) Program, begun in 2004. A three-circle support and training model was developed for teachers' professional development. The first circle applies to all teachers in the program; the second, to all teachers at individual schools; the third to teachers of specific disciplines. The study reveals and describes the attitudes of science teachers to the integration of laptop computers and to the accompanying professional development model. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight science teachers from the four schools participating in the program. The interviews were analyzed according to the internal relational framework taken from the information that arose from the interviews. Two factors influenced science teachers' professional development: (1) Introduction of laptops to the teachers and students. (2) The support and training system. Interview analysis shows that the disciplinary training is most relevant to teachers and they are very interested in belonging to the professional science teachers' community. They also prefer face-to-face meetings in their school. Among the difficulties they noted were the new learning environment, including control of student computers, computer integration in laboratory work and technical problems. Laptop computers contributed significantly to teachers' professional and personal development and to a shift from teacher-centered to student-centered teaching. One-to-One laptops also changed the schools' digital culture. The findings are important for designing concepts and models for professional development when introducing technological innovation into the educational system.

  9. Gaining and Sustaining TEL in a 1:1 Laptop Initiative: Possibilities and Challenges for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindqvist, Marcia J. P. Håkansson

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and use of digital technologies is studied in Unos Umeå, a joint one-to-one (1:1) research project between Umeå University and the municipality of Umeå in Sweden. This article presents the results of the third phase of the classroom work with laptops. Using the ecology of resources model (Luckin, 2010), these possibilities and…

  10. 75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Dependent Coverage; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure and Recordkeeping Requirement; Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act......

  11. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the Illinois Residential Affordable Payment Program (IRAPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.B.; Griffin, B.S.; Lieberman, B.; Baker, D.

    1988-03-01

    The Illinois Residential Affordable Payment Program (IRAPP) was authorized by the Illinois Energy Assistance Act of 1985. IRAPP is an energy-assistance program for low-income households that have incomes of less than 125% of poverty level and receive utility services from a public utility. In return for percent of income payments, low-income households are guaranteed continuous natural gas and/or electricity utility service. The program was placed in operation in December 1985. The study reported here is an evaluation of this program. Program-eligible households were compared to determine: (1) what household characteristics lead to program participation; (2) what effects the program has on consumption of natural gas and electricity, utility-service disconnections, and low-income households' utility costs; and (3) how much the program cost per participant household.

  13. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. PMID:26598303

  14. Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J.

    1996-11-01

    The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

  15. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding.

  16. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception.

  17. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  18. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  19. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  20. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  1. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  2. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  3. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  4. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  5. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  6. Affordable proteomics: the two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Marc

    2003-06-01

    Numerous proteomic methodologies exist, but most require a heavy investment in expertise and technology. This puts these approaches out of reach for many laboratories and small companies, rarely allowing proteomics to be used as a pilot approach for biomarker or target identification. Two proteomic approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and the two-hybrid systems, are currently available to most researchers. The two-hybrid systems, though accommodating to large-scale experiments, were originally designed as practical screens, that by comparison to current proteomics tools were small-scale, affordable and technically feasible. The screens rapidly generated data, identifying protein interactions that were previously uncharacterized. The foundation for a two-hybrid proteomic investigation can be purchased as separate kits from a number of companies. The true power of the technique lies not in its affordability, but rather in its portability. The two-hybrid system puts proteomics back into laboratories where the output of the screens can be evaluated by researchers with experience in the particular fields of basic research, cancer biology, toxicology or drug development.

  7. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27668424

  8. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  10. Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welbeck, Rashida; Diamond, John; Mayer, Alexander; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2014-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen sharply over the last 40 years. Although more credit and grant aid have been made available to students, there are still major gaps between aid and the cost of attendance for many students in the United States, all of whom are left to figure out whether they can afford the remaining costs associated with…

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  12. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  13. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  14. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  15. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population.

  16. Employer Reactions to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Muller, Leslie A; Isely, Paul; Levin, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Although the implementation of parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was delayed until 2015, many firms had already made changes to their health insurance plans and their business practices. This article reports results from a survey administered to western Michigan firms in October 2013 requesting information on any changes they made in response to ACA. The authors found that although 89% of employers planned to offer health insurance in 2014, that number dropped to 66% in 2015. The main ways organizations were controlling health costs were by changing prescription coverage, passing on the costs to employees through higher copays and premiums and offering more high-deductible health plans with health savings accounts. Employers also were altering business practices by decreasing future hiring and decreasing the hours of part-time workers. The authors find that many of these changes were due to the uncertainty firms were facing during the ACA implementation process. PMID:26540944

  17. The multi-objective decision making methods based on MULTIMOORA and MOOSRA for the laptop selection problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytaç Adalı, Esra; Tuş Işık, Ayşegül

    2016-10-01

    A decision making process requires the values of conflicting objectives for alternatives and the selection of the best alternative according to the needs of decision makers. Multi-objective optimization methods may provide solution for this selection. In this paper it is aimed to present the laptop selection problem based on MOORA plus full multiplicative form (MULTIMOORA) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of simple ratio analysis (MOOSRA) which are relatively new multi-objective optimization methods. The novelty of this paper is solving this problem with the MULTIMOORA and MOOSRA methods for the first time.

  18. Perception of affordances during long-term exposure to weightlessness in the International Space station.

    PubMed

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Luyat, Marion

    2015-09-01

    On Earth, visual eye height (VEH)--the distance from the observer's line of gaze to the ground in the visual scene--constitutes an effective cue in perceiving affordance such as the passability through apertures, based on the assumption that one's feet are on the ground. In the present study, we questioned whether an observer continues to use VEH to estimate the width of apertures during long-term exposure to weightlessness, where contact with the floor is not required. Ten astronauts were tested in preflight, inflight in the International Space Station, and postflight sessions. They were asked to adjust the opening of a virtual doorway displayed on a laptop device until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising and lowering the level of the floor in the visual scene. We observed an effect of VEH manipulation on the critical aperture. When VEH decreased, the critical aperture decreased too, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger when VEH was smaller. There was no overall significant session effect, but the analysis of between-subjects variability revealed two participant profile groups. The effect of weightlessness was different for these two groups even though the VEH strategy remained operational during spaceflight. This study shows that the VEH strategy appears to be very robust and can be used, if necessary, in inappropriate circumstances such as free-floating, perhaps promoted by the nature of the visual scene. PMID:26224263

  19. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; Martin, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  20. 75 FR 81659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice--Prohibition on Lifetime Limits ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act)......

  1. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary...: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act... Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act). Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  2. A general protocol to afford enantioenriched linear homoprenylic amines.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Irene; Foubelo, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gomez, Jose C

    2013-11-21

    The reaction of a readily obtained chiral branched homoprenylamonium salt with a range of aldehydes, including aliphatic substrates, affords the corresponding linear isomers in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  3. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (<138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL], 138–250 percent FPL, 250–400 percent FPL, and >400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  4. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  5. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  6. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  7. Broken affordances, broken objects: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Giovanni; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Rodà, Francesca; Riggio, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that specific components of motor programs are automatically activated when they are afforded by object related pragmatic features. Among these features the handle appears to be particularly salient for interacting with an object. The aim of this study was to test the modulation of the motor system when object features, particularly relevant for the action, like the object's handle, are violated. In order to address this issue a TMS paradigm was used in which familiar objects with a whole or broken handle, positioned to the right or to the left, were centrally presented. A control condition was also included in which a symbol ('#' character) was shown in the right or in the left visual field. Participants had to watch stimuli carefully. The left hemisphere hand motor area was magnetically stimulated 200 ms after stimulus presentation. Results showed that MEP areas were larger when the handle was located to the right side consistent with the visuomotor role of this feature, but only when the handle was complete. The present data (1) suggest a more active role of the dorsal stream in building up object knowledge and (2) allow one to rule out the role of any asymmetrical aspect of an object in motor coding. PMID:19615389

  8. Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Pérez-Blanco, C. D.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme events are becoming more frequent and intense, inflating the economic damages and social hardship set-off by natural catastrophes. Amidst budgetary cuts, there is a growing concern on societies' ability to design solvent disaster recovery strategies, while addressing equity and affordability concerns. The participation of private sector along with public one through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) has gained on importance as a means to address these seemingly conflicting objectives through the provision of (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance. This is the case of many OECD countries, notably some EU Member States such as the United Kingdom and Spain. The EU legislator has adapted to this new scenario and recently produced major reforms in the legislation and regulation that govern the framework in which PPPs for (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance develop. This paper has a dual objective: (1) review the complex legal background that rules the provision of insurance against natural catastrophes in the EU after these major reforms, (2) assess the implications of the reforms and offer concise Policy Guiding Principles.

  9. Scaling affordances for human reach actions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeg Joo; Mark, Leonard S

    2004-12-01

    A methodology developed by Cesari and Newell [Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (1999). The scaling of human grip configuration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25, 927-935; Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (2000). The body-scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years. Developmental Psychobiology 36, 301-310] was used to delineate the roles of an object's weight (W) and distance (D) as well as the actor's strength (S) in determining the macroscopic action used to reach for the object. Participants reached for objects of five different weights placed at 10 distances. The findings of a single discriminant analysis revealed that when object weight is scaled in terms of each individual's strength and reach distance is scaled in terms of each individual's maximum-seated reach distance, a single discriminant analysis was able to predict 90% of the reach modes used by both men and women. The result of the discriminant analysis was used to construct a body-scaled equation, K=lnD+ln(W/S)/36, similar in form to the one derived by Cesari and Newell, accurately predicted the reach action used. Our findings indicate that Cesari and Newell's method can identify a complex relationship between geometric and dynamic constraints that determine the affordances for different reach actions. PMID:15664673

  10. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    PubMed

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  12. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  13. Perceiving the affordance of string tension for power strokes in badminton: expertise allows effective use of all string tensions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Affordances mean opportunities for action. These affordances are important for sports performance and relevant to the abilities developed by skilled athletes. In racquet sports such as badminton, different players prefer widely different string tension because it is believed to provide opportunities for effective strokes. The current study examined whether badminton players can perceive the affordance of string tension for power strokes and whether the perception of affordance itself changed as a function of skill level. The results showed that string tension constrained the striking performance of both novice and recreational players, but not of expert players. When perceptual capability was assessed, perceptual mode did not affect perception of the optimal string tension. Skilled players successfully perceived the affordance of string tension, but only experts were concerned about saving energy. Our findings demonstrated that perception of the affordance of string tension in badminton was determined by action abilities. Furthermore, experts could adjust the action to maintain a superior level of performance based on the perception of affordance.

  14. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  15. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  16. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  17. Affordance Analysis--Matching Learning Tasks with Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of "affordances" is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology…

  18. One Hand, Two Objects: Emergence of Affordance in Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on affordances typically focus on single objects. We investigated whether affordances are modulated by the context, defined by the relation between two objects and a hand. Participants were presented with pictures displaying two manipulable objects linked by a functional (knife-butter), a spatial (knife-coffee mug), or by no relation. They…

  19. The Influence of Affordability in Strategic Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    In state houses around the country, one of the common higher education themes is affordability. As tuition costs have increased at rates exceeding that of inflation, students and families have pressed their legislative representatives to examine these increases. Affordability is a term used by various constituent groups, and its definition varies…

  20. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  1. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  2. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  4. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  7. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  8. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  9. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  10. Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings.

  11. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  12. Making the Shift: A Phenomenological Study of Teachers' Experiences in a Student-Centered, 21st Century Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Susan Kay

    2013-01-01

    As one-to-one laptop environments are becoming more commonplace in the educational system, teachers are often expected to provide a student-centered environment that incorporates 21st century skills in effort to better prepare students for the future. Teaching in this type of environment is a difficult pedagogical shift for classroom educators.…

  13. Descriptive Indicators of Future Teachers' Technology Integration in the PK-12 Classroom: Trends from a Laptop-Infused Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined preservice teacher graduates' positioning toward integrating technology in future teaching. Participants included 115 preservice teachers across three cohorts in 2008-2009 who graduated from a laptop-infused teacher education program. The study implemented a case study methodology that included a survey administered upon…

  14. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick. PMID:25265646

  15. Efficient Solar Concentrators: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Teledyne is developing a liquid prism panel that tracks the position of the sun to help efficiently concentrate its light onto a solar cell to produce power. Typically, solar tracking devices have bulky and expensive mechanical moving parts that require a lot of power and are often unreliable. Teledyne’s liquid prism panel has no bulky and heavy supporting parts—instead it relies on electrowetting. Electrowetting is a process where an electric field is applied to the liquid to control the angle at which it meets the sunlight above and to control the angle of the sunlight to the focusing lensthe more direct the angle to the focusing lens, the more efficiently the light can be concentrated to solar panels and converted into electricity. This allows the prism to be tuned like a radio to track the sun across the sky and steer sunlight into the solar cell without any moving mechanical parts. This process uses very little power and requires no expensive supporting hardware or moving parts, enabling efficient and quiet rooftop operation for integration into buildings.

  16. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  17. Can consumers make affordable care affordable? The value of choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric J; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a "smart" default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  18. Can Consumers Make Affordable Care Affordable? The Value of Choice Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T.; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a “smart” default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  19. Object Affordances Potentiate Responses but Do Not Guide Attentional Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Ariga, Atsunori; Yamada, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Handled objects automatically activate afforded responses. The current experiment examined whether objects that afford a response are also prioritized for attentional processing in visual search. Targets were pictures of coffee cups with handles oriented either to the right or the left. Subjects searched for a target, a right-handled vs. left-handled coffee cup, among a varying number of distractor cups oriented in the opposite direction. Responses were faster when the direction of target handle and the key press were spatially matched than mismatched (stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect), but object affordance did not moderate slopes of the search functions, indicating the absence of attentional prioritization effect. These findings imply that handled objects prime afforded responses without influencing attentional prioritization. PMID:26793077

  20. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  1. Why the affordable care act needs a better name: 'Americare'.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2010-08-01

    The culmination of a century's effort to enact universal coverage in the United States is a law with an uninspiring title, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and an even more awkward acronym, PPACA. The Obama administration has decided to call the legislation the Affordable Care Act, but the expansion of health coverage that the law sets in motion has no name, and therefore no identity. It badly needs one.

  2. Lake Hill Administrative Site Affordable Housing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2013-07-16

    11/20/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-342. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2337, which became Public Law 113-141 on 7/25/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behavior goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects. PMID:26150778

  4. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  5. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. Joseph; Cooke, Doug; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing opinion that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget scenarios, with sustained international participation, and --- especially --- without requiring those first missions to achieve a burdensome number of goals. In response to this view, a group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December 2013. Participants reviewed scenarios for proposed affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" or "transition" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and usable definitions of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop. In the context of affordable early missions to Mars, we also discuss the recent report of the National Research Council on human space flight and a pair of recent scenarios that appear to promise reduced costs.

  6. Affordable and personalized lighting using inverse modeling and virtual sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Chandrayee; Chen, Benjamin; Richards, Jacob; Dhinakaran, Aparna; Agogino, Alice; Martin, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have great potential to enable personalized intelligent lighting systems while reducing building energy use by 50%-70%. As a result WSN systems are being increasingly integrated in state-ofart intelligent lighting systems. In the future these systems will enable participation of lighting loads as ancillary services. However, such systems can be expensive to install and lack the plug-and-play quality necessary for user-friendly commissioning. In this paper we present an integrated system of wireless sensor platforms and modeling software to enable affordable and user-friendly intelligent lighting. It requires ⇠ 60% fewer sensor deployments compared to current commercial systems. Reduction in sensor deployments has been achieved by optimally replacing the actual photo-sensors with real-time discrete predictive inverse models. Spatially sparse and clustered sub-hourly photo-sensor data captured by the WSN platforms are used to develop and validate a piece-wise linear regression of indoor light distribution. This deterministic data-driven model accounts for sky conditions and solar position. The optimal placement of photo-sensors is performed iteratively to achieve the best predictability of the light field desired for indoor lighting control. Using two weeks of daylight and artificial light training data acquired at the Sustainability Base at NASA Ames, the model was able to predict the light level at seven monitored workstations with 80%-95% accuracy. We estimate that 10% adoption of this intelligent wireless sensor system in commercial buildings could save 0.2-0.25 quads BTU of energy nationwide.

  7. Reform Americans Can Afford Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Herger, Wally [R-CA-2

    2010-05-27

    08/10/2010 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Herger. Petition No: 111-12. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 8/10/2010, a motion was filed to discharge the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Appropriations, Ways and Means, Education and Labor, the Judiciary, Natural Resources, House Administration, and Rules from consideration of H.R.5424. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for... Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  9. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  10. Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

    2010-08-27

    In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

  11. 76 FR 4377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Extension of Dependent Coverage ACTION: Notice... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... Collection: Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Extension of Dependent......

  12. Polyimide Based Nanocomposites for Affordable Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Derrick; Islam, Mohsina; Small, Sharee; Aldridge, Brandon; Campbell, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In setting forth its strategic plan, NASA has indicated that low-cost access to space is the key to unleashing the commercial potential of space and greatly expanding space research and exploration. The development of advanced materials will be an enabling technology for this quest for low-cost space access. In this research program, we are attempting to address the need for new advanced materials by developing high-performance nanodispersed inorganic/organic and organic/organic polyimide composites utilizing specific interactions. Our goal is to systematically manipulate these interactions and investigate the resulting processing morphology-property relationships. Specifically, we will investigate three main parameters on these relationships. These include (1) the type of polyimide; (2) the structure of the inorganic nanoparticle being used; and (3) manipulation of the interfacial energy. During the first year of this effort, we have demonstrated the successful synthesis of PMR-15/layered silicate nanocomposites. Morphological studies indicate that exfoliated structures were obtained in most instances, with a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated structures being observed also. Significant enhancements of the onset of decomposition were obtained by varying the strength of the interaction between the nanoparticle and the polymer. Varying the amount of a specific nanoparticle also affected the decomposition temperatures. A slight catalytic effect of the nanoparticles on both the imidization and crosslinking reaction has been observed and will be presented. In addition, incorporation of the nanoparticles was found to increase the glass transition temperature and slightly broaden the breadth of this relaxation.

  13. Goal orientation and its relationship to academic success in a laptop-based BScN program.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Sandra J; Goodman, Bill; Muirhead, Bill

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study, conducted within a laptop-based BScN program examines the relationship of goal orientation profiles to comfort with technology and academic success. In phase 1 of this study, 101 first year nursing students completed an on line survey. The measurement tools used were Goal Orientation Assessment, Multiple Intelligences Learning Inventory and a locally developed Technology Comfort survey. Results showed that students were predominantly high in the mastery goal orientation profile. Males had a higher comfort level with technology. Age was inversely related to comfort with technology. An unexpected finding was that grade point average was inversely related to comfort with use of technology. The data did not support the commonly held belief that today's students are uniformly well-skilled and comfortable with new technologies. This study will continue over the next three years and will allow comparison of variables over time. Specific teaching interventions may be developed to accommodate varying learning and motivational styles in relation to comfort with technology.

  14. Goal orientation and its relationship to academic success in a laptop-based BScN program.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Sandra J; Goodman, Bill; Muirhead, Bill

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study, conducted within a laptop-based BScN program examines the relationship of goal orientation profiles to comfort with technology and academic success. In phase 1 of this study, 101 first year nursing students completed an on line survey. The measurement tools used were Goal Orientation Assessment, Multiple Intelligences Learning Inventory and a locally developed Technology Comfort survey. Results showed that students were predominantly high in the mastery goal orientation profile. Males had a higher comfort level with technology. Age was inversely related to comfort with technology. An unexpected finding was that grade point average was inversely related to comfort with use of technology. The data did not support the commonly held belief that today's students are uniformly well-skilled and comfortable with new technologies. This study will continue over the next three years and will allow comparison of variables over time. Specific teaching interventions may be developed to accommodate varying learning and motivational styles in relation to comfort with technology. PMID:16646917

  15. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change.

  16. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  17. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  18. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change. PMID:25347659

  19. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  20. The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is important to recognize the political and policy accomplishments of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), anticipate its limitations, and use the levers it provides strategically to address the problems it does not resolve. Passage of the ACA broke the political logjam that long stymied national progress toward equitable, quality, universal, affordable health care. It extends coverage for the uninsured who are disproportionately low income and people of color, curbs health insurance abuses, and initiates improvements in the quality of care. However, challenges to affordability and cost control persist. Public health advocates should mobilize for coverage for abortion care and for immigrants, encourage public-sector involvement in negotiating health care prices, and counter disinformation by opponents on the right. PMID:23409911

  1. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition.

  2. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  3. Essential kinematic information, athletic experience, and affordance perception for others.

    PubMed

    Weast, Julie A; Walton, Ashley; Chandler, Braylen C; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the role of different types of movement in affordance perception, as well as the influence of sports experience. Perception of another actor's maximum vertical jumping height and horizontal long-jumping distance was evaluated for basketball players, soccer players, and nonplayer controls after viewing point-light representations of the actors' movements. Perceptual reports were more accurate after jumping-related movements (walking and squatting) were viewed than after nonrelated movements (standing and twisting). Vertical jump reports were more accurate than horizontal jump reports. Basketball and soccer players demonstrated higher accuracy than did controls. This research establishes that point-light displays contain essential kinematic information sufficient to support accurate affordance perception, and athletes appear better attuned to kinematic information specifying affordances for others as a result of their sports experience.

  4. Can Low-Income Americans Afford a Healthy Diet?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra

    2010-11-01

    Many nutritional professionals believe that all Americans, regardless of income, have access to a nutritious diet of whole grains, lean meats, and fresh vegetables and fruit. In reality, food prices pose a significant barrier for many consumers who are trying to balance good nutrition with affordability. The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), commonly cited as a model of a healthy low-cost diet, achieves cost goals by relaxing some nutrition constraints and by disregarding the usual eating habits of the American population. Diet optimization techniques, when sensitive to cost and social norms, can help identify affordable, good tasting, nutrient-rich foods that are part of the mainstream American diet.

  5. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  6. 76 FR 20354 - Notice of Intent To Award Supplemental Affordable Care Act Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Affordable Care Act Funding Notice of Intent to award supplemental Affordable Care Act funding to support...: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to use Affordable Care Act (ACA....'' Funding is appropriated under the Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148), Title IV, Section...

  7. 75 FR 77002 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... for Public Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) that are discussed below. A copy of the... collection requests (ICRs) contained in the rule described below that relates to the Affordable Care......

  8. Inside the Virtual Classroom: Student Perspectives on Affordances and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates learners studying at a distance can experience perceptions of isolation and lack of "belonging" and support, which can adversely affect their learning experience and performance. Recently, the advent of affordable, accessible and reliable high-speed broadband has meant that a whole new array of digital tools to support…

  9. Learning to Identify and Actualize Affordances in a New Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Keeping abreast of new technologies and the opportunities they offer is a challenge for inservice teachers (Blake, 2008; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hanson-Smith, 2006; Hubbard, 2007; Robb, 2006). An important aspect of teacher learning about the use of technology is the ability to identify the affordances of new tools and how they can…

  10. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (b) Use or commitment of funds. Approval of applications for AHP subsidies... year-end are deemed to be used or committed if, in combination with AHP subsidies that have been... highest scoring AHP application in the Bank's final funding period of the year for its...

  11. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  12. Can Canadian Seniors on Public Pensions Afford a Nutritious Diet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Johnson, C. Shanthi; Blum, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether Canada's public pensions (Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan) provided adequate income for seniors living in Nova Scotia in 2005 to afford a basic nutritious diet. Monthly incomes were compared to essential monthly expenses for four household scenarios: (a) married couple, 80 years and 78 years, in urban Nova…

  13. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  14. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  15. Disengaged Students and Dialogic Learning: The Role of CSCL Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakmon, Benzi; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have dealt with the challenge of bridging the linguistic gap between the dialogic realm and the talk of disengaged students. Bridging this gap is particularly relevant to the CSCL community since one of its utmost aims is to promote the dialogic. This study aims to articulate how to harness the CSCL design and affordances to…

  16. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  17. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  18. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  19. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  20. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  1. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  2. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fannie Mae and $4.60 billion for Freddie Mac. In addition, as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 14 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by that Enterprise's mortgage purchases shall be home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas which count toward...

  3. 24 CFR 954.307 - Homeownership: qualification as affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... whose family qualifies as a low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.307... (1- to 4-family residence, condominium unit, cooperative unit, combination manufactured home and...

  4. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  5. Reinventing Financial Aid: Charting a New Course to College Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    In this provocative volume, two experts with very different points of view address the growing concern that student loan programs are not a sustainable solution to the problem of mounting college costs. They argue that the time has come to reform the financial aid system so that it is more effective in promoting college affordability, access, and…

  6. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  7. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  8. Federal Home Visiting under the Affordable Care Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Kathleen; Counts, Jacqueline; Filene, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program is part of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and provides $1.5 billion over 5 years to states, territories, and tribes with the goal of delivering evidence-based home visiting services as part of a high-quality, comprehensive early childhood system that promotes…

  9. Conceptual and Physical Object Qualities Contribute Differently to Motor Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingerhoets, G.; Vandamme, K.; Vercammen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Priming studies have demonstrated that an object's intrinsic and extrinsic qualities (size, orientation) influence subsequent motor behavior thus suggesting that these object qualities "afford" actions that are congruent with the prime. We present four experiments that aim to evaluate the relative effect of conceptual and physical object qualities…

  10. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  11. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies.

  12. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  13. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  14. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies. PMID:22065686

  15. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  17. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for affordable housing activities. 1006.20 Section 1006.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  18. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-03-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  19. Voters and the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M

    2014-11-13

    In this analysis of data from 27 public opinion polls, the authors examine the role of the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 congressional elections. The outcome of the elections is likely to influence implementation of the ACA and future U.S. health care policy. PMID:25353968

  20. Access and Affordability: Strategic Financial Perspectives for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, H. Peter

    The challenge to independent schools is maintaining excellent facilities and instruction while providing access to students from the widest range of financial backgrounds possible. This is difficult when many independent schools struggle to balance their budgets. There is growing evidence that independent schools are becoming less affordable and…

  1. A Few Reflections on Accountability, Affordability, and Access Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Considering accountability, affordability, and access through the experiences in Chile, East Asia, Australia, Croatia, and the United States offers a clear reminder that trends and issues in higher education are often more similar across national contexts than they are distinct. Across higher education, institutions and systems are responding to…

  2. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  3. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  4. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  5. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  6. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  7. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  8. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  9. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  10. Abduction and Affordance: A Semiotic View of Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Donald J.

    The shortcomings of the dominant information processing models of cognition are outlined, and two alterative models derived from semiotics are presented. In addition, the possibility of incorporating J. J. Gibson's ecological theory of affordance within the semiotic models is explored as a means of addressing some criticism of the latter models.…

  11. The Affordability Challenge in California Higher Education: Options for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    California's Master Plan for Higher Education represented a promise, of an affordable college education, to every person who could benefit. For decades, California's lawmakers honored that promise. Rapidly increasing college fees, coupled with higher costs for room and board, books, transportation, and healthcare are pricing students out of higher…

  12. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  13. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  14. Feasibility of Cognitive Functional Assessment in Cardiac Arrest Survivors Using an Abbreviated Laptop-Based Neurocognitive Battery

    PubMed Central

    Iannacone, Stephen; Esposito, Emily C.; Ruparel, Kosha; Savitt, Adam; Mott, Allison; Richard, Jan A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest survivors exhibit varying degrees of neurological recovery even in the setting of targeted temperature management (TTM) use, ranging from severe impairments to making a seemingly full return to neurologic baseline function. We sought to explore the feasibility of utilizing a laptop-based neurocognitive battery to identify more subtle cognitive deficits in this population. In a convenience sample of cardiac arrest survivors discharged with a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1, we evaluated the use of a computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) in this group compared to a healthy control normative population. The CNB was designed to test 11 specific neurocognitive domains, including such areas as working memory and spatial processing. Testing was scored for both accuracy and speed. In a feasibility convenience sample of 29 cardiac arrest survivors, the mean age was 52.9±16.7 years; 12 patients received postarrest TTM and 17 did not receive TTM. Patients tolerated the battery well and performed at normative levels for both accuracy and speed on most of the 11 domains, but showed reduced accuracy of working memory and speed of spatial memory with large magnitudes (>1 SD), even among those receiving TTM. Across all domains, including those using speed and accuracy, 7 of the 29 subjects (24%) achieved statistically significant scores lower from the normative population in two or more domains. In this population of CPC 1 cardiac arrest survivors, a sensitive neurocognitive battery was feasible and suggests that specific cognitive deficits can be detected compared to a normative population, despite CPC 1 designation. Such testing might allow improved measurement of outcomes following TTM interventions in future trials. PMID:25010524

  15. Early Visual Perception Potentiated by Object Affordances: Evidence From a Temporal Order Judgment Task

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Yamani, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Perceived objects automatically potentiate afforded action. Object affordances also facilitate perception of such objects, and this occurrence is known as the affordance effect. This study examined whether object affordances facilitate the initial visual processing stage, or perceptual entry processes, using the temporal order judgment task. The onset of the graspable (right-handled) coffee cup was perceived earlier than that of the less graspable (left-handled) cup for right-handed participants. The affordance effect was eliminated when the coffee cups were inverted, which presumably conveyed less affordance information. These results suggest that objects preattentively potentiate the perceptual entry processes in response to their affordances.

  16. University Tuition, Consumer Choice and College Affordability: Strategies for Addressing a Higher Education Affordability Challenge. A NASULGC Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Peter; Shulenburger, David

    2008-01-01

    With passage of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, the Higher Education Act (HEA) is now reauthorized. What effect will it have on U.S. higher education? Students receiving Pell grants will find that college is more affordable while those who feared that the government would exert control over learning outcomes have breathed a…

  17. Nesting in perception of affordances for stepping and leaping.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Bai, Jiuyang; Smith, Peter J K

    2016-08-01

    Perception of affordances for a given behavior typically reflects the task-specific action capabilities of the perceiver. However, many experiments have shown a discrepancy between the perceptual and behavioral boundaries for a given behavior. One possibility for such a discrepancy is that the context of many experimental tasks transformed what is typically a dynamic perception-action task into an analytical or reflective judgment. We investigated this hypothesis with respect to perception of maximum stepping and leaping distance. For both behaviors, perception of these affordances more closely reflected action capabilities when the perceptual task was nested within a superordinate task than when it was not (regardless of whether the behavior itself was performed). Additionally, verbal reports of perception of maximum leaping distance more closely reflected action capabilities when there was an explicit time limit on such reports. The results are discussed in the context of the ecological principle of nesting and in attentional focus during motor control tasks. PMID:27220935

  18. Small businesses and the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Nicholson, Jennifer L; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several short- and long-term provisions designed to help small businesses pay for and maintain health insurance for their workers, and to allow workers without employer coverage to gain access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance. Provisions include a small business tax credit to offset premium costs for firms that offer coverage starting this taxable year, establishment of state-based insurance exchanges that promise to lower administrative costs and pool risk more broadly, and creation of new market rules and an essential benefit standard to protect small firms and their workers. Analysis shows that up to 16.6 million workers are in firms that would be eligible for the tax credit in 2010 to 2013. Over the next 10 years, small businesses and organizations could receive an estimated $40 billion in federal support through the premium credit program. PMID:20812427

  19. Motivational Affordance and Risk-Taking Across Decision Domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Scholer, Abigail A

    2016-03-01

    We propose a motivational affordance account to explain both stability and variability in risk-taking propensity in major decision domains. We draw on regulatory focus theory to differentiate two types of motivation (prevention, promotion) that play a key role in predicting risk-taking. Study 1 demonstrated that prevention motivation is negatively associated with risk-taking across six key decision domains, including health/safety, ethics, recreation, gambling, investment, and social. In contrast, promotion motivation is positively associated with risk-taking in the social and investment domains. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and provided direct evidence that promotion motivation is a strong predictor of risk-taking only in domains where there is true potential for gains. Study 3 manipulated promotion (vs. prevention) motivation experimentally to demonstrate that motivational affordance is a critical mechanism for understanding risk-taking behaviors. PMID:26802189

  20. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities. PMID:26501969

  1. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness. PMID:23237245

  2. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  3. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities.

  4. Radiation Shielding Options for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2009-03-16

    The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) is a proposed power source for an outpost capable of housing six humans for up to six weeks on the lunar surface and emphasizes the design principles of low risk and affordability over high performance. The radiation shield is the most massive component of the reactor system and its effect on launch mass greatly affects the affordability of the AFSPS. Potential shielding materials include lithium hydride, enriched boron-10 carbide, water, borated water, beryllium, boron-doped beryllium and zirconium hydride. Zirconium hydride is the most effective neutron attenuator and also significantly attenuates gamma radiation, but at a significant mass penalty. The other neutron attenuating materials all require the addition of a tungsten layer to provide significant gamma attenuation. Based on neutron radiation alone, lithium hydride is the lightest of the potential attenuators, followed by water and borated water. When gamma radiation is also considered, the lithium hydride/tungsten shield is shown to be the lightest composite shield with a combined mass of 3246 kg, followed by the borated water/tungsten shield (3479 kg). The boron carbide/tungsten shield has a total mass of 4129 kg, but represents significantly less development risk.

  5. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  6. The visual encoding of tool-object affordances.

    PubMed

    Natraj, N; Pella, Y M; Borghi, A M; Wheaton, L A

    2015-12-01

    The perception of tool-object pairs involves understanding their action-relationships (affordances). Here, we sought to evaluate how an observer visually encodes tool-object affordances. Eye-movements were recorded as right-handed participants freely viewed static, right-handed, egocentric tool-object images across three contexts: correct (e.g. hammer-nail), incorrect (e.g. hammer-paper), spatial/ambiguous (e.g. hammer-wood), and three grasp-types: no hand, functional grasp-posture (grasp hammer-handle), non-functional/manipulative grasp-posture (grasp hammer-head). There were three areas of interests (AOI): the object (nail), the operant tool-end (hammer-head), the graspable tool-end (hammer-handle). Participants passively evaluated whether tool-object pairs were functionally correct/incorrect. Clustering of gaze scanpaths and AOI weightings grouped conditions into three distinct grasp-specific clusters, especially across correct and spatial tool-object contexts and to a lesser extent within the incorrect tool-object context. The grasp-specific gaze scanpath clusters were reasonably robust to the temporal order of gaze scanpaths. Gaze was therefore automatically primed to grasp-affordances though the task required evaluating tool-object context. Participants also primarily focused on the object and the operant tool-end and sparsely attended to the graspable tool-end, even in images with functional grasp-postures. In fact, in the absence of a grasp, the object was foveally weighted the most, indicative of a possible object-oriented action priming effect wherein the observer may be evaluating how the tool engages on the object. Unlike the functional grasp-posture, the manipulative grasp-posture caused the greatest disruption in the object-oriented priming effect, ostensibly as it does not afford tool-object action due to its non-functional interaction with the operant tool-end that actually engages with the object (e.g., hammer-head to nail). The enhanced attention

  7. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults.

  8. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults. PMID:26445739

  9. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of the multi-state plan program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges.

    PubMed

    2013-03-11

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final regulation establishing the Multi-State Plan Program (MSPP) pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. Through contracts with OPM, health insurance issuers will offer at least two multi-State plans (MSPs) on each of the Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges). One of the issuers must be non-profit. Under the law, an MSPP issuer may phase in the States in which it offers coverage over 4 years, but it must offer MSPs on Exchanges in all States and the District of Columbia by the fourth year in which the MSPP issuer participates in the MSPP. This rule aims to balance adhering to the statutory goals of MSPP while aligning its standards to those applying to qualified health plans to promote a level playing field across health plans.

  10. SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar: A Competition To Spur Low-Cost Rooftop Solar Installations Across The Nation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The SunShot Prize encourages novel public-private partnerships, original business models, and innovative approaches to installing clean, renewable solar energy. The sustainable business strategies developed by participants will provide transferable lessons that can be applied nationwide to hasten America's transition to affordable clean energy in a post-subsidy market.

  11. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  12. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  13. Three Words and the Future of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    As an essential part of its effort to achieve near universal coverage, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) extends sizable tax credits to most people who buy insurance on the newly established health care exchanges. Yet several lawsuits have been filed challenging the availability of those tax credits in the thirty-four states that refused to set up their own exchanges. The lawsuits are premised on a strained interpretation of the ACA that, if accepted, would make a hash of other provisions of the statute and undermine its effort to extend coverage to the uninsured. The courts should reject this latest effort to dismantle a critical feature of the ACA.

  14. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  15. The Affordable Care Act versus Medicare for All.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Laurence

    2015-08-01

    Many problems facing the Affordable Care Act would disappear if the nation were instead implementing Medicare for All - the extension of Medicare to every age group. Every American would be automatically covered for life. Premiums would be replaced with a set of Medicare taxes. There would be no patient cost sharing. Individuals would have free choice of doctors. Medicare's single-payer bargaining power would slow price increases and reduce medical cost as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Taxes as a percentage of GDP would rise from below average to average for economically advanced nations. Medicare for All would be phased in by age.

  16. Affordable Manufacturing Technologies Being Developed for Actively Cooled Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to improve the performance of modern gas turbine engines have imposed increasing service temperature demands on structural materials. Through active cooling, the useful temperature range of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines has been extended, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, high processing costs have proven to be a major obstacle to their widespread application. Advanced rapid prototyping technology, which is developing rapidly, offers the possibility of an affordable manufacturing approach.

  17. New affordable options for infrastructure and asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Securitas is one of the leaders evolving with technology and delivering new forms of affordable security for mining facilities. It was called in to protect a large mothballed coal mine in the central USA, the victim of repeated thefts. First, Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs) were installed but thefts continued. Later, a new wireless video security system called Videofied which used MotionViewers which use infrared detectors to detect movement and send a 10 second clip of the intrusion to an operator. This led to the thieves being caught. 2 photos.

  18. Computer usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Fuchs, Heidi; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah; Young, Scott

    2014-12-01

    The electricity consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads (MELs) in the home has grown in recent years, and is expected to continue rising. Consumer electronics, in particular, are characterized by swift technological innovation, with varying impacts on energy use. Desktop and laptop computers make up a significant share of MELs electricity consumption, but their national energy use is difficult to estimate, given uncertainties around shifting user behavior. This report analyzes usage data from 64 computers (45 desktop, 11 laptop, and 8 unknown) collected in 2012 as part of a larger field monitoring effort of 880 households in the San Francisco Bay Area, and compares our results to recent values from the literature. We find that desktop computers are used for an average of 7.3 hours per day (median = 4.2 h/d), while laptops are used for a mean 4.8 hours per day (median = 2.1 h/d). The results for laptops are likely underestimated since they can be charged in other, unmetered outlets. Average unit annual energy consumption (AEC) for desktops is estimated to be 194 kWh/yr (median = 125 kWh/yr), and for laptops 75 kWh/yr (median = 31 kWh/yr). We estimate national annual energy consumption for desktop computers to be 20 TWh. National annual energy use for laptops is estimated to be 11 TWh, markedly higher than previous estimates, likely reflective of laptops drawing more power in On mode in addition to greater market penetration. This result for laptops, however, carries relatively higher uncertainty compared to desktops. Different study methodologies and definitions, changing usage patterns, and uncertainty about how consumers use computers must be considered when interpreting our results with respect to existing analyses. Finally, as energy consumption in On mode is predominant, we outline several energy savings opportunities: improved power management (defaulting to low-power modes after periods of inactivity as well as power scaling), matching the rated power

  19. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  20. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... 2590-AA04 Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority... Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010, to use Affordable Housing Program (AHP) homeownership..., 2798. B. The Banks' Affordable Housing Program Section 10(j) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act...

  1. 76 FR 59702 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act (ACA) Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Notice of Intent to Award Affordable Care Act (ACA...: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to award Affordable Care Act...

  2. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice,'' to the Office of... Security Administration (EBSA). Title of Collection: Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice....

  3. 76 FR 11283 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal... Affordable Care Act added Public Health Service Act section 2719, which provides rules relating to......

  4. 77 FR 10781 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public Law 111-148, (the Affordable Care Act) was enacted by President Obama on March 23, 2010. As part of the...

  5. 77 FR 31513 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 155, 156, and 157 RIN 0938-AQ67 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... Federal Register on March 27, 2012, entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment... rule regarding the codification of section 1413(c) of the Affordable Care Act. To align the...

  6. 78 FR 71667 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure, Recordkeeping Requirement, and Change in Carrier..., ``Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure, Recordkeeping Requirement, and Change in Carrier... Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), Public Law 111-148, section 1251 provides that certain plans...

  7. 77 FR 26046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal...: Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-grandfathered...

  8. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission,'' to the..._PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  9. Learning Outcomes Afforded by Self-Assessed, Segmented Video-Print Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumi, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video-print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational…

  10. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  11. Interaction between affordance and handedness recognition: a chronometric study

    PubMed Central

    Lameira, A.P.; Pereira, A.; Conde, E.; Gawryszewski, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of tools and manipulable objects activates motor-related areas in the cortex, facilitating possible actions toward them. This pattern of activity may underlie the phenomenon of object affordance. Some cortical motor neurons are also covertly activated during the recognition of body parts such as hands. One hypothesis is that different subpopulations of motor neurons in the frontal cortex are activated in each motor program; for example, canonical neurons in the premotor cortex are responsible for the affordance of visual objects, while mirror neurons support motor imagery triggered during handedness recognition. However, the question remains whether these subpopulations work independently. This hypothesis can be tested with a manual reaction time (MRT) task with a priming paradigm to evaluate whether the view of a manipulable object interferes with the motor imagery of the subject's hand. The MRT provides a measure of the course of information processing in the brain and allows indirect evaluation of cognitive processes. Our results suggest that canonical and mirror neurons work together to create a motor plan involving hand movements to facilitate successful object manipulation. PMID:25714894

  12. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  13. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO2-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important ``affordability'' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  14. Affordable health benefits for workers without employer coverage.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L; Jones, S B

    1998-02-01

    With 42 million individuals lacking health insurance in 1996, an increase of 1.1 million uninsured from the previous year, new initiatives to deal with health insurance problems merit a high priority among domestic policy initiatives. This paper examines the opportunities for assisting full-time workers (and their families) who do not receive employer-paid health insurance-a group that now includes 49 million individuals-by using three policy tools that Congress and President Clinton have already agreed to use in recent healthcare legislation: (a) equitable tax assistance; (b) market reforms; and (c) competition among health plans that offer economical benefits. Estimates for a model plan illustrate that such strategies could make decent private health insurance more affordable and more accessible for workers and their families who want to purchase it; family insurance protection, with guaranteed issue of insurance and large-group-rated premiums, could be offered at potential savings of 42% (or more). Premiums for worker's coverage, after tax assistance, would be below $1,200 per year, i.e., less than 60 cents per hour. These market-oriented reforms can be accomplished with a limited government role, and, after start-up costs, ongoing federal expenses would be modest, predictable, and controllable. When combined with the new $24 billion child health initiative to assist low-income families, the proposed plan would provide considerable progress toward universal access to affordable insurance coverage.

  15. Affordance-controlled bifurcations of action patterns in martial arts.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Robert; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte

    2006-10-01

    Effects of participant-target distance and perceived handstriking efficiency on emergent behavior in the martial art of boxing were investigated, revealing affordance-controlled nonlinear dynamical effects (i.e. bifurcations) within the participant--target system. Results established the existence of critical values of scaled distances for emergence of first time excitations and annihilations of a diverse range of boxing actions i.e. on the appearance and dissolution of jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the action diversity were twofold: (a) topological discontinuous changes (bifurcations) in the number of possible handstrikes, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; (b) fine modification of probabilities of emergence of striking patterns. Exploitation of a 'strikeability' affordance available in scaled distance-to-target information by boxers led to a diversity of emergent actions through a cascade of bifurcations in the task perceptual-motor work space. Data suggested that perceived efficiency (E) of an action changed as a function of scaled distance (D) and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of action patterns (P), exhibiting the following dependence P = P(E(D)). The implication is that probability of occurrence (P) depends on efficiency (E), which in turn depends on scaled distance (D) to the target. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems a viable candidate for a contextual (control) parameter to describe the nonlinear dynamics of striking actions in boxing.

  16. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-21

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO{sub 2}-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  17. Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandyke, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

  18. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  19. Balancing adoption and affordability of medical devices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Bäumler, Michael; Busse, Reinhard

    2009-10-01

    Dramatic increases in health expenditures have led to a substantial number of regulatory interventions in the markets for devices over the last years. However, little attention has been paid thus far to the regulation of medical devices and its effects. This article explores the policies pursued by European countries to find the right balance between improving access to new medical devices and restricting market forces to contain costs and ensure affordability. We outline the medical device policies of the four European countries with the largest expenditures on devices: Germany, France, Italy, and the UK. Subsequently, we discuss how these policies attempt to balance technological adoption and affordability by illustrating two case studies from Italy and Germany. We find that reference prices, if defined as maximum reimbursement levels, can help to achieve balance, because they are supposed to contain costs effectively, but do not necessarily act as a hurdle for the adoption of innovations. We also find that policy tools that encourage technological adoption should be used carefully since the benefits of a new technology are often difficult to predict. Finally, we draw a number of policy implications based on our observations.

  20. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ – the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities. PMID:27390552

  1. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  2. Energy-Spread Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzela, Grzegorz

    2007-11-01

    Nowadays people are very dependent on electricity. All devices like mobile phones, laptops and even watches have batteries that must be charged. That is not a problem while staying close to sources of electricity, but if we travel some problems may occur with energy availability. Why not then use the most basic and ecological ways to become self-dependent, i.e., use small power plants which would provide energy for all devices we have? This paper presents a review of environmental friendly independent mechanisms and devices to generate electricity using sunlight (photovoltaic), fuel cells and thermoelectric power generation based mostly on semiconductors.

  3. How Insurers Competed in the Affordable Care Act's First Year.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Katherine; Hall, Mark A; Jost, Timothy S

    2015-06-01

    Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), most states' individual health insurance markets were dominated by one or two insurance carriers that had little incentive to compete by providing efficient services. Instead, they competed mainly by screening and selecting people based on their risk of incurring high medical costs. One of the ACA's goals is to encourage carriers to participate in the health insurance marketplaces and to shift the focus from competing based on risk selection to processes that increase consumer value, like improving efficiency of services and quality of care. Focusing on six states--Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Maryland, Montana, and Texas--this brief looks at how carriers are competing in the new marketplaces, namely through cost-sharing and composition of provider networks. PMID:26159009

  4. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoinT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based ceramic and composite components in a number of demanding and high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. An affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT) for joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technique. These joints maintain their mechanical strength up to 1350 C in air. This technology is suitable for the joining of large and complex shaped ceramic and composite components and with certain modifications, can be applied to repair ceramic components damaged in service.

  5. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  6. Health Care Affordability: How to Make It a Reality.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a big business. US health care expenditures reached $2.9 trillion in 2013. Patient spending accounted for 28% of the total, which means patients spent approximately $810 billion in 2013 for insurance premiums, deductibles, copays, coinsurance, and noncovered health care services. How are patients expected to pay almost a trillion dollars in health care expenses? There is a need to find a health care financing methodology that will make health care affordable for all patients and families. An alternative method for funding health care is discussed that includes creating a government-funded annuity during the first decade of one's life. When this annuity matures later in life, many individuals will have amassed a large pot of money with which to pay for their (and their family's) health care treatment and products.

  7. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  8. Medical loss ratio regulation under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    The minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) regulations in the Affordable Care Act guarantee that a specific percentage of health insurance premiums is spent on medical care and specified activities to improve health care quality. This paper analyzes the regulations' potential unintended consequences and incentive effects, including: higher medical costs and premiums for some insurers; less innovation to align consumer, provider, and health plan incentives, less consumer choice and increased market concentration; and the risk that insurers will pay rebates if claim costs are lower than projected when premiums are established, despite the regulations' permitted "credibility adjustments." The paper discusses modifications and alternatives to the MLR regulations to help achieve their stated goals with less potential for adverse effects. PMID:23720876

  9. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  10. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work.

  11. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  12. International examples of undocumented immigration and the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Matthew; Baig, Arshiya

    2014-08-01

    As it stands there is no viable health care option for undocumented immigrants of low socioeconomic status. Even more worrisome is that Affordable Care Act simply does not address this issue with any direct plan. The US is in a very influential time period in terms of undocumented immigration and its relationship with health care. The purpose of this paper is to examine international examples of undocumented immigrant health care and their implications for the United States' undocumented immigrant health care. This study found that physicians in the US must work to prevent the initiation of policies which exclude undocumented immigrants from accessing health care. Exclusionary policies implemented in European nations have had disastrous effects on physicians and patients. This paper examines the implications which similar policies would have if implemented in the US.

  13. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  14. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  15. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT: A HIDDEN JOBS KILLER?

    PubMed

    Baker, Dean; Jorgensen, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Many opponents of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) predicted the law would hurt employment. A common complaint was that the requirement that firms employing more than 50 employees either provide insurance for employees working more than 30 hours a week or pay a penalty would lead many firms to cut back workers' hours to just below the 30-hour cutoff. This article uses the Current Population Survey to compare the share of workers employed between 25-29 hours in the first four months of 2013 with the same months of 2012. While the Obama administration subsequently delayed the application of this portion of the ACA, at the time larger employers would have expected to be subject to the insurance requirement. The analysis found the share of employment in this hour band was slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012. PMID:26460453

  16. The Affordable Care Act, remedy, and litigation reform.

    PubMed

    Maher, Brendan S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) rewrote the law of private health insurance. How the ACA rewrote the law of civil remedies, however, is a question largely unexamined by scholars. Courts everywhere, including the U.S. Supreme Court, will soon confront this important issue. This Article offers a foundational treatment of the ACA on remedy. It predicts a series of flashpoints over which litigation reform battles will be fought. It identifies several themes that will animate those conflicts and trigger others. It explains how judicial construction of the statute's functional predecessor, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), converted a protective statute into a uniquely effective piece of federal litigation reform. Ultimately, it considers whether the ACA--which incorporates, modifies, and rejects ERISA in several notable ways--will experience a similar fate.

  17. The Impact of a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program on the Literacy Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students with Differing Measured Cognitive Skill Levels Who Are Eligible and Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a one-to-one laptop computer program on the literacy achievement of eighth-grade students with above average, average, and below average measured cognitive skill levels who are eligible and not eligible for free or reduced price lunch program participation. The study analyzed, student…

  18. A Narrative Approach to Understanding the Development and Retention of Digital Skills over Time in Former Middle School Students, a Decade after Having Used One-to-One Laptop Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Léger, Michel T.; Freiman, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a common result in recent research and practice that digital skills are important for every educated citizen, little is known of how these skills are evolving over a long period of time. Our study looks into the development and use of digital skills in former middle school students who had an individual access to the laptops a…

  19. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  20. Respective capabilities of affordable Coronagraphs and Interferometers searching for Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Alain M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an analytic model to estimate the capabilities of space missions dedicated to the search for biosignatures in the atmosphere of rocky planets located in the Habitable Zone of nearby stars. Relations between performance and parameters such as mirror diameter, distance to target, stellar properties, are obtained.Two types of instruments are considered: Coronagraphs observing in the visible, and Nulling Interferometers observing in the thermal infrared. Missions considered as affordable are single-pupil coronagraphs with a 2.4 m primary mirror, and formation flying interferometers with 4 x 0.75 m collecting mirrors with baselines ranging from a few decameters to a few hectometers.The numbers of accessible planets are calculated as a function of ηearth, the mean number of Earth analogues and super-Earths in stellar Habitable Zones.Based on current estimates, ηearth=10% around FGK stars and 20% around M stars, the built-in coronagraph and starshade could study only ~2.0 relevant planets, and the interferometer ~14. These numbers are obtained under the major assumption that the exozodiacal light around the target stars is not an issue for any of these instruments.For the coronagraphs, our estimates are in agreement with the values recently published by Stark et al. (2014), but these authors did not consider the case of interferometers.For the long-term future, building both types of spectroscopic instruments, and using them on the same targets, will be the optimal solution because they provide complementary information. But as a first affordable space mission, the interferometer looks the more promising in term of biosignature harvest.

  1. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  2. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  3. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning. PMID:26427363

  4. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process (now Zero Energy Ready Home) in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  5. Toward Affordable, Theory-and-Simulation-Inspired, Models for Realistic Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Alabi, Ken; Li, Wenhai

    2015-11-01

    The problem of generating design data for the operation of a farm of wind turbines for clean energy production is quite complicated, if properly done. Potential flow theories provide some models, but these are not suitable for the massive aerodynamic separation and turbulence that characterize many realistic wind turbine applications. Procedures, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can potentially resolve some of the accuracy problems with the purely theoretical approach, are quite expensive to use, and often prohibit real-time design and control. In our work, we seek affordable and acceptably-accurate models derived from the foregoing approaches. The simulation used in our study is based on high-fidelity CFD, meaning that we use high-order (compact-scheme based), mostly large-eddy simulation methods, with due regards for the proper treatment of the stochastic inflow turbulence data. Progress on the project described herein will be presented.

  6. Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways.

    PubMed

    Sakreida, Katrin; Effnert, Isabel; Thill, Serge; Menz, Mareike M; Jirak, Doreen; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Ziemke, Tom; Eickhoff, Simon B; Borghi, Anna M; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    The concept of affordances indicates "action possibilities" as characterized by object properties the environment provides to interacting organisms. Affordances relate to both perception and action and refer to sensory-motor processes emerging from goal-directed object interaction. In contrast to stable properties, affordances may vary with environmental context. A sub-classification into stable and variable affordances was proposed in the framework of the ROSSI project (Borghi et al., 2010; Borghi and Riggio, 2015, 2009). Here, we present a coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional imaging studies on object interaction targeting consistent anatomical correlates of these different types of affordances. Our review revealed the existence of two parallel (but to some extent overlapping) functional pathways. The network for stable affordances consists of predominantly left inferior parietal and frontal cortices in the ventro-dorsal stream, whereas the network for variable affordances is localized preferentially in the dorso-dorsal stream. This is in line with the proposal of differentiated affordances: stable affordances are characterized by the knowledge of invariant object features, whereas variable affordances underlie adaptation to changing object properties. PMID:27484872

  7. Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways.

    PubMed

    Sakreida, Katrin; Effnert, Isabel; Thill, Serge; Menz, Mareike M; Jirak, Doreen; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Ziemke, Tom; Eickhoff, Simon B; Borghi, Anna M; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    The concept of affordances indicates "action possibilities" as characterized by object properties the environment provides to interacting organisms. Affordances relate to both perception and action and refer to sensory-motor processes emerging from goal-directed object interaction. In contrast to stable properties, affordances may vary with environmental context. A sub-classification into stable and variable affordances was proposed in the framework of the ROSSI project (Borghi et al., 2010; Borghi and Riggio, 2015, 2009). Here, we present a coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional imaging studies on object interaction targeting consistent anatomical correlates of these different types of affordances. Our review revealed the existence of two parallel (but to some extent overlapping) functional pathways. The network for stable affordances consists of predominantly left inferior parietal and frontal cortices in the ventro-dorsal stream, whereas the network for variable affordances is localized preferentially in the dorso-dorsal stream. This is in line with the proposal of differentiated affordances: stable affordances are characterized by the knowledge of invariant object features, whereas variable affordances underlie adaptation to changing object properties.

  8. Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C.; Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-11-01

    Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. The City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started a construction program in 2010 to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal of the program was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ?6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

  9. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  13. 77 FR 11785 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    .... Code. DOE published a positive final determination for specified HID lamps on July 1, 2010. 75 FR 37975.... 76 FR 77914 (December 15, 2011). DOE must also complete the HID lamps energy conservation standards... also note that those wishing to bring laptops to the meeting will be required to obtain a property...

  14. Investigating cigarette affordability in 60 cities using the cigarette price‐daily income ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Ming‐yue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate cigarette affordability in 60 cities. Methods Affordability of cigarettes is defined as the ratio of the price of one pack of cigarettes to daily income (cigarette price‐daily income ratio: CPDIR). Daily income data were calculated using the mean of the seven occupations with the lowest daily wage, as listed in the 2006 Union Bank of Switzerland survey; cigarette prices in 2006 were sourced from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Results Cigarette affordability in most of the surveyed cities remains high. There is a tendency for cities with high income economies to have a high level of cigarette affordability. Most of the cities in Western Europe and South and North America have high cigarette affordability, whereas 66.7% of their counterparts in Eastern Europe have medium cigarette affordability. In Asia, all cities with high cigarette affordability belong to the group of upper middle to high income economies, except for the Philippines. In Africa, Johannesburg and Nairobi have high and medium levels of cigarette affordability, respectively. Conclusion Cigarette affordability for most of the sampled cities, especially those in high income economies, is high. There is room for increasing cigarette prices via tax increases. There is a risk that the increase in cigarette prices in newly emerging economies lags behind the high speed of economic growth being experiencing. Tax increases should be given high priority. PMID:18048622

  15. Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.

    PubMed

    Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

    2010-01-01

    Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority.

  16. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  17. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise (<50e-), high dynamic range (100 dB), high-frame rates (> 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (< 1 W) in a compact system. This camera paves the way towards mass market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  18. Delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care in India.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, C S; Badwe, Rajendra A; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Chandra, Madhu; Raj, Elluswami Hemanth; Kannan, T; Kalwar, Ashok; Kapoor, Sanjay; Malhotra, Hemant; Nayak, Sukdev; Rath, Goura K; Sagar, T G; Sebastian, Paul; Sarin, Rajiv; Shanta, V; Sharma, Suresh C; Shukla, Shilin; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Vijaykumar, D K; Aggarwal, Ajay; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care is one of India's greatest public health challenges. Public expenditure on cancer in India remains below US$10 per person (compared with more than US$100 per person in high-income countries), and overall public expenditure on health care is still only slightly above 1% of gross domestic product. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for more than three-quarters of cancer expenditures in India, are one of the greatest threats to patients and families, and a cancer diagnosis is increasingly responsible for catastrophic expenditures that negatively affect not only the patient but also the welfare and education of several generations of their family. We explore the complex nature of cancer care systems across India, from state to government levels, and address the crucial issues of infrastructure, manpower shortages, and the pressing need to develop cross-state solutions to prevention and early detection of cancer, in addition to governance of the largely unregulated private sector and the cost of new technologies and drugs. We discuss the role of public insurance schemes, the need to develop new political mandates and authority to set priorities, the necessity to greatly improve the quality of care, and the drive to understand and deliver cost-effective cancer care programmes.

  19. Essential drugs in AIDS care: issues of availability and affordability.

    PubMed

    Kaur, S R

    1996-01-01

    Several antiretroviral drugs against HIV/AIDS have been developed in recent years. These drugs, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, inhibit the reproduction of HIV, but do not eliminate the presence of HIV in the body. The cost of drugs to treat one person with HIV/AIDS easily runs into the thousands of US dollars per year. These new drugs are therefore routinely used in developed countries, but not among the masses in developing countries. Many of the drugs needed to treat the opportunistic infections present during advanced HIV infection and AIDS are also prohibitively expensive for both developing countries and most individuals in those countries. The imposition of World Bank and International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs together with decreased household purchasing power during the 1990s has led to increased demand for public sector services amid reduced public expenditure. The private sector is increasingly taking over the drug supply in developing countries, driving the cost of drugs out of the range of affordability for the vast majority of the poor. One strategy to contain the cost of drugs is for governments to develop and implement an integrated national drug policy based upon the concept of essential drugs and their rational use. PMID:12292110

  20. Mission and Implementation of an Affordable Lunar Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul; Lavoie, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We present an architecture that establishes the infrastructure for routine space travel by taking advantage of the Moon's resources, proximity and accessibility. We use robotic assets on the Moon that are teleoperated from Earth to prospect, test, demonstrate and produce water from lunar resources before human arrival. This plan is affordable, flexible and not tied to any specific launch vehicle solution. Individual surface pieces are small, permitting them to be deployed separately on small launchers or combined together on single large launchers. Schedule is our free variable; even under highly constrained budgets, the architecture permits this program to be continuously pursued using small, incremental, cumulative steps. The end stage is a fully functional, human-tended lunar outpost capable of producing 150 metric tonnes of water per year enough to export water from the Moon and create a transportation system that allows routine access to all of cislunar space. This cost-effective lunar architecture advances technology and builds a sustainable transportation infrastructure. By eliminating the need to launch everything from the surface of the Earth, we fundamentally change the paradigm of spaceflight.