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Sample records for affordable quality child

  1. A Policy Analysis of Child Care Subsidies: Increasing Quality, Access, and Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Changing family dynamics over the past four decades, including rises in the numbers of working mothers and single-parent families, have created an increased need for affordable child care. Government response to this need has involved a number of stop-and-start policy approaches, which have led to a fractured child care system that makes it…

  2. Moving Forward: Southern States Take Action To Improve Access to Quality, Affordable Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    The Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care (established by the Southern Institute on Children and Families) is guided by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care including representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia. The initial charge from the Task Force was to develop a southern regional action plan to improve…

  3. Quality or Affordability: Trade-Offs for Early Childhood Programs? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Barbara

    The demand for child care services in the United States continues to grow, stretching the levels of program quality to the limit. In fact, the country is facing a crisis in child care. Affordable child care continues to be a major issue for many families. Solutions to the current crisis in child care must, in addition to insuring affordability,…

  4. Increasing the Supply of Quality, Accessible, Affordable Child Care: An Economic Development Strategy for the North Central Region. NCRCRD Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, Saskia; Brown, Brentt

    2005-01-01

    The child care industry has not been fully integrated into economic development activities despite its growing importance in the economy. This is, in large part, because child care is not usually thought of as an element of economic development. As a result, states in the North Central region are not maximizing the economic benefits from quality,…

  5. Improving the Quality of Child Care. Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources on Examining Proposals To Improve the Quality of Child Care in the United States, Including the Proposed Creating Improved Delivery of Child Care: Affordable, Reliable, and Educational Act of 1997. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress. First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings transcripts present testimony on proposals to improve the quality of child care in the United States. Both oral and submitted written statements are included. Contributors are: Representative Peter Deutsch (Florida); Senator James M. Jeffords, committee chairman; Senator Mike Enzi (Wyoming); Senator Edward M. Kennedy…

  6. Child Outcome Measures in the Study of Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Halle, Tamara; Martin, Laurie; Cabrera, Natasha; Calkins, Julia; Pitzer, Lindsay; Margie, Nancy Geyelin

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses whether there are methodological problems with child outcome measures that may contribute to the small associations between child care quality and child outcomes found in the literature. Outcome measures used in 65 studies of child care quality published between 1979 and December 2005 were examined, taking the previous review…

  7. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  8. Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

  9. Structural Predictors of Child Care Quality in Child Care Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; Kontos, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Used data from a family child care study and a licensing study to identify dimensions best predicting global day care quality in over 300 child care homes. Found that caregiver training most consistently predicted global quality. Found no reliable association between care quality and child-caregiver ratio or age-weighted group size recommendations…

  10. Child Care Subsidy and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Branch, Julie A.; Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the quality of child care programs serving children receiving government subsidies to those not serving such children. Thirty-four classrooms in full day programs serving preschool aged children (19 subsidized, 15 unsubsidized) were observed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scales-Revised (ECERS-R). (1) Research…

  11. Diversity, Child Care Quality, and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Cryer, Debby

    2003-01-01

    It is widely accepted that high quality child care enhances children's cognitive and social development, but some question whether what constitutes quality care depends on the child's ethnic and cultural background. To address this question, secondary analysis of data from the two largest studies of child care experiences in the United States,…

  12. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  13. A research agenda to promote affordable and quality assured medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Promoting generic medicines to increase access to essential medicines is relevant to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) and post 2015 goals. There are several barriers to encouraging wider use of generic medicines in health systems, e.g. the widely-held perception that low price equals low quality and misalignment of provider and consumer incentives. Overcoming the complex barriers and other challenges can be re-formulated as a ‘generic medicine evidence-based policy agenda’: (1) What policy and strategies can increase consumer trust in the quality of all medicines granted market authority including generic products? (2) Are there differences in prices between branded and unbranded generics? (3) What are synergies between policies that can enhance promoting of generic medicines effectively? Evaluating the policies promoting generic medicines will be critical to create evidence that countries can use to implement policies in their local settings. PMID:25848542

  14. Effective Marketing of Quality Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M.; Boyd, Harper W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies negative public and professional attitudes that lie beneath the contemporary negative image of quality child care. Argues that concepts and principles of marketing are appropriate for influencing parents to choose high quality services and helping ensure that supplementary care is of sufficient quality to enhance, not inhibit, the…

  15. Oregon Child Care Quality Indicators Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Oregon's Child Care Quality Indicators Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  16. Guaranteeing Quality in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen G.

    This paper presents a discussion of state and federal licensing and regulation of child care services. A hierarchy of the kinds of regulation is defined: (1) basic preventive/protective requirements (related to zoning, fire and safety, sanitation, and basic day care licensing); (2) administrative standards for publicly operated programs (equal to…

  17. Child Care Quality in Different State Policy Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Elizabeth; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we test associations between the quality of child care and state child care policies. These data, which include observations of child care and interviews with care providers and mothers for 777 children across 14 states, allow for comparisons across a…

  18. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call for value-based leadership to transform quality.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals in America face a daunting and historical challenge starting in 2013 as leadership navigates their organizations toward a new port of call-the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law in March 2010 and held in abeyance waiting on 2 pivotal points-the Supreme Court's June 2012 ruling upholding the constitutionality of the ACA and the 2012 presidential election of Barack Obama bringing to reality to health care organizations that leadership now must implement the mandates of health care delivery under the ACA. This article addresses the need for value-based leadership to transform the culture of health care organizations in order to be successful in navigating uncharted waters under the unprecedented challenges for change in the delivery of quality health care. PMID:23903938

  19. Quality indicators and quality assessment in child health

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Patricia L.; Adams, William G.; Wang, C. Jason

    2009-01-01

    Quality indicators are systematically developed statements that can be used to assess the appropriateness of specific healthcare decisions, services and outcomes. In this review, we highlight the range and type of indicators that have been developed for children in the UK and US by prominent governmental agencies and private organizations. We also classify these indicators in an effort to identify areas of child health that may lack quality measurement activity. We review the current state of health information technology in both countries since these systems are vital to quality efforts. Finally, we propose several recommendations to advance the quality indicator development agenda for children. The convergence of quality measurement and indicator development, a growing scientific evidence base and integrated information systems in healthcare may lead to substantial improvements for child health in the 21st century. PMID:19307196

  20. Diversity, Child Care Quality and Developmental Outcomes. FPG Snapshot, #21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that high quality child care enhances children's cognitive and social development, but some people question if what constitutes quality care depends on the child's ethnic and cultural background. To examine this issue, secondary analysis of the two largest U.S. studies of child care--the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study and…

  1. Improving Child Care Quality and Supply: The Impact of the Child Care and Development Block Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen

    1993-01-01

    Surveys how states are investing new federal money in child care quality and supply. Examines several key areas: child care licensing and monitoring; resource and referral services; child care for infants, school-agers, and children with special needs; child care for low-income families; comprehensive and enriched services; provider training;…

  2. Neurosurgery value and quality in the context of the Affordable Care Act: a policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Guthikonda, Bharat; Storey, Christopher M; Nanda, Anil; McGirt, Matthew; Asher, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Neurosurgeons provide direct individualized care to patients. However, the majority of regulations affecting the relative value of patient-related care are drafted by policy experts whose focus is typically system- and population-based. A central, prospectively gathered, national outcomes-related database serves as neurosurgery's best opportunity to bring patient-centered outcomes to the policy arena. In this study the authors analyze the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the determination of quality and value in neurosurgery care through the scope, language, and terminology of policy experts. The methods by which the ACA came into law and the subsequent quality implications this legislation has for neurosurgery will be discussed. The necessity of neurosurgical patient-oriented clinical registries will be discussed in the context of imminent and dramatic reforms related to medical cost containment. In the policy debate moving forward, the strength of neurosurgery's argument will rest on data, unity, and proactiveness. The National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD) allows neurosurgeons to generate objective data on specialty-specific value and quality determinations; it allows neurosurgeons to bring the patient-physician interaction to the policy debate. PMID:26621419

  3. Why India should become a global leader in high-quality, affordable TB diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The scale up of DOTS in India is one of the greatest public health accomplishments, and yet undiagnosed and poorly managed TB continues to fuel the epidemic such that India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of India has set an ambitious goal of providing universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment for all TB patients in the country. Innovative tools and delivery systems in both the public and private sectors are essential for reaching this goal. Fortunately, India has the potential to solve its TB problem with "home-grown" solutions. Just as Indian pharmaceutical companies revolutionized access to high-quality, affordable AIDS drugs through generic production, Indian diagnostic companies could also become the world's hub for high-quality generic diagnostics. In the long term, India has the potential to lead the world in developing innovative TB diagnostics. For this to happen, Indian industry must move from the import and imitation approach to genuine innovation in both product development as well as delivery. This must be supported by permissive policies and enhanced funding by the Indian government and the private sector. Strict regulation of diagnostics, increased attention to quality assurance in laboratories, and greater engagement of the private health care providers are also needed to effectively deliver innovative products and approaches. PMID:22771602

  4. Child Care in the American South: Poverty, Costs, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Vikki K.

    2012-01-01

    High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…

  5. Financial Health of Child Care Facilities Affects Quality of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…

  6. Assessing the Quality of Portuguese Child Care Programs for Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Silvia; Aguiar, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of toddler child care classrooms in the district of Porto, in the north of Portugal. One hundred and sixty classrooms for children between 1 and 3 years of age participated in this study. Results suggested the existence of poor average quality and absence of good-quality classrooms. Child-adult…

  7. Money, Accreditation, and Child Care Center Quality. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, William T., Jr.; Lucas, Jessica K.

    In recent years, several states have offered financial incentives to encourage child care centers and homes to become accredited by a reputable national organization to improve child care quality. This report examines whether it is good policy to offer higher reimbursement rates to accredited child care facilities and assesses the relative merits…

  8. The Bottom Line: Quality/Consumer-Oriented Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Cheryl D.

    Arguing that the provision of child care services is consistent with the role of the community college, this paper provides an overview of the current demand for and delivery of child care services and briefly discusses ways in which community colleges can assist in the development and provision of consumer-oriented, high-quality child care.…

  9. Child Care: Use of Standards To Ensure High Quality Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Prepared to assist Congress in its deliberations of various child care proposals, this report identifies key child care center standards that are critical in helping to ensure high quality child care. The article also examines the extent to which states incorporate these standards into their own standards, and discusses other important issues that…

  10. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  11. Louisiana Quality Start Child Care Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Louisiana's Quality Start Child Care Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;…

  12. Food assistance programs for children afford mixed dietary quality based on HEI-2010.

    PubMed

    Byker, Carmen; Smith, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Backpack programs across the United States distribute easy-to-prepare foods in a backpack to potentially food-insecure students on Fridays to help reduce weekend hunger. This study used Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) to assess foods provided in Montana backpack programs. Healthy Eating Index 2010 measures compliance with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines and is a tool to assess the diet quality of foods provided in supplemental food assistance programs. We hypothesized that HEI-2010 scores would be of average dietary quality. One randomly selected menu was collected from each Montana backpack program (n = 5) from the 2011-2012 academic year. Each food provided was analyzed for diet quality using HEI-2010 to obtain component and total scores. Descriptive statistics and t tests were calculated to assess whether mean HEI-2010 component scores and total scores differed significantly (P < .05) from the maximum scores. The mean total score for HEI-2010 was significantly lower than the maximum score of 100 (58.65; SD, 15.59; P = .004). Analysis resulted in significantly lower mean scores for total vegetables (2.26; SD, 1.37; P = .011), greens and beans (0; SD, 0; P < .001), fatty acids (0; SD, 0; P < .001), and sodium (3.90; SD, 2.52; P = .006). Dietary quality of backpack programs may further improve with information sharing between programs about the availability of specific food group items. To better suit children's nutritional needs and increase HEI-2010 scores, researchers, practitioners, and the food industry should identify food options for the backpack program that are easy to prepare, appealing, and affordable. PMID:25483753

  13. Connecting Child Care Quality to Child Outcomes: Drawing Policy Lessons from Nonexperimental Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    Effective early childhood intervention and child care policies should be based on an understanding of the effects of child care quality and type on child well-being. This article describes methods for securing unbiased estimates of these effects from nonexperimental data. It focuses on longitudinal studies like the one developed by the National…

  14. Working for Quality Child Care: An Early Childhood Education Text from the Child Care Employee Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy, Comp.; And Others

    This early childhood education text was designed to help students and child care staff become effective advocates for the improvement of quality, salaries, and working conditions in child care programs. Unit I provides literature on the issues affecting the child care field and focuses on strategies to improve salaries and working conditions.…

  15. Integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance into residential design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of: energy efficiency; affordability; indoor air quality; sustainability; and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two story structure. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. The first floor would be constructed using insulated strong high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second story would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimize thermal bridging across studs. Optimizing floor plan such as separating living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction; selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation; and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as prudent duct selection, design and location, use of radon barriers, omission of carpeting, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence will be addressed and illustrated.

  16. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  17. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  18. Teacher Structure and Child Care Quality in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jonghee; Hestenes, Linda; Cassidy, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between teacher structure, teacher behaviors, and child care quality. Participants included 72 female teachers from 44 preschool classrooms. Both a global measure of quality and a measure of teacher-child interaction were utilized. Results showed that a co-teacher structure was associated with higher…

  19. "Who Says What Is Quality?": Setting Quality Standards for Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article tells the story of the 4-year consensus-building process to design quality standards for the field of family child care. Working with the National Association for Family Child Care, the Family Child Care Project at Wheelock College was funded to create an accreditation system for home-based child care programs using innovative methods…

  20. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government’s largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents’ selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients’ using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092

  1. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents' selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients' using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092

  2. Child-Care Structure?Process?Outcome: Direct and Indirect Effects of Child-Care Quality on Young Children's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychological Science, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Used NICHD Study of Early Child Care data to test paths from child care quality through process indicators to child outcomes. Found that maternal caregiving quality was strongest predictor of cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality related to cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality mediated…

  3. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  4. Qualities and Characteristics of the Child Abusing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiner, Sander J.

    Most child abuse has a violent quality. A review of the research on child abusers reveals some interesting psychosocial and historical characteristics. Research has shown violence to be more likely in less stable populations, in persons with poor driving records and histories of severe accidents, and in those who are undereducated and unsuccessful…

  5. Nursing homes and the affordable care act: a cease fire in the ongoing struggle over quality reform.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Catherine; Moudouni, Darcy M; Edwards, Rachel B; Phillips, Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Most provisions in the Affordable Care Act that affect nursing homes originated in two earlier attempts at reform, both of which failed multiple times in prior Congressional sessions: the Elder Justice Act and the Nursing Home Transparency and Improvement Act. Both of these earlier efforts focused on improving quality and reducing elder abuse in nursing homes by strengthening oversight and enforcement penalties, expanding staff training, and increasing the information on nursing home quality available to consumers and regulators. Each bill addressed problems that were serious, widespread, and had persisted for years, but each failed to pass on its own. The Affordable Care Act, with its own momentum, became the vehicle for their passage. However, the reasons the bills failed in these earlier efforts suggest implementation challenges now that they have ridden into law on the coattails of the more general effort to reform the health care sector. PMID:22497359

  6. Marital Quality and Mother-Child and Father-Child Interactions With School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To ascertain whether marital quality influences parental teaching strategies in different instructional contexts, mother-child and father-child interactions were observed during a book-reading and a direct instruction task. While few differences in teaching styles were detected between nondistressed husbands and wives, teaching styles of mothers…

  7. Evaluation of a State Initiative to Improve Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Mary A.; Riley, David A.; Adams, Diane; Edie, David

    2005-01-01

    Wisconsin's Early Childhood Excellence Initiative was a $15 million public policy effort designed in 2000 to increase child care quality for low-income children. An evaluation revealed significant improvement in classroom quality, the quality of caregiver interaction, and caregivers' beliefs about children following a complex multi-faceted…

  8. Coparenting Quality: Contributions of Child and Parent Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Bales, Stephanie Stigler

    2003-01-01

    Child gender, age, and temperament; parents' personality and education; and coparenting quality in the parents' families of origin were used to predict the quality of coparenting during family interactions. Families with college-educated mothers had high levels of supportive coparenting during family interactions regardless of the quality of…

  9. Investing in Quality, Affordable Education for All Americans: A New Look at Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on the role of community colleges in providing affordable access to postsecondary education, this two-part monograph reviews college services and federal aid programs for college students and provides projections of federal aid for 1998-99. The first part reviews the role of the colleges in the modern economy, highlighting such efforts as…

  10. Child Care Collaboration: Making A Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Wendell, Comp.

    The St. Louis (Missouri) Regional Child Care Partnership was created in 1990 to improve child care in the St. Louis and Metro East areas, where the quality, availability, and affordability of child care are community-wide problems. The partnership was formed by the Child Day Care Association of St. Louis and the St. Louis branches of the Junior…

  11. Child Care as Welfare Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Working for Change, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

  12. Differences in Child Care Quality in Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Erin J.; Frestedt, Becki; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-rural areas. We used representative child care survey data…

  13. A Profile Approach to Child Care Quality, Quantity, and Type of Setting: Parent Selection of Infant Child Care Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…

  14. School Quality, Child Wellbeing and Parents' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Child wellbeing at school and enjoyment of the learning environment are important economic outcomes, in particular because a growing body of research shows they are strongly linked to later educational attainments and labour market success. However, the standard working assumption in the economics of education is that parents choose schools on the…

  15. Quality Control in Child Care Staff Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Merwin R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process of staff selection of child care staff at a residential treatment center for children, ages 8-16. Phases of candidate selection, an "open-door" interview procedure, the orientation of hired candidates and the agency's philosophy, procedures and practices are discussed. (GO)

  16. Investing in Quality Child Care: A Report for AT&T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen; Friedman, Dana E.

    More than 50 child care experts were asked (1) What aspects of child care are most likely to ensure high quality? (2) What are the current barriers to achieving quality in child care? and (3) What corporate or labor initiative would make the greatest difference in improving the quality of child care services? Recommendations generated from the…

  17. Narrative Structure and Emotional References in Parent-Child Reminiscing: Associations with Child Gender, Temperament, and the Quality of Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Kelly K.; Choi, Eunsil; Wong, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined child gender, temperament, and the quality of parent-child interactions as predictors of narrative style and references to emotion during mother-child and father-child reminiscing. Although models predicting parents' narrative styles were non-significant, results revealed significant interactions between parental…

  18. Process Dimensions of Child Care Quality and Academic Achievement: An Instrumental Variables Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Anamarie; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Burchinal, Peg; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2012-01-01

    Child care quality is usually measured along two dimensions--structural and process. In this paper the authors focus on process quality--the quality of child care center instructional practices and teacher interactions with students. They use an instrumental variables technique to estimate the effect of child care center process quality on…

  19. A Count for Quality: Child Care Center Directors on Rating and Improvement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Karen; Matthews, Hannah; Blank, Helen; Ewen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS)--a strategy to improve families' access to high-quality child care--assess the quality of child care programs, offer incentives and assistance to programs to improve their ratings, and give information to parents about the quality of child care. These systems are operating in a growing number of…

  20. Compendium of Quality Rating Systems and Evaluations: The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; Starr, Rebecca; Soli, Margaret; Moodie, Shannon; Kirby, Gretchen; Boller, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Quality Rating Systems (QRS) are currently operating, under development, or being piloted in over 25 states or local areas. As the QRS model becomes integrated into the landscape of child care and education service delivery, policy, and the decisions parents make about child care across the United States, there is an increasing need for…

  1. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  2. Advocacy, Quality and the Education of the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Christine

    Three central convictions provide the main thesis of this lecture: (1) that children and those working with them are undervalued; (2) that the quality of education for the young child suffers because young children and those who work with them have no status; and (3) that young children need an articulate and empowered body of professionals to act…

  3. Redefining Teacher Quality: Myths of No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Jackson, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes four myths about teacher quality commonly associated with the 2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Myth 1 explores the hypothesis that generating an endless supply of new teachers to solve the teacher shortage is the best way to alleviate any real teacher shortage. Myth 2 tackles the assertion that academic ability…

  4. Measuring the Child Quality of Life: Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, Jairo; Levinger, Beryl

    A Child Quality of Life Index (CQLI) should be developed in order to realize three objectives: (1) to raise the consciousness of decision makers, prospective donors, field workers, and community members concerning the needs of children; (2) to assist field workers and community members in planning specific programs to meet the priority needs of…

  5. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  6. TQ What?: Applying Total Quality Management to Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), developed by W. Edward Deming and Joseph Juran in 1940s, and its applications for child care centers. Discusses how TQM focuses on customer satisfaction, measuring performance, benchmarking, employee empowerment, and continuous training. Includes a list of suggested readings on TQM. (MDM)

  7. Children's Emotional Expression in Child Care Centers Varying in Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, Linda L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the relationships between day-care quality, children's emotional expression, and temperament among 60 3- to 5-year-olds in 26 day-care centers. Found that the appropriateness of the caregiving, but not the appropriateness of activities in the child-care center, significantly predicted the proportion of positive emotional affect in…

  8. Enhancing Child Care Quality by Director Training and Collegial Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Gillian; Ferguson, Tammy McCormick; Ressler, Glory; Lomotey, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable evidence confirms that a director with good leadership and administrative skills is vital for developing and sustaining a high quality child care program, many directors assume the role with little management experience or training. This paper reports on a training program in Canada that combined a formal curriculum to…

  9. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  10. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  11. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  12. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  13. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  14. Illinois Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Illinois' Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  15. Missouri Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Missouri's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  16. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  17. Mississippi Quality Step System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS)Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Mississippi's Quality Step System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Application…

  18. Palm Beach Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Palm Beach's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  19. New Hampshire Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Hampshire's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  20. Ohio Step Up to Quality: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Ohio's Step Up to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  1. Indiana Paths to Quality: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Indiana's Paths to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  2. Miami-Dade Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Miami-Dade's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  3. Maine Quality for ME: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Maine's Quality for ME prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  4. Everybody's Children: Child Care as a Public Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, William T., Jr.

    In the face of social changes that are increasing the demand for available, affordable, quality child care, it is difficult to continue to think of child care as a purely private issue. This book presents an analysis of the state of American child care. It evaluates child care policies and the national attention given to young children and their…

  5. Child Care in Texas: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Erik

    This report examines a basic child care challenge confronting the state of Texas: the shortage of affordable, accessible, quality early care and education for Texas families with children, particularly those with limited incomes. The report notes that these three factors--affordability, accessibility, and good quality--are integral to a successful…

  6. Child Reactivity Moderates the Over-Time Association between Mother-Child Conflict Quality and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    Constructive parent-child conflict interactions that teach children to problem-solve and negotiate can enhance children's social adjustment. This paper identifies constructive and destructive qualities of mother-child conflict and explores whether child temperament moderated associations with changes in externalizing problems over time. One…

  7. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  8. 78 FR 69418 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (Mar. 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 155... Quality for Exchanges: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-27/pdf/2012-28473.pdf . Importance: the... Rule 78 FR 12834 (Feb. 25, 2013) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 147, 155 and 156). The draft...

  9. Child Care Assistance Spending and Participation in 2012: A Record Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. Access to quality child care is also proven to strengthen families' economic security. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the…

  10. Parental Optimism and Progeny Choice: When is Screening for Offspring Quality Affordable.

    PubMed

    Forbes; Mock

    1998-05-01

    Three general classes of fitness incentives have been proposed for parental overproduction of offspring: (1) tracking environmental variation; (2) developmental facilitation; and (3) replacements for failed or defective members of the core brood. In one version of this last category, called the progeny choice hypothesis, parents are seen as creating an enlarged array of offspring from which a genetically superior subset is chosen for full investment. In the selection process, parents may eliminate the victims either through personal effort (filial infanticide) or by proxy (by allowing or even encouraging fatal sibling rivalry). Because the culling process is non-random, it can elevate average offspring quality. Progeny choice, however, is only cost-effective if the expenses of early overproduction (including elevated levels of sibling competition) do not outweigh the eventual upgrade in offspring quality. A fair competition within the offspring "arena" offers the greatest potential for discriminating on the basis of intrinsic quality, but may be overwhelmed by high costs of sibling rivalry. Conversely, while parentally managed competition (conferring handicaps to some and advantages to others) can discount those rivalry costs, it simultaneously diminishes the system's capacity for distinguishing good offspring from bad. Ceteris paribus, one would expect to find progeny choice mechanisms in species with cheap sibling rivalry, large cohorts of evenly matched offspring, and exaggerated variation in offspring genetic quality. Conversely, this class of incentives of parental overproduction seems least suited to taxa in which parents dole out marked advantages or handicaps to various concurrent offspring (e.g. asynchronously hatching birds).Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited PMID:9628835

  11. Where Child Care is above Average? Licensing, Legislation, and Indicators of Quality of Care in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceglowski, Deborah A.; Davis, Elizabeth E.

    2004-01-01

    Despite Minnesota's reputation for quality child care, recent changes in legislation and the impact of changing needs have raised concerns about the quality of child care available in the state. This paper presents an overview of Minnesota's current child care system including structural indicators of program quality such as licensing standards,…

  12. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2013-01-01

    People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas. PMID:23535280

  13. Promoting Inclusion by Improving Child Care Quality in Inner-City Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa; Milbourne, Suzanne; Silverman, Christine; Feller, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    An innovative training program to improve the quality of child care for all children including those with disabilities was developed, implemented, and evaluated over a 5-year time span with child caregivers working primarily in inner city child care programs. A total of 283 directors and child caregivers participated in 1 of 15 courses that used…

  14. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  15. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  16. Preschool Center Quality and School Readiness: Quality Effects and Variation by Demographic and Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Keys, Tran D.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.; Howes, Carollee

    2014-01-01

    This article examines associations between observed quality in preschool center classrooms for approximately 6,250 three- to five-year-olds and their school readiness skills at kindergarten entry. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from four large-scale studies to estimate the effects of preschool center quality and interactions between quality and demographic characteristics and child entry skills and behaviors. Findings were summarized across studies using meta-analytic methods. Results indicate small, but statistically significant associations for preschool center quality main effects on language and mathematics outcomes with little evidence of moderation by demographic characteristics or child entry skills and behaviors. Preschool center quality was not reliably related to socioemotional outcomes. The authors discuss possible explanations for the small effect sizes and lack of differential effects. PMID:23331043

  17. Implementing scientific evidence to improve the quality of Child Protection.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Laura; Tempest, Vanessa; Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; Naughton, Aideen; Wain, Laura; Kemp, Alison

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other areas of medical practice, there was a lack of a clear, concise and accessible synthesis of scientific literature to aid the recognition and investigation of suspected child abuse, and no national training program or evidence based guidelines for clinicians. The project's aim was to identify the current scientific evidence for the recognition and investigation of suspected child abuse and neglect and to disseminate and introduce this into clinical practice. Since 2003 a comprehensive program of Systematic Reviews of all aspects of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect of children, has been developed. Based on NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination standards, methodology was devised and reviewers trained. Dissemination was via peer reviewed publications, a series of leaflets highlighting key points in a Question and Answer format, and a website. To date, 21 systematic reviews have been completed, generating 28 peer reviewed publications, and six leaflets around each theme (eg fractures, bruising). More than 250,000 have been distributed to date. Our website generates more than 10,000 hits monthly. It hosts primary reviews that are updated annually, links to all included studies, publications, and detailed methodology. The reviews have directly informed five national clinical guidelines, and the first evidence based training in Child Maltreatment. Child abuse is every health practitioner's responsibility, and it is vital that the decisions made are evidence based, as it is expected in all other fields of medicine. Although challenging, this project demonstrates that it is possible to conduct high quality systematic reviews in this field. For the first time a clear concise synthesis of up to date scientific evidence is available to all practitioners in a range of accessible formats. This has underpinned high quality national guidance and training programs. It ensures all professionals have the appropriate knowledge base in this difficult

  18. Investing in Our Children's Future: The Path to Quality Child Care through the Pennsylvania Child Care/Early Childhood Development Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iutcovich, Joyce; Fiene, Richard; Johnson, James; Koppel, Ross; Langan, Francine

    This study identified training needs for Pennsylvania child care providers and assessed the impact of training, classroom/caregiver dynamics, and staff characteristics on child care quality. Participating were 29 family child care providers, 30 group homes, and 60 child care centers, stratified by type of site and geographic region. Quality of…

  19. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. PMID:26210737

  20. Parent versus child assessment of quality of life in children using cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty; Roland, Peter S.; Tong, Liyue; Tobey, Emily A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Children with hearing loss who use cochlear implants have lower quality of life (QoL) in social situations and lower self-esteem than hearing peers. The child’s QoL has been assessed primarily by asking the parent rather than asking the child. This poses a problem because parents have difficulty judging less observable aspects like self-esteem and socio-emotional functioning, the domains most affected by hearing loss. Methods This case-control study evaluated QoL in 50 preschoolers using a cochlear implant and their parents with the Kiddy KINDLR, an established QoL measure. Children’s responses were compared to a hearing control group and correlated with demographic variables. We used a questionnaire for parents and a face-to-face interview with children. T-tests were used to compare (a) paired parent-child ratings and (b) children with cochlear implants versus normal hearing. Spearman rank correlations were used to compare QoL with demographic variables. Results Children using cochlear implants rated overall QoL significantly more positively than their parents (MD = 4.22, p=.03). Child rating of QoL did not differ significantly by auditory status (cochlear implant (82.8) vs. hearing (80.8), p=0.42). Overall QoL correlated inversely with cochlear implant experience and chronologic age, but did not correlate with implantation age. Conclusions Preschool children using cochlear implants can assess adequately their own QoL, but parents afford valuable complementary perspective on the child’s socio-emotional and physical well-being. Preschool children using cochlear implants rate overall QoL measures similar to hearing peers. A constellation of QoL measures should be collected to yield a better understanding of general QoL as well as specific domains centered on hearing loss. PMID:19674798

  1. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  2. Quality in Family Child Care Settings: The Relationship between Provider Educational Experiences and Global Quality Scores in a Statewide Quality Rating and Improvement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Rena A.; Bargreen, Kaitlin N.; Ridgley, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of a statewide sample of licensed family child care providers in the Tennessee Child Care Evaluation and Report Card Program ("N"?=?1,145) that describes the general quality of family child care programs in the state and examines the relationships between provider education and global quality. Study…

  3. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  4. Child Care Use in Minnesota: 2009 Statewide Survey Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Valorose, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 500,000 households in Minnesota include a parent or parents with at least one child age 12 and under. About three-quarters use some type of child care. The strength of the economy depends on families having high-quality, affordable child care, so parents can work and children have the early learning opportunities they need to perform better…

  5. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  6. Parents Pleased With Child Care Options and Quality. Research Brief, Volume 96, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent survey of 430 parents in southeastern Wisconsin finds the majority are satisfied with the quality of their child care arrangements and their options for child care. Most say they would not change anything about their child care arrangement if they had the chance, and nearly two-thirds report a willingness to pay more for their current…

  7. Child Care: States Face Difficulties Enforcing Standards and Promoting Quality. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report discusses efforts to ensure and promote quality child care through enforcement of state standards and other activities. The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 authorized the dispersing of funds to states for child care services through the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These funds are used…

  8. Parental Decision Making about Technology and Quality in Child Care Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Katherine K.; Vittrup, Brigitte; Leveridge, Tinney

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated parental decision making about non-parental child care programs based on the technological and quality components of the program, both child-focused and parent-focused. Child-focused variables related to children's access to technology such as computers, educational television programming, and the internet.…

  9. Parental Child Care Selection Criteria and Program Quality in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, Jean M.; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Venter-Barkley, Janet

    1998-01-01

    A study of 127 families and 50 child care facilities in 17 Missouri communities found that criteria for selecting child care were similar for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan parents; parents were more concerned with quality child care and caregiver "warmth" than with practical considerations; but ratings on caregiver warmth did not predict…

  10. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  11. Child Care in JOBS Employment and Training Program: What Difference Does Quality Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Marcia K.

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program. Found that participants increased their use of substitute child care and of licensed day-care homes/centers, after beginning job readiness activities. Child care was found to be highly variable in terms of convenience and program quality. Problems with child care increased…

  12. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  13. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  14. Perceived Parent-Child Relational Qualities and Parental Behavioral and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perceived parent-child relational qualities (parental trust of the child, child's trust of parents, child's readiness to communicate with parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), parental behavioral control (including indicators of…

  15. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  16. Assessing Quality Day-Care: The WHO Child Care Facility Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragonas, Thalia; And Others

    Focusing on how the definition and assessment of quality day care are culturally specific, this paper reviews the development and validity of the Child Care Facility Schedule (CCFS), a procedure for assessing quality in child care settings in many countries. This project was initiated by the Division of Mental Health of the World Health…

  17. Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Swank, Paul R.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; de Viliers, Jill; de Viliers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, social-emotional classroom activities (RECC).…

  18. The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services: A Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Ensign, Karl; Flaherty, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Quality improvement centers were created by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau beginning in 2001 to promote knowledge development through an innovative approach to applied collaborative research in child welfare. The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services was funded to…

  19. Caring and Learning Environments: Quality in Regulated Family Child Care across Canada. You Bet I Care!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna S.; Goelman, Hillel; Tougas, Jocelyne; LaGrange, Annette

    Canadian experts in diverse fields as well as people concerned about social justice and cohesion have identified quality child care as a crucial component in addressing a variety of broad societal goals. This study explored the relationships between quality in Canadian family child care homes and: provider characteristics and attitudes about…

  20. Quality Details: A Close-Up Look at Child Care Program Strengths and Weaknesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Debby; Phillipsen, Leslie

    1997-01-01

    Examined quality of infant/toddler and preschool child care centers. Found that although overall program quality was mediocre at best, accredited programs scored better than nonaccredited programs. Preschool classrooms needed improvements in cultural awareness, child privacy, and furnishings for relaxation. For infant/toddler programs,…

  1. Caring and Learning Environments: Quality in Child Care Centres across Canada. You Bet I Care!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goelman, Hillel; Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna S.; LaGrange, Annette; Tougas, Jocelyne

    Canadian experts in diverse fields as well as people concerned about social justice and cohesion have identified quality child care as a crucial component in addressing a variety of broad societal goals. This study explored the relationships between child care center quality and: center characteristics; teaching staff wages and working conditions;…

  2. Vermont STep Ahead Recognition System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…

  3. Differential Susceptibility to Long-Term Effects of Quality of Child Care on Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Much research on the quality of child care reveals it--in the case of low-quality child care--to be related to poorer child functioning, net of confounding factors, perhaps especially in the case of cognitive-linguistic performance. Recent work using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early…

  4. Child Care Use by Low-Income Families: Variations across States. Research Brief. Publication #2008-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Laura; Vandivere, Sharon; Keith, Julie; Atienza, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    For many low-income and single parents, employment depends on securing reliable, affordable child care. Yet these parents may face greater challenges than do higher-income and two-parent families in making affordable, appropriate child care arrangements that complement their work schedules. Indeed, the cost, availability, stability, and quality of…

  5. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports. PMID:25563410

  6. Links Among Italian Preschoolers’ Socio-Emotional Competence, Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Peer Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of teacher-child relationship quality (close, conflictive, and dependent), children’s social behavior, and peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool-aged children (46 boys; 42 girls). Preschool teachers evaluated the quality of the teacher-child relationship and children’s social behaviors (i.e., social competence, anger-aggression, and anxiety-withdrawal). Peer-rated likability was measured using a sociometric procedure. Results indicated that conflictual teacher-child relationships were related to high aggressive behavior, and dependent teacher-child relationships were positively associated with children’s anxiety-withdrawal. Moreover, we found an indirect association between close teacher-child relationship quality and peer likability through children’s social competence. The findings provide evidence that the teacher-child relationship is critical for children’s social behaviors, and that social competence was uniquely related to peer likability. PMID:24039375

  7. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…

  8. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  9. The Impact of Regulations on the Supply and Quality of Care in Child Care Markets

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Hotz, V.; Xiao, Mo

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of state child care regulations on the supply and quality of care in child care markets. We exploit panel data on both individual establishments and local markets to control for state, time, and, where possible, establishment-specific fixed effects to mitigate the potential bias due to policy endogeneity. We find that the imposition of regulations reduces the number of center-based child care establishments, especially in lower income markets. However, such regulations increase the quality of services provided, especially in higher income areas. Thus, there are winners and losers from the regulation of child care services. PMID:24991060

  10. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    PubMed

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes. PMID:20930179

  11. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  12. Assessing the Validity of the Qualistar Early Learning Quality Rating and Improvement System as a Tool for Improving Child-Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Perlman, Michal; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the generally low quality of child care in the United States and the increased emphasis on accountability in education policy, quality rating systems (QRSs) are proliferating in the child-care arena. QRSs assess child-care providers on multiple dimensions of quality and integrate these assessments into an easily understood summary…

  13. Revisiting the Two Faces of Child Care Quality: Structure and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Deborah J.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Hansen, Joanna K.; Hegde, Archana; Shim, Jonghee; Hestenes, Steve

    2005-01-01

    While child care quality has been examined in numerous studies, the definition of quality and specifically, the concepts of structural and process quality, have not been adequately explored. In this qualitative analysis of the constructs of process and structural quality, a content analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised…

  14. National Statement on Quality Child Care (Enonce de principe national sur la qualite dans les services de garde).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Child Day Care Federation's National Statement on Quality Child Care suggests separate principles of quality care for center-based and family-based child care. The principles of quality center-based care are divided into seven areas, each with a statement of general philosophy. The philosophical principles are then defined in more…

  15. For-Profit/Nonprofit Differences in Center-Based Child Care Quality: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…

  16. Called to Act: Stories of Child Care Advocacy in Our Churches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Margery, Ed.

    Experiences of church-based child care advocates are narrated in this booklet. Introductory remarks argue that the National Council of Churches (NCC) must advocate high quality, affordable child care for all children and persuade church members to provide it. Part I tells stories about members' efforts to provide child care services to families:…

  17. Beyond ABCs and 123s: Enhancing Teacher-Child Relationship Quality to Promote Children's Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick Whittaker, Jessica E.; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Results from a study of 100 Head Start children and their teachers suggested that teacher-child relationship quality was associated with children's classroom behaviors. Specifically, teacher-child conflict was strongly related to children's externalizing behaviors. Based on these findings, we present recommendations for the development of policies…

  18. Pathways between Social Support, Family Well Being, Quality of Parenting, and Child Resilience: What We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary I.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Ungar, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    We contribute to the theoretical and research knowledge base regarding the pathways between parental social support, family well being, quality of parenting, and the development of child resilience in families with a child with serious emotional problems. Little conceptual development has been done that provides a theoretical framework for…

  19. Paternal Child Care and Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis of Reciprocal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Pia S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…

  20. Child Care Quality in the Netherlands over the Years: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales were used…

  1. Work Characteristics and Parent-Child Relationship Quality: The Mediating Role of Temporal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeters, Anne; Van Der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on 1,008 Dutch fathers and 929 Dutch mothers with…

  2. Assessing Quality Inclusive Child Care Placements for Young Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Martie; Poulin, Nancy

    As part of a program to increase the quality and availability of inclusive childcare and early childhood education in Maine, the University of Maine in Orono developed an instrument to assess inclusive child care programs. Eight of the 16 Child Development Services sites in Maine's early intervention system participated in developing and…

  3. Child-Care Provider Survey Reveals Cost Constrains Quality. Research Brief. Volume 96, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 414 child care providers in southeastern Wisconsin reveals that cost as well as low wages and lack of benefits for workers can constrain providers from pursuing improvements to child-care quality. Of survey respondents, approximately half of whom are home-based and half center-based, 13% have at least three of five structural factors…

  4. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  5. Handbook on Quality Child Care for Young Children: Settings Standards and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglin, Carol Ann, Ed.; Bender, Michael, Ed.

    Intended primarily for professionals teaching early childhood and infant intervention courses, this handbook presents an overview of child care as both a support to families and an economic necessity, meeting changing and dynamic needs. Child care settings and types of care are discussed, along with quality indicators, licensing, and provider…

  6. New Evidence of the Causal Effect of Family Size on Child Quality in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence of the causal effect of family size on child quality in a developing-country context. We estimate the impact of family size on child labor and educational outcomes among Brazilian children and young adults by exploring the exogenous variation of family size driven by the presence of twins in the family. Using the…

  7. Quality Child Care for All: A Guide to Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Melanie

    This manual is intended to facilitate the integration of children with mental handicaps into child care centers in Canada and elsewhere. The first chapter looks at the background of integration in early childhood child care programs in Canada and identifies concerns of parents. The second chapter explores the practice of labelling children with…

  8. The Impacts of Family Size on Investment in Child Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres-Delpiano, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Using multiple births as an exogenous shift in family size, I investigate the impact of the number of children on child investment and child well-being. Using data from the 1980 US Census Five-Percent Public Use Micro Sample, 2SLS results demonstrate that parents facing a change in family size reallocate resources in a way consistent with Becker's…

  9. Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy: The Only-Child Disadvantage in School Enrollment in Rural China. NBER Working Paper No. 14973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an…

  10. Depression among Migrant and Left-Behind Children in China in Relation to the Quality of Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Qianyun; Ran, Chun; Wang, Xia; Hu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine rates of depression among migrant children (MC) and left-behind children (LBC) as compared to non-left-behind children (NLBC) and also to examine the relationship between depression among these children and the quality of their parent-child and teacher-child relationships. This study collected data from a large sample of 3,759 children aged from 8 to 17 years, including 824 who had been left behind by one parent (LBCO), 423 who had been left behind by both parents (LBCB), 568 MC and 1944 NLBC. Children’s Depression Inventory–Short Form was used to measure child depression. Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) and Teacher-Child Relationship Scale (TCRS) were used to measure the quality of parent-child and teacher-child relationships, respectively. The results showed that the prevalence of depression was 10.5% among NLBC, 13.1% among LBCO, 16.1% among LBCB, and 20.1% among MC. Depression was related to parent-child relationship quality and teacher-child relationship quality. Negative parent-child relationship was more relevant to depression than negative teacher-child relationship among LBCB, while negative teacher-child relationship was the most correlated with depression among MC. PMID:26719895

  11. Child Care Effects in Context: Quality, Stability, and Multiplicity in Nonmaternal Child Care Arrangements during the First 15 Months of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    Main and interactive effects of child care quality, stability, and multiplicity on infants' attachment security, language comprehension, language production, and cognitive development at 15 months were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. Thirty-nine percent of the…

  12. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  13. Child Care under Pressure: The Quality of Dutch Centers in 1995 and in 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M. Gevers; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the authors assessed the quality of care provided to children in 51 care groups from 39 child-care centers in The Netherlands using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (T. Harms, D. Cryer, & R. M. Clifford, 1990) and compared the results with the quality of child care assessed in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G.…

  14. Child Care in the Netherlands: Trends in Quality over the Years 1995-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; de Kruif, Renee E. L.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Zeijl, Jantien

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the quality of child care in a representative national sample of 42 child-care centers in the Netherlands and compared it with the quality of care that researchers have found using similar samples in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G. J. J. M. Stams, M. J. E. Verhoeven, & E. J. Reiling, 1998) and 2001 (M. J. J.…

  15. Rural Neighborhood Context, Child Care Quality, and Relationship to Early Language Development

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Allison; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings Prior research with older urban children indicates that disadvantaged neighborhood context is associated with poorer early development, including poorer verbal ability, reading recognition, and achievement scores among children. Neighborhood disadvantage in rural communities and at younger age levels may also be related to development; however this relationship has received little examination. In this study we utilize data from the Family Life Project, a representative sample of babies born to mothers in poor rural counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania, to address questions related to the relationship between neighborhood context (disadvantage and safety) and children’s early language development. We examine mediation of this relationship by child care quality. We also examine geographic isolation and collective socialization as moderators of the relationship between neighborhood context and child care quality. Results indicated that while neighborhood disadvantage did not predict children’s development or child care quality, neighborhood safety predicted children’s receptive language, with child care quality a partial mediator of this relationship. Collective socialization but not geographic isolation moderated the relationship between neighborhood safety and child care quality. Practice or Policy Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed, including improving community safety through community policing, neighborhood watch, and social networks and increasing access to quality child care. PMID:24817812

  16. CHILD HEALTH CHAMPION AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND EDUCATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to two presidential directives, EPA has created the Child Health Champion (CHC) Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) pilot program in communities where environmental data are not widely available and significant environmental heal...

  17. Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

    1999-01-01

    Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

  18. Colorado Business Commission on Child Care Financing, Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Human Services, Denver. Div. of Child Care.

    This report examines child care from a business perspective and proposes methods to help finance affordable, accessible, and high-quality child care in Colorado. The Commission's procedures are described, and data summaries are included. The following 12 recommendations are made: (1) establish model planning and zoning programs to increase and…

  19. Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for children. The most frequently used are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) and the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The aim of this study was to assess the methodological quality of the development and testing of these three measures. Methods A systematic search strategy was used to identify eligible studies published up to December 2012, using both MEDLINE and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were read independently by two investigators and full papers retrieved where the inclusion criteria were met. Data were extracted by two teams of two investigators using a piloted protocol. The data were used to describe the development of the measures and their use against existing criteria. The methodological quality and measurement properties of the measures were assessed using standards proposed by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group. Results The search strategy yielded 653 papers, of which 417 were duplicates. Following analysis of the abstracts, 119 papers met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported cross-sectional studies (n = 117) with three of longitudinal design. Fifteen studies which had used the original version of the measures in their original language were included in the COSMIN analysis. The most frequently used measure was the CPQ. Reliability and construct validity appear to be adequate for all three measures. Children were not fully involved in item generation which may compromise their content validity. Internal consistency was measured using classic test theory with no evidence of modern psychometric techniques being used to test unidimensionality of the measures included in the COSMIN analysis. Conclusion The three measures evaluated appear to be able to discriminate between groups. CPQ has been most widely

  20. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  1. Child Care: When We Care for Children. Issue Series Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehnert, Barbara H., Ed.

    As the number of working women with young children continues to grow, the demand for affordable, high quality child care increases as well. Existing licensed centers and family day care programs can only accommodate 2.5 million children, while 10.5 million children under the age of 6 have working mothers. The quality of child care programs has a…

  2. Carepooling: How To Get the Help You Need To Care for the Ones You Love. Child Care to Elder Care Made Easier, Better, and More Affordable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Paula C.

    Those responsible for the care of another human being, such as a child, an elderly parent, or an ailing spouse, often need help and support. Carepooling is the act of caregivers exchanging day-to-day help and support. This book offers simple, effective, practical ways to exchange help and share support with friends, neighbors, and co-workers.…

  3. An Analysis of the Child Care System in Evanston, Illinois: Parents, Directors, and Community Leaders Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafanello, Donna

    To assess the effectiveness of the child care delivery system in Evanston, Illinois, a study was conducted of parent and caregiver perceptions of the affordability, availability, accessibility, and quality of local child care services. Questionnaires were distributed to the directors of 14 local child care centers and to 832 parents currently…

  4. The Association between Child Autism Symptomatology, Maternal Quality of Life, and Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Anderson, Connie; Law, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Parents raising children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been shown to experience high levels of stress and report a lower quality of life. The current study examined the association between child autism symptomatology, mother's quality of life, and mother's risk for depression in a sample of 1,110 mothers recruited from a…

  5. Colorado Qualistar. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Colorado's Qualistar prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  6. Minnesota Parent Aware: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Minnesota's Parent Aware prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  7. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  8. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  9. The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…

  10. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  11. North Carolina Star Rated License System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  12. Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Kentucky's STARS for KIDS NOW prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  13. Child Care Quality and Cognitive Development: Trajectories Leading to Better Preacademic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Mongeau, Chantal; Japel, Christa; Xu, Qian; Seguin, Jean R.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years ("n" = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending…

  14. Autism Severity and Qualities of Parent-Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beurkens, Nicole M.; Hobson, Jessica A.; Hobson, R. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how severity of autism affects children's interactions (relatedness) and relationships with their parents. Participants were 25 parent-child dyads that included offspring who were children with autism aged from 4 to 14 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed using the calibrated severity…

  15. School Quality, Child Wellbeing and Parents' Satisfaction. CEE DP 103

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2009-01-01

    In England, the "Every Child Matters" (ECM) initiative has driven important changes in educational services in order to support five key outcomes for children and young people identified by the ECM initiative, namely to "be healthy", to "stay safe", to "enjoy and achieve", to "make a positive contribution" and to "achieve economic wellbeing". The…

  16. Working for Quality Child Care: Good Child Care Jobs Equals Good Care for Children. Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellm, Dan; Haack, Peggy

    Noting that the education and training of most early childhood practitioners lack information on child care as an adult work environment, this guide is designed to assist trainers in providing practitioners information about working with the array of adults they encounter on the job, the serious challenges and instabilities in the field, and the…

  17. Measuring the Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions in Toddler Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Amy C.; La Paro, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The toddler stage is a unique developmental period of early childhood. During this stage, children are developing autonomy, self-regulation, and language capabilities through interactions with significant adults in their lives. Increasing numbers of toddlers are being enrolled in child care. This article focuses on the need to…

  18. Valuation of Child Health-Related Quality of Life in the United States.

    PubMed

    Craig, Benjamin M; Greiner, Wolfgang; Brown, Derek S; Reeve, Bryce B

    2016-06-01

    Many economic analyses fail to incorporate evidence on child health-related quality of life because of a paucity of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimates. This health valuation study is the first to summarize the EQ-5D-Y on a QALY scale. Drawn from a nationally representative panel, 5207 adult respondents were asked to choose between two losses in child health-related quality of life. Based on their choices, a 1-year increase in child pain/discomfort from 'some' to 'a lot' equals a loss of 4 QALYs (95% CI, 3.8-4.4). Likewise, a 1-year increase in child anxiety/depression from 'a bit' to 'very worried, sad, or unhappy' equals a loss of 2 QALYs (95% CI, 1.9-2.2). These findings enable the integration of child-reported outcomes with adult preferences to inform economic analysis. Results inform both clinical practice and resource allocation decisions by enhancing understanding of difficult tradeoffs in child-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25926161

  19. An Analysis of the Quality and Quantity of Parent/Child Reading Utterances while Reading Different Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different genres affect the quality and quantity of parent/child reading utterances. I analyzed the reading utterances of parent/child dyads with preschool aged child while reading informational and narrative books contributing to this line of research by systematically selecting books based on…

  20. Predicting School Adjustment in Early Elementary School: Impact of Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Relational Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine; Verachtert, Pieter; Van Damme, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated the impact of dyadic and classroom-level teacher-child relationship quality in first grade on children's psychosocial and academic adjustment in first (N = 3,784), second (N = 3,666), and third (N = 3,582) grade, controlling for several child features, namely, child demographics and children's initial levels of…

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role of Quantity and Quality of Child-Directed Speech in Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantity and quality of caregiver input was examined longitudinally in a sample of 50 parent-child dyads to determine which aspects of input contribute most to children's vocabulary skill across early development. Measures of input gleaned from parent-child interactions at child ages 18, 30, and 42 months were examined in relation to children's…

  2. Does Child Care Quality Mediate Associations Between Type of Care and Development?

    PubMed Central

    Abner, Kristin S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders

    2013-01-01

    Studies document that, on average, children cared for in centers, as compared to homes, have higher cognitive test scores but worse socioemotional and health outcomes. The authors assessed whether the quality of care received explains these associations. They considered multiple domains of child development—cognitive, socioemotional, and health—and examined whether mediation is greater when quality measures are better aligned with outcome domains. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort, they found that children in centers have better cognitive skills and behavioral regulation than children in homes, but worse social competence and generally equivalent health (N = 1,550). They found little evidence that quality of child care, as measured by standard instruments (e.g., the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale—Revised), accounts for associations between type of care and child developmental outcomes. PMID:24068846

  3. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the…

  4. Peer Contacts of 15-Month-Olds in Childcare: Links with Child Temperament, Parent-Child Interaction and Quality of Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. Gevers; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Seventy 15-month-old children were observed during 90 minutes of free play with their peers in childcare centers. The study aimed to describe individual differences in the children's contacts with peers and to explain the individual differences in relation to: (1) child temperament, (2) the quality of parental behavior toward the child and (3) the…

  5. An Assessment of the Validity of the ECERS-R with Implications for Measures of Child Care Quality and Relations to Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development, but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch partial credit model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from…

  6. The relations among child quality, family structure, and the value of the mother's time in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leppel, K

    1982-10-01

    A model of the determinants of child quality and of the value of a woman's time is developed and tested using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1976-1977. Child quality is measured by educational attainment; factors influencing the value of the mother's time include size and age composition of household, family income, education, and hours worked. The results indicate that size and age composition of household affect a woman's asking wage. However, more data are needed before the effects of family structure on schooling can be measured with confidence. PMID:12266446

  7. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  8. Measuring the quality of interprofessional collaboration in child mental health collaborative care

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Cécile; Laurin-Lamothe, Audrey; Nadeau, Lucie; Deshaies, Suzanne; Measham, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Objective This pilot study examines the potential utility of the Perception of Interprofessional Collaboration Model and the shared decision-making scales in evaluating the quality of partnership in child mental health collaborative care. Methods Ninety-six primary care professionals working with children and youth responded to an internet survey which included the Perception of Interprofessional Collaboration Model scale (PINCOM-Q) and an adapted version of a shared decision-making scale (Échelle de confort décisionnel, partenaire—ECD-P). The perceptions of child mental health professionals were compared with those of other professionals working with children. Results The PINCOM-Q and the ECD-P scales had an excellent internal consistency and they were moderately correlated. Child mental health professionals’ Individual Interprofessional Collaboration scores from the PINCOM-Q individual aspects subscale were better than that of other child professionals. Conclusion These scales may be interesting instruments to measure the quality of partnership in child mental health collaborative care settings. Research needs to replicate these findings and to determine whether the quality of collaboration is a predictor of mental health outcome. PMID:22371692

  9. Measuring the quality of interprofessional collaboration in child mental health collaborative care

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Cécile; Laurin-Lamothe, Audrey; Nadeau, Lucie; Deshaies, Suzanne; Measham, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Objective This pilot study examines the potential utility of the Perception of Interprofessional Collaboration Model and the shared decision-making scales in evaluating the quality of partnership in child mental health collaborative care. Methods Ninety-six primary care professionals working with children and youth responded to an internet survey which included the Perception of Interprofessional Collaboration Model scale (PINCOM-Q) and an adapted version of a shared decision-making scale (Échelle de confort décisionnel, partenaire—ECD-P). The perceptions of child mental health professionals were compared with those of other professionals working with children. Results The PINCOM-Q and the ECD-P scales had an excellent internal consistency and they were moderately correlated. Child mental health professionals’ Individual Interprofessional Collaboration scores from the PINCOM-Q individual aspects subscale were better than that of other child professionals. Conclusion These scales may be interesting instruments to measure the quality of partnership in child mental health collaborative care settings. Research needs to replicate these findings and to determine whether the quality of collaboration is a predictor of mental health outcome.

  10. Are They in Any Real Danger? What Research Does--and Doesn't--Tell Us about Child Care Quality and Children's Well-Being. Child Care Research and Policy Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Meckstroth, Alicia L.

    Recent research suggests that quality of experience in child care centers and family child care homes in the United States is mediocre. The research literature over the past 20 years indicates how variations in quality of care in center-based and family child care affect children's development. Higher levels of quality across a wide range of child…

  11. One Small Step at a Time: Implementing Continuous Quality Improvement in Child and Youth Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chovil, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is increasingly being adopted by health care, including child and youth mental health services. As part of the commitment to ongoing quality improvement, child and youth mental health teams in the Fraser region in British Columbia undertook CQI projects over a one year period (2007-2008). The projects covered a…

  12. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian…

  13. Otitis Media, the Quality of Child Care, and the Social/Communicative Behavior of Toddlers: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Manlove, Elizabeth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of otitis media (OM) and the quality of child care on the social and communicative behaviors of toddlers, using a cumulative risk framework that included moderation. The study followed 72 children who began child care in infancy. Both process and structural aspects of the quality of 11 child…

  14. State and Local Implementation of the "No Child Left Behind Act." Volume II--Teacher Quality under "NCLB": Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Beatrice F.; Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Klekotka, Amy; Ludwig, Meredith; Taylor, James; Walters, Kirk; Wayne, Andrew; Yoon, Kwang-Suk

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings about teacher quality from two longitudinal studies, the National Longitudinal Study of "No Child Left Behind" (NLS-"NCLB"), and the Study of State Implementation of Accountability and Teacher Quality Under "No Child Left Behind" (SSI-"NCLB"). The research teams for these two studies have collaborated to provide an…

  15. State and Local Implementation of the "No Child Left Behind Act." Volume VIII--Teacher Quality under "NCLB": Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Beatrice F.; Boyle, Andrea; Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Elledge, Amy; Holtzman, Deborah; Song, Mengli; Thomsen, Kerri; Walters, Kirk; Yoon, Kwang-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings about teacher quality from two longitudinal studies, the National Longitudinal Study of "No Child Left Behind" (NLS-"NCLB"), and the Study of State Implementation of Accountability and Teacher Quality Under "No Child Left Behind" (SSI-"NCLB"). The research teams for these two studies have collaborated to provide an…

  16. Cortisol Levels of Caregivers in Child Care Centers as Related to the Quality of their Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…

  17. Quality in Family Child Care: A Focus Group Study with Canadian Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of American, Canadian and English preschoolers regularly participate in family child care making its quality of vital importance for the children concerned, their parents, the school system and the society in which they live. This article discusses the seven key caregiver behaviors and physical space characteristics…

  18. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Life: Resilience Among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbuch, Terri L.; Parry, Carla; Chesler, Mark; Fritz, Jennifer; Repetto, Paula

    2005-01-01

    According to The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation, certain family strengths can promote positive outcomes for children undergoing adverse or stressful circumstances. We proposed that chief among these potential strengths are high quality parent-child relationships. Data from self-report questionnaires from 190…

  19. Head Start/Child Care Partnerships: Program Characteristics and Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane; Smith Leavell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    As part of President Obama's Early Education Plan, Congress authorized $500 million in the 2014 Omnibus Act to support states and communities in expanding high-quality early learning through the creation of a new Early Head Start-Child Care Partnership initiative. This initiative has placed renewed interest on research regarding the nature…

  20. After-School Program Engagement: Links to Child Competence and Program Quality and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L; Parente, Maria E.; Lord, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This 2-year study assessed program-level differences in after-school program (ASP) engagement in relation to child competencies (effectance motivation, social competence, school grades) and program quality and content. Participants were 141 children (M age = 8.4 years) who attended 9 ASPs in an urban, disadvantaged city in the United States.…

  1. Parents' and Providers' Views of Important Aspects of Child Care Quality. Publication #2015-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosinsky, Laura; Halle, Tamara; Susman-Stillman, Amy; Cleveland, Jennifer; Li, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The Maryland-Minnesota Child Care Research Partnership brought together two states committed to examining critical issues in early care and education and using research findings to inform policy with an interdisciplinary team of researchers experienced in conducting studies on (1) subsidy policy; (2) quality improvement strategies; and (3)…

  2. Supporting High Quality Teacher-Child Interactions in Pre-K Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation is to add value to the limited knowledge base of research surrounding the quality of teacher-child interactions in pre-k mathematics contexts. The first paper, based on an extensive review of literature, presents a theoretical basis for using five-frames to support children's development of…

  3. Practitioner Perspective: Assessing Child-Care Quality with a Telephone Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Karen W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses findings that child care quality can be measured effectively and efficiently through telephone interview. Notes that interview items were more highly correlated to the materials composite than to the interaction composite of the Environment Ratings Scales. Describes situations where on-site observation is necessary. Suggests that one…

  4. High-Quality Child Care: Shelter from the Storm for the Children of Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara A.; Graham, Mimi; Schilling, Max

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an initiative to improve child care for the children of teen parents. Since 1999, the Florida State University Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy has worked with seven childcare programs in four school districts to achieve this goal. The initiative included development of a quality improvement plan for each…

  5. Predictors of Global Quality in Family Child Care Homes: Structural and Belief Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…

  6. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  7. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Academic Achievement of Chinese American Children in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing; Chu, Keira; Chen, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict,…

  8. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  9. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  10. Centre-Based Child Care Quality in Urban Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishimine, Karin; Wilson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of childcare centres in urban Australian communities designated according to different bands of Centre Location Demographics (CLD). Childcare centres were assessed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- Revised Edition (ECERS-R) and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Extension (ECERS-E).…

  11. Partnerships for Quality Infant-Toddler Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that some communities are managing to establish and sustain good-quality infant-toddler care and to make it accessible…

  12. Caring for Children: Case Studies of Local Government Child Care Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Fern

    This book of case studies highlights 26 municipalities involved in activities related to child care. Cities selected were of different sizes; were located in different parts of the country; and used diverse approaches for developing ways to improve access to affordable, high-quality child care. Each case study was developed through a telephone…

  13. Assessing Protection Afforded to the Microbiological Quality of Bedrock Groundwater from the Impacts of Septic Tank Effluent by Irish Glacial Till: A Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Alison; McCarthy, Valerie; Meehan, Robert; Flynn, Raymond

    2010-05-01

    The rural population of Ireland relies almost exclusively on on-site treatment systems for disposal of waste water. Septic tank systems, which discharge effluent to ground, constitute the dominant means of waste water disposal. Many of the areas that employ this technology rely on private or small group groundwater supplies, often located in close proximity of septic tanks. Since many of these water supplies provide raw groundwater to consumers, septic tank effluent (STE) can pose a significant hazard to the microbiological quality of drinking water. T-tests (infiltration testing) carried out prior to tank installation aim to assess the capacity of subsoils to receive STE. Tests completed across Ireland indicate that many existing septic tank systems are located in low permeability subsoils. These subsoils are assumed to afford significant protection to the microbiological quality of groundwater in the underlying bedrock units. A two year investigation in the Lough Muckno Catchment in Co. Monaghan, investigating the impact of STE on water quality, involved carrying out T-tests at three sites where effluent discharged to a dense, silty, ‘fractured' glacial till derived from the underlying bedrock and containing clasts of low grade metamorphic Ordovician and Silurian sandstone and shale. Analysis of groundwater samples collected from 28 piezometers straddling the water table within the till, down-gradient of septic tank systems at two sites, permitted faecal indicator microorganism (FIO) levels in near-surface groundwater to be established. Associated hydraulic conductivity tests (slug tests) at all three sites permitted an evaluation of the levels of horizontal hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity present in the till. Slug test results suggest that till median hydraulic conductivities range from 1.1x10-4 cm/s to 1.1x10-5 cm/s, with variability of up to 2 orders of magnitude across each site. On the other hand no significant differences in properties existed

  14. Do Intervention Programs in Child Care Promote the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Werner, Claudia D; Linting, Mariëlle; Vermeer, Harriet J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis reports on the effectiveness of targeted interventions focusing on child care professionals to improve child care quality, caregiver interaction skills, and child social-emotional development. Within randomized controlled trials, interventions are moderately effective in improving overall caregiver-child interactions (k = 19, Hedges' g = 0.35) and in improving child care quality on the classroom level (k = 11; Hedges' g = 0.39), the caregiver level (k = 10; Hedges' g = 0.44), and the child level (k = 6; Hedges' g = 0.26). Based on these findings, the implementation of evidence-based targeted interventions on a larger scale than currently exists may lead to better social-emotional development for children under the age of 5 years. There remains, however, an urgent need for more and larger randomized controlled trials with a solid design and high quality measures in order to shed more light on which child care components for which children are most critical in supporting children's socio-emotional development. PMID:26411312

  15. Child care quality and cognitive development: trajectories leading to better preacademic skills.

    PubMed

    Côté, Sylvana M; Mongeau, Chantal; Japel, Christa; Xu, Qian; Séguin, Jean R; Tremblay, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years (n = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory was associated with better numeracy (effect size [ES] = .39, confidence interval [CI] = .21-.66), receptive vocabulary (ES = .41, CI = .14-.68), and school readiness (ES = .32, CI = .06-.58). The results suggest that a pattern of increasing quality of teacher-child interactions during the preschool years, particularly with regard to supporting the development of language, has a moderate impact on children's cognitive development. PMID:23083205

  16. Maternal HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms among inner-city African American youth: the role of maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child relationship quality, and child coping.

    PubMed

    McKee, Laura; Jones, Deborah J; Roland, Erin; Coffelt, Nicole; Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to examine interactions between psychosocial risk (i.e., maternal depressive symptoms) and protective (i.e., child coping skills and mother-child relationship quality) correlates of depressive symptoms among inner-city African American children of mothers with and without HIV/AIDS. Two primary hypotheses were tested: (a) whether these correlates interact differently in HIV-infected and noninfected samples and (b) whether child coping skills and a positive mother-child relationship interact to protect children from developing depressive symptoms in the context of maternal HIV infection. Results indicated that (a) a positive mother-child relationship, but not child coping skills, was protective in the HIV-infected sample when maternal depressive symptoms were high and (b) the combination of a positive mother-child relationship and child coping skills was associated with the lowest level of child depressive symptoms in the HIV-infected sample. These findings highlight the differential importance of various risk and protective mechanisms for HIV-infected and noninfected African American samples and, as such, have preventative implications for children of HIV-infected women. PMID:17535124

  17. The relation of preschool child-care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade.

    PubMed

    Peisner-Feinberg, E S; Burchinal, M R; Clifford, R M; Culkin, M L; Howes, C; Kagan, S L; Yazejian, N

    2001-01-01

    The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher-child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences. PMID:11699686

  18. Associations between parent-child relationship quality and obesogenic risk in adolescence: a systematic review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Claire; Bergmeier, Heidi; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Olsson, Craig A; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant cognitive, social and physiological change, presenting unique risk factors for weight gain. Childhood obesity research has traditionally focused on the influence of parent-level factors on children's eating and weight status. Increasingly, emphasis is turning towards the reciprocal nature of the parent-child relationship and its influence on health behaviour. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the relationship between parent-child relationship quality (defined as the felt emotional bond between parent and child) and obesogenic risk (weight status, eating attitudes and behaviours, level of physical activity and sedentary behaviour) in adolescence; 26 papers were included in the review. The results neither support nor challenge an association between parent-child relationship quality and weight, with study design flaws and limited measurement of the parent-child relationship precluding robust conclusions. The review does however suggests that several aspects of the parent-child relationship are important in understanding eating attitudes and behaviours, including the felt emotional bond between the parent and child, the child's perception of how much the parent cares for them and the mother's sensitivity towards the child. The need for further longitudinal research into the association between parent-child relationship quality and obesity risk across this developmental period is discussed. PMID:27125464

  19. La calidad del cuidado infantil: Un resumen para padres (Child Care Quality: An Overview for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Peggy; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Many parents want to know how important the quality of care is to children's social, emotional, and academic development. This Digest synthesizes some major recent research on child care quality. First, the Digest explains what features contribute to quality of care. The Digest also explains the differences between studies of how quality is…

  20. The Strengthening Families Initiative and Child Care Quality Improvement: How Strengthening Families Influenced Change in Child Care Programs in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne; Klerman, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program…

  1. Teacher-child relationship quality and academic achievement of Chinese American children in immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing; Chu, Keira; Chen, Stephen H

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict, and intimacy, and children completed a questionnaire measuring overall TCRQ. Standardized tests were used to assess children's math and reading skills. Analyses were conducted to (a) test the factor structure of measures assessing TCRQ among Chinese American children, (b) examine the associations between teacher- and child-rated TCRQ and children's academic achievement, controlling for demographic characteristics, and (c) examine the potential role of child gender as a moderator in the relations between TCRQ and achievement. Results indicated that teacher-rated TCRQ Warmth was positively associated with Chinese American children's reading achievement. Two child gender-by-TCRQ interactions were found: (a) teacher-rated TCRQ Conflict was negatively associated with girls' (but not boys') math achievement, and (b) child-rated Overall TCRQ was positively associated with boys' (but not girls') reading achievement. These findings highlight the valuable role of TCRQ in the academic success of school-aged children in immigrant families. PMID:22710020

  2. Health related quality of life and parental perceptions of child vulnerability among parents of a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results from a web-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A chronic illness, such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), has an impact on the whole family, especially on parents caring for the ill child. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate parental Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) and associated variables in parents of a child with JIA. Methods Parents of all JIA patients (0–18 years) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were eligible. HRQOL was measured using the TNO-AZL Questionnaire (TAAQOL) and PPCV using the Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS). The HRQOL of parents of a child with JIA was compared to a norm population, and differences between parents of a child with JIA and active arthritis versus parents of a child with JIA without active arthritis were analyzed (ANOVA). For PPCV, parents of a child with JIA were compared to a norm population, including healthy and chronically ill children (Chi2, Mann-Whitney U test). Variables associated with PPCV were identified by logistic regression analyses. Results 155 parents (87.5% mothers) completed online questionnaires. JIA parents showed worse HRQOL than parents of healthy children on one out of twelve domains: fine motor HRQOL (p < .001). Parents of children with active arthritis showed worse HRQOL regarding daily activities (p < .05), cognitive functioning (p < .01) and depressive emotions (p < .05) compared to parents of children without active arthritis. Parents of children with JIA perceived their child as more vulnerable than parents of a healthy child (p < .001) and parents of a chronically ill child (p < .001). Parents of children with active arthritis reported higher levels of PPCV (p < .05) than parents of children without active arthritis. A higher degree of functional disability (p < .01) and shorter disease duration (p < .05) were associated with higher levels of PPCV. Conclusion The HRQOL of JIA parents was comparable to the HRQOL of parents of a

  3. [Quality characteristics of freedom-restricting coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Steinert, Tilman; Jungmann, Joachim; Bergmann, Frank; Fegert, Jörg M

    2006-01-01

    Putting into practice legal prescriptions of both children's rights and the personal freedom guaranteed by the German basic constitutional law requires a reflected and sensitive use of freedom-restricting coercive measures. Such measures imply uncertainties and burdens for staff and patients in child and adolescent psychiatry. Using guidelines of psychiatric associations and instructions from three institutions, basic attitudes and quality characteristics of indication, performance, and participation with regard to freedom-restricting coercive measures are described. PMID:17253028

  4. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  5. The Relation of Parent-Child Interaction Qualities to Social Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Erin L.; Manangan, Christen N.; Sparrow, Joanne K.; Wilson, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between parent-child interactions and the development of social skills in 42 children (21 typically developing and 21 with autism spectrum disorders) between the ages of 3 years, 0 months and 6 years, 11 months. We expected that positive parent-child interaction qualities would be related to children's social…

  6. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  7. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  8. Long-Term Effects of Child Death on Parents' Health-Related Quality of Life: A Dyadic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jieun; Floyd, Frank J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of child death on bereaved parents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we compared 233 bereaved couples and 229 comparison couples (mean age = 65.11 years) and examined the life course effects of child death on parents' HRQoL. Variations in bereavement…

  9. Our Families, Our Children: The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force Report on Quality Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispenza, Mary

    The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…

  10. The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

  11. Child Care and Early Childhood Education: A KIDS COUNT Report of Findings in Michigan. A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

    This Kids Count status report profiles the status of child care and early childhood education in Michigan. The first part of the report examines the growing need for child care, and examines three main issues; availability, affordability, and quality. The second part of the report examines these issues as they pertain to the state of Michigan.…

  12. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  13. An Assessment of the Validity of the ECERS-R with Implications for Assessments of Child Care Quality and its Relation to Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch Partial Credit Model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. The PCM identified rating category disordering, indicating previously unrecognized problems with the scale’s response process validity. Factor analyses identified neither a single factor nor the ECERS-R six subscales, replicating prior research regarding the scale’s structural validity. Criterion validity results were mixed, with small effect sizes for regressions predicting child outcomes and moderate effect sizes for regressions predicting teacher-reported quality. Our results lend empirical support to recent critiques of the ECERS-R; and, we discuss implications for its future use and for the development of future measures. PMID:22468567

  14. An assessment of the validity of the ECERS-R with implications for measures of child care quality and relations to child development.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rachel A; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development, but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch partial credit model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort. The PCM identified rating category disordering, indicating previously unrecognized problems with the scale's response process validity. Factor analyses identified neither a single factor nor the ECERS-R six subscales, replicating prior research regarding the scale's structural validity. Criterion validity results were mixed, with small effect sizes for regressions predicting child outcomes and moderate effect sizes for regressions predicting teacher-reported quality. Our results lend empirical support to recent critiques of the ECERS-R, and we discuss implications for its future use and for the development of future measures. PMID:22468567

  15. Parents’ Testosterone and Children’s Perception of Parent-Child Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Alan; Hibel, Jacob; Granger, Douglas A.; Johnson, David

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between parental testosterone and children’s perceptions of their relationship with their mother and father. Using data from 352 predominantly white working and middle class families, we find no direct link between mother’s and father’s testosterone and parent-child closeness. However, the association between mothers’ testosterone and mother-child closeness appears to be influenced by the quality of two other family relationships. When father’s marital satisfaction is low, mothers with high testosterone have a poorer relationship with their children. And, when fathers report low levels of intimacy with their children, high testosterone women have a poorer relationship with their children. No comparable associations were observed among fathers. PMID:21843525

  16. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. PMID:23772822

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Child Maltreatment, Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Maladjustment: The Role of Self-Esteem and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations of mother-child relationship quality, self-esteem, social competence, and maladjustment among maltreated (n = 206) and nonmaltreated (n = 139) school-aged children from low-income families. Results of the path analysis using structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment at…

  18. Developing a Quality School-Age Child Care Program: An Information and Training Manual for Directors of School-Age Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childcare Resources, Birmingham, AL.

    This manual for directors of school-age child care (SACC) programs contains six sections. Section I provides a rationale for SACC. Section II describes characteristics of school-age children. The extensive Section III discusses characteristics of high quality SACC. After an initial discussion of the importance of out-of-school time, the section…

  19. Preschool Center Quality and School Readiness: Quality Effects and Variation by Demographic and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran D.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.; Howes, Carollee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines associations between observed quality in preschool center classrooms for approximately 6,250 three- to five-year-olds and their school readiness skills at kindergarten entry. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from four large-scale studies to estimate the effects of preschool center quality and interactions between…

  20. Preschool Center Quality and School Readiness: Quality Main Effects and Variation by Demographic and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Tran T.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.; Howes, Carollee

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address two research questions related to the policy goal of having all children ready to learn at kindergarten entry. First, to what extent are children's cognitive and achievement skills higher when they experience higher quality preschools? Second, are the effects of preschool center quality on these school readiness…

  1. To provide affordable, quality health care for all Americans and reduce the growth in health care spending, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations Between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls’ (N=1335) and boys’ (N=1203) cigarette and alcohol use across a twelve-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time maturing boys and girls’ cigarette and alcohol use, after estimating stability in these constructs across time. Parent-child relationship quality was associated with increased alcohol use twelve months later for early maturing girls. Cigarette and alcohol use were associated with increased problems in the parent-child relationship for late maturing girls. No off-time effects were observed for off-time maturing boys in the pathways between parent-child relationship quality and substance use. Pubertal timing moderated the pathway linking parent-child relationship quality with cigarette use one year later such that the association was stronger for late maturing girls compared to early and on-time maturing girls. The findings indicate interplay between the psychosocial aspects of maturation, family relationships and adolescent substance use and highlight possible gender-specific influences. PMID:21170159

  3. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  4. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  5. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  6. Family quality of life and ASD: the role of child adaptive functioning and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range = 6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands. PMID:25641930

  7. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…

  8. New Mexico Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Mexico's Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  9. Los Angeles County Steps to Excellence Project: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Los Angeles County's Steps to Excellence Project prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;…

  10. Narrative quality and disturbance pre- and post-emotion-focused therapy for child abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Mundorf, Elisabeth S; Paivio, Sandra C

    2011-12-01

    This study predicted that the quality of trauma narratives written before and following emotion-focused therapy for child abuse trauma would be positively associated with psychological disturbance before and following therapy. Narratives for 37 clients were coded for emotion words, temporal orientation, incoherence, and depth of experiencing. At pretreatment, negative emotion words and experiencing were correlated with abuse resolution, r(35) = -.36, and r(35) = -.34, respectively. At posttreatment, narrative incoherence was correlated with trauma symptoms, r(35) = .33, whereas present-future orientation and experiencing were correlated with abuse resolution, r(35) = -.37, and r(35) = -.31, respectively. Pretreatment incoherence was associated with posttreatment trauma symptoms, r(35) = .42, and pretreatment depth of experiencing was associated with posttreatment abuse resolution, r(35) = -.37. Results support narrative quality as an index of trauma disturbance. PMID:22144230

  11. [Quality control of hospital preparations: results concerning capsules production in a child hospital].

    PubMed

    Mathaut, S; Bordenave, J; Fratta, A; Benoit, G

    2006-01-01

    In France, lack of paediatric drugs leads pharmacies to produce many hospital preparations in order to meet prescribers'needs. To ensure the quality of these preparations, the pharmacy department of the Armand Trousseau Child Hospital set up a quality control system of its capsules. It integrates both European Pharmacopeia's requirements (Mass and Content uniformity test) and more strict internal quality specifications. They include exactitude of the average content compared to the awaited content, coefficient of variation of the contents and, "modified" content uniformity test. These criteria and the percentage of nonconformity are used as indicators to assure quality follow-up of the preparations. We reviewed quality control records for five hospital preparations produced over the last three years. We highlighted that lower dosage showed a higher percentage of nonconformity compared to higher dosage. Type of active ingredients was a key factors too (1,0% and 14.8% of non conform batches for ursodesoxycholic acid and for morphine hydrochloride respectively). Analysis showed that the essential character of content test because mass test is not predictive of the conformity of the batch. Content test was the main criterion to judge batches conformity. Thus, it will be generalized to all our preparations. These study results helped us to implement new procedures to assure an ongoing improvement of our practices of preparation. PMID:16449938

  12. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics. PMID:25152654

  13. Teasing Apart the Child Care Conundrum: A Factorial Survey Analysis of Perceptions of Child Care Quality, Fair Market Price and Willingness to Pay by Low-Income, African American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlay, Anne B.; Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha; Harmon, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Child care quality plays a crucial role in children's social and cognitive development. While child care quality is a critical issue for all children, it matters more for low-income children. Policy makers have increased the emphasis on allowing parents, not government, to make decisions about the type of care they want for their children. Yet…

  14. An integrative view of school functioning: transactions between self-regulation, school engagement, and teacher-child relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Ximena A; Ballard, Parissa J; Adler, Nancy E; Boyce, W Thomas; Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamic interplay between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behaviors across kindergarten and first grade to predict academic competence in first grade. Using a sample of 338 ethnically diverse 5-year-old children, nested path analytic models were conducted to examine bidirectional pathways between children's behaviors and teacher-child relationship quality. Low self-regulation in kindergarten fall, as indexed by inattention and impulsive behaviors, predicted more conflict with teachers in kindergarten spring and this effect persisted into first grade. Conflict and low self-regulation jointly predicted decreases in school engagement which in turn predicted first-grade academic competence. Findings illustrate the importance of considering transactions between self-regulation, teacher-child relationship quality, and school engagement in predicting academic competence. PMID:24916608

  15. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) and 2-level hierarchical linear models with site fixed effects, we examined between- and within-child associations between teacher-child relationship closeness and conflict and standardized measures of children's…

  16. Assessment of Child Care Quality in Four Counties in Minnesota. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    In order to assess the state of child care in Minnesota, this study examined child care needs, resources, and issues in four counties representing both rural and urban parts of the state. Three sources of information were tapped: (1) the county Child Care Resource and Referral databases; (2) a survey of directors of child care centers; and (3)…

  17. Does Improving Joint Attention in Low-Quality Child-Care Enhance Language Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Loretta C.; Cain, David W.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of professional development for child-care staff on language acquisition of children ages 14-36 months. Child-care staff from 44 child-care centres agreed to participate in the study. Child-care staff from one-half of the child-care centres were randomly assigned to a one-time, four-hour workshop followed by three…

  18. Adaptive style and differences in parent and child report of health-related quality of life in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Jurbergs, Nichole; Russell, Kathryn M W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with cancer, and the consistency between child and parent reports of child HRQL, as a function of the child's adaptive style. Participants included 199 children with cancer, 108 healthy children, and their parents. Children completed self-report measures of HRQL and adaptive style. Measures of adaptive style were used to categorize children as high anxious, low anxious, defensive high anxious or repressor. Parents completed measures reporting their children's HRQL. Adaptive style was a significant predictor of child-reported HRQL, particularly on the psychosocial scales, with children identified as repressors reporting the best HRQL. Adaptive style was also predictive of discrepancies between parent and child report of child HRQL. Repressor and low anxious children reported better HRQL than did their parents, while high anxious children reported poorer HRQL, regardless of health status. Adaptive style is a significant determinant of self-reported HRQL in children, particularly in psychosocial domains, while health status (i.e. cancer patient vs healthy control) is predictive only of physical health domains. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of the impact of child adaptive style when assessing HRQL outcomes using self- or parent report. PMID:17410520

  19. Mothers' Search for Infant Child Care: The Dynamic Relationship between Availability and Desirability in a Continental European Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbroeck, M.; De Visscher, S.; Van Nuffel, K.; Ferla, J.

    2008-01-01

    The availability, affordability, and desirability of quality child care are matters of concern, especially for children raised in poverty, given the literature showing that young children raised in poverty can benefit from early access to quality care. The unique features of the Brussels context enable us to look at the connection between…

  20. Using quality improvement to promote implementation and increase well child visits in home visiting.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neera K; Ammerman, Robert T; Massie, Julie A; Clark, Margaret; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    A key goal of home visiting is to connect children with medical homes through anticipatory guidance regarding recommended well child care (WCC). Substantial barriers to WCC among low socioeconomic families can limit achievement of this outcome. Quality improvement strategies have been widely adopted in healthcare but only recently implemented in home visiting to achieve program outcomes. The objective of this initiative was to increase the percentage of infants enrolled in home visiting who completed at least 3 recommended WCC visits in the first 6 months of life within a large, multi-model program comprised of 11 sites. A series of 33 quality improvement cycles were conducted at 3 sites involving 18 home visitors and 139 families with infants in the target age range. These were deployed sequentially, and changes within and across sites were monitored using trend charts over time. Adopted strategies were then implemented program-wide. Initiatives focused on staff training in WCC recommendations, data collection processes, monthly family tracking reports, and enhanced communication with primary care offices. Data were shared in iterative sessions to identify methods for improving adherence. Wide baseline variability across sites was observed, with the percentage of infants with recommended care ranging from 35% to 83%. Over the project timeline, the percentage of infants receiving at least 3 WCC visits in the first 6 months increased from 58% to 86%. Quality improvement within home visiting can be used to improve WCC adherence and provides an example of maximizing implementation of home visiting interventions. PMID:26699456

  1. Finding Good Child Care: The Essential Questions To Ask When Seeking Quality Care for Your Child. CCAC Information Guide 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    This Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) Information Guide focuses on questions for parents to ask when looking for the right childcare program. The guide provides a checklist for parents to use when evaluating potential or currently used childcare programs. By sharing and discussing the checklist with caregivers, parents and caregivers can work…

  2. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-03-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children. PMID:25706589

  3. Child Care: States Have Undertaken a Variety of Quality Improvement Initiatives, but More Evaluations of Effectiveness Are Needed. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    Expressing concern for the quality of care supported by Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) funds, welfare reform legislation required states to set aside at least 4 percent of their total grant to improve child care quality and availability. In preparation for reauthorizing CCDF, this General Accounting Office report was commissioned to…

  4. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  5. Act for Better Child Care Services of 1988. Report from the Committee on Labor and Human Resources Together with Additional Views (To Accompany S. 1885). 100th Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Act for Better Child Care Services of 1988, additional views of members of the United States Senate, and related materials are reported. The purpose of the Act is to increase the availability, affordability, and quality of child care throughout the nation. The legislation provides direct financial assistance to low-income and working families…

  6. Maternal Knowledge of Child Development and Quality of Parenting among White, African-American and Hispanic Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, K.Y.; O'Brien Caughy, M.; Genevro, J.L.; Miller, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between early maternal knowledge of child development and later quality of parenting behaviors. Differences by race/ethnic group were also examined. Mother-infant dyads (N=378) participated in the study. Mothers completed the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI) when the infant was 2-4 months, and…

  7. HOME VISIT QUALITY VARIATIONS IN TWO EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS IN RELATION TO PARENTING AND CHILD VOCABULARY OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Roggman, Lori A; Cook, Gina A; Innocenti, Mark S; Jump Norman, Vonda; Boyce, Lisa K; Christiansen, Katie; Peterson, Carla A

    2016-05-01

    Home-visiting programs aiming to improve early child development have demonstrated positive outcomes, but processes within home visits to individual families are rarely documented. We examined family-level variations in the home-visiting process (N = 71) from extant video recordings of home visits in two Early Head Start programs, using an observational measure of research-based quality indicators of home-visiting practices and family engagement, the Home Visit Rating Scales (HOVRS). HOVRS scores, showing good interrater agreement and internal consistency, were significantly associated with parent- and staff-reported positive characteristics of home visiting as well as with parenting and child language outcomes tested at program exit. When home-visiting processes were higher quality during the program, home visit content was more focused on child development, families were more involved in the overall program, and most important, scores on measures of the parenting environment and children's vocabulary were higher at the end of the program. Results showed that home visit quality was indirectly associated with child language outcomes through parenting outcomes. Observation ratings of home visit quality could be useful for guiding program improvement, supporting professional development, and increasing our understanding of the links between home-visiting processes and outcomes. PMID:27079807

  8. Quebec's Child Care Services: What Are the Mechanisms Influencing Children's Behaviors across Quantity, Type, and Quality of Care Experienced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…

  9. Principals' Responses to the Teacher Quality Provision of the No Child Left behind Act of 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Michael Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind legislation in 2002, principals have been held accountable for fulfilling a segment of it known as the Teacher Quality provision. This study examines how principals with varying levels of capacity to address the problem were either successful or unsuccessful in meeting the mandate using a wide variety…

  10. Mentoring and Facilitating Professional Engagement as Quality Enhancement Strategies: An Overview and Evaluation of the Family Child Care Partnerships Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Ellen; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D.; Putnam, Robin I.; Miller, Ellaine B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The importance of professional development training for individuals tasked with providing quality early child care is widely accepted. However, research assessing the impact of specific, long-term professional development programs on changes in caregiver behavior is largely absent, as is research about the processes and mechanisms of…

  11. Goodness of Fit between Children and Classrooms: Effects of Child Temperament and Preschool Classroom Quality on Achievement Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Moas, Olga; Henderson, Heather A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Munis, Pelin M.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's…

  12. An Integrative View of School Functioning: Transactions between Self-Regulation, School Engagement, and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portilla, Ximena A.; Ballard, Parissa J.; Adler, Nancy E.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamic interplay between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behaviors across kindergarten and first grade to predict academic competence in first grade. Using a sample of 338 ethnically diverse 5-year-old children, nested path analytic models were conducted to examine bidirectional pathways between…

  13. Measuring Quality in Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care: Conceptual and Practical Issues. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Erin J.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of family, friend, and neighbor caregivers to the overall supply of child care and the care and education of our nation's youngest children is substantial. This brief explores, for policy and other audiences, some of the issues around measuring quality in family, friend, and neighbor care. The purpose is not to provide a…

  14. The Quality of Life of a Child with Asperger's Disorder in a General Education Setting: A Pilot Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot qualitative case study was designed to investigate how the quality of life (QOL) of a child with Asperger's Disorder was impacted by her placement in an inclusive education setting which provided no specialized social skills instruction. Direct and indirect data were gathered and examined regarding themes that centered around QOL…

  15. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  16. Effects of Home Environment and Center-Based Child Care Quality on Children's Language, Communication, and Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the joint effects of home environment and center-based child care quality on children's language, communication, and early literacy development, while also considering prior developmental level. Participants were 95 children (46 boys), assessed as toddlers (mean age = 26.33 months; Time 1) and preschoolers (mean age = 68.71…

  17. Keys to Quality in School-Age Child Care. Trainer's Guide for Using the Video and Viewer's Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Roberta L.

    Based on observations of hundreds of school-age child care programs across the nation and conversations with parents, children, and professionals in school-age care, this training guide is intended to help parents, caregivers, and interested citizens to develop quality school-age programs in their communities. The guide begins by summarizing an…

  18. Maternal Literacy Beliefs and the Quality of Mother-Child Book-Reading Interactions: Associations with Children's Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relation among mothers' literacy-related beliefs, the home literacy environment, the quality of mother-child book-reading interactions, and children's development of early literacy skills. The participants of this study were 60 mothers and their 4-year-old children. After controlling for mothers' educational attainment,…

  19. Current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychiatric disorders: Fertility rates, parent-child relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362490

  20. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek

    PubMed Central

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach’s alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question’s contribution to children’s quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child’s quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  1. Family quality of life among families with a child who has a severe neurodevelopmental disability: Impact of family and child socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Schertz, Mitchell; Karni-Visel, Yael; Tamir, Ada; Genizi, Jacob; Roth, Dana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine family quality of life (FQOL) of Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability and its relation to socio-demographics. The cohort included caregivers of 70 children ages (mean ± standard deviation) 5.36 ± 3.53 years. Families were two-parent (85.7%), lived in the periphery (67.1%) and included Jews (60%), Muslims (18.6%), Druze (14.3%) and Christians (7.1%). Religiosity included: secular (38.6%), traditional (31.4%), religious (30%). Children's diagnosis included autistic spectrum disorder (41.4%), intellectual disability (21.4%), cerebral palsy (17.1%), genetic syndromes (17.1%) and sensorineural hearing loss (2.9%). Degree of support (1-minimal,5-greatest) required by the child was 3.67 ± 1.28 for physical and 3.49 ± 1.36 for communication. Primary caregivers completed the FQOL Survey. Domain scores were highest for family relations and lowest for financial well-being. Dimension scores were highest for importance and lowest for opportunities. Overall FQOL approximated average. Jewish families and residents of a major urban area reported higher and more religious families reported lower overall FQOL. Regression analysis found ethnicity contributing to overall FQOL and domain scores with residence contributing to support from services. Ethnicity and child dependence contributed to dimension scores. Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability report average FQOL scores. However, family and child dependence characteristics affect FQOL scores. Professionals working with these families should consider FQOL information when making recommendations. PMID:26871463

  2. Generic and Diabetes-specific Parent–Child Behaviors and Quality of Life Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja; Holmbeck, Grayson; Chen, Rusan; Anderson, Barbara; Wysocki, Tim; Laffel, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations among parent–child behaviors and generic and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a multi-site sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Method One hundred and twenty-one youth and their primary caregivers completed measures of parent–child behaviors, child HRQOL, and participated in an observed family interaction task. Results Diabetes-specific parent–child variables were associated significantly with both generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL above and beyond the contributions of demographic and generic parent-child variables, accounting for between 13% and 31% of the variance in HRQOL. Diabetes-specific family conflict and negative diabetes-specific family communication were associated with lower HRQOL. Collaborative parent involvement in diabetes care was associated with higher levels of HRQOL. Conclusions Interventions that target diabetes-specific family interactions will be beneficial to the quality of life of children with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19270028

  3. Investment in Child Quality over Marital States. Discussion Paper No. 1320-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Meta; Flinn, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Policies governing divorce and parenting, such as child support orders and enforcement, child custody regulations, and marital dissolution requirements, can have a large impact on the welfare of parents and children. Recent research has produced evidence on the responses of divorce rates to unilateral divorce laws and child support enforcement. In…

  4. Growing Up in Child Care: A Case for Quality Early Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardell, Ben

    As the numbers of children enrolled in child care from infancy have increased, there is a growing acceptance of this now prevailing mode of childrearing. Asserting that the "necessary evil" perception of child care contributes to the mediocrity of the American child care system, this book contends that this characterization is misguided and unfair…

  5. Child Care in Oregon: Emerging Solutions. Executive Summary. 1988 Interim Report to the Governor and Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.

    This is the second in a series of three reports addressing issues, problems, and potential solutions critical to the development of accessible, affordable, and quality day care in Oregon. At present, the majority of Oregon households have two or more wage earners, and the majority of Oregon children need child care on a daily basis. Priority…

  6. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  7. Designing Day Care: A Resource Manual for Development of Child Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacquelyn O.

    Compiled to promote the development of high quality, affordable, and accessible day care programs in West Tennessee, this manual helps prospective child caregivers decide which kind of day care to operate and describes start-up steps and program operation. Section 1 focuses on five basic questions of potential caregivers: (1) Which type of child…

  8. Children’s Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Anne H.; Liu, Bojing; Ullman, Sara; Jadbäck, Isabel; Engström, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11–16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. Methods A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11–16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences

  9. The Quality of the Inter-parental Relationship Does Not Moderate the Etiology of Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Wildey, Mikhila N.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is a clear phenotypic relationship between the quality of the inter-parental or marital relationship and child conduct problems (CP), the etiology of this association is as yet unclear. One possibility is that this association takes the form of a genotype-environment interaction (GxE), whereby the quality of the inter-parental relationship acts to moderate the etiology of child CP. The current study sought to evaluate this possibility. Methods We examined multiple measures and informant-reports of the quality of the inter-parental relationship in a sample of more than 700 child twin families from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Analyses consisted of a series of latent GxE models. Results The ‘no moderation’ model provided the best fit to the data in nearly all cases, findings that collectively provide strong evidence against the possibility that the etiology of CP is moderated by the quality of the interparental relationship. Conclusions Such findings suggest that, contrary to implicit (and sometimes explicit) assumptions in the field, it is not the case that every environmental risk (or protective) factor exacerbates (or suppresses) genetic influences on CP. Future research should seek to delineate the specific environmental experiences that do serve as etiologic moderators of CP, and to clarify how this gene-environment interplay might change over the course of development. PMID:25066424

  10. Qualitative observation instrument to measure the quality of parent-child interactions in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), parents have complete responsibility for the diabetes-management. In toddlers and (pre)schoolers, the tasks needed to achieve optimal blood glucose control may interfere with normal developmental processes and could negatively affect the quality of parent–child interaction. Several observational instruments are available to measure the quality of the parent–child interaction. However, no observational instrument for diabetes-specific situations is available. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a qualitative observation instrument, to be able to assess parent–child interaction during diabetes-specific situations. Methods First, in a pilot study (n = 15), the observation instrument was developed in four steps: (a) defining relevant diabetes-specific situations; (b) videotaping these situations; (c) describing all behaviors in a qualitative observation instrument; (d) evaluating usability and reliability. Next, we examined preliminary validity (total n = 77) by testing hypotheses about correlations between the observation instrument for diabetes-specific situations, a generic observation instrument and a behavioral questionnaire. Results The observation instrument to assess parent–child interaction during diabetes-specific situations, which consists of ten domains: “emotional involvement”, “limit setting”, “respect for autonomy”, “quality of instruction”, “negative behavior”, “avoidance”, “cooperative behavior”, “child’s response to injection”, “emphasis on diabetes”, and “mealtime structure”, was developed for use during a mealtime situation (including glucose monitoring and insulin administration). Conclusions The present study showed encouraging indications for the usability and inter-rater reliability (weighted kappa was 0.73) of the qualitative observation instrument. Furthermore, promising indications for the preliminary

  11. Quality of Health Management Information System for Maternal & Child Health Care in Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Prinja, Shankar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite increasing importance being laid on use of routine data for decision making in India, it has frequently been reported to be riddled with problems. Evidence suggests lack of quality in the health management information system (HMIS), however there is no robust analysis to assess the extent of its inaccuracy. We aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the extent of completeness and quality of HMIS in Haryana state of India. Methods Data on utilization of key maternal and child health (MCH) services were collected using a cross-sectional household survey from 4807 women in 209 Sub-Centre (SC) areas across all 21 districts of Haryana state. Information for same services was also recorded from HMIS records maintained by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) at SCs to check under- or over-recording (Level 1 discordance). Data on utilisation of MCH services from SC ANM records, for a subset of the total women covered in the household survey, were also collected and compared with monthly reports submitted by ANMs to assess over-reporting while report preparation (Level 2 discordance) to paint the complete picture for quality and completeness of routine HMIS. Results Completeness of ANM records for various MCH services ranged from 73% for DPT1 vaccination dates to 94.6% for dates of delivery. Average completeness level for information recorded in HMIS was 88.5%. Extent of Level 1 discordance for iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation, 3 or more ante-natal care (ANC) visits and 2 Tetanus toxoid (TT) injections was 41%, 16% and 2% respectively. In 48.2% cases, respondents from community as well as HMIS records reported at least one post-natal care (PNC) home visit by ANM. Extent of Level 2 discordance ranged from 1.6% to 6%. These figures were highest for number of women who completed IFA supplementation, contraceptive intra-uterine device insertion and provision of 2nd TT injection during ANC. Conclusions HMIS records for MCH services at sub-centre level

  12. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire for measuring child oral-health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jokovic, A; Locker, D; Stephens, M; Kenny, D; Tompson, B; Guyatt, G

    2002-07-01

    Oral-health-related quality of life measures that exist are designed for adults. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the CPQ(11-14), a self-report measure of the impact of oral and oro-facial conditions on 11- to 14-year-old children. An item pool was generated with the use of a literature review and interviews with health professionals, parents, and child patients. The 36 items rated the most frequent and bothersome by 83 children were selected for the CPQ(11-14). Validity testing involved a new sample of 123 children. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a subgroup of these children (n = 65). Mean CPQ(11-14) scores were highest for oro-facial (31.4), lower for orthodontic (24.3), and lowest for pedodontic (23.3) patients. There were significant associations between the CPQ(11-14) score and global ratings of oral health (p < 0.05) and overall well-being (p < 0.01). The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient for the CPQ(11-14) were 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. These results suggest that the CPQ(11-14) is valid and reliable. PMID:12161456

  13. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Linda S.; Spoth, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ) during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456). We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline) on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg). Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=−.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=−.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=−.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=−.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects. PMID:24634896

  14. Improving teacher-child relationship quality and teacher-rated behavioral adjustment amongst externalizing preschoolers: effects of a two-component intervention.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-02-01

    The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test. PMID:25028283

  15. Discrepancies Between Youth and Mothers’ Perceptions of Their Mother–Child Relationship Quality and Self-Disclosure: Implications for Youth- and Mother-Reported Youth Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Lance P.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have devoted greater attention to understanding how disagreement between mothers and their children regarding parent–child relationship quality and functioning impacts youth adjustment. While some view discrepancies as indices of developmentally appropriate individuation, discrepancies regarding family functioning also have been found to predict problematic youth functioning. This study examined the effects of mother–child discrepancies for mother–child relationship qualities and youth self-disclosure on youth-and mother-reported youth internalizing and externalizing adjustment. 232 fifth, eighth, and 11th grade youth (55 % female) and their mothers completed measures of mother–child relationship quality, youth self-disclosure, and youth internalizing and externalizing adjustment. For internalizing adjustment, few effects of discrepancy on adjustment were evident. Instead, informant-specific perceptions of mother–child relationship functioning were most relevant for informant-specific reports of youth adjustment. For youth externalizing adjustment, the magnitude of mother–child discrepancies for negative relationship quality and for youth self-disclosure predicted lower levels of problematic externalizing behavior from both the children’s and the mothers’ perspectives, which could indicate a lack of parent–child communication. Future research is needed to fully understand how discrepancies in negative or mal-adaptive aspects of mother–child relationships are formed (e.g., low disclosure), are understood by the members of and contribute to the onset, maintenance, and treatment of problematic behavioral outcomes. PMID:22573279

  16. Providing High Quality Care in Low-Income Areas of Maryland: Definitions, Resources, and Challenges from Parents and Child Care Providers' Perspectives. Publication #2012-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Simkin, Shana; Wessel, Julia; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Early life experiences are critical to a child's development. Research has shown that, for a variety of reasons, children born into low-income families are at a disadvantage when compared to their higher-income peers. Fortunately, research has also shown a positive association between high quality child care and the academic and social-emotional…

  17. Child-Care Aid and Quality for California Families: Focusing on San Francisco and Santa Clara Counties. PACE Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Chang, Yueh-Wen; Suzuki, Sawako; Kagan, Sharon Lynn

    Against the backdrop of evolving welfare policies in California following the approval of federal welfare reforms in 1996, the Growing Up in Poverty Project is examining how single mothers and their children fare as they move from cash aid to jobs, the types and quality of child care arrangements selected, and if mothers' access to child care…

  18. Quality Child Care Supports the Achievement of Low-Income Children: Direct and Indirect Pathways Through Caregiving and the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Kathleen; Dearing, Eric; Taylor, Beck A.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2009-01-01

    Existing studies of child care have not been able to determine whether higher quality child care protects children from the effects of poverty, whether poverty and lower quality child care operate as dual risk factors, or whether both are true. The objective of the current study was to test two pathways through which child care may serve as a naturally occurring intervention for low-income children: a direct pathway through child care quality to child outcomes, and an indirect pathway through improvements in the home environment. Children were observed in their homes and child care settings at 6, 15, 24, and 36 months. An interaction between family income-to-needs ratio and child care quality predicted School Readiness, Receptive Language, and Expressive Language, as well as improvements in the home environment. Children from low-income families profited from observed learning supports in the form of sensitive care and stimulation of cognitive development, and their parents profited from unobserved informal and formal parent supports. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578561

  19. Increasing Public Awareness and Developing Community Based Strategies for Quality School-Age Child Care Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Susan Way

    A framework for gaining community involvement in planning for school-age child care initiatives is reported. The framework incorporates a plan than could be used as a model for the involvement of the public school system. Four primary components are described: (1) a "Kids' Council" Saturday meeting in which third graders in school-age child care…

  20. Building Momentum--Taking Action: Southern States Collaborate on Child Care Financial Aid and Quality Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    In the year 2000, the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care was formed with representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia as well as appointments from the Southern Institute on Children and Families and the Southern Growth Policies Board to collaborate in developing an action plan to improve access to child care…

  1. Family Child Care Finances and Their Effect on Quality and Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helburn, Suzanne W.; Morris, John R.; Modigliani, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Family Child Care and Relative Care Study were used to construct a budget for paid family child caregivers and to examine financial incentives. Results indicated that income was low compared to female-dominated occupations for providers without their own children in care, but not much lower if providers cared for several and/or for…

  2. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  3. Do We Care More about Our Cars than about Our Children? High-Quality Child Care: Luxury Option or Standard Equipment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshansky, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research showing that there is a level of quality below which children's development is compromised. Uses analogies of options available to consumers when buying cars to designate features of quality child care. Argues that high-quality care should be available to all children. (AMC)

  4. The Effects of Smart Start Child Care on Kindergarten Entry Skills. FPG-UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Donna; Bernier, Kathleen; Taylor, Karen; Maxwell, Kelly

    Helping families access affordable, quality child care has been the primary focus for the Orange County, North Carolina Smart Start Partnership for Young Children. This study investigated the effects of Smart Start efforts on children's skills at kindergarten entry. Kindergarten teachers rated the cognitive, language and social skills of 39…

  5. Using Relationships as a Tool: Early Childhood Educators' Perspectives of the Child-Caregiver Relationship in a Childcare Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Chris; Hammond, Lauren; Schaumloffel, Nicole; Lind, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Children's early years are critical for development and many children access out-of-home care during this time. Services offering high-quality childcare afford an opportunity to impact positively on children's development, including acquisition of communication skills. A strong, responsive relationship between child and carer is important in…

  6. Beyond the Simple Model of Child Care Facilities: Support Spaces for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The age of child care building on a wide scale really began in the 1970s. Before that, there had been a history of day nurseries going back to the turn of the century and Lanham Act centers during World War II to provide care for "Rosie the Riveter" mothers in the work force. The "purpose built" child care center was an economical box with almost…

  7. CHILD CARE AVAILABILITY AND FIRST-BIRTH TIMING IN NORWAY*

    PubMed Central

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Guilkey, David; Morgan, S. Philip; Kravdal, Øystein; Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Both sociological and economic theories posit that widely available, high-quality, and affordable child care should have pronatalist effects. Yet to date, the empirical evidence has not consistently supported this hypothesis. We argue that this previous empirical work has been plagued by the inability to control for endogenous placement of day care centers and the possibility that people migrate to take advantage of the availability of child care facilities. Using Norwegian register data and a statistically defensible fixed-effects model, we find strong positive effects of day care availability on the transition to motherhood. PMID:17583309

  8. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  9. An affordable open-source turbidimeter.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christopher D; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  10. Quality at a price you can afford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Steven; Smith, Robert; Poese, Matthew

    2005-09-01

    The transition of thermoacoustics from the laboratory to the commercial sector involves a process that is very different from science. In the laboratory, when an experiment fails to produce the expected result, it is possible to make modifications, followed by further measurements, to isolate the discrepancy. After discussions with nearly 40 different companies over the past 5 years, there is rarely any feedback about why a given company decides not to proceed. In such an open-loop environment, we are left with only speculation regarding this obscure process. This talk will postulate some reasons that have led to our failure, thus far, to team with an early adaptor of the technology. These include their general lack of familiarity with acoustics, difficulties surrounding licensing of existing and future intellectual property controlled by a university, and the drift away from the maintenance of an active in-house research capability in industry [see H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard, 2003)]. The sequence of events that lead to formation of the ThermoAcoustics Corporation, an investor-funded start-up, will be related, along with the changes that licensure of intellectual property have made to our ability to deal with industry on a business-to-business basis without intervention of university tech-transfer professionals.

  11. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing must accompany such factors as strong advertising, committed management, and adept salespersons. PMID:12313292

  12. Assistance, Quality, and Affordability Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Waxman, Henry A. [D-CA-30

    2010-05-18

    08/05/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3874, which became Public Law 111-380 on 1/4/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The Quality of Toddler Child Care and Cognitive Skills at 24 Months: Propensity Score Analysis Results from the ECLS-B

    PubMed Central

    Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.

    2013-01-01

    Over half of the toddlers in the U.S. experience routine nonparental care, but much less is known about early care than about preschool care. This study analyzed 2-year-old child care and child outcome data from the nationally representative ECLS-B sample of children born in 2001. At two-years of age, 51% of children experienced exclusive parental care, 18% relative care, 15% family child care, and 16% center care. More children in nonparental care were in medium quality care (61%) than in high quality (26%) or low quality (13%) care. Low-income children were more likely than non-low income children to be cared for by their parents and, when in care, were more often in lower quality care. The impact of toddler care quality on cognitive skills was estimated using propensity score adjustments to account for potential selection confounds due to family and child characteristics. Children’s cognitive scores were higher in high or medium quality care than in low quality care, but no evidence emerged suggesting that poverty moderated the quality effects. Nevertheless, this suggests that increasing the proportion of low-income children in high quality care could reduce the achievement gap because low-income children are very unlikely to experience high quality care. PMID:24347815

  14. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  15. Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Tablet-Based Application to Improve Quality of Care in Child Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bunnell, Brian E; Andrews III, Arthur R; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hanson, Rochelle F; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin E; Soltis, Kathryn; Yarian, Caleb; Chu, Brian; Adams, Zachary W

    2015-01-01

    Background Children need access to high quality mental health care. Effective treatments now exist for a wide range of mental health conditions. However, these interventions are delivered with variable effectiveness in traditional mental health service settings. Innovative solutions are needed to improve treatment delivery quality and effectiveness. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a scalable, sustainable technology-based approach to improve the quality of care in child mental health treatment. Methods A tablet-based resource was developed with input from mental health training experts, mental health providers, and patients. A series of qualitative data collection phases (ie, expert interviews, patient and provider focus groups, usability testing) guided the initial concept and design of the resource, and then its refinement. The result was an iPad-based “e-workbook” designed to improve child engagement and provider fidelity in implementation of a best-practice treatment. We are currently conducting a small scale randomized controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility of e-workbook facilitated child mental health treatment with 10 providers and 20 families recruited from 4 local community-based mental health clinics. Results Usability and focus group testing yielded a number of strong, favorable reactions from providers and families. Recommendations for refining the e-workbook also were provided, and these guided several improvements to the resource prior to initiating the feasibility trial, which is currently underway. Conclusions This study aimed to develop and preliminarily evaluate a tablet-based application to improve provider fidelity and child engagement in child mental health treatment. If successful, this approach may serve as a key step toward making best-practice treatment more accessible to children and families. As various technologies continue to increase in popularity worldwide and within the health care field more specifically, it

  16. [Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].

    PubMed

    Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S

    2010-04-01

    The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices. PMID:20446193

  17. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. PMID:26187685

  18. Funding child care and public education.

    PubMed

    Zigler, E F; Finn-Stevenson, M

    1996-01-01

    Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every community--the public school. The linkage of child care with the public education system would eliminate the false distinction between child care and education, and would create a universally accessible system of child care services for children. The School of the 21st Century is an example of such a system. Initially conceptualized by Zigler, it has now been implemented in 400 schools across 13 states, with the leadership and direction of Finn-Stevenson. This article describes how school districts that have implemented the program employ a mixture of parent fees and local, state, federal, and private dollars to fund it, and then proposes an ideal financing model for the program. In the ideal model, the same mix of funding sources would be retained, but a per-pupil expenditure of about $9,000 per year is advocated to deliver child care and other social services to three- and four-year-olds. Funds for initial start-up could be derived from reallocation of existing dollars, especially state prekindergarten programs, but eventually new funds would be needed to support ongoing operations. PMID:8972130

  19. Strategies for Supporting Quality in Kith and Kin Child Care: Findings from the Early Head Start Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Evaluation. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsell, Diane; Mekos, Debra; Del Grosso, Patricia; Rowand, Cassandra; Banghart, Patti

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of kith and kin child care for infants and toddlers, coupled with research evidence suggesting cause for concern about quality in these settings, points to a critical need for policies and programs to support kith and kin caregivers in providing quality care. A number of state and local agencies are exploring strategies for…

  20. District of Columbia Going for the Gold Tiered Rate Reimbursement System. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of District of Columbia's Going for the Gold Tiered Rate Reimbursement Systemp repared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for…

  1. The Linkage between Marital Quality and the Parent-Child Relationship: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Bonnie; Erel, Osnat

    This study used meta-analysis to explore the magnitude and direction of the linkage between marital and parent-child relations. The study also assessed variables that might moderate this association or provide insight regarding possible mechanisms responsible for such an association. A search of electronic databases provided 51 studies, including…

  2. Child Care for Low-Income Children with Disabilities: Access, Quality, and Parental Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Shavaun; Kisker, Ellen E.; Peterson, Carla A.; Carta, Judith J.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, this study analyzed the similarities and differences of variables associated with child care services for low-income families with young children with disabilities and low-income families with typically developing children. Four major variables were analyzed: access to child…

  3. Rough and Tumble Play Quality: Theoretical Foundations for a New Measure of Father-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard; StGeorge, Jennifer; Freeman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Energetic, competitive, body-contact play (rough and tumble play (RTP)) is commonly observed among young children and is reported as an important feature of father-child relationships. Animal studies have demonstrated positive developmental effects of peer-peer play-wrestling, influencing cognitive and social outcomes. The purpose of this paper is…

  4. High Quality Child Care Has Long-Term Educational Benefits for Poor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth

    The Abecedarian Project was one of the most intensive early childhood programs ever offered to children from poor families. This study examined long-term outcomes for 105 of the original 111 participants at age 21. The project was a randomized trial of early childhood educational intervention provided in a full-time child care setting year round…

  5. Quality Child Care: An Investment in Families, an Investment in Colorado's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Jon-Paul

    2009-01-01

    In order for families to support themselves, parents must have access to jobs and the ability to consistently go to work to keep them. Current economic hardships highlight even more clearly this critical connection. One barrier that prevents many working parents from maintaining employment and supporting their families is access to child care. A…

  6. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  7. Temperament and Language Skills as Predictors of Teacher-Child Relationship Quality in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Justice, Laura M.; Pence, Khara

    2006-01-01

    Current educational policy emphasizes "school readiness" of young children with a premium placed on preschool interventions that facilitate academic and social readiness for children who have had limited learning experiences prior to kindergarten (Rouse, Brooks-Gunn, & McLanahan, 2005). The teacher-child relationship is viewed as a critical…

  8. Child Outcomes and Classroom Quality in FACES 2009. OPRE Report 2012-37a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moiduddin, Emily; Aikens, Nikki; Tarullo, Louisa; West, Jerry; Xue, Yange

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of children who entered Head Start for the first time in fall 2009 and completed a year in the program in spring 2010. It also describes their family backgrounds and the classrooms and programs that serve them. Data are drawn from the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), a…

  9. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Children's Peer Victimization and Aggressive Behavior in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kopp, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the extent to which characteristics of the teacher-child relationship (closeness, dependency, and conflict) are predictive of changes in children's peer victimization and aggressive behavior over the course of a school year. Relational and physical forms of victimization and aggression were studied, and changes in peer…

  10. Creating a Center of Choice: A Program Evaluation of Higher Quality Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbrey, Taryn Caye

    2013-01-01

    This program evaluation focused on one year of Bridges to Tomorrow, a multi-year initiative designed by Metro United Way to better prepare at-risk children for academic success upon entering kindergarten. Bridges to Tomorrow provided three child care centers operating in at-risk neighborhoods with interventions that included a structured…

  11. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  12. Meeting the Need for Child Care: Problems and Progress. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held to identify problems and assess progress in the provision of affordable, high quality child care. Testimony concerned: (1) problems working parents have had in providing care for their young children; (2) day care initiatives and needs in California; (3) ways in which San Mateo County used its housing and community development…

  13. Clinical findings, dental treatment, and improvement in quality of life for a child with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Katharina Morant Holanda; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the clinical findings, dental treatment, and improvement in quality of life for a child with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. The patient had alopecia, delayed speech, low weight and height, cholestasis, and iron deficiency anemia. Furthermore, there were carious lesions and darkened spots on all primary molars. Microdontia of a premolar was observed at the radiographic examination. The patient and family had no commitment to her oral health and dental treatment at first appointments. Oral hygiene instructions, composite restorations, endodontic treatments, teeth extractions, and stainless steel crown installations were performed. The patient was followed up for 7 years through the present due to other possible future clinical findings associated with the syndrome. An improvement in social aspects was observed after removal of toothache and improved esthetics. Such patients need continuous periodic services, which contributes to improving the quality of life in both buccal and general aspects. PMID:27307676

  14. Clinical findings, dental treatment, and improvement in quality of life for a child with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, Katharina Morant Holanda; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the clinical findings, dental treatment, and improvement in quality of life for a child with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. The patient had alopecia, delayed speech, low weight and height, cholestasis, and iron deficiency anemia. Furthermore, there were carious lesions and darkened spots on all primary molars. Microdontia of a premolar was observed at the radiographic examination. The patient and family had no commitment to her oral health and dental treatment at first appointments. Oral hygiene instructions, composite restorations, endodontic treatments, teeth extractions, and stainless steel crown installations were performed. The patient was followed up for 7 years through the present due to other possible future clinical findings associated with the syndrome. An improvement in social aspects was observed after removal of toothache and improved esthetics. Such patients need continuous periodic services, which contributes to improving the quality of life in both buccal and general aspects. PMID:27307676

  15. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  16. Child-rated versus parent-rated quality of life of community-based obese children across gender and grade

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL), which can be examined using self-reports or parental reports, might help healthcare providers understand obese children’s subjective well-being in several domains of life. Community-based obese children report their QoL lower than their parents do. However, the differences between child- and parent-reported QoL have neither been tested across gender and grade nor analyzed by item. This study probed the relationship between obesity and QoL item scores in children, and compared child-reported with parent-reported QoL stratified by gender and grade. Methods One hundred eighty-seven dyads of 8- to 12-year-old children (60 obese, 127 normal-weight) and their parents were recruited. QoL was assessed using both child- and parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) questionnaires. Results Regression analyses showed specific difficulties with physical and emotional QoL in third- and fourth-grade obese boys (β = 0.278-0.620), and specific problems with social functioning in fifth- and sixth-grade obese girls (β = 0.337-0.411). Moreover, parents seemed unaware of the specific difficulties that their children faced (β = 0.274-0.435). Conclusions Obese children seemed to have their difficulties from third to fifth grade, respectively, and their parents seemed unaware of them. Thus, parents need to be more aware of specific difficulties related to childhood obesity. PMID:24325683

  17. Does the quality of parent-child connectedness matter for adolescents' sexual behaviors in Nairobi informal settlements?

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Elungata'a, Patricia; Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between parent-child connectedness and sexual behaviors among adolescents living in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, a vulnerable group with respect to reproductive health outcomes. The study was based on data from the Transition to Adulthood project, a study designed to follow adolescents aged 12-22 for 3 years in the informal settlements of Korogocho and Viwandani. Direct face-to-face questions were asked to adolescents about parenting variables and sexual behaviors. This study used a subsample of 689 sexually experienced 12-22-years-olds at Wave 2. Bivariate analysis compared gender differences for three outcomes-sexual activity in the 12 months prior to the survey and, among those who had had sex in this period, multiple sexual partners and condom use at last sex. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associations between these outcomes and the quality of parent-child connectedness. About 60% of adolescent females and males were sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey. The multivariate results showed a strong association between the quality of parent-child connectedness and condom use among adolescent males. Living with related or unrelated guardians (versus living with biological parents) was also associated with higher odds of multiple sexual partners and lower odds of condom use at last sex among adolescent females and with higher odds of sexual activity among adolescent males. Sexual and reproductive health programs targeting adolescents living in Nairobi informal settlements would benefit from attention to assisting parents to improve their ability to play the connectedness role. PMID:25501658

  18. What works in practice: user and provider perspectives on the acceptability, affordability, implementation, and impact of a family-based intervention for child overweight and obesity delivered at scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a study considering the impact of a child weight management programme when rolled out at scale following an RCT, this qualitative study focused on acceptability and implementation for providers and for families taking part. Methods Participants were selected on the basis of a maximum variation sample providing a range of experiences and social contexts. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 29 professionals who commissioned or delivered the programme, and 64 individuals from 23 families in 3 English regions. Topic guides were used as a tool rather than a rule, enabling participants to construct a narrative about their experiences. Transcripts were analysed using framework analysis. Results Practical problems such as transport, work schedules and competing demands on family time were common barriers to participation. Delivery partners often put considerable efforts into recruiting, retaining and motivating families, which increased uptake but also increased cost. Parents and providers valued skilled delivery staff. Some providers made adaptations to meet local social and cultural needs. Both providers and parents expressed concerns about long term outcomes, and how this was compromised by an obesogenic environment. Concerns about funding together with barriers to uptake and engagement could translate into barriers to commissioning. Where these barriers were not experienced, commissioners were enthusiastic about continuing the programme. Conclusions Most families felt that they had gained something from the programme, but few felt that it had ‘worked’ for them. The demands on families including time and emotional work were experienced as difficult. For commissioners, an RCT with positive results was an important driver, but family barriers, alongside concerns about recruitment and retention, a desire for local adaptability with qualified motivated staff, and funding changes discouraged some from planning to use the intervention in

  19. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  20. Mother's marital satisfaction associated with the quality of mother-father-child triadic interaction.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy-Scaiola, Chloe; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2016-08-01

    Low marital satisfaction has been shown to be a risk factor for early parenthood and parent-child relationship problems (Erel & Burman, ; McHale, ). The aim of this study was to assess how parental reports of marital satisfaction related to family alliance and coordination in the observed triadic interaction. The study group included 120 families. Marital satisfaction was evaluated during pregnancy, at 4 months, and at 18 months using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane & Larsson, ) for both parents. Mother-father-child interaction was analyzed in the Lausanne Triadic Play setting and coded using the Family Alliance Assessment Scale (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche & Frascarolo, ) when the child reached 18 months of age. The mother's higher marital satisfaction at every measuring point was associated with a cooperative family alliance and/or higher family coordination at 18 months. The father's experience of marital satisfaction was not related to family interaction at any assessment point. Our study suggests that a mother's experience of lower marital satisfaction during pregnancy may be an early sign of later problems in family relationships. PMID:27197718

  1. The Role of Early Head Start Programs in Addressing the Child Care Needs of Low-Income Families with Infants and Toddlers: Influences on Child Care Use and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; Constantine, Jill; Paulsell, Diane; Boller, Kimberly; Ross, Christine; Raikes, Helen; Brady-Smith, Christy; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    In 1994, the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers set forth a vision for Early Head Start programs in declaring that all child care settings used by Early Head Start families, whether or not the program provides the care directly, must meet the high standards of quality embodied in the Head Start…

  2. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  3. Quality of care in American Indian child and adolescent behavioral health: A pilot study of patient and family perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Podlogar, Matthew C.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding the quality of behavioral health care for American Indian (AI) children and adolescents is extremely limited, and no study has considered the qualitative perspectives of the AI children receiving such services or that of their families. This pilot study investigated AI patient and family perspectives of what quality of care means to them. Data were drawn from interviews of parents (n = 15), and the youth (if they were age 11 or older; n = 11) of 16 children and adolescents who received treatment at three behavioral health programs serving AI communities. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed for key themes that related to treatment structure, process, and outcomes. According to these participants, the principal indicator of treatment quality was “being able to trust the clinician.” The most valued treatment outcomes for improvement were the youth’s “self-efficacy and self-worth,” “functioning in school,” and “relationship with the family.” Future research is needed on how to best integrate these domains into specific and objective indicators for standardized quality of care assessments of AI child and adolescent behavioral health services. PMID:25961647

  4. Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL™.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents. PMID:26829402

  5. Unpacking the Black Box of the CSRP Intervention: The Mediating Roles of Teacher-child Relationship Quality and Self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Bub, Kristen L.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the theory of change of the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), testing a sequence of theory-derived mediating mechanisms including the quality of teacher-child relationships and children’s self-regulation. The CSRP is a multi-component teacher- and classroom-focused intervention, and its cluster-randomized efficacy trial was conducted in 35 Head Start-funded classrooms. A series of increasingly complex and conservative structural equation models indicate that the CSRP carries its effects on children’s academic and behavioral outcomes through changes in teacher-child relationship quality and children’s self-regulation. PMID:24729666

  6. Child Emotion Regulation and Attentional Control in Pre-Kindergarten: Associations with Parental Stress, Parenting Practices, and Parent-Child Interaction Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Erin; Bierman, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on three aspects of parenting that have been linked theoretically and empirically with the development of child emotion regulation and attention control skills in early childhood: 1) parental stress and distress, 2) the degree of warmth and sensitivity evident in the parent-child relationship, and 3) parental support for the…

  7. Violence Exposure and Adjustment in Inner-City Youth: Child and Caregiver Emotion Regulation Skill, Caregiver?Child Relationship Quality, and Neighborhood Cohesion as Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Diehl, Robyn; Parrish, Katie Adams; Walker, Jean M.; Atiyeh, Cynthia; Neace, Brooke; Duncan, Larissa; Taylor, Kelli; Mejia, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This short-term, longitudinal interview study used an ecological framework to explore protective factors within the child, the caregiver, the caregiver?child relationship, and the community that might moderate relations between community violence exposure and subsequent internalizing and externalizing adjustment problems and the different patterns…

  8. Characterizing the Quality Workforce in Private U.S. Child and Family Behavioral Health Agencies.

    PubMed

    McMillen, J Curtis; Raffol, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral health agencies have been encouraged to monitor performance and improve service quality. This paper characterizes the workforce charged with these tasks through a national survey of 238 behavioral health quality professionals. A latent class analysis suggests only 30 % of these workers report skills in both basic research and quality-specific skills. Respondents wanted to learn a variety of research and data analytic skills. The results call into question the quality of data collected in behavioral health agencies and the conclusions agencies are drawing from their data. Professional school and continuing education programs are needed to prepare this workforce. PMID:26108643

  9. Child and adolescent service experience (ChASE): measuring service quality and therapeutic process.

    PubMed

    Day, Crispin; Michelson, Daniel; Hassan, Imren

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Dissatisfaction with services has been associated with poorer child mental health outcomes, early treatment termination as well as disagreements over the nature of mental health difficulties, reasons for referral and therapy goals. The development of straightforward, reliable, and accurate methods of eliciting service users' views is essential within child and adolescent mental health care. This paper describes the development of the child and adolescent service experience (ChASE), a tool to measure children and young people's service experience DESIGN. The study comprises a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. METHODS. Participants were 132 mental health service users aged 8-18 years. Participants and their main carer completed the ChASE, Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) (Stallard, 1996) and Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ) Impact Supplement. Clinicians completed the SDQ Impact Supplement and provided clinical activity data. A sub-sample of participants completed the ChASE on a second occasion, 6 weeks after the completion of the first questionnaire. RESULTS. Scrutiny of ChASE data indicated high levels of completion. Principal axis factoring identified three factors within the ChASE: Relationship, Privacy, and Session Activity. The ChASE has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations were found between the ChASE and carer satisfaction, service use, and youth clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The ChASE is a short, psychometrically robust tool for routine measurement of children, and young people's experience of mental health services, which users can complete easily. The results underline the importance of alliance factors to children and young people and their association with clinical improvement as well as the potential for the ChASE to be used a measure of children's therapeutic progress and alliance. PMID:22003953

  10. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2016-09-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate "single" on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child's treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child's diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child's diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child's siblings had gotten worse since their child's diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. PMID:26668211

  11. Preschool Center Quality and Socioemotional Readiness for School: Variation by Demographic and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran D.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address two research questions related to the policy goal of having all children ready to learn at kindergarten entry. First, to what extent are children's socioemotional skills and behavior higher when they experience higher quality preschools? Second, are the effects of preschool center quality on these school…

  12. Positive Marital Quality, Acculturative Stress, and Child Outcomes among Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Parke, Ross D.; Cladis, Mina; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the quality of parents' relationships can influence their children's adjustment, but most studies have focused on the negative effects of marital conflict for children in White middle-class families. The current study focuses on the potential benefits of positive marital quality for children in working-class first…

  13. Alternative Pathways in Family Child Care Quality Rating and Improvement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Robyn E.; Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    As research continues to underscore the positive impact high-quality early childhood programs have on young children, numerous states have implemented quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS) to measure and improve the services young children receive across a wide range of early learning settings. These state systems range from two to five…

  14. Quality of care after early childhood trauma and well-being in later life: child Holocaust survivors reaching old age.

    PubMed

    van der Hal-Van Raalte, Elisheva; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2007-10-01

    The link between deprivation and trauma during earliest childhood and psychosocial functioning and health in later life was investigated in a group of child Holocaust survivors. In a nonconvenience sample 203 survivors, born between 1935 and 1944, completed questionnaires on Holocaust survival experience and several inventories on current health, depression, posttraumatic stress, loneliness, and attachment style. Quality of postwar care arrangements and current physical health independently predicted lack of well-being in old age. Loss of parents during the persecution, year of birth of the survivors (being born before or during the war), and memories of the Holocaust did not significantly affect present well-being. Lack of adequate care after the end of World War II is associated with lower well-being of the youngest Holocaust child survivors, even after an intervening period of 60 years. Our study validates Keilson's (1992) concept of "sequential traumatization," and points to the importance of aftertrauma care in decreasing the impact of early childhood trauma. PMID:18194031

  15. An international analysis of cigarette affordability

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, E; van Walbeek, C P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how affordable cigarettes are in developed and developing countries, and to calculate by how much the affordability of cigarettes has changed between 1990 and 2001; and secondly, to investigate the relation between cigarette affordability and consumption. Design: Affordability was defined as the cost of cigarettes relative to per capita income. Trends in cigarette affordability, and affordability elasticities of demand, were estimated using regression techniques. Subjects: Seventy countries were investigated, of which 28 are categorised as high income developed countries, while 42 are categorised as developing countries. Cigarette prices were obtained for the main city/cities in the countries. Results: Despite the fact that cigarettes are more expensive in developed countries, the high levels of income make cigarettes more affordable in these countries vis-à-vis developing countries. Of the 28 developed countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 11 and less affordable in 17 countries during the 1990s. Of the 42 developing countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 24 and less affordable in 18 countries. Based on a cross sectional analysis, a 1% increase in the relative income price (the inverse of cigarette affordability) is expected to decrease cigarette consumption by between 0.49–0.57%. Conclusions: Cigarette affordability, more than just the price, determines cigarette consumption. While cigarettes have become more affordable in many developing countries, some developing countries (for example, South Africa, Poland, and Thailand) have implemented strong and effective tobacco control policies, and have been able to decrease cigarette consumption as a result. PMID:15564616

  16. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  17. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  18. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria’s Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Methods At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. Results For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Conclusions Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been

  19. Effects of Infant-Parent Play with a Technology-Enhanced Toy: Affordance-Related Actions and Communicative Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris; Hutchinson, Kathleen; Nolan, Joan T.; Weber, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Infant-parent play with toys is an early form of social communication, and the toy features (i.e., affordances), as well as the child's language competence, contribute to the developmental level of the play and the types of play actions that occur. This research, conducted in cooperation with a toy manufacturer, investigated how the affordances of…

  20. The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is important to recognize the political and policy accomplishments of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), anticipate its limitations, and use the levers it provides strategically to address the problems it does not resolve. Passage of the ACA broke the political logjam that long stymied national progress toward equitable, quality, universal, affordable health care. It extends coverage for the uninsured who are disproportionately low income and people of color, curbs health insurance abuses, and initiates improvements in the quality of care. However, challenges to affordability and cost control persist. Public health advocates should mobilize for coverage for abortion care and for immigrants, encourage public-sector involvement in negotiating health care prices, and counter disinformation by opponents on the right. PMID:23409911

  1. Income, Relationship Quality, and Parenting: Associations with Child Development in Two-Parent Families

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; McLanahan, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests considerable heterogeneity in the advantages of living in a two-parent family. Specifically, children living with married biological parents exhibit more favorable outcomes than children living with cohabiting biological parents and with married and cohabiting stepparents. To explain these differences, researchers have focused almost exclusively on differences in the levels of factors such as income, parental relationship quality, and parenting quality across family types. In this paper, we examined whether differences in the benefits associated with these factors might also account for some of the variation in children’s cognition and social-emotional development. Focusing on children at the time they enter kindergarten, we found only weak evidence of differences in benefits across family types. Rather, we found that children living in stepfather families experienced above average levels of parental relationship quality and parenting quality which, in turn, played a protective role vis-à-vis their cognitive and social-emotional development. PMID:26339104

  2. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  3. The Effects of Literacy Enriched Classroom Environment Partnered with Quality Adult/Child Interaction on the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haustein, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of literacy enriched preschool classroom environments and the quality of adult/child interaction in the classroom on the emergent literacy growth and development of preschool children. Data was collected within the 2009-2010 school year and analyzed to determine if providing a literacy enriched preschool environment…

  4. Parentally Bereaved Children's Grief: Self-System Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether 3 self-system beliefs--fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem--mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths' general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n = 340 youth) and longitudinal (n = 100 youth) models were tested. In…

  5. Promoting Change in State Policy Decisionmaking on Quality Infant/Toddler Child Care and Head Start Services: Study on a Technical Assistance Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Abbey; Fiene, Richard

    In June 1991, the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs invited 320 state policymakers, leaders of national and state advocacy organizations, and practitioners to a technical assistance forum on "Finding and Funding Quality Child Care and Head Start Services for Infants and Toddlers." The forum focused on essential practices in high quality…

  6. The Impact of Child, Family, and Professional Support Characteristics on the Quality of Life in Families of Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kate; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of young children with disabilities are faced with ongoing challenges that impact various aspects of family life. Given the increasing emphasis on promoting positive outcomes in these families, the overall aim of the current study was to examine the contribution of child, family, and support characteristics to the quality of…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Differences in Parental Control and Parent-Child Relational Qualities in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by 1 year, 2,758 Chinese adolescents respond to instruments assessing perceived parental behavioral control (indexed by parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, demandingness, and control based on Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities (satisfaction with…

  8. The Instructional and Emotional Quality of Parent-Child Book Reading and Early Head Start Children's Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Keely Dyan; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The objective of this study was to understand how two dimensions of parent-child book-reading quality--instructional and emotional--interact and relate to learning in a sample of low-income infants and toddlers. Participants included 81 parents and their children from Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation…

  9. Stressors, Quality of the Child-Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…

  10. Relations of Children’s Effortful Control and Teacher–Child Relationship Quality to School Attitudes in a Low-Income Sample

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Valiente, Carlos; Huerta, Snjezana; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Kupfer, Anne S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael A.; Taylor, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of children’s effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring (ns = 823, 722, and 758, respectively) for 2 cohorts of 3- to 5-year-olds (collected during 2 different school years). Children’s effortful control was assessed in the fall with parents’ and teachers’ reports and 2 behavioral measures. Teacher–child relationship quality was assessed mid-year with teachers’ reports of closeness and conflict. Attitudes toward school were assessed in late spring using teachers’ and students’ reports of school avoidance and liking. Effortful control, in general, was positively correlated with teacher–child closeness and school liking and negatively correlated with conflict and school avoidance. Using structural equation modeling and controlling for sex and ethnicity, we found that effortful control was positively related to teacher–child relationship quality, which in turn was positively related to school attitudes. Furthermore, the relation of effortful control to school attitudes was mediated by teacher–child relationship quality. Practice or Policy Results provide evidence for the importance of relational processes that take place within the classroom context and have implications for teachers and clinicians working to increase school success in ethnic minority and low-income children. PMID:22573932

  11. Unpacking the Black Box of the Chicago School Readiness Project Intervention: The Mediating Roles of Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Bub, Kristen L.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines the theory of change of the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), testing a sequence of theory-derived mediating mechanisms that include the quality of teacher-child relationships and children's self-regulation. The CSRP is a multicomponent teacher and classroom-focused intervention, and its…

  12. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  13. Improving Quality and Child Outcomes in Early Childhood Education by Redefining the Role Afforded to Teachers in Professional Development: A Continuous Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative among Public Preschools in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Atwood, Sid; Duran Mellado, Francis Romina; Godoy Ossa, Felipe; Trevino Villareal, Ernesto; Snow, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Based on evidence derived from studies conducted mostly in the United States, many low- and middle-income countries are investing in early childhood education (ECE), with high expectations that it will improve academic outcomes, increase human capital, promote economic growth and reduce economic inequality. In Chile, there has been a great…

  14. Federal Home Visiting under the Affordable Care Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Kathleen; Counts, Jacqueline; Filene, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program is part of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and provides $1.5 billion over 5 years to states, territories, and tribes with the goal of delivering evidence-based home visiting services as part of a high-quality, comprehensive early childhood system that promotes…

  15. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  16. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  17. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  18. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  19. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  20. Child Care Quality: Centers and Home Settings that Serve Poor Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, B.; Kagan, S.L.; Loeb, S.; Chang, Y.W.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of center-based care on early development, outside of carefully controlled demonstration programs, appear to be positive yet often modest for children from low-income families. But little is known about variation in the quality of centers and preschools found among low-income neighborhoods. Evidence also remains scarce on the observed…

  1. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  2. Relationship Quality in a Sample of Lesbian Couples with Children and Child-Free Lesbian Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, Leslie; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined quality of lesbian relationships by three factors: presence of children, extent of disclosure concerning nature of relationship, and longevity of relationship. Findings indicated solid and happy relationships for total sample of 47 couples. Couples with children scored significantly higher on relationship satisfaction and sexual…

  3. Effective Leadership Behaviors for Child Care Administrators: Seeking Quality Measurement System Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Among quality measurement systems, there is no clear description of how administrators are expected to move through the process. This is not necessarily a fault of the systems; it is not their intention to script a program's process. Yes, there are many tasks that are logically the administrator's responsibility--important things that must get…

  4. Exploring the Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions: The Soka Discourse in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Rivalland, Corine

    2016-01-01

    Numerous research has shown that quality of interactions between early childhood teachers and children contribute significantly to children's holistic development. Most literature on this topic comes from developed/Western countries and little is known about the kind of interactions occurring within the Soka kindergarten model. This article, based…

  5. Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Erica A; Armstrong, Benjamin F; Gleitman, Lila R; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Medina, Tamara N; Trueswell, John C

    2013-07-01

    Children vary greatly in the number of words they know when they enter school, a major factor influencing subsequent school and workplace success. This variability is partially explained by the differential quantity of parental speech to preschoolers. However, the contexts in which young learners hear new words are also likely to vary in referential transparency; that is, in how clearly word meaning can be inferred from the immediate extralinguistic context, an aspect of input quality. To examine this aspect, we asked 218 adult participants to guess 50 parents' words from (muted) videos of their interactions with their 14- to 18-mo-old children. We found systematic differences in how easily individual parents' words could be identified purely from this socio-visual context. Differences in this kind of input quality correlated with the size of the children's vocabulary 3 y later, even after controlling for differences in input quantity. Although input quantity differed as a function of socioeconomic status, input quality (as here measured) did not, suggesting that the quality of nonverbal cues to word meaning that parents offer to their children is an individual matter, widely distributed across the population of parents. PMID:23798423

  6. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  7. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population. PMID:26458377

  8. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas. PMID:24360501

  9. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  10. Comparison Between Family Power Structure and the Quality of Parent-Child Interaction Among the Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Shaghelani Lor, Hossein; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies indicate that most behavioral problems are due to family dysfunction and inappropriate family environment. It seems that the family of the delinquent adolescent is unbalanced in the power structure and parenting style. Objectives: The present study compares the family power structure and parent-child relationship quality in delinquent and non-delinquent young subjects in Tehran. Patients and Methods: Eighty students of secondary schools aged between 15 and 18 in Tehran were enrolled with cluster sampling method and 80 delinquent adolescents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers aged between 15 and 18 were chosen with a convenience sampling method. They responded to an instrument of family power structure (Child–parents relationship inventory). Data was compared between these two groups by utilizing the independent and dependent t-test and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in family power structure and its subscales (P < 0.001) and father-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Also, there is no statistically significant difference between these two groups in mother-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Besides, the results revealed that delinquent adolescents were significantly different regarding the quality of parent-child relationship (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results emphasize that an inappropriate decision making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior in adolescents. The fathers’ parenting is more strongly linked to their sons’ delinquency. So, family power structure and parent-child relationship can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescents’ delinquency. PMID:25032158

  11. Punishment for bedwetting is associated with child depression and reduced quality of life.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaben, Faten Nabeel; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the relationship between parental punishment and depression as well as quality of life in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). A consecutive sample of 65 children (7-13 years) with PMNE and 40 healthy children, selected as controls (Group III), were included in the study. The children with PMNE were further sub-classified into two groups: Group I, which included children who received parental punishment for enuresis and Group II, which comprised children who were not punished for bedwetting. Depression and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were assessed among the three groups. The number of wet nights per week was significantly increased in Group I compared with Group II (P<.001). In addition, the severity of depressive symptoms increased in Group I as compared to the other two groups (P<.001). Similarly, the psychosocial HRQL lower in Group compared to the control group (Group III) (P<.001). Prior parental discipline, including corporal punishment (B=0.55, P=.008), as well as the frequency (B=0.73, P<.001) and duration of punishment (B=0.33, P=.02) were strong predictors of increased depressive symptom severity. It was also found that prior punishment (B=-0.42, P=.01) and the frequency (B=-0.62, P<.001) and duration of punishment (B=-0.34, P=.02) were strong predictors for poor psychosocial HRQL. Overall, parental punishment has a poor outcome in children with PMNE. PMID:25435105

  12. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  13. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  14. Mother and Adolescent Reports of Associations between Child Behavior Problems and Mother-Child Relationship Qualities: Separating Shared Variance from Individual Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    This study contrasts results from different correlational methods for examining links between mother and child (N = 72 dyads) reports of early adolescent (M = 11.5 years) behavior problems and relationship negativity and support. Simple (Pearson) correlations revealed a consistent pattern of statistically significant associations, regardless of…

  15. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  16. The quality of community reintegration planning for child molesters: effects on sexual recidivism.

    PubMed

    Willis, Gwenda M; Grace, Randolph C

    2008-06-01

    Research on the causal factors underlying sex offender recidivism has not considered the success or failure of the reintegration process by which the offender rejoins the community after prison. The authors developed a coding protocol to measure the quality and comprehensiveness of reintegration planning for sex offenders. The protocol was retrospectively applied to groups of recidivists and nonrecidivists who were matched on static risk level and follow-up time. The protocol demonstrated adequate reliability. Compared to nonrecidivists, recidivists had significantly lower scores relating to accommodation, employment, and the Good Lives Model secondary goods, as well as lower total reintegration plan scores. ANCOVAs showed that when IQ and level of sexual deviance were controlled for, accommodation (a place to live) was significantly related to sexual recidivism and the Good Lives Model-secondary goods was significantly related to any recidivism. These results suggest that poor reintegration planning may be a risk factor for recidivism. PMID:18490483

  17. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  18. The Affordable Housing Crisis: Residential Mobility of Poor Families and School Mobility of Poor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    Helping poor families increase their residential stability can have direct bearing on school stability and student academic achievement. Discusses the role of housing in child and family wellbeing; residential mobility and school performance; residential mobility and housing problems; housing affordability; (federal housing policy); homeownership;…

  19. The Quality of Caregiving in Child Care: Relations to Teacher Complexity of Thinking and Perceived Supportiveness of the Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Vazquez, Arcel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the complexity of thinking about children by child care teachers and observed teachers' caregiving for infants and toddlers. It was hypothesized that the perceived supportiveness of the work environment would affect this relationship. Fifty-six child care teachers completed a survey assessing complexity…

  20. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  1. New York City's Child Health Clinics: Providing Quality Primary Care to Children in Low-Income and Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    A study was conducted to determine whether the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is fulfilling dual public health and primary care missions of its Child Health Clinics, which provide services to 78,000 New York City children every year. Among the services provided by Child Health Clinics are health examinations for school and…

  2. Quality Child Care and After-School Programs: Powerful Weapons against Crime. A Report from "Fight Crime: Invest in Kids."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the crime prevention potential of child care and after-school programs for at-risk children and youth. Part 1 of the report, "Assessing the Crime Prevention Impact of Child Care and After-School Programs," presents research information on the effectiveness of early childhood/parenting skills training and after-school programs…

  3. Presence and Quality of Kindergarten Children’s Friendships: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Child Adjustment in the Early School Years

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    The presence and quality of friendships are posited to have developmental significance, yet little is known about the extent to which children without friends versus low-quality friendships compare on socioemotional adjustment. The current study utilized data from a subsample of 567 children (289 boys) participating in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Based on maternal reports at kindergarten, four friendship groups were formed: no friends, low quality, average quality, and high quality, and these groups were used to predict teacher-reported behavior problems and social skills concurrently (in kindergarten) and longitudinally (in first and third grade). Concurrently, low-quality friendships were associated with greater externalizing behavior, whereas high-quality friendships were associated with greater social skills. Longitudinally, having no friends in kindergarten was associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior for boys, but lower levels for girls. Children without friends also showed more internalizing problems at first grade. Lastly, having a high-quality friendship in kindergarten was associated with greater social skills in first and third grades, but only for boys. Results underscore high-quality friendship as a context for the development of social skills and indicate different trajectories of problem behavior for kindergarten children with no friends versus low-quality friendships. PMID:21822401

  4. Child and Parent Perceived Food-Induced Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michelle J.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Tsai, Cynthia M.; Shulman, Robert J.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) identify specific foods that exacerbate their gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with FGIDs. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11–17 years old with FGIDs and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using chi-squared, t-testing, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Spearman’s rho. Children identified a median of 11 (range 2–25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow’s milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range 1–20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent’s assessment of their child’s QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with FGIDs. Moreover, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms may adversely impact children’s QOL in several important areas. PMID:24360501

  5. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Affordability standards. 572.120...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.120 Affordability standards. (a) Initial... annual incomes of eligible families using reasonable standards and procedures consistently applied.)...

  6. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  7. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  8. Section 8: Affordable Housing for Exceptional Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wesley E.

    2009-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need. Unfortunately, affordable housing is a need that low income families who are caring for children and adults with disabilities can rarely afford without assistance. Because participating families generally pay rent of no more than 30 percent of their adjusted monthly income, the Section 8 program can provide…

  9. Choosing Child Care: Birth to Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Like all difficult decisions, choosing child care can seem overwhelming, and this is particularly true when choosing care for children under three. The better you understand what your child's and your own personal needs are, and what is available and affordable to you, the more confident you will become in your decision-making process. This…

  10. Health workers' views on quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and postnatal care for HIV-infected women and their children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu Anh; Oosterhoff, Pauline; Pham, Yen Ngoc; Hardon, Anita; Wright, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have received inadequate health care services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We report here the health workers' perceptions on factors that lead to their failure to give good quality prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Methods Semistructured interviews with 53 health workers and unstructured observations in nine health facilities in Hanoi were conducted. Selection of respondents was based on their function, position and experience in the development or implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission policies/programmes. Results Factors that lead to health workers' failure to give good quality services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission include their own fear of HIV infection; lack of knowledge on HIV and counselling skills; or high workloads and lack of staff; unavailability of HIV testing at commune level; shortage of antiretroviral drugs; and lack of operational guidelines. A negative attitude during counselling and provision of care, treating in a separate area and avoidance of providing service at all were seen by health workers as the result of fear of being infected, as well as distrust towards almost all HIV-infected patients because of the prevailing association with antisocial behaviours. Additionally, the fragmentation of the health care system into specialized vertical pillars, including a vertical programme for HIV/AIDS, is a major obstacle to providing a continuum of care. Conclusion Many hospital staff were not being able to provide good care or were even unwilling to provide appropriate care for HIV-positive pregnant women The study suggests that the quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission

  11. Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

    2012-04-30

    The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of

  12. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  13. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in a community-based sample: Association with chronic illness and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Houtzager, Bregje A; Möller, Eline L; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of parental perceptions of a child's vulnerability (PPCV) in a Dutch community-based sample and its relationship with children's health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Parents completed the Child Vulnerability Scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was administered to measure HRQoL. The prevalence of PPCV was assessed in relation to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. In a three-step multiple hierarchical regression model, the mediational role of PPCV in the association between chronic illness and HRQoL was investigated. Participants were 520 Dutch children aged 5-18 years from nine Dutch schools. In all, 69 (13.3%) had a chronic illness; 1.9% was perceived vulnerable, 3.0% in groups 5-7 and 1.7% in groups 8-12 and 13-18. Younger age of the child, presence of a chronic illness and low HRQoL were associated with PPCV. PPCV partially mediated the negative association between chronic illness and HRQoL. In conclusion, PPCV is associated with adjustment to chronic illness. More research is needed regarding the mechanisms through which PPCV affects HRQoL and to examine whether PPCV can be targeted in parenting interventions. PMID:24842887

  14. Children with minimal chance for cure: parent proxy of the child's health-related quality of life and the effect on parental physical and mental health during treatment.

    PubMed

    Mandrell, Belinda N; Baker, Justin; Levine, Deena; Gattuso, Jami; West, Nancy; Sykes, April; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the time of diagnosis until disease progression in a cohort of children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The assessment was collected from the perspectives of the child and their parents and evaluated the effect of the child's HRQOL on their parents' physical and mental well-being, thus providing insight into the optimal timing of palliative consultation, including anticipatory grief and bereavement services. This longitudinal study assessed 25 parents and their children, ages 2-17 years of age with DIPG across five time-points, baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6, 16, 24. Assessments included the PedsQL 4.0 Core Scales, PedsQL 3.0 Brain Tumor Scale, and Short-Form 36. HRQOL instruments were completed by the child (age ≥5 years) and parent-proxy (ages 2-17 years), with the parent completing the SF-36. Children's reports and parents' proxy of their child's HRQOL indicated poor physical functioning and increased anxiety at the initiation of therapy. A trending improvement in the children's HRQOL was reported by children and parents from baseline to week 6, with a decline at week 16. The childs' parent proxy reported cognitive problems, procedural anxiety and lower overall brain tumor HRQOL were assoicated with poorer self-reported parental mental status. Palliative care consultation should be initiated at the time of diagnosis and is supported in the high physical and emotional symptom burden reported by our patients, with heightened involvement initiated at 16 weeks. Prompt palliative care involvement, mitigating anxiety associated with clinic visits and procedures, management of brain tumor specific symptoms, advanced care planning, anticipatory grief and bereavement services, and care coordination may maximize HRQOL for patients and ensure positive long-term outcomes for parents of children with DIPG. PMID:27344555

  15. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  16. The validity of questionnaire self-report of psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality in juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Breuk, R E; Clauser, C A C; Stams, G J J M; Slot, N W; Doreleijers, T A H

    2007-10-01

    The present study focuses on the validity of questionnaire self-report of psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality for juvenile delinquents with severe behavioural and psychiatric disorders by comparing information derived from questionnaire self-report with information from other sources, including parent report, in-depth interviewing, behavioural observation by clinicians, and official criminal records. The sample consisted of N=33 juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders. The juvenile delinquents did not report increased levels of psychopathology or poor relationships with their parents, which is inconsistent with the fact that all juvenile delinquents were in day treatment for severe behavioural maladaptation and relationship problems. Moreover, parent ratings of psychopathology were consistently in the clinical range and relationship quality was evaluated as very poor by the parents (d>.80). We conclude that screening instruments for psychopathology and assessment of relationship quality relying on questionnaire self-report may not yield valid scores in this (extreme) population of juvenile delinquents. PMID:17161456

  17. Prednisone and Deflazacort in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Do They Play a Different Role in Child Behavior and Perceived Quality of Life?

    PubMed

    Sienko, Susan; Buckon, Cathleen; Fowler, Eileen; Bagley, Anita; Staudt, Loretta; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Zebracki, Kathy; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether prednisone and deflazacort play a different role in child behavior and perceived health related psychosocial quality of life in ambulant boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As part of a prospective natural-history study, parents of sixty-seven ambulant boys with DMD (27 taking prednisone, 15 taking deflazacort, 25 were steroid naïve) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for assessment of behavioral, emotional and social problems and both parents and boys with DMD completed the PedsQL™4.0 generic core scale short form. Boys with DMD had higher rates of general behavioral problems than age-matched peers. No significant differences were found among the groups for any of the CBCL syndrome scales raw scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors; however, on average boys taking deflazacort demonstrated more withdrawn behaviors than those taking prednisone, while on average the boys taking prednisone demonstrated more aggressive behaviors than boys taking deflazacort. Age, internalizing and externalizing behaviors accounted for 39 and 48% of the variance in psychosocial quality of life for both parents and boys with DMD, respectively. Overall, the use of steroids was not associated with more behavioral problems in boys with DMD. As behavior played a significant role in psychosocial quality of life, comprehensive assessment and treatment of behavioral problems is crucial in this population. PMID:27525172

  18. Prednisone and Deflazacort in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Do They Play a Different Role in Child Behavior and Perceived Quality of Life?

    PubMed Central

    Sienko, Susan; Buckon, Cathleen; Fowler, Eileen; Bagley, Anita; Staudt, Loretta; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Zebracki, Kathy; McDonald, Craig M.; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether prednisone and deflazacort play a different role in child behavior and perceived health related psychosocial quality of life in ambulant boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As part of a prospective natural-history study, parents of sixty-seven ambulant boys with DMD (27 taking prednisone, 15 taking deflazacort, 25 were steroid naïve) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for assessment of behavioral, emotional and social problems and both parents and boys with DMD completed the PedsQL™4.0 generic core scale short form. Boys with DMD had higher rates of general behavioral problems than age-matched peers. No significant differences were found among the groups for any of the CBCL syndrome scales raw scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors; however, on average boys taking deflazacort demonstrated more withdrawn behaviors than those taking prednisone, while on average the boys taking prednisone demonstrated more aggressive behaviors than boys taking deflazacort. Age, internalizing and externalizing behaviors accounted for 39 and 48% of the variance in psychosocial quality of life for both parents and boys with DMD, respectively. Overall, the use of steroids was not associated with more behavioral problems in boys with DMD. As behavior played a significant role in psychosocial quality of life, comprehensive assessment and treatment of behavioral problems is crucial in this population.

  19. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  20. Body-scaled affordances in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Travieso, David; Gómez-Jordana, Luis; Díaz, Alex; Lobo, Lorena; Jacobs, David M

    2015-12-15

    The research field on sensory substitution devices has strong implications for theoretical work on perceptual consciousness. One of these implications concerns the extent to which the devices allow distal attribution. The present study applies a classic empirical approach on the perception of affordances to the field of sensory substitution. The reported experiment considers the perception of the stair-climbing affordance. Participants judged the climbability of steps apprehended through a vibrotactile sensory substitution device. If measured with standard metric units, climbability judgments of tall and short participants differed, but if measured in units of leg length, judgments did not differ. These results are similar to paradigmatic results in regular visual perception. We conclude that our sensory substitution device allows the perception of affordances. More generally, we argue that the theory of affordances may enrich theoretical debates concerning sensory substitution to a larger extent than has hitherto been the case. PMID:26587958

  1. Modulation of visual attention by object affordance.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Vásquez, Patricia; Schubö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Some objects in our environment are strongly tied to motor actions, a phenomenon called object affordance. A cup, for example, affords us to reach out to it and grasp it by its handle. Studies indicate that merely viewing an affording object triggers motor activations in the brain. The present study investigated whether object affordance would also result in an attention bias, that is, whether observers would rather attend to graspable objects within reach compared to non-graspable but reachable objects or to graspable objects out of reach. To this end, we conducted a combined reaction time and motion tracking study with a table in a virtual three-dimensional space. Two objects were positioned on the table, one near, the other one far from the observer. In each trial, two graspable objects, two non-graspable objects, or a combination of both was presented. Participants were instructed to detect a probe appearing on one of the objects as quickly as possible. Detection times served as indirect measure of attention allocation. The motor association with the graspable object was additionally enhanced by having participants grasp a real object in some of the trials. We hypothesized that visual attention would be preferentially allocated to the near graspable object, which should be reflected in reduced reaction times in this condition. Our results confirm this assumption: probe detection was fastest at the graspable object at the near position compared to the far position or to a non-graspable object. A follow-up experiment revealed that in addition to object affordance per se, immediate graspability of an affording object may also influence this near-space advantage. Our results suggest that visuospatial attention is preferentially allocated to affording objects which are immediately graspable, and thus establish a strong link between an object' s motor affordance and visual attention. PMID:24567725

  2. Moving to Outcomes: Approaches to Incorporating Child Assessments into State Early Childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have shown that higher-quality early care and education (ECE) predicts positive developmental gains for the children who experience it. However, much ECE in the United States is not of sufficiently high quality to produce these benefits. Quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) attempt to improve practice and care quality in ECE…

  3. The Quality of School-Age Child Care in After-School Settings. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2007-01-01

    This brief identifies the features of high-quality after-school settings that have emerged from the research and are reflected in program quality tools. It also examines key research linking program quality to positive developmental outcomes; it reviews current practice in program quality assessment; and it offers considerations for policymakers…

  4. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  5. Changes in the quality of life of Tanzanian school children after treatment interventions using the Child-OIDP.

    PubMed

    Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Astrøm, Anne N; Skeie, Marit S; Masalu, Joyce R

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the evaluative properties of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) inventory and to estimate treatment-associated changes in the OIDP and self-reported oral health following atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and oral health education (OHE). A total of 1,306 school attendees in Kilwa, Tanzania, completed the Child-OIDP inventory before, and 6 months after, treatment. The post-treatment questionnaire assessed change in perceived oral health. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained for 104, 117, and 1,085 participants who received, respectively, ART fillings (Group A), ART fillings and tooth extraction (Group B), and OHE only (Group C). The longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and treatment-associated changes were calculated using anova, effect sizes, and repeated general linear models (GLM). The follow-up prevalence was 73.8%. The mean changes in the OIDP total- and subscale scores were negative within those who reported 'worsened' oral health, and positive in subjects reporting 'improved' oral health. Effect sizes for the total OIDP score ranged from -0.2 within the category 'worsened' to 0.4 within the category 'improved'. Changes following treatment were more extensive in Group B compared with Groups A and C, and in Group C compared with Group A. The Child-OIDP showed promising evaluative properties and responsiveness to change following ART fillings, ART fillings and tooth extraction, and OHE. PMID:21083625

  6. Changing Parent's Mindfulness, Child Management Skills and Relationship Quality with Their Youth: Results from a Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Nix, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a mindful parenting program for changing parents' mindfulness, child management practices, and relationships with their early adolescent youth and tested whether changes in parents' mindfulness mediated changes in other domains. We conducted a pilot randomized trial with 65 families and tested an adapted version of the…

  7. Transactional Links between Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Perceived versus Sociometric Popularity: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Laet, Steven; Doumen, Sarah; Vervoort, Eleonora; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how peer relationships (i.e., sociometric and perceived popularity) and teacher--child relationships (i.e., support and conflict) impact one another throughout late childhood. The sample included 586 children (46% boys), followed annually from Grades 4 to 6 (Mage.wave1 = 9.26 years). Autoregressive cross-lagged modeling was…

  8. Goodness-of-Fit in Center Day Care: Relations of Temperament, Stability, and Quality of Care with the Child's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Zeijl, Jantien

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the concept of "goodness-of-fit" between the child's temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6-30 months, participated in this…

  9. Child Care Changes, Home Environment Quality, and the Social Competence of African American Children at Age 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent work has demonstrated that the changes young children experience in their child care settings before age 5 may be related to subsequent development, especially social development. Several of these studies have included samples of middle-class children, with almost no emphasis on understanding these processes for…

  10. In-Service Professional Development and Constructivist Curriculum: Effects on Quality of Child Care, Teacher Beliefs, and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen; Vukelich, Goranka; Recchia, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess three methods of delivering in-service professional development regarding constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. Educators in 44 not-for-profit child care centres in three Canadian cities were studied; 94 educators with formal preservice training participated. The three methods were (a) a…

  11. A Parent-Child Dyad Approach to the Assessment of Health Status and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Wendy J.; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M.; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child’s age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children’s reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Objective Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. Methods The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child’s health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. Results There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30–0.52; p < 0.01). Dyad HUI2 attributes demonstrated moderate convergent

  12. Can AIDS drugs be afforded?

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    UNAIDS has launched an 'HIV Drug Access Initiative' in the Ivory Coast, Uganda, Chile, and Vietnam; the pilot project will attempt to improve access to HIV drugs. Public and private sector efforts will be coordinated. The Glaxo Wellcome, Hoffman-La Roche, and Virco pharmaceutical companies will participate. Each country will 1) adapt its present system with regard to HIV and 2) establish both an HIV drug advisory board and a non-profit company which will import the drugs. Health ministries within each country will be required to find sources of funding for the programs. Uganda will probably use funds from its sexually transmitted disease (STD) program, which is supported by the World Bank; the Ivory Coast will combine corporate contributions, new tariffs, and non-profit insurance system monies into a 'solidarity fund.' UNAIDS funds will be used for oversight and evaluation. UNAIDS also released a review of 68 studies which examined the impact of sex education on the sex behavior of young people; it indicated that, in 65 of the studies, sex education did not increase the sexual activity of youth. UNAIDS concluded that quality programs helped delay first intercourse and often reduced the number of sexual partners, resulting in reduced rates of STDs and unplanned pregnancy. UNAIDS further concluded that effective sex education should begin before the onset of sexual activity, and curriculums should be focused. Openness in communicating about sex should be encouraged, and social and media influences on behavior should be addressed. Young people should be taught negotiating skills (how to say 'no' to sex and how to insist on safer sex). PMID:12348380

  13. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  14. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  15. Mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline as mediators of the 6-year effects of the New Beginnings Program for children from divorced families.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N; Millsap, Roger E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Dawson-McClure, Spring R

    2008-08-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and parenting-focused preventive intervention to help children adjust to divorce, and it has previously shown significant main and/or Program x Baseline Risk interaction effects to reduce adolescents' mental health and social adaptation problems and to promote competence. Mediation analyses were conducted using single- and two-group (high and low baseline risk) structural equation modeling. A multiple-methods and multiple-informants approach was used to assess the putative mediators and adolescents' outcomes. Results indicated that program-induced improvement in maternal effective discipline at posttest mediated the intervention effect on adolescents' GPA at the 6-year follow-up. Moreover, program-induced improvement in mother-child relationship quality mediated the intervention effect on adolescents' mental health problems for those with high baseline risk for maladjustment. The discussion focuses on the implications of the mediation findings for advancing the developmental theories that informed the design of the NBP and the implications for implementation of the NBP in community settings. PMID:18665687

  16. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  17. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  18. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  19. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  20. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  1. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  2. The Affordable Care Act and orthopaedic trauma.

    PubMed

    Issar, Neil M; Jahangir, A Alex

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has resulted in a dramatic governmental restructuring of the healthcare insurance market and delivery system. Orthopaedic traumatologists must be aware of the law's impact on their clinical practice, finances, and overall business model. This includes the effect of accountable care organizations, the Independent Payment Advisory Board, and the Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier program, as well as the impact of the Affordable Care Act's grace period provision, medical device excise tax, and cuts to funding for the Disproportionate Share Hospital program. PMID:25229683

  3. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  4. Treatment and management of child pornography use.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Advances in Internet and other digital technologies have created ready and affordable access to pornography involving real children or computer-generated images of children. To better understand and manage child pornography users, clinicians must acquaint themselves with the characteristics and behaviors of these offenders. This article distinguishes motivations to use child pornography and different types of child pornography offenders and provides a brief overview of the assessment, diagnosis, and management options available. The authors conclude with recommendations on future directions in the assessment, diagnosis, and management of child pornography offenders. PMID:24877707

  5. ECLIPSE, an Emerging Standardized Modular, Secure and Affordable Software Toolset in Support of Product Assurance, Quality Assurance and Project Management for the Entire European Space Industry (from Innovative SMEs to Primes and Institutions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennetti, Andrea; Ansari, Salim; Dewhirst, Tori; Catanese, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    The development of satellites and ground systems (and the technologies that support them) is complex and demands a great deal of rigor in the management of both the information it relies upon and the information it generates via the performance of well established processes. To this extent for the past fifteen years Sapienza Consulting has been supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the management of this information and provided ESA with ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization) Standards based Project Management (PM), Product Assurance (PA) and Quality Assurance (QA) software applications. In 2009 Sapienza recognised the need to modernize, standardizing and integrate its core ECSS-based software tools into a single yet modularised suite of applications named ECLIPSE aimed at: • Fulfilling a wider range of historical and emerging requirements, • Providing a better experience for users, • Increasing the value of the information it collects and manages • Lowering the cost of ownership and operation • Increasing collaboration within and between space sector organizations • Aiding in the performance of several PM, PA, QA, and configuration management tasks in adherence to ECSS standards. In this paper, Sapienza will first present the toolset, and a rationale for its development, describing and justifying its architecture, and basic modules composition. Having defined the toolset architecture, this paper will address the current status of the individual applications. A compliance assessment will be presented for each module in the toolset with respect to the ECSS standard it addresses. Lastly experience from early industry and Institutional users will be presented.

  6. Why Relationships Matter: Parent and Early Childhood Teacher Perspectives about the Provisions Afforded by Young Children's Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degotardi, Sheila; Sweller, Naomi; Pearson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perspectives of early childhood teachers and parents regarding the importance of provisions afforded by child-teacher and peer relationships in early childhood centres. Participants were 200 parents and 71 teachers of children aged 0-5 years who responded to an online survey containing a series of relationship function…

  7. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  8. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  9. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  10. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  11. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  12. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  13. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  14. Quality in Child Day Care Centres: How to Promote It? A Study of Six Day-Care Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elly; Miltenburg, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Explored how research can be useful for improving day-care quality. Studied relationship of pedagogic content and parent policy to day-care center aims, finding a strong relationship between special goals and quality standards. Suggested that improvement requires context-bound theories and a stronger theoretical framework for working with groups…

  15. Presence and Quality of Kindergarten Children's Friendships: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Child Adjustment in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Lasky, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The presence and quality of friendships are posited to have developmental significance, yet little is known about the extent to which children without friends versus low-quality friendships compare on socioemotional adjustment. The current study utilized data from a subsample of 567 children (289 boys) participating in the NICHD Study of Early…

  16. Quality Child Care and Socio-Emotional Risk Factors: No Evidence of Diminishing Returns for Urban Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Guillermo; Hightower, A. Dirk; Brugger, Lauri; Moustafa, Eman

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that quality improvements in early childhood centers experience diminishing returns as the quality of the classroom rises with regards to concurrent socio-emotional outcomes. This hypothesis lies at the core of Scarr's argument that public policy should concentrate on improving low quality…

  17. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and quality of life of mothers of school-aged children: the roles of child, mother, and family variables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Yeh, Chin-Jung; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Jen-Yu; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Shih, Ding-Ho; Chen, Chun-Ing; Lee, Pei-Chin

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the impact of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, opposition problems in children, maternal depression, and perceived family support on the quality of life (QOL) of mothers. Mothers of children in one elementary school were contacted. The relationship between sociodemographic variables, the levels of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, oppositional symptoms in children, maternal depression, perceived family support, and maternal QOL were examined. Three hundred and eighty-two participants were included in this study. Consistent factors related to the mother's QOL in the four domains were maternal depression, perceived family support, and housing status after controlling for several family, maternal, and child variables. Maternal QOL was more related to her own and family factors including maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, perceived family support, and housing status, instead of parent-rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms of the child. Screening for maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, and mental health services for these mothers are warranted based on these findings. PMID:25476102

  18. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  19. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  20. The role of affordances in children's learning performance and efficiency when using virtual manipulative mathematics touch-screen apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Bullock, Emma K.; Shumway, Jessica F.; Tucker, Stephen I.; Watts, Christina M.; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Gulkilik, Hilal; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the role that affordances played in children's learning performance and efficiency during clinical interviews of their interactions with mathematics apps on touch-screen devices. One hundred children, ages 3 to 8, each used six different virtual manipulative mathematics apps during 30-40-min interviews. The study used a convergent mixed methods design, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently to answer the research questions (Creswell and Plano Clark 2011). Videos were used to capture each child's interactions with the virtual manipulative mathematics apps, document learning performance and efficiency, and record children's interactions with the affordances within the apps. Quantitized video data answered the research question on differences in children's learning performance and efficiency between pre- and post-assessments. A Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test was used to explore these data. Qualitative video data was used to identify affordance access by children when using each app, identifying 95 potential helping and hindering affordances among the 18 apps. The results showed that there were changes in children's learning performance and efficiency when children accessed a helping or a hindering affordance. Helping affordances were more likely to be accessed by children who progressed between the pre- and post-assessments, and the same affordances had helping and hindering effects for different children. These results have important implications for the design of virtual manipulative mathematics learning apps.

  1. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  2. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  3. A Cost Sharing Plan: Solutions for the Child Care Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet discusses the current child care crisis and suggests a solution to the crisis. The gap between the cost of child care and parents' ability to pay is restricting the expansion and availability of child care services and undercutting the quality of child care. The average cost of full-day child care in the Delaware Valley, Pennsylvania,…

  4. Child-Parent and Child-Peer Interaction: Observational Similarities and Differences at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Marleen H.; Goudena, Paul P.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2005-01-01

    According to Russell et al. ("Developmental Rev" 1998; 18: 313) child-parent interaction could contain horizontal qualities, similar to child-peer interactions. To study this, child-parent and child-peer play interactions were compared on several observed horizontal and vertical characteristics in 55 7-year-old children interacting with their…

  5. Advocates Secure Funds to Improve Child Care Environment. Child Advocates Making a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for America's Children, 2003

    2003-01-01

    In the ongoing struggle to provide low-income children with quality child care environments, National Association of Child Advocates (NACA) member Rhode Island KIDS COUNT has helped to establish the Rhode Island Child Care Facilities Fund (RICCFF). Helping child care providers to help themselves, the fund provides assistance in the form of…

  6. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  7. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  8. Local leadership and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen L; Nichols, Beverly L; Barton, M Katherine; De LaCruz, Maria; Hernandez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Local health departments are in key positions to lead in the education and implementation efforts to advance the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The first enrollment period is over, but the efforts to enroll the uninsured and advocate for expansion of Medicaid in the states that have not yet taken on this expansion will continue for years to come. Political climates may be unsupportive, but some actions may still be possible. PMID:25423062

  9. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA. PMID:25121814

  11. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to “afford” an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by “breaking” the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool. PMID:26441612

  13. Louisiana KIDS COUNT Special Report on Child Care, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agenda for Children, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "2006 Agenda for Children Louisiana Kids Count Special Report on Child Care" documents and describes the supply and affordability of child care and early education in each of Louisiana's 64 parishes. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of Louisiana's children under the age of five are cared for by someone other than a parent or guardian on a regular…

  14. The Economic Impact of Vermont's Child Care Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report documents the relationship between the supply of reliable, affordable, accessible child care and the health of Vermont's economy. The child care industry is a growing part of the Vermont economy, pumping money into local communities by supporting working families, creating jobs, and generating taxes through employment and the purchase…

  15. Harris Poll on Child Care. The Harris Poll #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Humphrey

    Recent proposals by President Clinton to increase the availability and affordability of child care address a major issue of concern for many parents. This Harris Poll on child care surveyed 1,000 adults between January 14 and 18, 1998. The findings indicate that: (1) about half of all adults were aware of the president's recent proposal; (2) most…

  16. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  17. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  18. Child Care Currents: A Briefing Paper for Constructing Care Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    This paper presents an overview of the current status of child care in the United States. It provides a framework for discussing strategies to expand the supply of child care, improve its quality, and make it accessible to all families. Child care is defined, and factors that influence the quality of care are listed. The demand for child care is…

  19. Assessment of the impact of quality improvement interventions on the quality of sick child care provided by Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan P; Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Legesse, Hailemariam; Degefie, Tedbabe; Tafesse, Mengistu; Black, Robert E; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has scaled up integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM), including several interventions to improve the performance of Health Extension Workers (HEWs). We assessed associations between interventions to improve iCCM quality of care and the observed quality of care among HEWs. Methods We assessed iCCM implementation strength and quality of care provided by HEWs in Ethiopia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between interventions to improve iCCM quality of care and correct management of iCCM illnesses. Findings Children who were managed by an HEW who had attended a performance review and clinical mentoring meeting (PRCMM) had 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.34–29.51) times the odds of being correctly managed, compared to children managed by an HEW who did not attend a PRCMM. Management by an HEW who received follow–up training also significantly increased the odds of correct management (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, 95% CI 1.05–4.18). Supervision on iCCM (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.23–1.72) did not significantly affect the odds of receiving correct care. Conclusions These results suggest PRCMM and follow–up training were effective interventions, while implementation of supportive supervision needs to be reviewed to improve impact. PMID:27606058

  20. Children's Aesthetic Understanding of Photographic Art and the Quality of Art-Related Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    This research was designed to examine the quality of children's aesthetic understanding of photographs, observe social interactions between parents and children in this aesthetic domain, and study whether qualitatively different dyadic interactions were associated with children's own aesthetic understanding. Parents and children (7-13 years; 40…

  1. Relations of Children's Effortful Control and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality to School Attitudes in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Valiente, Carlos; Huerta, Snjezana; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Kupfer, Anne S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael A.; Taylor, Heather B.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of children's effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring…

  2. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  3. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (...

  4. Investing in the Future: Child Care Financing Options for the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Caroline; And Others

    Sweeping changes in the economy, the makeup of the labor force, and family structure have altered both the family and the workplace, and have changed the way society must respond to family needs. The supply of child care is inadequate to meet families' child care needs, and many parents cannot afford to pay the full fees for child care. Public…

  5. The Economic Impact of Child Care Subsidies for Kentucky. Policy Insights. Occasional Policy Brief #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Bradley; Hokayem, Charles; Ziliak, James P.

    2011-01-01

    For parents of young children the decision to work strongly depends on the availability of affordable child care. Child care costs can take up a large portion of a family budget and may serve as an obstacle to work. In 2008 the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) estimated that Kentucky families recently…

  6. 75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Dependent Coverage; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure and Recordkeeping Requirement; Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity...

  7. Bioeconomic analysis of child-targeted subsidies for artemisinin combination therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eili Y.; Smith, David L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) was conceived as a global market-based mechanism to increase access to effective malaria treatment and prolong effectiveness of artemisinin. Although results from a pilot implementation suggested that the subsidy was effective in increasing access to high-quality artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the Global Fund has converted AMFm into a country-driven mechanism whereby individual countries could choose to fund the subsidy from within their country envelopes. Because the initial costs of the subsidy in the pilot countries was higher than expected, countries are also exploring alternatives to a universal subsidy, such as subsidizing only child doses. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of a child-targeted policy using an age-structured bioeconomic model of malaria from the provider perspective. Because the vast majority of malaria deaths occur in children, targeting children could potentially improve the cost-effectiveness of the subsidy, though it would avert significantly fewer deaths. However, the benefits of a child-targeted subsidy (i.e. deaths averted) are eroded as leakage (i.e. older individuals taking young child-targeted doses) increases, with few of the benefits of a universal subsidy gained (i.e. reductions in overall prevalence). Although potentially more cost-effective, a child-targeted subsidy must contain measures to reduce the possibility of leakage. PMID:25994293

  8. "My Teacher Helps Me": Assessing Teacher-Child Relationships from the Child's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kelley Mayer

    2016-01-01

    The current study is one of the first to investigate children's perceptions of quality in teacher-child relationships using a narrative measure. It is also one of the first studies to investigate how the child's report is associated with the teacher's report and with an observer's report of quality in teacher-child interactions. Participants…

  9. Comparison of child self-reports and parent proxy-reports on quality of life of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition that affects 3%–7% of the pediatric population and significantly compromises the quality of life (QoL) of these individuals. The aim of the current study was to compare child self-reports and parent proxy reports on the QoL of children with ADHD. Methods Forty-five children with ADHD, combined type, aged 8–12 years without comorbidities, were compared with 43 typically developing children. PedsQL™ 4.0 (Pediatric QoL Inventory™) Generic Core Scales (physical, emotional, social, and school functioning) were completed by families and children self-reporting their health-related QoL. Results Children with ADHD reported themselves significantly lowered their PedsQL™ scores on all dimensions in comparison to typically developing children. Statistically significant differences were observed in social functioning (p = 0.010), school functioning (p <0.001), psychosocial health (p <0.001), and total score (p = 0.002). The physical functioning and emotional functioning dimensions did not differ significantly between groups, with p = 0.841 and p = 0.070, respectively. Parents of children with ADHD also reported lower PedsQL™ scores, with statistically significant differences in all dimensions. The relationship between child self-reports and parent proxy reports indicated that there is greater agreement among children with ADHD, except for the school functioning. Conclusions This suggests that children with the disorder and their parents have a perception of the functional limitations the disorder brings. It is therefore important to undertake studies to verify the QoL in children with ADHD that aim to provide and measure the scope of the well-being of these children. PMID:24180423

  10. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  11. Child Find Practices in Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…

  12. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  13. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... go to the caregiver's home. Finally, there are child care centers. You need to choose the one that works for your family. It is important to get to know your child's caregivers. They will be a big part of ...

  14. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...

  15. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  16. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    PubMed Central

    Mhlanga, Brenda S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB) and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG) medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs). Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost 473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%). Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day's wage. Conclusion Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population. PMID:26245401

  17. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  18. Situated language understanding as filtering perceived affordances.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, Peter; Roy, Deb

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a computational theory of situated language understanding in which the meaning of words and utterances depends on the physical environment and the goals and plans of communication partners. According to the theory, concepts that ground linguistic meaning are neither internal nor external to language users, but instead span the objective-subjective boundary. To model the possible interactions between subject and object, the theory relies on the notion of perceived affordances: structured units of interaction that can be used for prediction at multiple levels of abstraction. Language understanding is treated as a process of filtering perceived affordances. The theory accounts for many aspects of the situated nature of human language use and provides a unified solution to a number of demands on any theory of language understanding including conceptual combination, prototypicality effects, and the generative nature of lexical items. To support the theory, we describe an implemented system that understands verbal commands situated in a virtual gaming environment. The implementation uses probabilistic hierarchical plan recognition to generate perceived affordances. The system has been evaluated on its ability to correctly interpret free-form spontaneous verbal commands recorded from unrehearsed game play between human players. The system is able to "step into the shoes" of human players and correctly respond to a broad range of verbal commands in which linguistic meaning depends on social and physical context. We quantitatively compare the system's predictions in response to direct player commands with the actions taken by human players and show generalization to unseen data across a range of situations and verbal constructions. PMID:21635295

  19. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  20. Dignity for all: affordable assisted living.

    PubMed

    Janeski, James F; Pruchnicki, Alec

    2006-01-01

    In 2026, the first of the baby boomers, including Presidents Clinton and Bush, will reach the age of 80, the average age of residents currently in assisted living facilities. In her book The Denial of Aging: Perpetual Youth, Eternal Life, and Other Dangerous Fantasies, Muriel Gillick proposes that the baby boomers will seek assisted living as an alternative to nursing home care. But what about that portion of the population not able to afford the high cost of private assisted living? What option will be available to the low-asset/low-income population in lieu of nursing home care? PMID:17214248