Science.gov

Sample records for affordable housing units

  1. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  2. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  3. 24 CFR 954.307 - Homeownership: qualification as affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... whose family qualifies as a low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.307... (1- to 4-family residence, condominium unit, cooperative unit, combination manufactured home and...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  6. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  7. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  8. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  10. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for affordable housing activities. 1006.20 Section 1006.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  12. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  13. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  14. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  18. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  19. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  20. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  1. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  2. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  4. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  7. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  8. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  9. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  10. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  11. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  12. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  13. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  14. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  17. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  18. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  19. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  20. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  1. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  2. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  3. Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolani, Federico M.; Mandara, Alberto; Froncillo, Salvatore

    2008-07-08

    The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

  4. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  5. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  6. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  7. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (b) Use or commitment of funds. Approval of applications for AHP subsidies... year-end are deemed to be used or committed if, in combination with AHP subsidies that have been... highest scoring AHP application in the Bank's final funding period of the year for its...

  8. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fannie Mae and $4.60 billion for Freddie Mac. In addition, as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 14 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by that Enterprise's mortgage purchases shall be home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas which count toward...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.102 - What are eligible affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are eligible affordable housing activities? 1000.102 Section 1000.102 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING......

  10. 24 CFR 1000.102 - What are eligible affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are eligible affordable housing activities? 1000.102 Section 1000.102 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING......

  11. 24 CFR 1000.102 - What are eligible affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible affordable housing activities? 1000.102 Section 1000.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating......

  12. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR Part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  13. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR Part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  14. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR Part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  16. "Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible": Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence.

    PubMed

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women's experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors' housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  17. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... 2590-AA04 Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority... Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010, to use Affordable Housing Program (AHP) homeownership..., 2798. B. The Banks' Affordable Housing Program Section 10(j) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act...

  18. Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

    2012-04-30

    The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of

  19. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ – the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities. PMID:27390552

  20. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  1. Predictors of Smoke-Free Policies in Affordable Multiunit Housing, North Carolina, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Suttie, Janet; Baker, Laura; Agans, Robert; Xue, Wei; Bowling, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoke-free policies can effectively protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in multiunit housing. We surveyed all affordable multiunit housing properties in North Carolina to determine the statewide prevalence of smoke-free policies and to identify predictors of smoke-free policies. Methods Representatives of affordable housing properties in North Carolina completed a mailed or online survey during June through October 2013. The primary outcome measure was presence of a smoke-free policy, defined as prohibiting smoking in all residential units. We used χ2 analysis and multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of smoke-free policies. Results Of 1,865 eligible properties, responses were received for 1,063 (57%). A total of 16.5% of properties had policies that prohibited smoking in all residential units, while 69.6% prohibited smoking in indoor common areas. In multivariate analysis, an increase in the number of children per unit was associated with a decrease in the odds of having a smoke-free policy at most properties. Newer properties across all company sizes were more likely to have smoke-free policies. Accessing units from interior hallways predicted smoke-free policies among medium-sized companies. Conclusion More smoke-free policies in affordable multiunit housing are needed to protect vulnerable populations, particularly children, from SHS exposure. Public health professionals should continue to educate housing operators about SHS and the benefits of smoke-free policies at all properties, including older ones and ones where units are accessed from outside rather than from an interior hallway. PMID:25974143

  2. Who has housing affordability problems? Disparities in Housing Cost burden by Race, Nativity and Legal Status in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Housing costs are a substantial component of U.S. household expenditures. Those who allocate a large proportion of their income to housing often have to make difficult financial decisions with significant short-term and long-term implications for adults and children. This study employs cross-sectional data from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) collected between 2000 and 2002 to examine the most common U.S. standard of housing affordability, the likelihood of spending thirty percent or more of income on shelter costs. Multivariate analyses of a low-income sample of U.S. born Latinos, Whites, African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants and unauthorized Latino immigrants focus on baseline and persistent differences in the likelihood of being cost burdened by race, nativity and legal status. Nearly half or more of each group of low-income respondents experience housing affordability problems. The results suggest that immigrants’ legal status is the primary source of disparities among those examined, with the multivariate analyses revealing large and persistent disparities for unauthorized Latino immigrants relative to most other groups. Moreover, the higher odds of housing cost burden observed for unauthorized immigrants compared with their authorized immigrant counterparts remains substantial, accounting for traditional indicators of immigrant assimilation. These results are consistent with emerging scholarship regarding the role of legal status in shaping immigrant outcomes in the United States. PMID:24077641

  3. Affording Housing at the Expense of Health: Exploring the Housing and Neighborhood Strategies of Poor Families

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Low-income families often simultaneously encounter housing and neighborhood problems pertaining to safety, affordability, and quality issues that necessitate strategies to maximize limited budgets and ensure safety. Such constrained decisions regarding inadequate housing and poor neighborhood conditions, however, may themselves create or exacerbate health risks. Building on the survival strategies literature, this article offers rich and detailed accounts of coping and management strategies on the part of vulnerable families facing housing and neighborhood hardships. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with 72 respondents and ethnographic observations in an urban community. The results illustrate how low-income women avoid neighborhood danger by relegating family life to the home environment, thereby increasing exposure to health risks such as stress, depression, and asthma. The discussion focuses on public health literature linking housing and health and proposes the use of legal strategies and community engagement as resources to complement current approaches to housing and neighborhood problems. PMID:27057078

  4. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  6. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... market rent for existing housing for comparable units in the area as established by HUD under 24 CFR 888... are not required to pay as rent an amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable,...

  7. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... time the lease-purchase agreement is signed. If HOME funds are used to acquire housing that will be... low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. (c) Ownership interest. The... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements §...

  8. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... time the lease-purchase agreement is signed. If HOME funds are used to acquire housing that will be... low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. In determining the income... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements §...

  9. 77 FR 19750 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Office of Domestic Finance, Small... be directed to the Office of Domestic Finance, Small Business Lending Fund; Daniel Rourke;...

  10. 77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to the Office of Domestic...

  11. 76 FR 5584 - Valley Affordable Housing Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ...) new 10-foot-long, 12-foot-wide dual concrete penstocks; (6) a new 30-foot-tall (extending 20 feet... megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Peter Bouchard, Valley Affordable Housing Corporation, 895 Mendon...

  12. “Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible”: Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E.; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women’s experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors’ housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  13. 24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.242 When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? The requirement for exemption from taxation applies only to...

  14. Housing tenure and affordability and mental health following disability acquisition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Aitken, Zoe; Baker, Emma; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Bentley, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Acquiring a disability in adulthood is associated with a reduction in mental health and access to secure and affordable housing is associated with better mental health. We hypothesised that the association between acquisition of disability and mental health is modified by housing tenure and affordability. We used twelve annual waves of data (2001-2012) (1913 participants, 13,037 observations) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Eligible participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by two consecutive waves without disability. Effect measure modification, on the additive scale, was tested in three fixed-effects linear regression models (which remove time-invariant confounding) which included a cross-product term between disability and prior housing circumstances: housing tenure by disability; housing affordability by disability and, in a sub-sample (896 participants 5913 observations) with housing costs, tenure/affordability by disability. The outcome was the continuous mental component summary (MCS) of SF-36. Models adjusted for time-varying confounders. There was statistical evidence that prior housing modified the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. Our findings suggested that those in affordable housing had a -1.7 point deterioration in MCS (95% CI -2.1, -1.3) following disability acquisition and those in unaffordable housing had a -4.2 point reduction (95% CI -5.2, -1.4). Among people with housing costs, the largest declines in MCS were for people with unaffordable mortgages (-5.3, 95% CI -8.8, -1.9) and private renters in unaffordable housing (-4.0, 95% CI -6.3, -1.6), compared to a -1.4 reduction (95% CI -2.1, -0.7) for mortgagors in affordable housing. In sum, we used causally-robust fixed-effects regression and showed that deterioration in mental health following disability acquisition is modified by prior housing circumstance with the largest negative associations found for those

  15. Local Perspectives on Rural Housing Affordability and Implications for the Localism Agenda in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallent, Nick; Robinson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on consultation meetings with eight community groups across rural England, this paper examines local perspectives on housing affordability, and the consequences of low levels of "within area" housing access for rural economies and communities, contrasting the reflective understanding of residents with normative and established perspectives…

  16. 78 FR 73204 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Innovation in Affordable Housing Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Innovation in Affordable Housing Student Design and Planning Competition'' AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development... and sustainable housing for low-and moderate-income people through disseminating best practices;...

  17. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. Methods We conducted a pretest–posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers’ indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F 1,144 = 22.69, P < .001) and no change in outdoor exposure to secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F 1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F 1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Conclusions Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing. PMID:27536903

  18. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After identifying the median sales price, the amount... residents in the neighborhood (e.g., sale prices, age and amenities of the housing stock, incomes...

  19. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After identifying the median sales price, the amount... residents in the neighborhood (e.g., sale prices, age and amenities of the housing stock, incomes...

  20. Health Outcomes and Green Renovation of Affordable Housing

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Jill; Jacobs, David E.; Weber, William; Dixon, Sherry; Kawecki, Carol; Aceti, Susan; Lopez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether renovating low-income housing using “green” and healthy principles improved resident health and building performance. Methods We investigated resident health and building performance outcomes at baseline and one year after the rehabilitation of low-income housing using Enterprise Green Communities green specifications, which improve ventilation; reduce moisture, mold, pests, and radon; and use sustainable building products and other healthy housing features. We assessed participant health via questionnaire, provided Healthy Homes training to all participants, and measured ventilation, carbon dioxide, and radon. Results Adults reported statistically significant improvements in overall health, asthma, and non-asthma respiratory problems. Adults also reported that their children's overall health improved, with significant improvements in non-asthma respiratory problems. Post-renovation building performance testing indicated that the building envelope was tightened and local exhaust fans performed well. New mechanical ventilation was installed (compared with no ventilation previously), with fresh air being supplied at 70% of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers standard. Radon was <2 picocuries per liter of air following mitigation, and the annual average indoor carbon dioxide level was 982 parts per million. Energy use was reduced by 45% over the one-year post-renovation period. Conclusions We found significant health improvements following low-income housing renovation that complied with green standards. All green building standards should include health requirements. Collaboration of housing, public health, and environmental health professionals through integrated design holds promise for improved health, quality of life, building operation, and energy conservation. PMID:21563714

  1. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the...

  2. Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

    2006-10-01

    Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

  3. Affordability of Meteorology Graduate Programs in the United States and Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Matthew S.; Toracinta, E. Richard

    1998-06-01

    The authors surveyed 55 university departments in the United States and Canada that grant doctor of philosophy and/or master of science degrees in meteorology or the atmospheric sciences. Two-thirds of university departments responded. Survey topics included graduate student income (stipends and health insurance benefits) and mandatory costs (tuition, fees, and health insurance costs) incurred for fall 1996.Results show that most graduate students do have funding but only one-quarter of departments indicate that health insurance benefits are provided to graduate assistants. The largest mandatory cost is typically housing, which was estimated (except for Canadian schools) with 1996 Fair Market Rent data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. For schools not providing it, the second largest cost is typically health insurance. The smallest costs are typically tuition (waived for graduate assistants in most cases) and fees.The difference between income and mandatory costs over a nine-month period gives an "effective income." Evidence was found associating greater effective income with larger departments and with locations where housing costs are larger. No significant evidence was found to associate differences in effective income with city size or geographic region. The broad range in effective income between the departments suggests that some graduate programs may be much more affordable than others.This information can aid university departments in planning budgets that keep them competitive with one another. This paper will also help prospective graduate students by raising awareness about important issues of graduate program affordability.

  4. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  5. 24 CFR 954.306 - Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of family participation under 24 CFR part 882 (rental certificate program) or a rental voucher under 24 CFR part 887 (rental voucher program) or to the holder of a comparable document evidencing... owner for units with “flat rents,” i.e., units subject to the maximum rent limitations in paragraphs...

  6. 24 CFR 954.306 - Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of family participation under 24 CFR part 882 (rental certificate program) or a rental voucher under 24 CFR part 887 (rental voucher program) or to the holder of a comparable document evidencing... owner for units with “flat rents,” i.e., units subject to the maximum rent limitations in paragraphs...

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. In 2010, the City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started construction to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ×6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

  8. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...

  9. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...

  10. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...

  11. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...

  12. Cardiovascular health outcomes of Latinos in the Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment (AHOME) study: a study of rental assistance use.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Rosenbaum, Emily

    2014-06-01

    Studies have shown that households subsidized with vouchers live in higher quality units and exhibit fewer physical, mental, and social problems than do their peers living in public housing. However, none of these studies have included cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess if use/type of rental assistance is independently associated with poor cardiovascular health among Latino adults (ages ≥ 18) who are eligible for federal low-income rental assistance and living in the Bronx, NY. Data from the cross-sectional, Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment study, collected over 18 months (January 2011 to August 2012) were used. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes was determined by measured high blood pressure and self-reported heart attack and/or stroke. Type of housing status was defined as: public housing units, units subsidized by section 8 vouchers, and units unassisted by either federal program. Statistical techniques used were analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher among public housing residents than unassisted participants even in the presence of all individual level covariates. Public housing residents also have higher levels of CVD than do section 8 participants. The prevalence of CVD was similar for unassisted and section 8 participants. These findings point to the potential for health benefits arising from housing voucher use even within a fairly delimited geographic area. PMID:24190105

  13. Cardiovascular health outcomes of Latinos in the Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment (AHOME) study: a study of rental assistance use.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Rosenbaum, Emily

    2014-06-01

    Studies have shown that households subsidized with vouchers live in higher quality units and exhibit fewer physical, mental, and social problems than do their peers living in public housing. However, none of these studies have included cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess if use/type of rental assistance is independently associated with poor cardiovascular health among Latino adults (ages ≥ 18) who are eligible for federal low-income rental assistance and living in the Bronx, NY. Data from the cross-sectional, Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment study, collected over 18 months (January 2011 to August 2012) were used. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes was determined by measured high blood pressure and self-reported heart attack and/or stroke. Type of housing status was defined as: public housing units, units subsidized by section 8 vouchers, and units unassisted by either federal program. Statistical techniques used were analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher among public housing residents than unassisted participants even in the presence of all individual level covariates. Public housing residents also have higher levels of CVD than do section 8 participants. The prevalence of CVD was similar for unassisted and section 8 participants. These findings point to the potential for health benefits arising from housing voucher use even within a fairly delimited geographic area.

  14. Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C.; Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-11-01

    Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. The City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started a construction program in 2010 to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal of the program was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ?6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

  15. 28 CFR 541.21 - Special Housing Units (SHUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special Housing Units (SHUs). 541.21 Section 541.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.21 Special Housing Units...

  16. 28 CFR 541.21 - Special Housing Units (SHUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Housing Units (SHUs). 541.21 Section 541.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.21 Special Housing Units...

  17. 28 CFR 541.21 - Special Housing Units (SHUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special Housing Units (SHUs). 541.21 Section 541.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.21 Special Housing Units...

  18. 28 CFR 541.21 - Special Housing Units (SHUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special Housing Units (SHUs). 541.21 Section 541.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.21 Special Housing Units...

  19. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  20. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-03-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  1. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  2. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process (now Zero Energy Ready Home) in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  3. 26 CFR 1.42-3 - Treatment of buildings financed with proceeds from a loan under an Affordable Housing Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from a loan under an Affordable Housing Program established pursuant to section 721 of the Financial... pursuant to section 721 of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA). (a) Treatment under sections 42(i) and 42(b). A below market loan funded in whole or in part...

  4. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  5. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that stable and affordable housing is an essential component of an effective strategy for the prevention, treatment, and care of human immunodeficiency virus, and that the United States should make a commitment to providing adequate funding for the development of housing as a response to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2011-05-04

    05/04/2011 Referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2692) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of the Congress that stable and affordable housing is an essential component of an effective strategy for the prevention, treatment, and care of human immunodeficiency virus, and that the United States should make a commitment to providing adequate funding for the development of housing as a response to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2009-09-15

    09/15/2009 Referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S9381) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. 24 CFR 1000.240 - When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is a local...

  8. View from east to west of family housing unit (duplex; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of family housing unit (duplex; either #27 or #87, as only the 7 is visible). Unit #27 was three-bedroom and located on 9th Street south. Unit #87 was a two-bedroom located on 4th Street north. These housing units have been removed - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Family Housing Units, In area bounded by Tenth Street North, Avenue A, & Avenue J, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. View from east to west of family housing unit (twobedroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of family housing unit (two-bedroom duplex; #48A & 48B). This structure was located on 8th Street south. No housing sites remain on the ground - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Family Housing Units, In area bounded by Tenth Street North, Avenue A, & Avenue J, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Affordable Housing: A Crisis for Wisconsin Families. A WisKids Count Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

    Growing up in poor quality, unsafe, and/or overcrowded housing magnifies all the other challenges and disadvantages that go along with poverty. Noting that as more and more families in Wisconsin and nationwide struggle to achieve sustainable housing, the connection between housing and child well-being is becoming increasingly obvious, this WisKids…

  11. Manufactured Homes as Affordable Housing in Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Robert, Comp.

    This bibliography includes citations of approximately 60 books and articles pertaining to manufactured housing or "mobile homes," an important segment of the national housing industry. The availability of manufactured homes for low and moderate income groups is significant in light of skyrocketing new-housing costs. The South leads the nation with…

  12. Space and energy conservation housing prototype unit development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunshine, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Construction plans are discussed for a house which will demonstrate the application of advanced technology to minimize energy requirements and to help direct further development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water systems with building configuration and construction materials. Housing unit designs are provided and procedures for the analysis of a variety of housing strategies are developed.

  13. 75 FR 9033 - 2010-2011 Enterprise Affordable Housing Goals; Enterprise Book-Entry Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    .... 31, 2000). \\16\\ See 69 FR 63580 (Nov. 2, 2004). In each case, the numerical goals were established up... minimal. \\47\\ ``State of the Nation's Housing 2009.'' Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard... business days between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. E-mail: Comments to Alfred M. Pollard, General Counsel, may be...

  14. Landowners and the Structure of Affordable Housing Provision in Rural Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satsangi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at the behaviour of private landowners in rural Scotland in relation to housing supply, particularly renting and low-cost housing. The theme is one that has received relatively little research. In consequence, the paper is set in the context of two rather broader traditions in the literature of examining investor/developer…

  15. GATE HOUSE FOR UNITED ENGINEERING CO., Alameda, California. Four elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GATE HOUSE FOR UNITED ENGINEERING CO., Alameda, California. Four elevations and three sections. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot, elevations. Scale ~ inch to the foot, sections. July 31, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Gate House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  16. Strategies that delay or prevent the timely availability of affordable generic drugs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gregory H; Carrier, Michael A; Silver, Richard T; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2016-03-17

    High cancer drug prices are influenced by the availability of generic cancer drugs in a timely manner. Several strategies have been used to delay the availability of affordable generic drugs into the United States and world markets. These include reverse payment or pay-for-delay patent settlements, authorized generics, product hopping, lobbying against cross-border drug importation, buying out the competition, and others. In this forum, we detail these strategies and how they can be prevented. PMID:26817958

  17. Strategies that delay or prevent the timely availability of affordable generic drugs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gregory H; Carrier, Michael A; Silver, Richard T; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2016-03-17

    High cancer drug prices are influenced by the availability of generic cancer drugs in a timely manner. Several strategies have been used to delay the availability of affordable generic drugs into the United States and world markets. These include reverse payment or pay-for-delay patent settlements, authorized generics, product hopping, lobbying against cross-border drug importation, buying out the competition, and others. In this forum, we detail these strategies and how they can be prevented.

  18. Excluding Exceptions: Housing Non-Affordability and the Oppression of Environmental Sustainability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggart, K.; Henderson, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the provision of homes for less wealthy households in rural England. By allowing 'exceptions' to UK planning law to provide low-income housing for local residents, the national government seeks to secure dwellings for the less wealthy and so sustain socially mixed rural villages. This paper explores how the production of homes…

  19. Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

    2010-08-27

    In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

  20. Identifying perceived barriers and benefits to reducing energy consumption in an affordable housing complex using the Community-Based Social Marketing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaves, Daniel

    Energy production and consumption has a negative impact on both environmental and human health. Energy consumption can be directly impacted by human behavior, especially in the residential sector. As a result, this sector has been studied significantly; however, energy reducing behavior change research focusing on the affordable housing sector has not been studied thoroughly to date. This study seeks to implement the first two phases of the Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM) framework in an affordable housing setting. The goals were to identify the optimal behaviors for energy reduction based on phase one survey results and to identify the perceived benefits and barriers associated with those behaviors. Additionally, this study identified nuances in the CBSM process that researchers should take into consideration when implementing CBSM in an affordable housing environment.

  1. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE REFRIGERATION UNIT, SHOWING COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE REFRIGERATION UNIT, SHOWING COOLING COILS AND CORK-LINED ROOM. CAMERA IS BETWEEN SEVEN AND EIGHT FEET ABOVE FLOOR LEVEL, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Swan Falls Village, Clubhouse 011, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  2. Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. 4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Also includes plot plan at 1 inch to 100 feet. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 3. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch and h inch to the foot. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/22/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  4. ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO THE GATE HOUSE, United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO THE GATE HOUSE, United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Plan, elevations, and details of expanded structure. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.B.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 2 of 2. Plan no. 10,504. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot. November 28, 1942, last revised 5/5/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Gate House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  5. 3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 4. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot, elevations, and one inch to the foot, sections and details. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/19/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. Affordable housing through energy conservation: A guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. This data base was compiled using over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. This extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Regression techniques in PEAR permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to over 800 US locations based on climate parameters. PEAR is designed as a user-friendly program that can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts, and as a nontechnical energy calculation method by architects, homebuilders, homeowners, and others in the building industry. Technical documentation of the PEAR program and the database is given elsewhere (see References). 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed-Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.; Moore, M.; Thompson, M.

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a 'base scope' retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a 'DER scope' which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  8. 75 FR 16424 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Coverage Measurement Final Housing Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Coverage Measurement Final Housing.... Abstract The 2010 Census Coverage Measurement (CCM) Final Housing Unit Followup and Final Housing Unit... for previous coverage measurement programs were designed to measure only net coverage error,...

  9. 15. Governor Housing for Units 3 and 4, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Governor Housing for Units 3 and 4, view to the west. The governor controls the servo motors and operating ring visible in photographs MT-105-A-11 and MT-105-A-12 above. The analog displays on the housing are scheduled to be replaced with digital displays. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  10. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James; Moore, Mike; Thompson, Margo

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit (DER) at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  11. Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved, lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbocharging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.

  12. 7. SHEET 1, CONTROL HOUSE FOR DRY DOCK. United Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SHEET 1, CONTROL HOUSE FOR DRY DOCK. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities, Office Building. Plans, elevations, sections, details. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. 1 of 2 sheets, Plan no. 10,507. Various scales. January 4, 1943, last revised 1/28/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Control House for Dry Dock, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  13. 8. SHEET 2, CONTROL HOUSE FOR DRY DOCK. United Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SHEET 2, CONTROL HOUSE FOR DRY DOCK. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities, Office Building. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. 2 of 2 sheets, Plan no. 10,507. Various scales. January 4, 1943, last revised 1/19/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Control House for Dry Dock, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  14. 24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When does the requirement...

  15. 13. Governor Housing of Unit 5, view to the west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Governor Housing of Unit 5, view to the west. Note the analog displays that are soon to be replaced with digital displays. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  16. Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are on right. HAER Engineer/Historian Donald C. Jackson on right is interviewing Garry Dobbins concerning operation of the facility. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  17. Prescription drug accessibility and affordability in the United States and abroad.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steve; Kennedy, Jae

    2010-06-01

    This issue brief contrasts prescription drug access, affordability, and costs in the United States with six other high-income countries, drawing from Commonwealth Fund survey data of patient experiences as well as international spending and pricing data. The analysis reveals that Americans, particularly the relatively young and healthy, are more likely to use prescription drugs than are residents of Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, but they also experience more financial barriers in accessing medications and spend more out-of-pocket for prescriptions. In the U.S., there are also larger income-related inequities in pharmaceutical use. Despite access barriers and disparities, spending per person in the U.S. is far higher, likely the result of paying higher prices for similar medications and using a more expensive mix of drugs. The authors say that value-based benefit designs, reference pricing, and group purchasing could reduce financial barriers and keep down pharmaceutical spending. PMID:20614652

  18. Culturally Afforded Tensions in the Second Life Metaverse: From Sustainability Initiatives in Europe to Sustainability Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistassou, Stella K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the culturally contingent tensions afforded by the implementation of Second Life in transatlantic communications among 13 college-level students at a Southwestern academic institution in the United States and their instructor and an assistant professor and his graduate student at a Greek-speaking academic institution. The…

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, CORNER UNIT AND REPRESENTATIVE INTERIOR HOUSE (NOS. 1921 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW, CORNER UNIT AND REPRESENTATIVE INTERIOR HOUSE (NOS. 1921 AND 1923). THE TWO ATTACHED STRUCTURES WERE ONCE PART OF AN EIGHT-UNIT ROW EXTENDING FOR ONE-HALF A BLOCK ON THE NORTH SIDE OF DIAMOND STREET WEST FROM NINETEENTH STREET. THIS DEVELOPMENT LIKELY ALSO INCLUDED FOUR DWELLINGS IMMEDIATELY BEHIND THESE HOUSES TO THE NORTH, FRONTING ON NINETEENTH STREET. A NOTICE FROM THE MAY 28, 1890 ISSUE OF PHILADELPHIA REAL ESTATE RECORD AND BUILDERS’ GUIDE ANNOUNCED THE DEVELOPMENT’S ANTICIPATED CONSTRUCTION BY PROLIFIC LOCAL REAL ESTATE AGENT/BUILDER THOMAS H. PARKS, WHO LIVED ONLY ONE BLOCK AWAY AT THE CORNER OF GRATZ AND DIAMOND STREETS (IN NO. 1821, NOW LOST). THOMAS PARKS HAD USED ARCHITECT ANGUS S. WADE FOR THE 1800 BLOCK OF DIAMOND STREET, BUT IT APPEARS THAT HE MAY HAVE EMPLOYED ANOTHER OF POPULAR ARCHITECT WILLIS G. HALE’S PROTÉGÉS, ROBERT W. MARPLE, FOR THIS BLOCK, AT LEAST FOR THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF ITS CONSTRUCTION. THE HOUSES’ EBULLIENCE AND EXOTICISM SUGGESTS HALE’S WORK OR THAT OF HISO FFICE; THEY BEAR NOTABLE SIMILARITY TO HOUSES DESIGNED BY HALE A YEAR EARLIER IN THE 1800 BLOCK OF W. GIRARD AVENUE. SEE HABS PA-6677 FOR MORE ON THOMAS PARKS AND THE 1800 BLOCK OF DIAMOND STREET, AND HABS PA-6678, FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT WILLIS HALE AND THE 1800 BLOCK OF W. GIRARD AVENUE. - 1900 Block Diamond Street (Houses), Northwest corner of Diamond & Uber Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 24 CFR 1000.136 - What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants? 1000.136 Section 1000.136 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the U.S. are taking the lead on an integrated systems-design approach to building homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices.

  2. Linking public health, housing, and indoor environmental policy: successes and challenges at local and federal agencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David E; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-06-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of "shared commons" and the "polluter pays" is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities.

  3. Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-01-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities. PMID:17589610

  4. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  6. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  9. 24 CFR 983.54 - Prohibition of assistance for units in subsidized housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of assistance for units in subsidized housing. 983.54 Section 983.54 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.136 - What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants? 1000.136 Section 1000.136 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.136 - What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants? 1000.136 Section 1000.136 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.136 - What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants? 1000.136 Section 1000.136 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  13. 24 CFR 1000.136 - What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What insurance requirements apply to housing units assisted with NAHASDA grants? 1000.136 Section 1000.136 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  14. Silver bullet or trojan horse? The effects of inclusionary zoning on local housing markets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Jenny; Meltzer, Rachel; Been, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (IZ) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. In this paper, panel data on IZ in the San Francisco metropolitan area and suburban Boston are used to analyse how much affordable housing the programmes produce and how IZ affects the prices and production of market-rate housing. The amount of affordable housing produced under IZ has been modest and depends primarily on how long IZ has been in place. Results from suburban Boston suggest that IZ has contributed to increased housing prices and lower rates of production during periods of regional house price appreciation. In the San Francisco area, IZ also appears to increase housing prices in times of regional price appreciation, but to decrease prices during cooler regional markets. There is no evidence of a statistically significant effect of IZ on new housing development in the Bay Area.

  15. Learning from the Past--Preparing for the Future: Addressing Fair and Affordable Housing Issues in the Chicago Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    This conference paper discusses the current situation of racial differences in housing in the Chicago (Illinois) area with regard to the ramifications of the "Miliken v. Bradley" (1974) case. The Miliken case closed the door on busing and school desegregation plans crossing school district lines and in many cases, crossing municipal boundaries. It…

  16. Tuberculosis Elimination Efforts in the United States in the Era of Insurance Expansion and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Victor; Marks, Suzanne M; Etkind, Sue C; Katz, Dolly J; Higashi, Julie; Flood, Jennifer; Cronin, Ann; Ho, Christine S; Khan, Awal; Chorba, Terence

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act can enhance ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) in the United States by bringing millions of currently uninsured Americans into the health-care system. However, much of the legislative and financial framework that provides essential public health services necessary for effective TB control is outside the scope of the law. We identified three key issues that will still need to be addressed after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act: (1) essential TB-related public health functions will still be needed and will remain the responsibility of federal, state, and local health departments; (2) testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) is not covered explicitly as a recommended preventive service without cost sharing or copayment; and (3) remaining uninsured populations will disproportionately include groups at high risk for TB. To improve and continue TB control efforts, it is important that all populations at risk be tested and treated for LTBI and TB; that testing and treatment services be accessible and affordable; that essential federal, state, and local public health functions be maintained; that private-sector medical/public health linkages for diagnosis and treatment be developed; and that health-care providers be trained in conducting appropriate LTBI and TB clinical care.

  17. Tuberculosis Elimination Efforts in the United States in the Era of Insurance Expansion and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Victor; Marks, Suzanne M.; Etkind, Sue C.; Katz, Dolly J.; Higashi, Julie; Flood, Jennifer; Cronin, Ann; Ho, Christine S.; Khan, Awal

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act can enhance ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) in the United States by bringing millions of currently uninsured Americans into the health-care system. However, much of the legislative and financial framework that provides essential public health services necessary for effective TB control is outside the scope of the law. We identified three key issues that will still need to be addressed after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act: (1) essential TB-related public health functions will still be needed and will remain the responsibility of federal, state, and local health departments; (2) testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) is not covered explicitly as a recommended preventive service without cost sharing or copayment; and (3) remaining uninsured populations will disproportionately include groups at high risk for TB. To improve and continue TB control efforts, it is important that all populations at risk be tested and treated for LTBI and TB; that testing and treatment services be accessible and affordable; that essential federal, state, and local public health functions be maintained; that private-sector medical/public health linkages for diagnosis and treatment be developed; and that health-care providers be trained in conducting appropriate LTBI and TB clinical care. PMID:26345625

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will make periodic reviews of houses, both site... for Modular/Panelized Housing Units For the benefit of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law... agency under Public Law 103-354 Rural Housing programs. It applies to proposed development...

  19. Even a rich man can afford that expensive house: ERP responses to construction-based pragmatic constraints during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-08-01

    A linguistic construction is typically viewed as encoding the pairing of syntactic form and semantic information that is independent of the meaning of constituent words. Here with the event-related potentials (ERPs) we demonstrate that such a construction can also encode pragmatic constraints (event likelihood) that immediately influence online sentence comprehension and the associated neural activity. The lian…dou…construction in Chinese (similar to even in English) normally describes an event of low expectedness (a semantic constraint); it also introduces a pragmatic scale implying that any event with a higher likelihood than the event described must occur (pragmatic inference). By embedding a highly likely event (a rich man buying a house) or an underspecified event (a man buying a house) in the construction, we created an incongruent condition and an underspecified condition and compared both with a control condition in which an event of low expectedness (a poor man buying a house) was described. ERPs on the main verb phrases showed an N400 with a maximum in the right hemisphere followed by a late negativity with an anterior maximum for both the incongruent and underspecified conditions, with a larger N400 effect for the former than for the latter. ERPs on the sentence-final phrases showed a sustained negativity for the incongruent, but not for the underspecified condition. The N400 effect may reflect the increased difficulty in unifying the current event into the lian…dou… construction. The late negativity may reflect a second-pass revision according to the likelihood scale to satisfy the pragmatic constraints of the construction.

  20. Affordable housing through energy conservation: a guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes. Data base for simplified energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The DOE-2.1a data base for the five residential prototypes has been analyzed by means of a computer program and reduced to a set of matrices that cover 45 locations. The matrix method for calculating the heating and cooling loads for residential buildings was developed by analyzing the data base load results and running test models to determine the effect of each building component independently of the rest of the building. All of the residential data that we have produced by doing DOE-2.1a computer simulations, including the window sensitivity data, was processed through the matrix program and was broken down into six basic components for each prototype: 1) ceiling insulation, 2) wall insulation, 3) foundation insulation, 4) infiltration (in air changes per hour), 5) window pane, sash type, gap, and area, and 6) the floor area of the house. These six components were manipulated separately for heating and cooling.

  1. Affordable and Sustainable Energy in the Borough of Woking in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, John P.; Curran, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Woking Borough Council in the United Kingdom has long been committed to protecting the environment, a goal explicitly stated as one of the borough's top three priorities. Woking is also known for its pioneering approach in operating an extensive networked electricity and district heating system based on co- and trigeneration, as well as what is…

  2. Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megonnell, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

  3. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit: Annapolis, Maryland. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  4. DOE ZERH Case Study: United Way of Long Island Housing Development Corporation, Patchogue, NY

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that got HERS 40 without PV, -3 with PV, with 2x4 16: on center walls with R-13.5 dense packed cellulose and 1.5” polyiso rigid; basement with 2.5: polyiso on interior; unvented attic with R-48 ocsf under roof deck; ERV tied to wall hung boiler with hydro coil.

  5. 24 CFR 5.359 - Housing programs: Rejection of units by applicants for tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5... a common household pet. An applicant's rejection of a unit under this section shall not...

  6. 24 CFR 5.359 - Housing programs: Rejection of units by applicants for tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5... a common household pet. An applicant's rejection of a unit under this section shall not...

  7. 44 CFR 206.118 - Disposal of housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., has a site that complies with local codes and ordinances and part 9 of this Title. (ii) Adjustment to... occupant of a unit if the purchaser is unable to pay the fair market value of the home or unit and when... units at a fair market value to any other person. (b) A unit will be sold “as is, where is”, except...

  8. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

    2012-06-01

    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  9. 24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Occupancy Certificate under the laws of the State where the Cooperative Housing Development is located. (f... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and...

  10. Farmworker Housing in the United States and Its Impact on Health.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Brooke, Carol; Fagan, Kathleen; Howe, Allyson; Thornburg, Thomas K; McCurdy, Stephen A

    2015-11-01

    Farmworkers in the United States occupy a range of housing, including both on- and off-farm family and communal dwellings. As the farmworker population is becoming more settled, housing needs are changing. Existing regulations designed originally for grower-supplied migrant housing may need to be expanded. Much of farmworker housing is in poor condition, and likely linked to negative mental and physical health outcomes of residents because of exposures to crowding; mold, mildew, and other allergens; pesticides; and structural deficiencies. The existing research literature, both on housing conditions and their associations with farmworker health, is sparse, and large areas of the country and significant domains of health are omitted. This paper reviews this literature and formulates research and policy recommendations for addressing these deficiencies.

  11. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    PubMed Central

    Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

  12. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Hammer, Roger B; Helmers, David P

    2010-01-12

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  13. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radeloff, V.C.; Stewart, S.I.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A.M.; Flather, C.H.; Hammer, R.B.; Helmers, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  14. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, Christine

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  15. Process for Making Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved. lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbo-charging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.

  16. High Performance Residential Housing Units at U.S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Hickey, J.

    2013-10-01

    The United States Coast Guard (USCG) constructs residential housing throughout the country using a basic template that must meet the minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver criteria or better for the units. In Kodiak, Alaska, USCG is procuring between 24 and 100 residential multi-family housing units. Priorities for the Kodiak project were to reduce overall energyconsumption by at least 20% over existing units, improve envelope construction, and evaluate space heating options. USCG is challenged with maintaining similar existing units that have complicated residential diesel boilers. Additionally, fuel and material costs are high in Kodiak. While USCG has worked to optimize the performance of the housing units with principles of improved buildingenvelope, the engineers realize there are still opportunities for improvement, especially within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and different envelope measures. USCG staff also desires to balance higher upfront project costs for significantly reduced life-cycle costs of the residential units that have an expected lifetime of 50 or more years. To answer thesequestions, this analysis used the residential modeling tool BEoptE+ to examine potential energy- saving opportunities for the climate. The results suggest criteria for achieving optimized housing performance at the lowest cost. USCG will integrate the criteria into their procurement process. To achieve greater than 50% energy savings, USCG will need to specify full 2x 6 wood stud R-21 insulationwith two 2 inches of exterior foam, R-38 ceiling insulation or even wall insulation in the crawl space, and R-49 fiberglass batts in a the vented attic. The air barrier should be improved to ensure a tight envelope with minimal infiltration to the goal of 2.0 ACH50. With the implementation of an air source heat pump for space heating requirements, the combination of HVAC and envelope savings inthe residential unit can save

  17. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  18. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  19. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  20. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  1. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  2. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  3. A Look at Coeducational Housing in Institutions of Higher Learning in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imes, Suzanne

    The purpose of this paper is to look at the variety of coeducational housing which presently exists at 10 colleges and universities in the United States. Each of the 10 colleges is discussed individually, the physical arrangement explained and regulations and response to the program discussed. Advantages mentioned for coeducational housing…

  4. Creating a Curriculum and Accommodating Teaching Methods at a Federal Prison's Special Housing Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    The federal prison system provides a number of opportunities for inmates to further their education. These prospects can be made available at the prison and can include, college correspondence, the formal classroom, or at the inmate's cell in the special housing unit (SHU). While it is common for inmates to receive a more appropriate education at…

  5. Navigating Local Smoke-Free Multi-Unit Housing Policy Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana

    2013-01-01

    California state-funded local tobacco control projects have instituted smoke-free multi-unit housing (MUH) policy adoption campaigns in order to secure voluntary policy throughout the state. While landlords can legally prohibit smoking at MUH complexes in California, they often oppose such measures. The objective of this study was to analyze…

  6. 24 CFR 902.51 - Updating of public housing unit address information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service and Satisfaction § 902.51 Updating of public housing unit address information. (a) Electronic updating. The survey process for the Resident Service and Satisfaction Indicator is dependent upon... any points for the PHAS Resident Service and Satisfaction Indicator. (c) Electronic updating of...

  7. 75 FR 81853 - Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units: Subpart Revision and Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 76263). The document issued a final rule amending ] the Bureau's Inmate Discipline Program..., subpart A and subpart B), as published in the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76263), FR Doc... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 541 RIN 1120-AB18 Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units:...

  8. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  9. The health status of latino immigrant women in the United States and future health policy implications of the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou; Castaneda, Xochitl; Benavente, Viola; Peart, Tasha; Felt, Emily

    2013-09-01

    Immigrant women of Mexican birth face unique health challenges in the United States. They are at increased risk for developing many preventable health conditions due in part to limited access to healthcare and benefits, legal status, and inadequate income. Increased vulnerability of women has established a growing need to focus on their healthcare needs because of their role, position, and influence in the family. The purpose of this article is to review factors that impact the health status of Mexican-born women living in the United States and review policy implications of the Affordable Care Act for this population. Mexican-born women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States. Therefore, they comprise the group that will need health coverage in the greatest proportion. As a result, there will be a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare services and culturally sensitive providers.

  10. IET. Exclusion guard house (TAN621) and unit substation (TAN622). Elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Exclusion guard house (TAN-621) and unit substation (TAN-622). Elevations and floor plan. Also show concrete pad for substation. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-621-622-A&S 411. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0621-60-693-106968 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Rental Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe, comfortable, affordable housing; how to cut household expenses or use their homes to earn extra income; home maintenance and home improvement;…

  12. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1282.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.17 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size and...

  13. Sweat Equity: A Study of Housing Systems by and for the People in the United States and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Johnetta B.

    1979-01-01

    Compares housing problems and their resolution in Cuba and the United States. States that U.S. urban homesteading programs such as "sweat equity" are oriented to middle-income people and do not address needs of most Blacks. Contrasts this with Cuba whose government has made a sustained effort to improve housing. (Author/WP)

  14. Land Cover Change Related to Residential Housing Development in the United States From 1990 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantz, P.; Davis, F.

    2008-12-01

    Habitat loss from conversion to urban and agricultural uses is a major threat to biodiversity globally. In the U.S., habitat loss was identified by a majority of state fish and game departments as a primary concern and is a leading cause of species endangerment. Residential housing growth, commercial development, and associated road building are major sources of habitat loss in the U.S. From 1990 to 2000, almost 250,000 miles of paved road and over 13.5 million housing units were constructed nationwide. To understand how recent trends in housing development affect land cover, it is crucial to establish how rates of conversion to anthropogenic uses and types of lands affected vary across the U.S. and why. For example, while most of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in the Eastern U.S. is forested, agricultural lands were preferentially developed from 1990 to 2000. However, in the Piedmont ecoregion, which runs from the Chesapeake Bay southwest to Alabama, forested lands were disproportionately developed from 1992 to 2000. Several studies have assessed land use and land cover dynamics in various regions of the U.S. by combining satellite or aerial imagery with GIS data. However, because of a lack of consistent national land cover maps for more than one time period, assessments were either restricted to a single time period or change maps were independently developed for small areas. Recently, a nationally consistent map of Anderson Level I land cover change from 1992 to 2001 for the contiguous U.S. was made available through the United States Geological Survey National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We use geographically weighted regression (GWR) to compare changes in U.S. Census Bureau derived housing density with changes in NLCD derived land cover from 1990 to 2000 and assess how that relationship varies regionally due to heterogeneity in land cover, existing housing density, and other biophysical and economic variables. To characterize the NLCD map, we compare it with

  15. Access, affordability, and insurance complexity are often worse in the United States compared to ten other countries.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Osborn, Robin; Squires, David; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of the most sweeping health insurance expansions and market reforms since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. Our 2013 survey of the general population in eleven countries-Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States-found that US adults were significantly more likely than their counterparts in other countries to forgo care because of cost, to have difficulty paying for care even when insured, and to encounter time-consuming insurance complexity. Signaling the lack of timely access to primary care, adults in the United States and Canada reported long waits to be seen in primary care and high use of hospital emergency departments, compared to other countries. Perhaps not surprisingly, US adults were the most likely to endorse major reforms: Three out of four called for fundamental change or rebuilding. As US health insurance expansions unfold, the survey offers benchmarks to assess US progress from an international perspective, plus insights from other countries' coverage-related policies. PMID:24226092

  16. Access, affordability, and insurance complexity are often worse in the United States compared to ten other countries.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Osborn, Robin; Squires, David; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of the most sweeping health insurance expansions and market reforms since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. Our 2013 survey of the general population in eleven countries-Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States-found that US adults were significantly more likely than their counterparts in other countries to forgo care because of cost, to have difficulty paying for care even when insured, and to encounter time-consuming insurance complexity. Signaling the lack of timely access to primary care, adults in the United States and Canada reported long waits to be seen in primary care and high use of hospital emergency departments, compared to other countries. Perhaps not surprisingly, US adults were the most likely to endorse major reforms: Three out of four called for fundamental change or rebuilding. As US health insurance expansions unfold, the survey offers benchmarks to assess US progress from an international perspective, plus insights from other countries' coverage-related policies.

  17. Unequal Protection: Secondhand Smoke Threatens Health of Tenants in Multi-Unit Housing in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Rahman, Tamanna; Hanaya, Daniel; Lam, Vanessa; Gomez, Marlene; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke is dangerous to a person's health at any level of exposure. Yet policies that prevent smoking are not in place for a majority of market-rate multi-unit housing complexes, according to a new survey of nearly 1,000 apartment dwellers in the city of Los Angeles. Approximately 37 percent of respondents reported that secondhand smoke had drifted into their apartments in the past year. Households with members of vulnerable populations, such as children or individuals with chronic conditions, are more likely to report smoke drifting from adjacent units. Four out of five respondents--including more than half of those who self-reported currently smoking--supported a smoke-free policy in common areas and/or individual units.

  18. Unequal Protection: Secondhand Smoke Threatens Health of Tenants in Multi-Unit Housing in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Rahman, Tamanna; Hanaya, Daniel; Lam, Vanessa; Gomez, Marlene; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke is dangerous to a person's health at any level of exposure. Yet policies that prevent smoking are not in place for a majority of market-rate multi-unit housing complexes, according to a new survey of nearly 1,000 apartment dwellers in the city of Los Angeles. Approximately 37 percent of respondents reported that secondhand smoke had drifted into their apartments in the past year. Households with members of vulnerable populations, such as children or individuals with chronic conditions, are more likely to report smoke drifting from adjacent units. Four out of five respondents--including more than half of those who self-reported currently smoking--supported a smoke-free policy in common areas and/or individual units. PMID:27197310

  19. Reductions in the United Kingdom's Government Housing Benefit and Symptoms of Depression in Low-Income Households

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Clair, Amy; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Housing security is an important determinant of mental ill health. We used a quasinatural experiment to evaluate this association, comparing the prevalence of mental ill health in the United Kingdom before and after the government's April 2011 reduction in financial support for low-income persons who rent private-sector housing (mean reduction of approximately £1,220 ($2,315) per year). Data came from the United Kingdom's Annual Population Survey, a repeated quarterly cross-sectional survey. We focused our analysis on renters in the private sector, disaggregating data between an intervention group receiving the government's Housing Benefit (n = 36,859) and a control group not receiving the Housing Benefit (n = 142,205). The main outcome was a binary measure of self-reported mental health problems. After controlling for preexisting time trends, we observed that between April 2011 and March 2013, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among private renters receiving the Housing Benefit increased by 1.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.7) compared with those not receiving the Housing Benefit. Our models estimated that approximately 26,000 (95% confidence interval: 14,000, 38,000) people newly experienced depressive symptoms in association with the cuts to the Housing Benefit. We conclude that reducing housing support to low-income persons in the private rental sector increased the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the United Kingdom. PMID:27613659

  20. Reductions in the United Kingdom's Government Housing Benefit and Symptoms of Depression in Low-Income Households.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; Clair, Amy; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-15

    Housing security is an important determinant of mental ill health. We used a quasinatural experiment to evaluate this association, comparing the prevalence of mental ill health in the United Kingdom before and after the government's April 2011 reduction in financial support for low-income persons who rent private-sector housing (mean reduction of approximately £1,220 ($2,315) per year). Data came from the United Kingdom's Annual Population Survey, a repeated quarterly cross-sectional survey. We focused our analysis on renters in the private sector, disaggregating data between an intervention group receiving the government's Housing Benefit (n = 36,859) and a control group not receiving the Housing Benefit (n = 142,205). The main outcome was a binary measure of self-reported mental health problems. After controlling for preexisting time trends, we observed that between April 2011 and March 2013, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among private renters receiving the Housing Benefit increased by 1.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.7) compared with those not receiving the Housing Benefit. Our models estimated that approximately 26,000 (95% confidence interval: 14,000, 38,000) people newly experienced depressive symptoms in association with the cuts to the Housing Benefit. We conclude that reducing housing support to low-income persons in the private rental sector increased the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the United Kingdom. PMID:27613659

  1. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  2. House Poor in Los Angeles: Examining Patterns of Housing-Induced Poverty by Race, Nativity, and Legal Status*

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status. PMID:23585711

  3. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-04-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. Based on a previous study 1, 2, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using natural log of percentage relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as predictor variables, and natural log of emission factors as the target variable. The coefficients of both inverse temperature and log relative humidity with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. This study should assist to retrospectively estimate indoor formaldehyde exposures of occupants of temporary housing units (THUs).

  4. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the additional monthly costs of utilities and other monthly housing costs, such as condominium and... at reasonable terms, energy conservation, and improvements that will entail low-cost maintenance. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Affordability standards....

  5. Validation of in-house treatment planning system software for cobalt-60 teletherapy unit at two radiotherapy installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu'minah, I. A. S.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Wibowo, W. E.; Sugiyantari; Pawiro, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    DSSuperDose v.1.0 is an in-house treatment planning system (TPS) developed by Medical Physics and Biophysics Laboratory (LFMB) Universitas Indonesia as a treatment planning software for Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The main objective of this study was the validation of in-house TPS calculation as an essential part in quality assurance (QA) of radiotherapy. Validation of an in-house TPS was performed with two Cobalt-60 teletherapy units by comparison between in-house TPS and ISIS TPS and by measurements of absorbed dose. Mean dose deviations between in-house TPS and measurement were (1.97 ± 2.42)% for open field, (1.32 ± 1.30)% for tray field, and (2.91 ± 2.36)% for wedge field treatments. In-house TPS provide optimal planning for open and tray beam conditions with depth fewer than 10 cm (≤ 10 cm) and field sizes up to 20×20 cm2, while for wedge beam conditions with field sizes fewer than the physical size of the wedge. Comparison of in-house TPS and ISIS TPS demonstrated a good match of 96%. From the results, it is concluded that DSSuperDose v.1.0 is adequately accurate for treatment planning of radiotherapy.

  6. Lake Hill Administrative Site Affordable Housing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2013-07-16

    11/20/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-342. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2337, which became Public Law 113-141 on 7/25/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Affordable Housing Regulation Simplification Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2012-09-13

    10/01/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing: A federal partnership. Program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Brinch, J.

    1996-06-01

    One of the primary goals of the US Department of Housing and urban Development (HUD) is the expansion of home ownership and affordable housing opportunities. Recognizing that energy efficiency is a key component in an affordable housing strategy, HUD and the US Department of Energy (DOE) created the DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing. The DOE-HUD Initiative was designed to share the results of DOE research with housing providers throughout the nation, to reduce energy costs in federally-subsidized dwelling units and improve their affordability and comfort. This Program Summary Report provides an overview of the DOE-HUD Initiative and detailed project descriptions of the twenty-seven projects carried out with Initiative funding.

  9. The impact of failed housing policy on the public behavioral health system.

    PubMed

    Martone, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    The author describes the crisis in affordable housing for individuals with serious mental illness who have extremely low incomes and outlines implications for the behavioral health system. Studies have shown that nowhere in the United States can an individual with serious mental illness who is receiving Supplemental Security Income afford housing. This has contributed to compliance issues with the Americans With Disabilities Act. The failure of housing policy to effectively address the needs of individuals with serious mental illness who are in poverty is largely to blame for the most visible and costly failures attributed to the behavioral health system: institutionalization, incarceration, and chronic homelessness. It is critical for the behavioral health field to advocate for housing policies to address the housing affordability crisis. PMID:24584525

  10. Navigating local smoke-free multi-unit housing policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana

    2013-01-01

    California state-funded local tobacco control projects have instituted smoke-free multi-unit housing (MUH) policy adoption campaigns in order to secure voluntary policy throughout the state. While landlords can legally prohibit smoking at MUH complexes in California, they often oppose such measures. The objective of this study was to analyze voluntary smoke-free policy campaigns of state-funded local projects by focusing on the challenges they faced. Specifically, we examined 40 local campaigns in California led by county health departments and community based organizations, focusing on the barriers the local projects often had to overcome to enact policy. Our results identify arguments and issues typically raised by MUH property landlords, including the notion of tenant smoker and privacy rights, potential negative effects of smoke-free policy, and issues concerning the enforcement of policy. Moreover, relationships between local project personnel and MUH management often soured, which sometimes derailed smoke-free policy campaigns altogether. Our findings provide agencies with insights from the MUH property landlord perspective that will serve to inform future campaign strategy. PMID:24855882

  11. Navigating local smoke-free multi-unit housing policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana

    2013-01-01

    California state-funded local tobacco control projects have instituted smoke-free multi-unit housing (MUH) policy adoption campaigns in order to secure voluntary policy throughout the state. While landlords can legally prohibit smoking at MUH complexes in California, they often oppose such measures. The objective of this study was to analyze voluntary smoke-free policy campaigns of state-funded local projects by focusing on the challenges they faced. Specifically, we examined 40 local campaigns in California led by county health departments and community based organizations, focusing on the barriers the local projects often had to overcome to enact policy. Our results identify arguments and issues typically raised by MUH property landlords, including the notion of tenant smoker and privacy rights, potential negative effects of smoke-free policy, and issues concerning the enforcement of policy. Moreover, relationships between local project personnel and MUH management often soured, which sometimes derailed smoke-free policy campaigns altogether. Our findings provide agencies with insights from the MUH property landlord perspective that will serve to inform future campaign strategy.

  12. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  13. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... either: (A) Meet or exceed the performance requirements; or (B) Significantly expand affordable housing... cold running water. (iii) The dwelling unit must have a shower or a tub in proper operating condition with hot and cold running water. (iv) The facilities must utilize an approvable public or...

  14. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... either: (A) Meet or exceed the performance requirements; or (B) Significantly expand affordable housing... cold running water. (iii) The dwelling unit must have a shower or a tub in proper operating condition with hot and cold running water. (iv) The facilities must utilize an approvable public or...

  15. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... either: (A) Meet or exceed the performance requirements; or (B) Significantly expand affordable housing... cold running water. (iii) The dwelling unit must have a shower or a tub in proper operating condition with hot and cold running water. (iv) The facilities must utilize an approvable public or...

  16. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... background information available through the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for analysis of manufactured products. This exhibit also applies to the evaluation of manufactured farm...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... background information available through the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for analysis of manufactured products. This exhibit also applies to the evaluation of manufactured farm...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... background information available through the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for analysis of manufactured products. This exhibit also applies to the evaluation of manufactured farm...

  20. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  1. Higher Education State Funding Trends and Policies on Affordability. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. GAO-15-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emrey-Arras, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that the rising costs of higher education are making college unaffordable for many students and their families. Federal and state support is central to promoting college affordability; however, persistent state budget constraints have limited funding for public colleges. GAO was asked to study state policies affecting…

  2. 77 FR 54602 - Notice of Intent To Conduct Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing Demonstration in Baltimore, MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... of opportunity''--as defined by Thompson v. HUD--in the Baltimore, Maryland, SMSA to make units in... promote the availability of affordable housing units in a manner that reduces racial segregation and... Administration (FHA) insured financing to developers in order to encourage the production and availability...

  3. Social work and the house of Islam: orienting practitioners to the beliefs and values of Muslims in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2005-04-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the mainstream media coverage misrepresents the population. This article reviews the basic beliefs, practices, and values that commonly characterize, or inform, the House of Islam in the United States. The organizations that embody and sustain the Muslim communities that constitute the House of Islam are profiled, and areas of possible value conflicts are examined. The article concludes by offering suggestions for integrating the article's themes into practice settings. Particular attention is given to enhancing cultural competence and to suggestions for spiritual assessment and interventions.

  4. Maximising the net social benefit of the construction of post-disaster alternative housing projects.

    PubMed

    El-Anwar, Omar

    2013-07-01

    The widespread destruction that follows large-scale natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, challenges the efficacy of traditional temporary housing methods in providing adequate solutions to housing needs. Recognising these housing challenges, the Congress of the United States allocated, in 2006, USD 400 million to the Department of Homeland Security to support Alternative Housing Pilot Programs, which are intended to explore the possibilities of providing permanent and affordable housing to displaced families instead of traditional temporary housing. This paper presents a new methodology and optimisation model to identify the optimal configurations of post-shelter housing arrangements to maximise the overall net socioeconomic benefit. The model is capable of quantifying and optimising the impacts of substituting temporary housing with alternative housing on the social and economic welfare of displaced families as well as the required additional costs of doing so. An application example is presented to illustrate the use of the model and its capabilities. PMID:23551231

  5. Maximising the net social benefit of the construction of post-disaster alternative housing projects.

    PubMed

    El-Anwar, Omar

    2013-07-01

    The widespread destruction that follows large-scale natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, challenges the efficacy of traditional temporary housing methods in providing adequate solutions to housing needs. Recognising these housing challenges, the Congress of the United States allocated, in 2006, USD 400 million to the Department of Homeland Security to support Alternative Housing Pilot Programs, which are intended to explore the possibilities of providing permanent and affordable housing to displaced families instead of traditional temporary housing. This paper presents a new methodology and optimisation model to identify the optimal configurations of post-shelter housing arrangements to maximise the overall net socioeconomic benefit. The model is capable of quantifying and optimising the impacts of substituting temporary housing with alternative housing on the social and economic welfare of displaced families as well as the required additional costs of doing so. An application example is presented to illustrate the use of the model and its capabilities.

  6. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  7. The Influence of Affordability in Strategic Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    In state houses around the country, one of the common higher education themes is affordability. As tuition costs have increased at rates exceeding that of inflation, students and families have pressed their legislative representatives to examine these increases. Affordability is a term used by various constituent groups, and its definition varies…

  8. A window of opportunity: maximizing the effectiveness of new HCV regimens in the United States with the expansion of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sean J; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-03-01

    Patients with chronic HCV have predictable overlapping comorbidities that reduce access to care. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) presents an opportunity to focus on the benefits of the medical home model for integrated chronic disease management. New, highly effective HCV treatment regimens in combination with the medical home model could reduce disease prevalence. We sought to address challenges posed by comorbidities in patients with chronic HCV infection and limitations within our health care system, and recommend solutions to maximize the public benefit from ACA and the new drug regimen.

  9. 75 FR 76263 - Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units: Subpart Revision and Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... a detailed section-by-section analysis (published on July ] 26, 2005, at 70 FR 43093). This... Monetary fine. F Loss of privileges (e.g., visiting, telephone, commissary, movies, recreation). G Change...., visiting, telephone, commissary, movies, recreation). G Change housing (quarters). H Remove from...

  10. Housing, Design, and Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing…

  11. To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 300 Fannin Street in Shreveport, Louisiana, as the "Tom Stagg United States Court House".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cassidy, Bill [R-LA

    2016-04-06

    09/27/2016 Message on House action received in Senate and at desk: House amendments to Senate bill. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Electrical Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on electrical energy usage in the home was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about…

  13. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on home management of lighting was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about the…

  14. Low Energy Technology, A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Insulation, Caulking & Weatherstripping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on insulation, caulking, and weatherstripping homes was designed for use by home economic teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  15. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known. 1282.19 Section 1282.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent...

  16. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  17. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  18. Has recommended preventive service use increased after elimination of cost-sharing as part of the Affordable Care Act in the United States?☆

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xuesong; Yabroff, K. Robin; Guy, Gery P.; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Background An early provision of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated cost-sharing for a range of recommended preventive services. This provision took effect in September 2010, but little is known about its effect on preventive service use. Methods We evaluated changes in the use of recommended preventive services from 2009 (before the implementation of ACA cost-sharing provision) to 2011/2012 (after the implementation) in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative household interview survey in the US. Specifically, we examined: blood pressure check, cholesterol check, flu vaccination, and cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening, controlling for demographic characteristics and stratifying by insurance type. Results There were 64,280 (21,310 before and 42,970 after the implementation of ACA cost-sharing provision) adults included in the analyses. Receipt of recent blood pressure check, cholesterol check and flu vaccination increased significantly from 2009 to 2011/2012, primarily in the privately insured population aged 18–64 years, with adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) for blood pressure check, 1.13 (1.09–1.18) for cholesterol check and 1.04 (1.00–1.08) for flu vaccination (all p-values < 0.05). However, few changes were observed for cancer screening. We observed little change in the uninsured population. Conclusions These early observations suggest positive benefits from the ACA policy of eliminating cost-sharing for some preventive services. Future research is warranted to monitor and evaluate longer term effects of the ACA on access to care and health outcomes. PMID:26209914

  19. 24 CFR 971.7 - Plan for removal of units from public housing inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in 24 CFR 970.5. (8) A record indicating compliance with the statute's requirements for consultation... Performance Funding System (PFS), the submitted plan will be considered the equivalent of a formal request to remove dwelling units from the PHA's inventory and ACC and approval (or acceptance). The PHA will...

  20. 24 CFR 971.7 - Plan for removal of units from public housing inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in 24 CFR 970.5. (8) A record indicating compliance with the statute's requirements for consultation... Performance Funding System (PFS), the submitted plan will be considered the equivalent of a formal request to remove dwelling units from the PHA's inventory and ACC and approval (or acceptance). The PHA will...

  1. 24 CFR 971.7 - Plan for removal of units from public housing inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in 24 CFR 970.5. (8) A record indicating compliance with the statute's requirements for consultation... Performance Funding System (PFS), the submitted plan will be considered the equivalent of a formal request to remove dwelling units from the PHA's inventory and ACC and approval (or acceptance). The PHA will...

  2. 24 CFR 971.7 - Plan for removal of units from public housing inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in 24 CFR 970.5. (8) A record indicating compliance with the statute's requirements for consultation... Performance Funding System (PFS), the submitted plan will be considered the equivalent of a formal request to remove dwelling units from the PHA's inventory and ACC and approval (or acceptance). The PHA will...

  3. Assessment of an alternative housing reconstruction policy after the 1995 Grevena-Kozani (N.Greece) earthquake: Construction of standardized units in private lots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousteraki, K.; Dandoulaki, M.; Symeonidis, S.

    2009-04-01

    In Greece, the reconstruction of earthquake damaged building stock is technically and financially supported by the state. Housing reconstruction typically comprises three subsequent phases that is emergency shelter, temporary housing and permanent housing in buildings after their reconstruction. The latter is based on financial support by the state to the owner for the repair or reconstruction of each individual building. A different approach was tried after the 1995 Kozani-Grevena (N.Greece) earthquake. The earthquake (M=6.6) affected mainly the countryside of the two prefectures and devastated a great number of small settlements with aged and decreasing population. The experience from the 1986 Kalamata earthquake had demonstrated that low income and elderly households had difficulties in using reconstruction loans and tented to remain longer in temporary housing. In an attempt to take in the Kalamata experience and the development features of the disaster area, certain categories of homeless households were offered the choice to select either the typical financial and technical support to reconstruct their damaged house under their own responsibility or a small standard house (50 to 60m2) constructed by the state in their lot. About 4,000 housing units were constructed in villages all over the disaster area. The paper focuses on this new housing policy. It presents the institutional framework, the procedures for the selection of eligible households, the geography of the constructed housing units, issues of project management and involved costs. It also attempts to highlight strong and weak points of the new approach and to make some comparisons with the long-established approach to recovery of damaged building stock. The overall conclusion is that despite huge complexities in project management and higher costs, this new policy contributed in retaining the population and enhancing development in the area.

  4. 77 FR 61776 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Counseling Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... September 17, 2012, at 77 FR 57103, HUD published Housing Counseling Program and reference to the NOFA charts were excluded. Nonprofit Housing Counseling organizations ] submit information to HUD through... to find and purchase affordable housing; Housing Counseling organizations also assist...

  5. The public health benefits of insulation retrofits in existing housing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I; Nishioka, Yurika; Spengler, John D

    2003-01-01

    Background Methodological limitations make it difficult to quantify the public health benefits of energy efficiency programs. To address this issue, we developed a risk-based model to estimate the health benefits associated with marginal energy usage reductions and applied the model to a hypothetical case study of insulation retrofits in single-family homes in the United States. Methods We modeled energy savings with a regression model that extrapolated findings from an energy simulation program. Reductions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and particle precursors (SO2 and NOx) were quantified using fuel-specific emission factors and marginal electricity analyses. Estimates of population exposure per unit emissions, varying by location and source type, were extrapolated from past dispersion model runs. Concentration-response functions for morbidity and mortality from PM2.5 were derived from the epidemiological literature, and economic values were assigned to health outcomes based on willingness to pay studies. Results In total, the insulation retrofits would save 800 TBTU (8 × 1014 British Thermal Units) per year across 46 million homes, resulting in 3,100 fewer tons of PM2.5, 100,000 fewer tons of NOx, and 190,000 fewer tons of SO2 per year. These emission reductions are associated with outcomes including 240 fewer deaths, 6,500 fewer asthma attacks, and 110,000 fewer restricted activity days per year. At a state level, the health benefits per unit energy savings vary by an order of magnitude, illustrating that multiple factors (including population patterns and energy sources) influence health benefit estimates. The health benefits correspond to $1.3 billion per year in externalities averted, compared with $5.9 billion per year in economic savings. Conclusion In spite of significant uncertainties related to the interpretation of PM2.5 health effects and other dimensions of the model, our analysis demonstrates that a risk-based methodology is viable

  6. Geographic Inequalities in the Availability of Government-Subsidized Rental Housing for Low-Income Older Persons in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golant, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent to which government-subsidized affordable rental units available to low-income older persons are unequally and unfairly distributed throughout Florida's counties. Design and Methods: Primary data sources from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Census were analyzed using…

  7. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  8. Housing Search and Mobility; Housing Assistance Supply Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    The basic premise for providing housing assistance to low-income households is that inadequate financial resources severely limit a household's ability to afford safe, sanitary, and decent housing. An important issue in designing programs to remedy this problem is the ability of low-income households to negotiate successfully for themselves in an…

  9. Indian Housing in the United States. A Staff Report on the Indian Housing Effort in the United States with Selected Appendixes. Committee Print, 94th Congress,1st Session, February 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas B., Comp.; Leatherman, Robert D., Comp.

    Providing a comprehensive collection of data and materials essential to understanding the American Indian housing problem, this report was prepared to acquaint Members of Congress and others with the fact that Indian housing is "deplorable" due to such factors as the prevalence of low incomes, the predominance of trust land, unique cultural…

  10. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  11. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  12. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  13. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.112 - How will HUD determine whether to approve model housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will HUD determine whether to approve model housing activities? 1000.112 Section 1000.112 Housing and Urban Development......

  15. 24 CFR 1000.112 - How will HUD determine whether to approve model housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will HUD determine whether to approve model housing activities? 1000.112 Section 1000.112 Housing and Urban Development......

  16. The College Housing Loan Program: More Effective Management Needed. Report by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Elmer B.

    Results of an investigation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) administration of the college housing loan program are presented. Management weaknesses in the selection of projects for funding and delays in final approval of loan agreements are discussed. The review concentrated largely on construction projects, but…

  17. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals §...

  18. Interest-Based Curriculum for House Care Services: House Cares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natchitoches Parish School Board, LA.

    The 11-unit curriculum guide for house care services, a Federally sponsored project, is designed to help students identify interests and develop skills associated with house care services. Two introductory units deal with the world of work and the total area of house care services. The following unit topics are: sanitation and safety; equipment;…

  19. The Hispanic Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbeare, Cushing N.; Canales, Judith A.

    This report examines the housing characteristics and needs of Hispanic households in the United States, drawing on information from the 1980 Census and the 1983 Annual Housing Survey. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) housing quality is a major problem for more than one in six Hispanic families; (2) among Hispanic subgroups, Puerto…

  20. Comparison between In-house developed and Diamond commercial software for patient specific independent monitor unit calculation and verification with heterogeneity corrections.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Murugan, Lavanya

    2016-02-01

    The study was aimed to compare two different monitor unit (MU) or dose verification software in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using modified Clarkson's integration technique for 6 MV photons beams. In-house Excel Spreadsheet based monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) program and PTW's DIAMOND secondary check software (SCS), version-6 were used as a secondary check to verify the monitor unit (MU) or dose calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). In this study 180 patients were grouped into 61 head and neck, 39 thorax and 80 pelvic sites. Verification plans are created using PTW OCTAVIUS-4D phantom and also measured using 729 detector chamber and array with isocentre as the suitable point of measurement for each field. In the analysis of 154 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU, using heterogeneity corrections, In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS showed good agreement TPS. The overall percentage average deviations for all sites were (-0.93% + 1.59%) and (1.37% + 2.72%) for In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS respectively. For 26 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region below -350 HU showed higher variations for both In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS. It can be concluded that for patient specific quality assurance (QA), the In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS can be used as a simple and fast accompanying to measurement based verification for plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU.

  1. Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welbeck, Rashida; Diamond, John; Mayer, Alexander; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2014-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen sharply over the last 40 years. Although more credit and grant aid have been made available to students, there are still major gaps between aid and the cost of attendance for many students in the United States, all of whom are left to figure out whether they can afford the remaining costs associated with…

  2. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  3. Whose Lives Are These, Anyway? (A Comment on the Recently Issued Report on the Homeless and Emergency Shelters by the Department of Housing and Urban Development.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Kim

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes a recent government report for using faulty statistical methodology and thus grossly underestimating the numbers of homeless people in the United States. Also notes the report's failure to recognize the scarcity of affordable housing as a cause of homelessness. (GC)

  4. 24 CFR 982.615 - Shared housing: Occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing § 982.615 Shared housing: Occupancy. (a) Sharing a unit. An assisted family may reside in shared housing. In shared housing, an assisted family shares a unit with the other resident or residents of the unit. The unit may be a house or an apartment. (b) Who may share a dwelling unit with assisted...

  5. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  6. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  7. California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. National Center Report #07-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, William; Frankle, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights the affordability gaps faced by California's community colleges. Despite the lowest tuition in the country and tuition waivers for the lowest-income students, many California students struggle to afford the total cost of education, which includes housing, food, health care, and textbooks. And although California students are…

  8. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  10. The impact of diminished housing wealth on health in the United States: evidence from the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Tansel; Babiarz, Patryk; Liu, Fen

    2015-04-01

    The sharp decline in home values in many industrialized and developing countries was one of the most evident facets of the global economic recession of 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for 2007-2011, this study examines how the decline in housing wealth affected the psychological and physical health and health-related behaviors of 4007 U.S. households who were homeowners in 2007. We focus on two mechanisms that could account for how the drop in housing wealth affects health: increase in stress and negative changes in health-related behaviors. Controlling for the changes in non-housing wealth and employment status during the recession, the decline in housing wealth is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in psychological distress. Psychological health deteriorates more as the housing wealth relative to total wealth decreases. Finally, homeowners who have difficulties with mortgage payments report substantial increases in psychological distress and have higher rates of depression. These findings, combined with limited evidence of the change in health-related behaviors, suggest that the increase in stress is the main cause of the adverse health outcomes.

  11. 44 CFR 206.117 - Housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., existing rental units, manufactured housing, recreational vehicles, or other readily fabricated dwellings... installation of a manufactured housing unit or recreational vehicle to be used for housing. This includes... housing unit is placed must comply with applicable State and local codes and ordinances, as well as 44...

  12. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  13. HOUSING IN YOUR TOWN, WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROSBY, ALEXANDER L.

    THE ROLE OF THE UNION MEMBER IN REGARD TO HOUSING PROBLEMS WAS PRESENTED. DESPITE THE CLAIMS OF EXPERTS, AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT AFFORD A HOUSE COSTING THREE TIMES HIS ANNUAL INCOME, THERE IS NO PLACE IN THE COUNTRY WHERE HE CAN BUY A NEW, STANDARD HOUSE WITH THREE BEDROOMS FOR $7,680. THEREFORE, BECAUSE NEW HOUSES ARE SO EXPENSIVE, MOST PEOPLE LIVE…

  14. Insecticide resistance in house flies from the United States: Resistance levels and frequency of pyrethroid resistance alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although insecticide resistance is a widespread problem for most insect pests, frequently the assessment of resistance occurs over a limited geographic range. Herein we report the first widespread survey of insecticide resistance ever undertaken for the house fly, Musca domestica, a major pest of a...

  15. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  16. Recycling in public housing: The Syracuse Housing Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, K.C.; DeVoe, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    The mission of the Syracuse Housing Authority (SHA, Syracuse, N.Y.) is to provide clean, safe, and affordable housing for low-income citizens of the city of Syracuse. In doing so, it has worked to be innovative. SHA owns and manages 12 federally funded housing developments and one New York state-funded project, in addition to managing two buildings owned by the city. After nearly 60 years of success in providing affordable housing in the Syracuse area, the pioneering SHA took on another daunting mission in the 1990s: modernization of waste collection and recycling. By the beginning of 1990, SHA was facing two mandates: to initiate a recycling program by July 1, as mandated by Onondaga County law, and to reduce its trash bill significantly.

  17. Transportation and housing energy policies: the energy crisis, minorities, low income and elderly persons in rural and urban perspectives in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.A.; Boone, W.; Grandison, C.; Wilson, Z.

    1981-09-01

    The low income, minorities, elderly and handicapped have derived great benefits from the creation of rural transportation systems and the maintenance of relatively low fares in urban mass transit systems made possible by the Section 147 and Section 5 programs. It is essential that the Section 18 program, which also provides operating subsidy monies to keep the fares affordable, be expanded and its funding increased substantially. The Section 5 program has been of major benefit to the transportation disadvantaged in urban centers. The proposed cutbacks and elimination of the programs in FY 1985 will create severe hardships for residents of the inner cities. Rather, the federal government should continue to assume the major financial responsibility for subsidizing mass transit and keeping fares low. Although there are some problems with the administration of several of the housing energy programs, they have been helpful to those persons who have suffered most from rising heating fuel costs. The FMHA programs have made possible the purchase or repair of homes by low income, minority and elderly persons. The participants have reduced their heating costs as well as improved their quality of life. Although their funding is insufficient, the weatherization and energy assistance programs have both aided low income, minority and elderly persons and should be expanded in scope through increased funding. Finally, the woodstove project offers some hope for reducing reliance on high cost gas and coal as heating fuels and increasing the utilization of wood. The project has been an unqualified success.

  18. Why the affordable care act needs a better name: 'Americare'.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2010-08-01

    The culmination of a century's effort to enact universal coverage in the United States is a law with an uninspiring title, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and an even more awkward acronym, PPACA. The Obama administration has decided to call the legislation the Affordable Care Act, but the expansion of health coverage that the law sets in motion has no name, and therefore no identity. It badly needs one.

  19. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data described above, that submission..., take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After identifying the median sales price, the...

  20. The Origination Clause, the Affordable Care Act, and Indirect Constitutional Violations.

    PubMed

    Dysart, Tessa L

    2015-01-01

    "All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills." U.S. Const. art. I, § 7, cl. 1 (Origination Clause). "As we have often noted, '[c]onstitutional rights would be of little value if they could be . . . indirectly denied.'" United States Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 514 U.S. 779, 829 (1995) The Supreme Court's opinion in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, upholding the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) as a permissible exercise of Congress's taxing power rekindled an old question about the constitutionality of the Act: Was the Act unconstitutional under the Origination Clause? The bill that became the ACA, H.R. 3590, originated in the House as the Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009. It was gutted by the Senate and replaced with the ACA before being passed and sent back to the House for final passage. The Supreme Court has heard very few cases on the Origination Clause, and Origination Clause challenges have met with little success. Most of these cases have developed over the questions of whether the bill is actually a revenue-raising bill that is constitutionally required to be originate in the House, and, if so, whether the Senate amendments were appropriate. But United States Term Limits v. Thornton provides another angle under which to examine the constitutionality of the ACA: an indirect violation of a constitutional prohibition. In this Article, I will provide an overview of the ACA's passage and analyze it through the lenses of traditional Origination Clause arguments and the Term Limits approach. PMID:26809161

  1. The Origination Clause, the Affordable Care Act, and Indirect Constitutional Violations.

    PubMed

    Dysart, Tessa L

    2015-01-01

    "All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills." U.S. Const. art. I, § 7, cl. 1 (Origination Clause). "As we have often noted, '[c]onstitutional rights would be of little value if they could be . . . indirectly denied.'" United States Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 514 U.S. 779, 829 (1995) The Supreme Court's opinion in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, upholding the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) as a permissible exercise of Congress's taxing power rekindled an old question about the constitutionality of the Act: Was the Act unconstitutional under the Origination Clause? The bill that became the ACA, H.R. 3590, originated in the House as the Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009. It was gutted by the Senate and replaced with the ACA before being passed and sent back to the House for final passage. The Supreme Court has heard very few cases on the Origination Clause, and Origination Clause challenges have met with little success. Most of these cases have developed over the questions of whether the bill is actually a revenue-raising bill that is constitutionally required to be originate in the House, and, if so, whether the Senate amendments were appropriate. But United States Term Limits v. Thornton provides another angle under which to examine the constitutionality of the ACA: an indirect violation of a constitutional prohibition. In this Article, I will provide an overview of the ACA's passage and analyze it through the lenses of traditional Origination Clause arguments and the Term Limits approach.

  2. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Home Energy Usage and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on home energy usage and conservation was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about…

  3. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  4. Cutting energy costs in multifamily housing: Practical case studies for the builder and developer

    SciTech Connect

    Whiddon, W.I.

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on an expert evaluation of nine existing and three proposed multifamily housing projects across the US. The existing buildings include three lowrise projects (three to four stories), six midrises (five to seven stories), and three highrise buildings (nine to thirty-nine stories). Two projects were designed and built in the late 1950's, two in the late 1960's, and five late in the ''energy-crisis'' of the 1970's. The existing projects range from municipally subsidized elderly housing, to HUD Section-8 suburban developments, to luxury urban highrise buildings. The three ''future'' buildings, designed by the NAHB research team, were based on trends anticipated in the multifamily industry by IREM and NAHB leaders, over the next five years. The key trends identified were: downsizing of units (by 10 to 20%); increased project size (in number of units), denser developments (more midrise and highrise projects), and increased amenities - all in the context of more affordable housing.

  5. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  6. Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed. PMID:18554382

  7. Electricity Security and Affordability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Whitfield, Ed [R-KY-1

    2014-01-09

    05/08/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 374. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Women in Development. 1980 Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, and the Committee on Foreign Affairs, United States House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Office of Women in Development.

    This report to Congress describes the women in development programs, projects, and activities undertaken by the Agency for International Development (AID) during the period from 1978 through 1980. Information is provided concerning AID cooperation and support on preparations for the United Nations Decade for Women Copenhagen Conference. Presented…

  9. Evaluation of a hybrid constructed wetland for treating domestic sewage from individual housing units surrounding agricultural villages in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D; Park, Woo Young; Lim, Jong Sir; Seo, Jeoung Yoon; Lee, Do Jin; Cho, Ju Sik; Heo, Jong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment efficiency of 2- and 3-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) was evaluated for treating domestic sewage from houses surrounding agricultural villages. The optimum depth of filter media was 90 cm. The optimum volume ratio of vertical flow (VF) and horizontal flow (HF) beds was 1:2, and the optimum filter medium was broken stone in the VF-HF 2-stage hybrid CWs. Based on the above optimum conditions, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 99, 98, 99, 68, and 72%, respectively. However to utilize constructed wetlands (CWs) for treating domestic sewage for an individual house, would require downsizing of the 2-stage hybrid CWs. In addition, the low removal efficiency of T-N and T-P in 2-stage hybrid CWs would require improvements necessary to meet acceptable water quality discharge standards. Thus, to reduce the CWs' area and improve the T-N and T-P removal efficiencies, VF-HF 2-stage hybrid CW was modified into VF/HF(I)-HF(II) and VF/HF(I)-HF(III) 3-stage hybrid CW. The optimum reduced size of 3-stage hybrid CW was the VF/HF(I)-HF(II) configuration which also increased T-N removal. Using this system, removal efficiency of BOD, COD, SS, T-N, and T-P were 99, 98, 99, 83, and 75%, respectively. In VF/HF(I)-HF(II) CW, the removal velocity of BOD, COD and SS was rapid on the order of VF (1st stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > or = HF(I) (2nd stage), VF (1st stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) and VF (1st stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage), respectively. The removal velocity of T-N and T-P in VF/HF(I)-HF(II) CWs was rapid on the order of HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > or = VF (1st stage) and VF (1st stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage), respectively.

  10. Housing Arrangements among a National Sample of Adults with Chronic Schizophrenia Living in the United States: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Stroup, T. Scott; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been no recent national description of where and with whom people with chronic mental illness reside. Using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, the living arrangements of 1,446 clients with schizophrenia from 57 sites throughout the United States were characterized over 1 year. At baseline, 46% of…

  11. Social Work and the House of Islam: Orienting Practitioners to the Beliefs and Values of Muslims in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the…

  12. Allying health care and housing.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  13. Making personalized medicine more affordable.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Precision medicine holds promise to solve the conundrums of clinical care. Foremost is the well-known but vexing problem of heterogeneity and the tyranny of the mean. Who will respond to a treatment? How can patients avoid the harms of treatments that will not work for them? And if we know who to treat, will that make care more efficient and less costly? But the converse can also be true: treatments become more expensive as the costs of development must be distributed across smaller populations. Next-generation sequencing is making genetic testing radically cheaper. But the costs of medical tests also include false-positive results, incidental findings, and the cascade of follow-up. The affordability of precision medicine is intertwined with the broader issue of affordability of our healthcare system, and will require all stakeholders to assume stewardship for access and sustainability. PMID:25728478

  14. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  15. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  16. A Few Reflections on Accountability, Affordability, and Access Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Considering accountability, affordability, and access through the experiences in Chile, East Asia, Australia, Croatia, and the United States offers a clear reminder that trends and issues in higher education are often more similar across national contexts than they are distinct. Across higher education, institutions and systems are responding to…

  17. Reunifying Families, Cutting Costs: Housing-Child Welfare Partnerships for Permanent Supportive Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harburger, Deborah S.; White, Ruth A.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of an adequate supply of affordable, quality housing, child welfare agencies are placed in the unenviable position of separating families to protect children from the debilitating effects of homelessness. This article presents recommendations for cost-effective housing-child welfare partnerships that will shift the burden of…

  18. Welcome to the House System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    Searching for ways to help students feel more connected to one another and to the school community as a whole, a junior high school implemented the social house approach. Social houses divide students into multiple social units, rather than into separate academic entities. Each unit has its own identity and theme.The different groups mix during…

  19. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  20. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  1. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  2. Time Is Money...and the Enemy of College Completion: Transform American Higher Education to Boost Completion and Reduce Costs. Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Stan Jones' testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training. In his testimony, he talks about a new American majority of students that is emerging on campuses, especially at community colleges. These students must delicately balance long hours at jobs they must…

  3. 24 CFR 1000.140 - May a recipient use grant funds to purchase insurance for privately owned housing to protect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a recipient use grant funds to....140 Section 1000.140 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.140 May...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.140 - May a recipient use grant funds to purchase insurance for privately owned housing to protect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a recipient use grant funds to....140 Section 1000.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.140 May...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.140 - May a recipient use grant funds to purchase insurance for privately owned housing to protect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a recipient use grant funds to....140 Section 1000.140 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.140 May...

  6. Quality or Affordability: Trade-Offs for Early Childhood Programs? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Barbara

    The demand for child care services in the United States continues to grow, stretching the levels of program quality to the limit. In fact, the country is facing a crisis in child care. Affordable child care continues to be a major issue for many families. Solutions to the current crisis in child care must, in addition to insuring affordability,…

  7. The Affordability of University Education: A Perspective from Both Sides of the 49th Parallel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the relative affordability of public university education in Canada and the United States. The report was written to answer two key questions: (1) How does access to university education in Canada compare to access in the US? and (2) How affordable is the Canadian university system compared to the…

  8. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change.

  9. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change. PMID:25347659

  10. A Place To Call Home. The Crisis in Housing for the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Paul A.; And Others

    For most low-income households, housing has become increasingly unaffordable. High housing cost burdens have serious implications, including the growing problems of homelessness and hunger. Data on national trends and housing conditions suggest that just as the affordable housing problems worsened dramatically for low-income households between the…

  11. 44 CFR 206.117 - Housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... units, manufactured housing, recreational vehicles, or other readily fabricated dwellings. FEMA may also... manufactured housing unit or recreational vehicle to be used for housing. This includes reimbursement for... comply with applicable State and local codes and ordinances, as well as 44 CFR part 9,...

  12. 44 CFR 206.117 - Housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... units, manufactured housing, recreational vehicles, or other readily fabricated dwellings. FEMA may also... manufactured housing unit or recreational vehicle to be used for housing. This includes reimbursement for... comply with applicable State and local codes and ordinances, as well as 44 CFR part 9,...

  13. 44 CFR 206.117 - Housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... units, manufactured housing, recreational vehicles, or other readily fabricated dwellings. FEMA may also... manufactured housing unit or recreational vehicle to be used for housing. This includes reimbursement for... comply with applicable State and local codes and ordinances, as well as 44 CFR part 9,...

  14. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  15. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  17. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons. PMID:26959488

  18. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons.

  19. Housing characteristics and their influence on health-related quality of life in persons living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: results from the positive spaces, healthy places study.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Monette, LaVerne; Bacon, Jean; Bhuiyan, Shafi; Rueda, Sergio; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Dunn, James; Hambly, Keith

    2012-11-01

    Although lack of housing is linked with adverse health outcomes, little is known about the impacts of the qualitative aspects of housing on health. This study examined the association between structural elements of housing, housing affordability, housing satisfaction and health-related quality of life over a 1-year period. Participants were 509 individuals living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between housing variables and physical and mental health-related quality of life. We found significant cross-sectional associations between housing and neighborhood variables-including place of residence, housing affordability, housing stability, and satisfaction with material, meaningful and spatial dimensions of housing-and both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Our analyses also revealed longitudinal associations between housing and neighborhood variables and health-related quality of life. Interventions that enhance housing affordability and housing satisfaction may help improve health-related quality of life of people living with HIV.

  20. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  1. Radiation Shielding Options for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2009-03-16

    The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) is a proposed power source for an outpost capable of housing six humans for up to six weeks on the lunar surface and emphasizes the design principles of low risk and affordability over high performance. The radiation shield is the most massive component of the reactor system and its effect on launch mass greatly affects the affordability of the AFSPS. Potential shielding materials include lithium hydride, enriched boron-10 carbide, water, borated water, beryllium, boron-doped beryllium and zirconium hydride. Zirconium hydride is the most effective neutron attenuator and also significantly attenuates gamma radiation, but at a significant mass penalty. The other neutron attenuating materials all require the addition of a tungsten layer to provide significant gamma attenuation. Based on neutron radiation alone, lithium hydride is the lightest of the potential attenuators, followed by water and borated water. When gamma radiation is also considered, the lithium hydride/tungsten shield is shown to be the lightest composite shield with a combined mass of 3246 kg, followed by the borated water/tungsten shield (3479 kg). The boron carbide/tungsten shield has a total mass of 4129 kg, but represents significantly less development risk.

  2. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  3. Children, Families, and Disparities: Pediatric Provisions in the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Grace, Aimee M; Horn, Ivor; Hall, Robert; Cheng, Tina L

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has caused and continues to cause sweeping changes throughout the health system in the United States. Poorly explained, complex, controversial, confusing, and subject to continuous legal and regulatory definition, the law stands as a hallmark piece of legislation that will change the health sector in America forever. This article summarizes the Affordable Care Act with a focus on children, families, and disparities. Also provided is the context of the current system of health care coverage in the United States.

  4. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness. PMID:23237245

  5. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  6. Housing Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Reilly

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes the implications of a study done at the Joint Center for Urban Studies of the number and characteristics of families that will buy a house, and what kind of housing problems they have, for the relative status of blacks or whites or other…

  7. Segmentation in Urban Housing Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnare, Ann B.; Struyk, Raymond J.

    1976-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that urban housing markets are segmented, in the sense that significantly different prices per unit of housing services exist contemporaneously in spatially or structurally defined markets, is tested. A main conclusion is that the market is working fairly efficiently to eliminate price premiums and discounts.…

  8. Investigating cigarette affordability in 60 cities using the cigarette price‐daily income ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Ming‐yue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate cigarette affordability in 60 cities. Methods Affordability of cigarettes is defined as the ratio of the price of one pack of cigarettes to daily income (cigarette price‐daily income ratio: CPDIR). Daily income data were calculated using the mean of the seven occupations with the lowest daily wage, as listed in the 2006 Union Bank of Switzerland survey; cigarette prices in 2006 were sourced from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Results Cigarette affordability in most of the surveyed cities remains high. There is a tendency for cities with high income economies to have a high level of cigarette affordability. Most of the cities in Western Europe and South and North America have high cigarette affordability, whereas 66.7% of their counterparts in Eastern Europe have medium cigarette affordability. In Asia, all cities with high cigarette affordability belong to the group of upper middle to high income economies, except for the Philippines. In Africa, Johannesburg and Nairobi have high and medium levels of cigarette affordability, respectively. Conclusion Cigarette affordability for most of the sampled cities, especially those in high income economies, is high. There is room for increasing cigarette prices via tax increases. There is a risk that the increase in cigarette prices in newly emerging economies lags behind the high speed of economic growth being experiencing. Tax increases should be given high priority. PMID:18048622

  9. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  10. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  11. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (<138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL], 138–250 percent FPL, 250–400 percent FPL, and >400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  12. Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Pérez-Blanco, C. D.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme events are becoming more frequent and intense, inflating the economic damages and social hardship set-off by natural catastrophes. Amidst budgetary cuts, there is a growing concern on societies' ability to design solvent disaster recovery strategies, while addressing equity and affordability concerns. The participation of private sector along with public one through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) has gained on importance as a means to address these seemingly conflicting objectives through the provision of (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance. This is the case of many OECD countries, notably some EU Member States such as the United Kingdom and Spain. The EU legislator has adapted to this new scenario and recently produced major reforms in the legislation and regulation that govern the framework in which PPPs for (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance develop. This paper has a dual objective: (1) review the complex legal background that rules the provision of insurance against natural catastrophes in the EU after these major reforms, (2) assess the implications of the reforms and offer concise Policy Guiding Principles.

  13. 24 CFR 8.23 - Alterations of existing housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (including a public housing project as required by § 8.25(a)(2)) that has 15 or more units and the cost of..., alterations to dwelling units in a multifamily housing project (including public housing) shall, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alterations of existing...

  14. 24 CFR 8.23 - Alterations of existing housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (including a public housing project as required by § 8.25(a)(2)) that has 15 or more units and the cost of..., alterations to dwelling units in a multifamily housing project (including public housing) shall, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alterations of existing...

  15. 24 CFR 8.23 - Alterations of existing housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (including a public housing project as required by § 8.25(a)(2)) that has 15 or more units and the cost of..., alterations to dwelling units in a multifamily housing project (including public housing) shall, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alterations of existing...

  16. The downside of marketization: a multilevel analysis of housing tenure and types in reform-era urban China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Zhu, Yushu; Ren, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Based on data from the 2005 National Population Sample Survey and compiled covariates of 205 prefectures, this research adopted principal-component and multilevel-logistic analyses to study homeownership in urban China. Although the housing reform has severed the link between work units and residence, working in state sectors (government, state-owned enterprises and collective firms) remained significant in determining a household's entitlement to reform-era housing with heavy subsidies or better qualities. While the prefecture-level index of marketization reduced local homeownership of self-built housing, affordable housing and privatized housing, its effect is moderated by cross-level interactions with income, education and working in state sectors across different types of housing. Meanwhile, the index of political and market connections promoted all types of homeownership except for self-built housing. By situating the downside of marketization within a context of urban transformation, this research not only challenges the teleological premise of the neoliberal market transition theory but calls for research on institutional dynamics and social consequences of urban transformation in China.

  17. The Downside of Marketization: A Multilevel Analysis of Housing Tenure and Types in Reform-era Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Zhu, Yushu; Ren, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Based on data from the 2005 National Population Sample Survey and compiled covariates of 205 prefectures, this research adopted principal-component and multilevel-logistic analyses to study homeownership in urban China. Although the housing reform has severed the link between work units and residence, working in state sectors (government, state-owned enterprises and collective firms) remained significant in determining a household’s entitlement to reform-era housing with heavy subsidies or better qualities. While the prefecture-level index of marketization reduced local homeownership of self-built housing, affordable housing and privatized housing, its effect is moderated by cross-level interactions with income, education and working in state sectors across different types of housing. Meanwhile, the index of political and market connections promoted all types of homeownership except for self-built housing. By situating the downside of marketization within a context of urban transformation, this research not only challenges the teleological premise of the neoliberal market transition theory but calls for research on institutional dynamics and social consequences of urban transformation in China. PMID:25432608

  18. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  19. To amend chapter 21 of title 38, United States Code, to establish a grant program to encourage the development of new assistive technologies for specially adapted housing.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boozman, John [R-AR-3

    2009-02-25

    05/20/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  1. People Caring about People--The Prairie Housing Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappel, Bruce; Wetherow, David

    1986-01-01

    The Prairie Housing Cooperative has purchased 20 homes which provide 60 people (12 of whom are mentally retarded) with decent affordable housing in five neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Canada. Needed special services are provided by the non-handicapped members when possible or by outside contracts. (DB)

  2. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  3. House Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Bette

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the "house" concept architectural design at Albert Lea High School (Minnesota) and how the design addresses the community's 21st Century educational goals. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

  4. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mutual Housing California, Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, CA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning multifamily project of 62 affordable-housing apartment home in the hot-dry climate that exceeded CA Title 24-2008 by 35%, with 2x4 16” on center walls with R-21 fiberglass bass walls, uninsulated salb on grade foundation; vented attic with R-44 blown fiberglass; air to water heat pumps.

  5. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  6. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  7. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  8. Invited Commentary: Harnessing Housing Natural Experiments Is Important, but Beware Differential Misclassification of Difference in Difference.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Rebecca; Baker, Emma; Blakely, Tony

    2016-09-15

    In this issue of the Journal, Reeves et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;184(6):421-429) present the findings of a natural experiment analyzing the association between reduced housing affordability and mental ill health. Their difference-in-difference analysis of cross-sectional, quarterly population health surveys administered before and after implementation of a policy to reduce Housing Benefit payments in the United Kingdom in April 2011 represents an important way to assess the impact of a national housing policy shift on public health. It is a well-conducted study harnessing a natural experiment and adds to the weight of evidence supporting an association between housing costs and mental health. However, quantitative bias analysis based on the reported findings suggests that a small amount of differential (by unblinded Housing Benefit status) misclassification bias in the outcome may be enough to explain the observed association. Our analysis of possible misclassification bias in the outcome used in the study highlights the need for caution when a difference-in-difference estimate is small, the population is not blinded to its postintervention exposure status, and the outcome measure is subjective and prone to differential (by unblinded exposure or treatment status) misclassification. PMID:27613661

  9. A Place to Call Home: The Crisis in Housing for the Poor. Buffalo, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Paul A.

    New data issued by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) show that most poor households in the Buffalo (New York) metropolitan area pay extremely large portions of their limited incomes for housing costs. Housing is considered affordable for a low-income household if it consumes no more than…

  10. Farmworker Housing in Crisis: How Rural Communities Can Learn from the Arvin Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examines how officials in Arvin, a small rural California community, developed a family housing project to reduce the housing shortage among agricultural workers. Suggested guidelines for similar programs include assessing area needs; matching housing types to needs; maintaining affordability; supervising construction; consulting with local…

  11. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  12. A Multilevel Ecological Model of HIV Risk for People Who Are Homeless or Unstably Housed and Who Use Drugs in the Urban United States.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Elevated HIV prevalence has been observed among urban U.S. individuals who use drugs and who lack stable housing. This article synthesizes extant research on this population and situates it in a multilevel, ecologically based model of HIV risk. Based on a multidisciplinary review of the literature, the model applies social-ecological theory on human development to identify factors shaping the HIV risk context for individuals who use drugs and who are unstably housed at global, societal, neighborhood, household, and individual levels of influence. At the global level, the model includes neoliberal ideologies contributing to the social inequalities that frame the HIV epidemic. U.S. housing and drug policy, including urban renewal, HOPE VI, and the War on Drugs, is the focus of the societal level. At the neighborhood level, mechanisms of the built environment and psychosocial mechanisms are explored for their salience to HIV risk. Research on the association between housing instability and HIV risk is reviewed at the household level. At the last level, relevant individual differences in biology, psychology, and cognition are discussed. Modeling risk at multiple levels of the environment underscores the need to expand the focus of research, treatment, and prevention interventions for HIV/AIDS and addictions beyond individuals and their risk behaviors to address facets of structural violence and incorporate the broader social, political, and economic contexts of risk and health.

  13. A Multilevel Ecological Model of HIV Risk for People Who Are Homeless or Unstably Housed and Who Use Drugs in the Urban United States.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Elevated HIV prevalence has been observed among urban U.S. individuals who use drugs and who lack stable housing. This article synthesizes extant research on this population and situates it in a multilevel, ecologically based model of HIV risk. Based on a multidisciplinary review of the literature, the model applies social-ecological theory on human development to identify factors shaping the HIV risk context for individuals who use drugs and who are unstably housed at global, societal, neighborhood, household, and individual levels of influence. At the global level, the model includes neoliberal ideologies contributing to the social inequalities that frame the HIV epidemic. U.S. housing and drug policy, including urban renewal, HOPE VI, and the War on Drugs, is the focus of the societal level. At the neighborhood level, mechanisms of the built environment and psychosocial mechanisms are explored for their salience to HIV risk. Research on the association between housing instability and HIV risk is reviewed at the household level. At the last level, relevant individual differences in biology, psychology, and cognition are discussed. Modeling risk at multiple levels of the environment underscores the need to expand the focus of research, treatment, and prevention interventions for HIV/AIDS and addictions beyond individuals and their risk behaviors to address facets of structural violence and incorporate the broader social, political, and economic contexts of risk and health. PMID:27093240

  14. Differences in Housing Credit Terms and Usage Between Metro and Nonmetro Areas in the United States, 1971. Agricultural Economic Report No. 305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurlock, Hughes H.

    In 1971, a U.S. Census of Housing surveyed the financing of homeowners and rental properties, including characteristics of mortgages, properties, and homeowners. Data were obtained on places located outside Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) and in places of less than 10,000 population, and on rural areas located outside SMSA's. These…

  15. Stress, social support and housing are related to health status among HIV-positive persons in the deep south of the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K E; Cianfrini, L R; Walker, J F

    2005-04-01

    Self-report health status measures are consistently associated with medical outcomes and are cost-effective. Studies using such measures find that those who live in rural areas or have limited access to support experience poorer health status and poorer outcomes. A survey addressing these issues was administered to 401 HIV-positive persons throughout Alabama. Hierarchical regression models examined the relation of housing stability, stress, substance use and other variables to physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health status. The sample was 34% female and 66% African-American. Most were receiving antiretroviral medications, and nearly 20% were in unstable housing. Age showed a significant negative relationship to health status. CD4 cell count (p < 0.01) was positively associated with PCS; perceived general stress (p < 0.02) and housing stability (p < 0.04) were negatively associated. The model accounted for 14% of the variance in PCS (p < 0.001). For MCS, general stress (p < 0.001) was negatively associated and substance use tended towards a negative association (p < 0.075). Social support (p < 0.02) was positively associated with MCS. The model accounted for nearly 31% of the MCS variance (p < 0.001). Health status among HIV-positive persons may be improved by assessing and addressing social issues such as social isolation, life stressors and housing.

  16. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  17. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford.

  18. Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

  19. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  20. Discovering affordances that determine the spatial structure of reach-to-grasp movements.

    PubMed

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2011-05-01

    Extensive research has identified the affordances used to guide actions, as originally conceived by Gibson (Perceiving, acting, and knowing: towards an ecological psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977; The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1979/1986). We sought to discover the object affordance properties that determine the spatial structure of reach-to-grasp movements--movements that entail both collision avoidance and targeting. First, we constructed objects that presented a significant collision hazard and varied properties relevant to targeting, namely, object width and size of contact surface. Participants reached-to-grasp objects at three speeds (slow, normal, and fast). In Experiment 1, we explored a "stop" task where participants grasped the objects without moving them. In Experiment 2, we studied "fly-through" movements where the objects were lifted. We discovered the object affordance properties that produced covariance in the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp. Maximum grasp aperture (MGA) reflected affordances determined by collision avoidance. Terminal grasp aperture (TGA)--when the hand stops moving but prior to finger contact--reflected affordances relevant to targeting accuracy. A model with a single free parameter predicted the prehensile spatial structure and provided a functional affordance-based account of that structure. In Experiment 3, we investigated a "slam" task where participants reached-to-grasp flat rectangular objects on a tabletop. The affordance structure of this task was found to eliminate the collision risk and thus reduced safety margins in MGA and TGA to zero for larger objects. The results emphasize the role of affordances in determining the structure and scaling of reach-to-grasp actions. Finally, we report evidence supporting the opposition vector as an appropriate unit of analysis in the study of grasping and a unit of action that maps directly to affordance properties.

  1. Lessons from an Energy Curriculum for the Senior High Grades. Unit I - Energy Decision Making (Housing and Home Furnishings). Energy Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Curriculum.

    Energy education units (consisting of a general teacher's guide and nine units containing a wide variety of energy lessons, resources, learning aids, and bibliography) were developed for the Indiana Energy Education Program from existing energy education materials. The units were designed to serve as an entire curriculum, resource document,…

  2. New affordable options for infrastructure and asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Securitas is one of the leaders evolving with technology and delivering new forms of affordable security for mining facilities. It was called in to protect a large mothballed coal mine in the central USA, the victim of repeated thefts. First, Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs) were installed but thefts continued. Later, a new wireless video security system called Videofied which used MotionViewers which use infrared detectors to detect movement and send a 10 second clip of the intrusion to an operator. This led to the thieves being caught. 2 photos.

  3. Habitat Metro Denver -- Perfecting Award-Winning Affordable Homes Using Building America's Integrated Design Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-12-01

    Habitat for Humanity's goal is to supply quality housing to poor families while reducing their energy cost burden, especially in light of ever-increasing energy prices. Habitat Metro Denver partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Project and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to improve their construction and design process to create an affordable home that is not only cost-effective and volunteer friendly to build but highly energy efficient and a comfortable place to live.

  4. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  5. Limb apraxia and the "affordance competition hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects "afford", based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the "affordance competition hypothesis" (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that "affordance competition" may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way of

  6. 24 CFR 100.303 - 62 or over housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... years of age or older. The people under 62 in the 35 units previously described need not be required to... DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Housing for Older Persons § 100.303 62 or over housing. (a) The... occupied by, persons 62 years of age or older. Housing satisfies the requirements of this section...

  7. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  8. Learning to grasp and extract affordances: the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model.

    PubMed

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The activity of certain parietal neurons has been interpreted as encoding affordances (directly perceivable opportunities) for grasping. Separate computational models have been developed for infant grasp learning and affordance learning, but no single model has yet combined these processes in a neurobiologically plausible way. We present the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model that simultaneously learns grasp affordances from visual object features and motor parameters for planning grasps using trial-and-error reinforcement learning. As in the Infant Learning to Grasp Model, we model a stage of infant development prior to the onset of sophisticated visual processing of hand-object relations, but we assume that certain premotor neurons activate neural populations in primary motor cortex that synergistically control different combinations of fingers. The ILGA model is able to extract affordance representations from visual object features, learn motor parameters for generating stable grasps, and generalize its learned representations to novel objects.

  9. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  10. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Andrew; Lubliner, Michael; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Salzberg, Emily

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  11. Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest, Tacoma, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  12. 24 CFR 248.221 - Approval of a plan of action that involves termination of low income affordability restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affordability restrictions only upon a written finding that— (a) Implementation of the plan of action will not... a State strategy approved by the Commissioner under § 248.223 of this part. (c) There are no open.... 2000d); the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601-3619); Executive Order 11063 (3 CFR 1959-1963 comp., p....

  13. Public Housing and Public Schools: How Do Students Living in NYC Public Housing Fare in School? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Education and Social Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    While research and policy debates center on residents moving out of public housing, many families still live in public housing around the country; it is important to consider how to improve their well-being. Approximately 1.2 million units of public housing provide housing for about 3 million tenants throughout the country. In New York City, there…

  14. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  15. [Detection of pathogenic mycobacteria in the environment of the medical units and of the slaughter-house of an African town (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nguematcha, R; Le Noc, P

    1978-01-01

    The authors have made investigations about the presence of pathogen mycobacteria in puddles of rain water and in rill waters of sanitary formations and municipal slaughter-house of Yaoundé. 19 strains of pathogen mycobacteria have been isolated from 84 water samples : 15 M. tuberculosis strains, especially present in the environment of sanitary formations, 4 M. bovis strains, especially present in the environment of the slaughterhouse. The third part of isolated M. tuberculosis strains belongs to the africanum variety of this species, although this variety is prevalent in the human pathologic products. 13 from 19 strains are I.N.H. susceptible.

  16. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  17. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  18. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  19. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  20. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  1. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-07-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  2. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  3. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  4. Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandyke, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

  5. Children, Families, and Disparities: Pediatric Provisions in the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Grace, Aimee M; Horn, Ivor; Hall, Robert; Cheng, Tina L

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has caused and continues to cause sweeping changes throughout the health system in the United States. Poorly explained, complex, controversial, confusing, and subject to continuous legal and regulatory definition, the law stands as a hallmark piece of legislation that will change the health sector in America forever. This article summarizes the Affordable Care Act with a focus on children, families, and disparities. Also provided is the context of the current system of health care coverage in the United States. PMID:26318953

  6. 76 FR 35233 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for HUD's Fiscal Year 2011; Housing Opportunities for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Federal Strategic Plan To Prevent and End Homelessness. These actions address goals to: Prevent and end homelessness; increase the supply of affordable housing; and increase the coordination of mainstream...

  7. Catching up: Latino health coverage gains and challenges under the Affordable Care Act: results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    PubMed

    Doty, Michelle M; Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R

    2014-09-01

    For decades, Latinos have had the highest uninsured rates of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Less than one year after the Affordable Care Act's health insurance marketplaces opened for enrollment, the overall Latino uninsured rate dropped from 36 percent to 23 percent, according to the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, conducted April 9 to June 2, 2014. However, the high uninsured rate among Latinos in states that had not expanded their Medicaid program at the time of the survey--33 percent--remained statistically unchanged. These states are home to about 20 million Latinos, the majority of whom live in Texas and Florida.

  8. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to "afford" an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by "breaking" the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.

  9. Being a Professor in Silicon Valley May Mean You Can't Afford a Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lords, Erik

    2000-01-01

    Report highlights Foothill College (California), a community college in Silicon Valley (the costliest housing market in the United States), as an example of the increasing number of colleges having difficulty recruiting faculty because housing is so expensive in their local areas. (DB)

  10. The Design of Housing and Shelter Programs: The Social and Environmental Determinants of Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Patel, Sheela

    2007-01-01

    Both developed and less developed countries are becoming increasingly urbanized. The earlier industrialized countries have developed more infrastructure to support the building of healthy housing, in neighborhoods that are strongly linked to municipal and global health initiatives, but to some degree housing and neighborhood issues vary only in degree between the developing and developed worlds. Overall, a billion people, a third of people living in urban areas, live in slums, where environmental determinants lead to disease. Although communicable diseases predominate in the developing world and have reemerged in the developed world, noncommunicable diseases are also growing disproportionately in the developing world. At a global level, the Millennium Development Goals explicitly focus on an integrated approach to slum upgrading. The per capita cost of slum upgrading is almost twice the cost of providing new affordable housing at the outset. It is argued that to improve health and well-being in the slums we need to have interventions that reduce urban poverty in the broadest sense and improve the deficiencies associated with slums. There is an urgent need to scale up the best-practice interventions. Examples are given of successful local community initiatives that have been set up under national strategies in Tanzania and by Indian women’s collectives that are globally linked and have helped develop housing and sanitation improvements. The unit costs for such interventions are within the reach of all the key stakeholders. Global commitment is the only missing link. PMID:17387617

  11. FRONT ELEVATION, HOUSE AT NORTHWEST CORNER OF SEVENTEENTH AND DIAMOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION, HOUSE AT NORTHWEST CORNER OF SEVENTEENTH AND DIAMOND STREETS AND THE ATTACHED INTERIOR UNIT (NOS. 1701 AND 1703). - 1700 Block Diamond Street (Houses), North & south sides between Seventeenth & Eighteenth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Homeless, Mentally Ill Youth Benefit from Housing Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Housing Matters and the National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH) in the United States. Nan Roman, NAEH's ... Housing First is a proven method for ending homelessness," Roman added, "and has been shown to increase ...

  13. Waiting in Line: Low Income Families and the Search for Housing. Watching Out for Children in Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth, PA.

    The existing housing crisis for Philadelphia's low income families has been exacerbated by a decrease in the real income of these families over the past 10 years, a shortage of affordable housing during the same period, and the deterioration of much of the existing housing stock. "Watching Out for Children in Changing Times," a joint effort…

  14. 78 FR 37106 - Streamlining Requirements Governing the Use of Funding for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and Persons With Disabilities Programs AGENCY: Office of the... rule amends HUD's regulations governing the Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Program... community to create attractive and affordable supportive housing developments for the elderly and...

  15. Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Vang, Zoua M

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of housing supply in ethnic diversity and the residential segregation of Asian, African and eastern European immigrants from Irish nationals in Ireland. Housing supply is defined as the proportions of new housing, private rental accommodation and social housing among all housing units in an electoral district. Multivariate regressions reveal that, among all three housing supply variables, the proportion of private rentals had the largest effect on ethnic diversity and immigrant— Irish segregation. Areas with higher proportions of private rental units were more ethnically diverse, had greater presences of Africans, Asians and eastern Europeans (as opposed to high concentrations of Irish nationals) and exhibited greater integration between each of the three immigrant groups and Irish nationals. The article concludes with a discussion of immigrant assimilation and questions whether the patterns of residential integration observed would further facilitate other forms of social inclusion for immigrants in Irish society. PMID:21114091

  16. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  17. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  18. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  19. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to “afford” an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by “breaking” the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool. PMID:26441612

  1. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA.

  2. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Affordances of instrumentation in general chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate measuring tool for general chemistry labs. They see the probeware as easy to use, portable, and able to interact with computers. Students find that the PASCO(TM) probeware system is useful in their general chemistry labs, more advanced chemistry labs, and in other science classes, and can be used in a variety of labs done in general chemistry. Students learn the affordances of the probeware through the lab manual, the laboratory teaching assistant, by trial and error, and from each other. The use of probeware systems provides lab instructors the opportunity to focus on the concepts illustrated by experiments and the opportunity to spend time discussing the results. In order to teach effectively, the instructor must know the correct name of the components involved, how to assemble and disassemble it correctly, how to troubleshoot the software, and must be able to replace broken or missing components quickly. The use of podcasts or Web-based videos should increase student understanding of affordances of the probeware.

  4. Improving the Quality of Child Care. Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources on Examining Proposals To Improve the Quality of Child Care in the United States, Including the Proposed Creating Improved Delivery of Child Care: Affordable, Reliable, and Educational Act of 1997. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress. First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings transcripts present testimony on proposals to improve the quality of child care in the United States. Both oral and submitted written statements are included. Contributors are: Representative Peter Deutsch (Florida); Senator James M. Jeffords, committee chairman; Senator Mike Enzi (Wyoming); Senator Edward M. Kennedy…

  5. 24 CFR 983.103 - Inspecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspecting units. 983.103 Section 983.103 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV)...

  6. Looking at School from the House Window: Learning from Turkish-American Parents' Experiences with Early Elementary Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study is an in-depth investigation of the perspectives of Turkish immigrant parents on their children's early schooling in the United States (PreK-3). It specifically explores how these parents connect with or are disconnected from school culture, and how their socio-cultural understanding of education and teachers influence…

  7. A Legalization Program for Illegal Aliens Living in the United States. Statement before the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and International Law, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Doris M.

    A legalization program for illegal aliens living in the United States is examined in this statement by Doris Meissner, Acting Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Meissner states that the Administration's current proposed legislation is designed to regain control of the immigration process through the development of…

  8. Statement before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, on the Operations of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William J.

    This report presents the findings of an investigation and audit of certain aspects of the operations of the United States Commission on Civil Rights commissioned by the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. First, each allegation made against the Commission is briefly outlined and then findings are discussed…

  9. Direct Perception of Action-Scaled Affordances: The Shrinking Gap Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajen, Brett R.; Matthis, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of possibilities for action (i.e., affordances) that depend on one's movement capabilities, and more specifically, the passability of a shrinking gap between converging obstacles. We introduce a new optical invariant that specifies in intrinsic units the minimum locomotor speed needed to…

  10. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of... Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing The costs used for... housing. That per unit monthly cost of public housing must be compared to the per unit monthly Section...

  11. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of... Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing The costs used for... housing. That per unit monthly cost of public housing must be compared to the per unit monthly Section...

  12. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of... Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing The costs used for... housing. That per unit monthly cost of public housing must be compared to the per unit monthly Section...

  13. 75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Dependent Coverage; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure and Recordkeeping Requirement; Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act......

  14. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  15. Contrasting natural experiments confirm competition between House Finches and House Sparrows.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caren B; Hochachka, Wesley M; Dhondt, André A

    2007-04-01

    After House Finches were introduced from the western to the eastern United States and rapidly increased in numbers, House Sparrows declined, leading to suggestions that the decline was caused by interspecific competition. However, other potential causes were not excluded. The rapid decline in House Finches following the emergence of a new disease (mycoplasmal conjunctivitis) caused by a novel strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in 1994 has provided a natural experiment and an opportunity to revisit the hypothesis that interspecific competition from House Finches drives population changes in House Sparrows. If true, the recent decline in House Finches should lead to an increase in House Sparrows. In this paper we test the hypothesis that House Sparrow and House Finch numbers in the northeastern United States vary inversely by examining data from three independent volunteer programs that monitor bird species' abundance and distribution (Christmas Bird Count, Project FeederWatch, and Breeding Bird Survey). In the first analysis we found that House Sparrow and House Finch numbers varied inversely during a time interval when House Finches were increasing and a time interval when House Finches were decreasing. In the second analysis, we found that the rates of geometric change in House Sparrow abundance (ln[HOSP(t+1)/HOSP(t)]) were negatively correlated with initial House Finch (HOFI(t)) and sparrow (HOSP(t)) abundances at individual sites, irrespective of the time period. Given that finch range expansion and subsequent declines in abundance are the result of two very different phenomena, it would be very unlikely for apparent competition or spurious correlations to cause the observed concomitant changes in House Sparrow abundance. We conclude that interspecific competition exists between these two species.

  16. A centroid model of species distribution with applications to the Carolina wren Thryothorus ludovicianus and house finch Haemorhous mexicanus in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Qiongyu; Sauer, John R.; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Drastic shifts in species distributions are a cause of concern for ecologists. Such shifts pose great threat to biodiversity especially under unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Many studies have documented recent shifts in species distributions. However, most of these studies are limited to regional scales, and do not consider the abundance structure within species ranges. Developing methods to detect systematic changes in species distributions over their full ranges is critical for understanding the impact of changing environments and for successful conservation planning. Here, we demonstrate a centroid model for range-wide analysis of distribution shifts using the North American Breeding Bird Survey. The centroid model is based on a hierarchical Bayesian framework which models population change within physiographic strata while accounting for several factors affecting species detectability. Yearly abundance-weighted range centroids are estimated. As case studies, we derive annual centroids for the Carolina wren and house finch in their ranges in the U.S. We further evaluate the first-difference correlation between species’ centroid movement and changes in winter severity, total population abundance. We also examined associations of change in centroids from sub-ranges. Change in full-range centroid movements of Carolina wren significantly correlate with snow cover days (r = −0.58). For both species, the full-range centroid shifts also have strong correlation with total abundance (r = 0.65, and 0.51 respectively). The movements of the full-range centroids of the two species are correlated strongly (up to r = 0.76) with that of the sub-ranges with more drastic population changes. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of centroids for analyzing distribution changes in a two-dimensional spatial context. Particularly it highlights applications that associate the centroid with factors such as environmental stressors, population characteristics

  17. Assistance, Quality, and Affordability Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Waxman, Henry A. [D-CA-30

    2010-05-18

    08/05/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3874, which became Public Law 111-380 on 1/4/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2013-10-29

    10/29/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3370, which became Public Law 113-89 on 3/21/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Keeping Flood Insurance Affordable Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Capuano, Michael E. [D-MA-7

    2013-11-15

    11/15/2013 Referred to House Rules (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3370, which became Public Law 113-89 on 3/21/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. International examples of undocumented immigration and the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Matthew; Baig, Arshiya

    2014-08-01

    As it stands there is no viable health care option for undocumented immigrants of low socioeconomic status. Even more worrisome is that Affordable Care Act simply does not address this issue with any direct plan. The US is in a very influential time period in terms of undocumented immigration and its relationship with health care. The purpose of this paper is to examine international examples of undocumented immigrant health care and their implications for the United States' undocumented immigrant health care. This study found that physicians in the US must work to prevent the initiation of policies which exclude undocumented immigrants from accessing health care. Exclusionary policies implemented in European nations have had disastrous effects on physicians and patients. This paper examines the implications which similar policies would have if implemented in the US.

  1. Labor Requirements for College-Housing Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Barbara J.

    1979-01-01

    Labor requirements dropped about 20 percent during a nine-year period, partially because of labor-saving devices such as modular and prefabricated units. During the same period, the cost of building college housing increased 74 percent. (Editor)

  2. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  3. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. PMID:26598303

  4. Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J.

    1996-11-01

    The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

  5. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding.

  6. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception.

  7. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  8. Post-Recession Housing Crisis on Staten Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Re, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the experience of Staten Island's diverse urban communities with limited financial resources regarding access to affordable housing after the 2008 economic downturn. It details a successful partnership in researching the challenges faced in these communities and offers recommendations for the targeting of resources to…

  9. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... either: (A) Meet or exceed the performance requirements; or (B) Significantly expand affordable housing... heaters that burn gas, oil, or kerosene. Electric heaters are acceptable. (f) Illumination and electricity... monoxide, sewer gas, fuel gas, dust, and other harmful pollutants. (ii) There must be adequate...

  10. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... either: (A) Meet or exceed the performance requirements; or (B) Significantly expand affordable housing... heaters that burn gas, oil, or kerosene. Electric heaters are acceptable. (f) Illumination and electricity... monoxide, sewer gas, fuel gas, dust, and other harmful pollutants. (ii) There must be adequate...

  11. Europe's Housing Squeeze Puts Students in Tight Spots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Affordable housing is an elusive commodity for students in Paris and much of the rest of Europe. Many European universities are in cities where property values have soared in recent years--along with higher-education enrollment figures and the number of students vying for rooms. Few of the universities have dormitories, and students are left…

  12. There's No Place Like Home: How America's Housing Crisis Threatens Our Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Megan; Sharfstein, Joshua; Shaw, Randy

    This report pulls together recent research from the Centers for Disease Control, leading medical and public health journals, and firsthand observations by pediatricians across the country on the link between affordable housing and children's health and outcomes. Also included are the most recent data from the America Housing Survey, the U.S.…

  13. Affordable proteomics: the two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Marc

    2003-06-01

    Numerous proteomic methodologies exist, but most require a heavy investment in expertise and technology. This puts these approaches out of reach for many laboratories and small companies, rarely allowing proteomics to be used as a pilot approach for biomarker or target identification. Two proteomic approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and the two-hybrid systems, are currently available to most researchers. The two-hybrid systems, though accommodating to large-scale experiments, were originally designed as practical screens, that by comparison to current proteomics tools were small-scale, affordable and technically feasible. The screens rapidly generated data, identifying protein interactions that were previously uncharacterized. The foundation for a two-hybrid proteomic investigation can be purchased as separate kits from a number of companies. The true power of the technique lies not in its affordability, but rather in its portability. The two-hybrid system puts proteomics back into laboratories where the output of the screens can be evaluated by researchers with experience in the particular fields of basic research, cancer biology, toxicology or drug development.

  14. Expressing the sense of the Congress that the lack of adequate housing must be addressed as a barrier to effective HIV prevention, treatment, and care, and that the United States should make a commitment to providing adequate funding for developing housing as a response to the AIDS pandemic.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Nadler, Jerrold [D-NY-8

    2009-06-02

    05/25/2010 Received in the Senate and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Leveraging the Affordable Care Act to improve the health of mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Grande, David; Srinivas, Sindhu K

    2013-06-01

    Health insurance in the United States is a patchwork system whereby opportunities for coverage are strongly associated with life circumstances (ie, age, income, pregnancy, parental status). For pregnant women, this situation contributes to unstable coverage before, between, and after pregnancies. The Affordable Care Act has the potential to make coverage for women of reproductive age more stable and create new opportunities to intervene on conditions associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity. In this article, we discuss the health economics of the Affordable Care Act, its implications for maternal and neonatal health, specific challenges associated with implementation, and opportunities for obstetricians to leverage the Affordable Care Act to improve the care of women. PMID:23812465

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Caldwell and Johnson — Church Community and Housing Corporation, Charlestown, RI

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This DOE Zero Energy Ready Home garnered an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, for its highly insulated construction, minisplit heat pump and water heater, and triple pane windows.

  17. 75 FR 45149 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    .... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD announces the availability on its website of the application information... objectives of the program are to improve financial literacy, expand homeownership opportunities, improve access to affordable housing, and preventing foreclosure. The notice providing information regarding...

  18. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27668424

  19. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  1. 24 CFR 982.605 - SRO: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) (space and security). Since the SRO units will not house children, the housing quality standards in § 982... facilities, and space and security characteristics must meet local code standards for SRO housing. In the... building. (C) Every lavatory basin and bathtub or shower must be supplied at all times with an...

  2. 24 CFR 982.605 - SRO: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) (space and security). Since the SRO units will not house children, the housing quality standards in § 982... facilities, and space and security characteristics must meet local code standards for SRO housing. In the... building. (C) Every lavatory basin and bathtub or shower must be supplied at all times with an...

  3. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit, Annapolis, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, the BA-PIRC research team evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This case study summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete.

  4. Housing and Health in Ghana: The Psychosocial Impacts of Renting a Home

    PubMed Central

    Luginaah, Isaac; Arku, Godwin; Baiden, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study investigating the impacts of renting a home on the psychosocial health of tenants in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) in Ghana. In-depth interviews (n = 33) were conducted with private renters in Adabraka, Accra. The findings show that private renters in the AMA face serious problems in finding appropriate and affordable rental units, as well as a persistent threat of eviction by homeowners. These challenges tend to predispose renters to psychosocial distress and diminishing ontological security. Findings are relevant to a range of pluralistic policy options that emphasize both formal and informal housing provision, together with the reorganization and decentralization of the Rent Control Board to the district level to facilitate easy access by the citizenry. PMID:20616989

  5. H.R. 432: A Bill to amend chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, to improve natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline safety, in response to the natural gas pipeline accident in Edison, New Jersey, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 432, A Bill to amend chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, to improve natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline safety, in response to the natural gas pipeline accident in Edison, New Jersey, and for other purposes. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 5, 1995.

  6. Sea Training at Maritime Academies Oversight. Hearings Before the Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on Sea Training of United States Merchant Marine Officers and Different Ways of Satisfying This Requirement at the Various Maritime Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    Recorded are minutes of hearings before the House Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training regarding the sea training of United States Merchant Marine officers. Examined are various approaches to meeting the sea training requirement, especially the options of maritime academy training vessels, sailing on U.S.-flag merchant…

  7. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  8. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  9. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  10. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population.

  11. Employer Reactions to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Muller, Leslie A; Isely, Paul; Levin, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Although the implementation of parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was delayed until 2015, many firms had already made changes to their health insurance plans and their business practices. This article reports results from a survey administered to western Michigan firms in October 2013 requesting information on any changes they made in response to ACA. The authors found that although 89% of employers planned to offer health insurance in 2014, that number dropped to 66% in 2015. The main ways organizations were controlling health costs were by changing prescription coverage, passing on the costs to employees through higher copays and premiums and offering more high-deductible health plans with health savings accounts. Employers also were altering business practices by decreasing future hiring and decreasing the hours of part-time workers. The authors find that many of these changes were due to the uncertainty firms were facing during the ACA implementation process. PMID:26540944

  12. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-07-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  13. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For shared housing, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio... for the family may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the shared housing... standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the family unit size; or (2) The pro-rata...

  14. New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Measuring food prices per gram, rather than per calorie, is one way to make healthful vegetables appear less expensive. However, a better measure of affordability would take the nutrient content of vegetables into account. This study, based on analyses of US Department of Agriculture datasets, aimed to identify which vegetables, including juices and soups, provided the most nutrients per unit cost. Nutrient density was measured using the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium. Food cost in dollars was calculated per 100 g, per 100 kcal, per serving, and per nutrient content. One-way analyses of variance with post hoc tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results showed that tomato juices and tomato soups, dark green leafy and nonleafy vegetables, and deep yellow vegetables, including sweet potatoes, had the highest NRF scores overall. Highest NRF scores per dollar were obtained for sweet potatoes, white potatoes, tomato juices and tomato soups, carrots, and broccoli. Tomato sauces, raw tomatoes, and potato chips were eaten more frequently than were many other vegetables that were both more affordable and more nutrient-rich. These new measures of affordable nutrition can help foodservice and health professionals identify those vegetables that provide the highest nutrient density per unit cost. Processed vegetables, including soups and juices, can contribute to the quality and the affordability of the diet.

  15. New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Measuring food prices per gram, rather than per calorie, is one way to make healthful vegetables appear less expensive. However, a better measure of affordability would take the nutrient content of vegetables into account. This study, based on analyses of US Department of Agriculture datasets, aimed to identify which vegetables, including juices and soups, provided the most nutrients per unit cost. Nutrient density was measured using the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium. Food cost in dollars was calculated per 100 g, per 100 kcal, per serving, and per nutrient content. One-way analyses of variance with post hoc tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results showed that tomato juices and tomato soups, dark green leafy and nonleafy vegetables, and deep yellow vegetables, including sweet potatoes, had the highest NRF scores overall. Highest NRF scores per dollar were obtained for sweet potatoes, white potatoes, tomato juices and tomato soups, carrots, and broccoli. Tomato sauces, raw tomatoes, and potato chips were eaten more frequently than were many other vegetables that were both more affordable and more nutrient-rich. These new measures of affordable nutrition can help foodservice and health professionals identify those vegetables that provide the highest nutrient density per unit cost. Processed vegetables, including soups and juices, can contribute to the quality and the affordability of the diet. PMID:23714199

  16. The U.S. health insurance marketplace: are premiums truly affordable?

    PubMed

    Graetz, Ilana; Kaplan, Cameron M; Kaplan, Erin K; Bailey, James E; Waters, Teresa M

    2014-10-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires that individuals have health insurance or pay a penalty. Individuals are exempt from paying this penalty if the after-subsidy cost of the least-expensive plan available to them is greater than 8% of their income. For this study, premium data for all health plans offered on the state and federal health insurance marketplaces were collected; the after-subsidy cost of premiums for the least-expensive bronze plan for every county in the United States was calculated; and variations in premium affordability by age, income, and geographic area were assessed. Results indicated that-although marketplace subsidies ensure affordable health insurance for most persons in the United States-many individuals with incomes just above the subsidy threshold will lack affordable coverage and will be exempt from the mandate. Furthermore, young individuals with low incomes often pay as much as or more than older individuals for bronze plans. If substantial numbers of younger, healthier adults choose to remain uninsured because of cost, health insurance premiums across all ages may increase over time. PMID:25199512

  17. Reform Americans Can Afford Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Herger, Wally [R-CA-2

    2010-05-27

    08/10/2010 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Herger. Petition No: 111-12. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 8/10/2010, a motion was filed to discharge the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Appropriations, Ways and Means, Education and Labor, the Judiciary, Natural Resources, House Administration, and Rules from consideration of H.R.5424. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for... Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Affordable Housing with Habitat for Humanity

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America support of Habitat for Humanity including researchers who wrote Habitat construction guides and teams that have worked with affiliates on numerous field projects.

  19. The Dark Side of College (Un)affordability: Food and Housing Insecurity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broton, Katharine; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Some students from low-income families are unable to pay their college costs without experiencing material hardship. What they do to make ends meet (e.g., go hungry and homeless) inhibits learning and discourages persistence. Strategic college leaders are investigating the needs of their students and drawing on the strengths of their institutions…

  20. 75 FR 52689 - Multifamily Housing Reform and Affordability Act: Projects Eligible for a Restructuring Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... implementing the Mark-to-Market program in 24 CFR parts 401 and 402 (63 FR 48943). HUD accepted public comments... rule on March 22, 2000 (65 FR 15485), primarily to make regulatory changes regarding procedures other... 12, 2006, HUD issued a final rule, amending its regulations in 24 CFR parts 401 and 402 (71 FR...

  1. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  2. 75 FR 81659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice--Prohibition on Lifetime Limits ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act)......

  3. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary...: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act... Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act). Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  4. 24 CFR 91.210 - Housing market analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the extent information is available, an estimate of the number of vacant or abandoned buildings and... accessible units, as required by 24 CFR 8.25), and the public housing agency's strategy for improving the... units are expected to be lost from the assisted housing inventory for any reason, such as expiration...

  5. 24 CFR 91.210 - Housing market analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the extent information is available, an estimate of the number of vacant or abandoned buildings and... accessible units, as required by 24 CFR 8.25), and the public housing agency's strategy for improving the... units are expected to be lost from the assisted housing inventory for any reason, such as expiration...

  6. 24 CFR 91.210 - Housing market analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the extent information is available, an estimate of the number of vacant or abandoned buildings and... accessible units, as required by 24 CFR 8.25), and the public housing agency's strategy for improving the... units are expected to be lost from the assisted housing inventory for any reason, such as expiration...

  7. A general protocol to afford enantioenriched linear homoprenylic amines.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Irene; Foubelo, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gomez, Jose C

    2013-11-21

    The reaction of a readily obtained chiral branched homoprenylamonium salt with a range of aldehydes, including aliphatic substrates, affords the corresponding linear isomers in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  8. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  9. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  10. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  11. Broken affordances, broken objects: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Giovanni; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Rodà, Francesca; Riggio, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that specific components of motor programs are automatically activated when they are afforded by object related pragmatic features. Among these features the handle appears to be particularly salient for interacting with an object. The aim of this study was to test the modulation of the motor system when object features, particularly relevant for the action, like the object's handle, are violated. In order to address this issue a TMS paradigm was used in which familiar objects with a whole or broken handle, positioned to the right or to the left, were centrally presented. A control condition was also included in which a symbol ('#' character) was shown in the right or in the left visual field. Participants had to watch stimuli carefully. The left hemisphere hand motor area was magnetically stimulated 200 ms after stimulus presentation. Results showed that MEP areas were larger when the handle was located to the right side consistent with the visuomotor role of this feature, but only when the handle was complete. The present data (1) suggest a more active role of the dorsal stream in building up object knowledge and (2) allow one to rule out the role of any asymmetrical aspect of an object in motor coding. PMID:19615389

  12. Scaling affordances for human reach actions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeg Joo; Mark, Leonard S

    2004-12-01

    A methodology developed by Cesari and Newell [Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (1999). The scaling of human grip configuration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25, 927-935; Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (2000). The body-scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years. Developmental Psychobiology 36, 301-310] was used to delineate the roles of an object's weight (W) and distance (D) as well as the actor's strength (S) in determining the macroscopic action used to reach for the object. Participants reached for objects of five different weights placed at 10 distances. The findings of a single discriminant analysis revealed that when object weight is scaled in terms of each individual's strength and reach distance is scaled in terms of each individual's maximum-seated reach distance, a single discriminant analysis was able to predict 90% of the reach modes used by both men and women. The result of the discriminant analysis was used to construct a body-scaled equation, K=lnD+ln(W/S)/36, similar in form to the one derived by Cesari and Newell, accurately predicted the reach action used. Our findings indicate that Cesari and Newell's method can identify a complex relationship between geometric and dynamic constraints that determine the affordances for different reach actions. PMID:15664673

  13. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    PubMed

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

  14. To require the Secretary of the Interior to assemble a team of technical, policy, and financial experts to address the energy needs of the insular areas of the United States and the Freely Associated States through the development of energy action plans aimed at promoting access to affordable, reliable energy, including increasing use of indigenous clean-energy resources, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2014-12-08

    12/12/2014 Received in the Senate. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.83, which became Public Law 113-235 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Housing, income support and mental health: Points of disconnection

    PubMed Central

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Joplin, Libbey; Schofield, Ruth; Csiernik, Rick; Gorlick, Carolyne; Turner, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    There exists a disconnection between evolving policies in the policy arenas of mental health, housing, and income support in Canada. One of the complexities associated with analysing the intersection of these policies is that federal, provincial, and municipal level policies are involved. Canada is one of the few developed countries without a national mental health policy and because of the federal policy reforms of the 1970s, the provincial governments now oversee the process of deinstitutionalization from the hospital to the community level. During this same period the availability of affordable housing has decreased as responsibility for social housing has been transfered from the federal government to the provincial and/or municipal levels of government. Canada also stands alone in terms of being a developed nation without national housing policy instead what is considered "affordable" housing is partially dependant upon individuals' personal economic resources. As well, over the past decade rates of income supports have also been reduced. Psychiatric survivors have long been identified as being at risk for homelessness, with the disconnection existing between housing, income and mental health policies and the lack of a national policy in any of these policies areas further contributing to this risk. PMID:18072980

  16. Land management practices associated with house loss in wildfires.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Philip; van Bommel, Linda; Gill, A Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J; Driscoll, Don A; Bradstock, Ross A; Knight, Emma; Moritz, Max A; Stephens, Scott L; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-01-01

    Losses to life and property from unplanned fires (wildfires) are forecast to increase because of population growth in peri-urban areas and climate change. In response, there have been moves to increase fuel reduction--clearing, prescribed burning, biomass removal and grazing--to afford greater protection to peri-urban communities in fire-prone regions. But how effective are these measures? Severe wildfires in southern Australia in 2009 presented a rare opportunity to address this question empirically. We predicted that modifying several fuels could theoretically reduce house loss by 76%-97%, which would translate to considerably fewer wildfire-related deaths. However, maximum levels of fuel reduction are unlikely to be feasible at every house for logistical and environmental reasons. Significant fuel variables in a logistic regression model we selected to predict house loss were (in order of decreasing effect): (1) the cover of trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses, (2) whether trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses was predominantly remnant or planted, (3) the upwind distance from houses to groups of trees or shrubs, (4) the upwind distance from houses to public forested land (irrespective of whether it was managed for nature conservation or logging), (5) the upwind distance from houses to prescribed burning within 5 years, and (6) the number of buildings or structures within 40 m of houses. All fuel treatments were more effective if undertaken closer to houses. For example, 15% fewer houses were destroyed if prescribed burning occurred at the observed minimum distance from houses (0.5 km) rather than the observed mean distance from houses (8.5 km). Our results imply that a shift in emphasis away from broad-scale fuel-reduction to intensive fuel treatments close to property will more effectively mitigate impacts from wildfires on peri-urban communities. PMID:22279530

  17. Land management practices associated with house loss in wildfires.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Philip; van Bommel, Linda; Gill, A Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J; Driscoll, Don A; Bradstock, Ross A; Knight, Emma; Moritz, Max A; Stephens, Scott L; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-01-01

    Losses to life and property from unplanned fires (wildfires) are forecast to increase because of population growth in peri-urban areas and climate change. In response, there have been moves to increase fuel reduction--clearing, prescribed burning, biomass removal and grazing--to afford greater protection to peri-urban communities in fire-prone regions. But how effective are these measures? Severe wildfires in southern Australia in 2009 presented a rare opportunity to address this question empirically. We predicted that modifying several fuels could theoretically reduce house loss by 76%-97%, which would translate to considerably fewer wildfire-related deaths. However, maximum levels of fuel reduction are unlikely to be feasible at every house for logistical and environmental reasons. Significant fuel variables in a logistic regression model we selected to predict house loss were (in order of decreasing effect): (1) the cover of trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses, (2) whether trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses was predominantly remnant or planted, (3) the upwind distance from houses to groups of trees or shrubs, (4) the upwind distance from houses to public forested land (irrespective of whether it was managed for nature conservation or logging), (5) the upwind distance from houses to prescribed burning within 5 years, and (6) the number of buildings or structures within 40 m of houses. All fuel treatments were more effective if undertaken closer to houses. For example, 15% fewer houses were destroyed if prescribed burning occurred at the observed minimum distance from houses (0.5 km) rather than the observed mean distance from houses (8.5 km). Our results imply that a shift in emphasis away from broad-scale fuel-reduction to intensive fuel treatments close to property will more effectively mitigate impacts from wildfires on peri-urban communities.

  18. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    HERBERT, CLAIRE W.; MORENOFF, JEFFREY D.; HARDING, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports. PMID:26913294

  19. Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E; Bonar, Jacob

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100), which qualifies it for federal energy efficiency and solar incentives. The house is leading to the planned construction of a similar home in Greensburg, Kansas, and 21 staff houses in the Walden Reserve, a 7000-unit "deep green" community in Cookville, Tennessee. Discussions are underway for construction of similar houses in Charleston, South Carolina, Seattle, Washington, Knoxville and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and upstate New York. This house should lead to a 40% and 50% Gate-3, Mixed-Humid-Climate Joule for the DOE Building America Program. The house is constructed with structurally-insulated-panel walls and roof, raised metal-seam roof with infrared reflective coating, airtight envelope (1.65 air changes per hour at 50 Pascal), supply mechanical ventilation, ducts inside the conditioned space, extensive moisture control package, foundation geothermal space heating and cooling system, ZEHcor wall, solar water heater, and a 2.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. The detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 compared to all the houses in this series are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Based on a validated computer simulation of ZEH5 with typical occupancy patterns and energy services for four occupants, energy for this all-electric house is predicted to cost only $0.66/day ($0.86/day counting the hookup charges). By contrast, the benchmark house would require $3.56/day, including hookup charges (these costs are based on a 2006 residential rates of $0.07/kWh and solar buyback at $0.15/kWh). The solar

  20. Trends and affordability of cigarette prices: ample room for tax increases and related health gains

    PubMed Central

    Guindon, G; Tobin, S; Yach, D

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare cigarette price data from more than 80 countries using varying methods, examine trends in prices and affordability during the 1990s, and explore various policy implications pertaining to tobacco prices. Design: March 2001 cigarette price data from the Economist Intelligence Unit are used to compare cigarette prices across countries. To facilitate comparison and to assess affordability, prices are presented in US dollars, purchasing power parity (PPP) units using the Big Mac index as an indicator of PPP and in terms of minutes of labour required to purchase a pack of cigarettes. Annual real percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 2000 and annual changes in the minutes of labour required to buy cigarettes between 1991 and 2000 are also calculated to examine trends. Results: Cigarette prices tend to be higher in wealthier countries and in countries that have strong tobacco control programmes. On the other hand, minutes of labour required to purchase cigarettes vary vastly between countries. Trends between 1990 and 2000 in real prices and minutes of labour indicate, with some exceptions, that cigarettes have become more expensive in most developed countries but more affordable in many developing countries. However, in the UK, despite recent increases in price, cigarettes are still more affordable than they were in the 1960s. Conclusions: The results suggest that there is ample room to increase tobacco prices through taxation. In too many countries, cigarette prices have failed to keep up with increases in the general price level of goods and services, rendering them more affordable in 2000 than they were at the beginning of the decade. Opportunities to increase government revenue and improve health through reduced consumption brought about by higher prices have been overlooked in many countries. PMID:11891366

  1. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: A Primer for Hand Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States healthcare industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 Titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals. PMID:25066853

  2. The patient protection and Affordable Care Act: a primer for hand surgeons.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States health care industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals.

  3. Student-Initiated Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

  4. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  5. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  6. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  7. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  8. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  9. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  10. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn't appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  11. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn`t appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  12. 7 CFR 1955.111 - Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing). 1955... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.111 Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing... Housing Act of 1949, as amended, (RH property). Single family units (generally which secured loans...

  13. 7 CFR 1955.111 - Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing). 1955... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.111 Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing... Housing Act of 1949, as amended, (RH property). Single family units (generally which secured loans...

  14. 28 CFR 552.14 - Search of inmate housing and work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Search of inmate housing and work areas... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Searches of Housing Units, Inmates, and Inmate Work Areas § 552.14 Search of inmate housing and work areas. (a) Staff may search an inmate's housing and work area, and personal...

  15. 28 CFR 552.14 - Search of inmate housing and work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Search of inmate housing and work areas... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Searches of Housing Units, Inmates, and Inmate Work Areas § 552.14 Search of inmate housing and work areas. (a) Staff may search an inmate's housing and work area, and personal...

  16. 28 CFR 552.14 - Search of inmate housing and work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Search of inmate housing and work areas... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Searches of Housing Units, Inmates, and Inmate Work Areas § 552.14 Search of inmate housing and work areas. (a) Staff may search an inmate's housing and work area, and personal...

  17. 28 CFR 552.14 - Search of inmate housing and work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Search of inmate housing and work areas... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Searches of Housing Units, Inmates, and Inmate Work Areas § 552.14 Search of inmate housing and work areas. (a) Staff may search an inmate's housing and work area, and personal...

  18. 28 CFR 552.14 - Search of inmate housing and work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Search of inmate housing and work areas... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Searches of Housing Units, Inmates, and Inmate Work Areas § 552.14 Search of inmate housing and work areas. (a) Staff may search an inmate's housing and work area, and personal...

  19. Social Impacts of the Marking Scheme in Public Housing in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Yung

    2012-01-01

    To improve environmental hygiene in public housing estates in Hong Kong, the Housing Department launched the Marking Scheme for Tenancy Enforcement in Public Housing Estates in 2003. The marking scheme operates as a penalty-point system where sitting tenants will be expelled from their public housing units if they receive penalty points up to a…

  20. 26 CFR 1.911-4 - Determination of housing cost amount eligible for exclusion or deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of housing cost amount eligible... Citizens Or Residents of United States § 1.911-4 Determination of housing cost amount eligible for exclusion or deduction. (a) Definition of housing cost amount. The term “housing cost amount” means...