Science.gov

Sample records for affordable space transportation

  1. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  2. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn't appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  3. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn`t appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  4. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  5. Polyimide Based Nanocomposites for Affordable Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Derrick; Islam, Mohsina; Small, Sharee; Aldridge, Brandon; Campbell, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In setting forth its strategic plan, NASA has indicated that low-cost access to space is the key to unleashing the commercial potential of space and greatly expanding space research and exploration. The development of advanced materials will be an enabling technology for this quest for low-cost space access. In this research program, we are attempting to address the need for new advanced materials by developing high-performance nanodispersed inorganic/organic and organic/organic polyimide composites utilizing specific interactions. Our goal is to systematically manipulate these interactions and investigate the resulting processing morphology-property relationships. Specifically, we will investigate three main parameters on these relationships. These include (1) the type of polyimide; (2) the structure of the inorganic nanoparticle being used; and (3) manipulation of the interfacial energy. During the first year of this effort, we have demonstrated the successful synthesis of PMR-15/layered silicate nanocomposites. Morphological studies indicate that exfoliated structures were obtained in most instances, with a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated structures being observed also. Significant enhancements of the onset of decomposition were obtained by varying the strength of the interaction between the nanoparticle and the polymer. Varying the amount of a specific nanoparticle also affected the decomposition temperatures. A slight catalytic effect of the nanoparticles on both the imidization and crosslinking reaction has been observed and will be presented. In addition, incorporation of the nanoparticles was found to increase the glass transition temperature and slightly broaden the breadth of this relaxation.

  6. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  7. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  8. An Analysis and Review of Measures and Relationships in Space Transportation Affordability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The affordability of transportation to or from space is of continued interest across numerous and diverse stakeholders in our aerospace industry. Such an important metric as affordability deserves a clear understanding among stakeholders about what is meant by affordability, costs, and related terms, as otherwise it's difficult to see where specific improvements are needed or where to target specific investments. As captured in the famous words of Lewis Carroll, "If you don't know where you are going, any road will get you there". As important as understanding a metric may be, with terms such as costs, prices, specific costs, average costs, marginal costs, etc., it is equally important to understand the relationship among these measures. In turn, these measures intermingle with caveats and factors that introduce more measures in need of a common understanding among stakeholders. These factors include flight rates, capability, and payload. This paper seeks to review the costs of space transportation systems and the relationships among the many factors involved in costs from the points of view of diverse decision makers. A decision maker may have an interest in acquiring a single launch considering the best price (along with other factors in their business case), or an interest in many launches over time. Alternately, a decision maker may have a specific interest in developing a space transportation system that will offer certain prices, or flight rate capability, or both, at a certain up-front cost. The question arises for the later, to reuse or to expend? As it is necessary in thinking about the future to clearly understand the past and the present, this paper will present data and graphics to assist stakeholders in visualizing trends and the current state of affairs in the launch industry. At all times, raw data will be referenced (or made available separately) alongside detailed explanations about the data, so as to avoid the confusion or misleading conclusions

  9. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  10. Affordable In-Space Transportation. Phase 2; An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (ITM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIM was managed by NASA-Mar-shaU Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Manidns of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIM in a summary format. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TPA, which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? What is the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5. What is the proposed implementation time frame

  11. Affordable In-Space Transportation Phase 2: An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (TTM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIN4 was managed by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Mankins of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TIM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIN4 in a summary for-mat. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TDVL which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? 3. What is the current technology readiness level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5 . What is the proposed implementation time

  12. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  13. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  15. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  16. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  17. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  18. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  19. New ideas for affordable space missions

    PubMed

    Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

    1996-04-01

    In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well.

  20. New ideas for affordable space missions

    PubMed

    Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

    1996-04-01

    In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well. PMID:11538724

  1. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition.

  2. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  3. NASA Space Transportation: Safety, Cost and Performance Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogacki, John Row

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA's Space Transportation. A space launch initiative is developed to provide a safe, reliable and affordable access to space. The topics include: 1) NASA's Integrated Architectural Approach; and 2) Safe, Reliable, and Affordable... Building a Highway to Space.

  4. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  5. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  6. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  7. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  8. Attached shuttle payload carriers: Versatile and affordable access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The shuttle has been primarily designed to be a versatile vehicle for placing a variety of scientific and technological equipment in space including very large payloads; however, since many large payloads do not fill the shuttle bay, the space and weight margins remaining after the major payloads are accommodated often can be made available to small payloads. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has designed standardized mounting structures and other support systems, collectively called attached shuttle payload (ASP) carriers, to make this additional space available to researchers at a relatively modest cost. Other carrier systems for ASP's are operated by other NASA centers. A major feature of the ASP carriers is their ease of use in the world of the Space Shuttle. ASP carriers attempt to minimized the payload interaction with Space Transportation System (STS) operations whenever possible. Where this is not possible, the STS services used are not extensive. As a result, the interfaces between the carriers and the STS are simplified. With this near autonomy, the requirements for supporting documentation are considerably lessened and payload costs correspondingly reduced. The ASP carrier systems and their capabilities are discussed in detail. The range of available capabilities assures that an experimenter can select the simplest, most cost-effective carrier that is compatible with his or her experimental objectives. Examples of payloads which use ASP basic hardware in nonstandard ways are also described.

  9. Online Case-Based Discussions: Examining Coverage of the Afforded Problem Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies hold great potential for engaging students in disciplinary content. However, little is known about the extent to which students actually cover the problem space afforded by a particular case study. In this research, we compared the problem space afforded by an instructional design case study with the actual content covered by 16…

  10. Space Transportation Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    This document is the final report by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on contracted support provided to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Contract NAS8-99060, 'Space Transportation Systems Technologies'. This contract, initiated by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on February 8, 1999, was focused on space systems technologies that directly support NASA's space flight goals. It was awarded as a Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) contract to SAIC, following a competitive procurement via NASA Research Announcement, NRA 8-21. This NRA was specifically focused on tasks related to Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). Through Task Area 3 (TA-3), "Other Related Technology" of this NRA contract, SAIC extensively supported the Space Transportation Directorate of MSFC in effectively directing, integrating, and setting its mission, operations, and safety priorities for future RLV-focused space flight. Following an initially contracted Base Year (February 8, 1999 through September 30, 1999), two option years were added to the contract. These were Option Year 1 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000) and Option Year 2 (October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001). This report overviews SAIC's accomplishments for the Base Year, Option Year 1, and Option Year 2, and summarizes the support provided by SAIC to the Space Transportation Directorate, NASA/MSFC.

  11. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  12. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  13. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  14. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  15. Trends in space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.

    Near-future goals of international launch systems are aimed at placing payloads of at least 5000 kg into geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). In the United States, this will be accomplished by the Shuttle with a new upper stage and complementary expendable launch vehicle (CELV) such as the Titan 34D7/Centaur. The Soviet Union's efforts will also achieve this goal and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane 5 will approach it. It appears clear that the U.S. will revert to a mixed fleet policy, utilizing the Shuttle only for those missions where its capacity is needed or where manned presence is a necessity. The ESA Hermes and the Soviet shuttle will also be chiefly used in the latter capacity. In the United States and the Soviet Union, much thought and some funds are being devoted to the study of third-generation space transportation systems. The objectives are to achieve either/or ready access to space, low cost per pound to orbit, and very heavy weights (at low cost/pound) to orbit. Concepts such as the AerospacePlane and HOTOL (horizontal take-off and landing); the Shuttle-derived vehicles (SDV), and mammoth heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs) are being studied. The third generation of launch vehicles will serve both civilian and military needs. Civilian applications represent a myriad of advanced needs. They range from the normal extension of present communications, earth observations, in-space manufacturing, and space station and other manned operations to the more exotic missions of Mars expeditions (both manned and unmanned), lunar bases, and large space-based power systems. Military applications are likely to include advanced intelligence and reconnaissance systems, spacecraft servicing and maintenance tasks, support of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) systems, and possibly a permanent manned presence in space. Both civil and military aims may lead to the development of the AerospacePlane. This vehicle could evolve into forms designed for high speed air

  16. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  17. Space transfer vehicles for an affordable lunar exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Dana G.; Frost, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a lunar transportation system (LTS) based on a minimum cost approach to the lunar exploration scenario. A three-part exercise was conducted to minimize the cost and risk of lunar exploration, and the results of these optimization studies are presented. Particular consideration is given to the proposed concepts for the translunar injection stages, the common crew module of the LTS, the lander configuration, the LTS performance, and a concept of a long-range rover ('Rover First ') for discovering and mapping lunar resources for future utilization.

  18. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  19. When objects are close to me: affordances in the peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Marcello; Ambrosini, Ettore; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated, using language, which motor information is automatically activated by observing 3-D objects (i.e., manipulation vs. function) and whether this information is modulated by the objects' location in space. Participants were shown 3-D pictures of objects located in peripersonal versus extrapersonal space. Immediately after, they were presented with function, manipulation, or observation verbs (e.g., "to drink," "to grasp," "to look at") and were required to judge whether the verb was compatible with the presented object. We found that participants were slower with observation verbs than with manipulation and function verbs. With both function and manipulation verbs, participants were faster when objects were presented in reachable space. Interestingly, the fastest response times were recorded when participants read function verbs while objects were presented in the accessible space. Results suggest that artifacts are first conceived in terms of affordances linked to manipulation and use, and that affordances are differently activated, depending on context.

  20. Transportation concepts for space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Space shuttle and heavy lift launch vehicle concepts are described with attention to transportation cost trends. Chemical (LOX/LH2), nuclear, and electric propulsion systems are considered. Suggested space shuttle projects include the support of manned geosynchronous missions and the transfer of bulk cargo and large-delicate space structures from fabrication/assembly orbits to their operational locations. It is thought that development of the space shuttle will stimulate interest in space industrialization.

  1. Future space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishin, S. D.; Chekalin, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    Prospects for the mastery of space and the basic problems which must be solved in developing systems for both manned and cargo spacecraft are examined. The achievements and flaws of rocket boosters are discussed as well as the use of reusable spacecraft. The need for orbiting satellite solar power plants and related astrionics for active control of large space structures for space stations and colonies in an age of space industrialization is demonstrated. Various forms of spacecraft propulsion are described including liquid propellant rocket engines, nuclear reactors, thermonuclear rocket engines, electrorocket engines, electromagnetic engines, magnetic gas dynamic generators, electromagnetic mass accelerators (rail guns), laser rocket engines, pulse nuclear rocket engines, ramjet thermonuclear rocket engines, and photon rockets. The possibilities of interstellar flight are assessed.

  2. Space Transportation and Destination Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; McClure, Wallace

    1999-01-01

    The Space Transportation and Destination Facilities section focused on space transportation vehicles-from use of existing vehicles to development of specialized transports-and on space stations, space business parks, space hotels, and other facilities in space of the kind that eventually would provide services for general public space travel (PST) and tourism. For both transportation and destination facilities, the emphasis was on the identification of various strategies to enable a realistic incremental progression in the development and acquisition of such facilities, and the identification of issues that need resolution to enable formation of viable businesses. The approach was to determine the best: (1) Strategies for general PST and tourism development through the description and analysis of a wide range of possible future scenarios. With these scenarios in mind the section then identified. (2) Key issues to be explored. (3) opportunities to eliminate barriers. (4) Recommendations for future actions. (5) Top-level requirements and characteristics for general PST and tourism systems and services that would guide the development of transportation and destination facilities.

  3. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  4. Results of 30 kWt Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-30) primary heat transport testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Kevin; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvil, Pat; Reid, Bob

    2001-02-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Safe Affordable Fission Engine-30 kilowatt (SAFE30) test article are being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments to date, and describes the additional testing that will be performed. Recommendations related to the design of testable space fission power and propulsion systems are made. .

  5. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  6. Affordable Options for Ground-Based, Large-Aperture Optical Space Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Beason, J. D.; Kiziah, R.; Spillar, E.; Vestrand, W. T.; Cox, D.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Holland, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - has demonstrated significant capability improvements over legacy ground-based optical space surveillance systems. To fulfill better the current and future space situational awareness (SSA) requirements, the Air Force would benefit from a global network of such telescopes, but the high cost to replicate the SST makes such an acquisition decision difficult, particularly in an era of fiscal austerity. Ideally, the Air Force needs the capabilities provided by the SST, but at a more affordable price. To address this issue, an informal study considered a total of 67 alternative optical designs, with each being evaluated for cost, complexity and SSA performance. One promising approach identified in the study uses a single mirror at prime focus with a small number of corrective lenses. This approach results in telescopes that are less complex and estimated to be less expensive than replicated SSTs. They should also be acquirable on shorter time scales. Another approach would use a modest network of smaller telescopes for space surveillance. This approach provides significant cost advantages but faces some challenges with very dim objects. In this paper, we examine the cost and SSA utility for each of the 67 designs considered.

  7. Location representation in enclosed spaces: what types of information afford young children an advantage?

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify location in a square-shaped space, where geometry is uninformative, so long as scale-like information was available on the walls of the space [Huttenlocher, J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2007a). Coding location in enclosed spaces: Is geometry the principle? Developmental Science, 10, 741-746]. Here we build on this work by examining more closely what types of cues afford 18- to 24-month-olds an advantage in locating a target object following disorientation. Their performance was assessed when linear scale-like information was presented either in isolation or in composite form. It was found that, even in isolation, young children searched at the appropriate locations, with added benefit when presented as a composite. We suggest that linear scale-like dimensions, especially when available in composite form, play a critical role in supporting location representation in young children.

  8. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable, Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated December 2017. SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. For the United States current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. This version will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. SLS is designed to evolve to a 130 t lift capability that can reduce mission costs, simplify payload design, reduce trip times, and lower overall risk. Each vehicle element completed its respective Preliminary Design Reviews, followed by the SLS Program. The Program also completed the Key Decision Point-C milestone to move from formulation to implementation in 2014. NASA hasthorized the program to proceed to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Accomplihments to date include: manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. This paper will discuss SLS Program successes over the past year and examine milestones and challenges ahead. The SLS Program and its elements are managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. NASA Exploration Team (NExT) In-Space Transportation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Cooke, Douglas R.; Kos, Larry D.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of NASA Exploration Team's (NEXT) vision of in-space transportation in the future. Hurdles facing in-space transportation include affordable power sources, crew health and safety, optimized robotic and human operations and space systems performance. Topics covered include: exploration of Earth's neighborhood, Earth's neighborhood architecture and elements, Mars mission trajectory options, delta-v variations, Mars mission duration options, Mars mission architecture, nuclear electric propulsion advantages and miscellaneous technology needs.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and

  11. Perception of affordances during long-term exposure to weightlessness in the International Space station.

    PubMed

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Luyat, Marion

    2015-09-01

    On Earth, visual eye height (VEH)--the distance from the observer's line of gaze to the ground in the visual scene--constitutes an effective cue in perceiving affordance such as the passability through apertures, based on the assumption that one's feet are on the ground. In the present study, we questioned whether an observer continues to use VEH to estimate the width of apertures during long-term exposure to weightlessness, where contact with the floor is not required. Ten astronauts were tested in preflight, inflight in the International Space Station, and postflight sessions. They were asked to adjust the opening of a virtual doorway displayed on a laptop device until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising and lowering the level of the floor in the visual scene. We observed an effect of VEH manipulation on the critical aperture. When VEH decreased, the critical aperture decreased too, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger when VEH was smaller. There was no overall significant session effect, but the analysis of between-subjects variability revealed two participant profile groups. The effect of weightlessness was different for these two groups even though the VEH strategy remained operational during spaceflight. This study shows that the VEH strategy appears to be very robust and can be used, if necessary, in inappropriate circumstances such as free-floating, perhaps promoted by the nature of the visual scene.

  12. Transport processes in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth`s magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth`s magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth`s magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  14. Space Transportation in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.

  15. Perception of affordances during long-term exposure to weightlessness in the International Space station.

    PubMed

    Bourrelly, Aurore; McIntyre, Joseph; Luyat, Marion

    2015-09-01

    On Earth, visual eye height (VEH)--the distance from the observer's line of gaze to the ground in the visual scene--constitutes an effective cue in perceiving affordance such as the passability through apertures, based on the assumption that one's feet are on the ground. In the present study, we questioned whether an observer continues to use VEH to estimate the width of apertures during long-term exposure to weightlessness, where contact with the floor is not required. Ten astronauts were tested in preflight, inflight in the International Space Station, and postflight sessions. They were asked to adjust the opening of a virtual doorway displayed on a laptop device until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising and lowering the level of the floor in the visual scene. We observed an effect of VEH manipulation on the critical aperture. When VEH decreased, the critical aperture decreased too, suggesting that widths relative to the body were perceived to be larger when VEH was smaller. There was no overall significant session effect, but the analysis of between-subjects variability revealed two participant profile groups. The effect of weightlessness was different for these two groups even though the VEH strategy remained operational during spaceflight. This study shows that the VEH strategy appears to be very robust and can be used, if necessary, in inappropriate circumstances such as free-floating, perhaps promoted by the nature of the visual scene. PMID:26224263

  16. Future Space Transportation Technology: Prospects and Priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billie, Matt; Reed, Lisa; Harris, David

    2003-01-01

    The Transportation Working Group (TWG) was chartered by the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT) to conceptualize, define, and advocate within NASA the space transportation architectures and technologies required to enable the human and robotic exploration and development of space envisioned by the NEXT. In 2002, the NEXT tasked the TWG to assess exploration space transportation requirements versus current and prospective Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) and in-space transportation systems, technologies, and research, in order to identify investment gaps and recommend priorities. The result was a study now being incorporated into future planning by the NASA Space Architect and supporting organizations. This paper documents the process used to identify exploration space transportation investment gaps, as well as the group's recommendations for closing these gaps and prioritizing areas of future investment for NASA work on advanced propulsion systems.

  17. In-Space Transportation for GEO Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donnahue, Benjamin B.; Henley, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes results of study tasks to evaluate design options for in-space transportation of geostationary Space Solar Power Satellites. Referring to the end-to-end architecture studies performed in 1988, this current activity focuses on transportation of Sun Tower satellite segments from an initial low Earth orbit altitude to a final position in geostationary orbit (GEO; i.e., 35,786 km altitude, circular, equatorial orbit). This report encompasses study activity for In-Space Transportation of GEO Space Solar Power (SSP) Satellites including: 1) assessment of requirements, 2) design of system concepts, 3) comparison of alternative system options, and 4) assessment of potential derivatives.

  18. The manned transportation system study - Defining human pathways into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nick; Geyer, Mark S.; Gaunce, Michael T.; Anson, H. W.; Bienhoff, D. G.; Carey, D. A.; Emmett, B. R.; Mccandless, B.; Wetzel, E. D.

    1992-01-01

    Substantiating data developed by a NASA-industry team (NIT) for subsequent NASA decisions on the 'right' set of manned transportation elements needed for human access to space are discussed. Attention is given to the framework for detailed definition of these manned transportation elements. Identifying and defining architecture evaluation criteria, i.e., attributes, specified the amount and type of data needed for each concept under consideration. Several architectures, each beginning with today's transportation systems, were defined using representative systems to explore future options and address specific questions currently being debated. The present solutions emphasize affordability, safety, routineness, and reliability. Key issues associated with current business practices were challenged and the impact associated with these practices quantified.

  19. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  20. The space transportation resources (STR) database description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandubrae, Jeffrey A.; Roberts, Heather A.; Lee Varnado, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the on-going development of the Space Transportation Resources (STR) database. In January 1998, the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) tasked Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to develop an interactive database of space transportation resources. A summary of important milestones and the requirements associated with the database development is provided. Descriptions of the types of data contained in the database, and synopses of procedures for viewing and searching data are presented. SAIC has a continuing responsibility to update data to insure currency, and modify interactive routines to reflect customer direction and appropriate user comments. The Space Transportation Resources Database is available in two forms, on CD-ROM and accessible on the worldwide web at http://str.saic.com.

  1. Understanding Presence, Affordance and the Time/Space Dimensions for Language Learning in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocchi, Susanna; Blin, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding their potential for novel approaches to language teaching and learning, Virtual Worlds (VWs) present numerous technological and pedagogical challenges that require new paradigms if the language learning experience and outcomes are to be successful. In this presentation, we argue that the notions of presence and affordance, together…

  2. National Space Transportation Policy: Issues for Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-05-01

    This report, prepared for the House Committee on Science, is the first in a broad assessment of the health and future prospects of the U.S. space transportation technology and industrial base. The report focuses on the Clinton Administration's National Space Transportation Policy, which was released last fall. It examines administration policy in light of the implementation plans prepared by NASA, DOD, and the Transportation and Commerce Departments. The policy also emphasizes the important contribution private industry can make to the direction and development of U.S. space transportation capabilities. However, an analysis of the policy and implementation plans also raises some issues that might be of interest to Congress as it debates space transportation legislation, oversight, and funding. These issues involve decisions on NASA and DOD development programs, the use of foreign launch vehicles, and the new role of the private sector in space transportation research and development decisionmaking. This report also identifies two issues omitted from the Administration's policy: the preservation of long-range ballistic missile capabilities after final production in 2005, and the perspective of lower industrial tier firms toward national space transportation policy.

  3. In-Space Transportation for Geo Space Solar Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation from Earth is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that a two-stage rocket launch vehicle with autonomous solar-electric transfer can provide the transportation at prices close to the goal of $800/kg

  4. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  5. The German Saenger space transportation system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  6. 76 FR 78329 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  7. 76 FR 15039 - Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation... development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system, which supports the National...

  8. 76 FR 82031 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) Risk Management Working...

  9. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES: The teleconference will take place on...

  10. 75 FR 23841 - Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: The FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) requests...

  11. 75 FR 70347 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY... given that the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) has been renewed for a 2.... commercial space transportation industry. The ] primary goals of the Committee are to evaluate...

  12. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  13. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of non-availability of Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants in FY 2013. SUMMARY: The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) will...

  14. 78 FR 14401 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES:...

  15. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  16. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-12-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  17. Strategic Technologies for Deep Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Deep space transportation capability for science and exploration is fundamentally limited by available propulsion technologies. Traditional chemical systems are performance plateaued and require enormous Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) whereas solar electric propulsion systems are power limited and unable to execute rapid transits. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, key deep space transport mission capability objectives are reviewed in relation to STMD technology portfolio needs, and the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape is examined including open questions, technical challenges, and developmental prospects. Options for potential future investment across the full compliment of STMD programs are presented based on an informed awareness of complimentary activities in industry, academia, OGAs, and NASA mission directorates.

  18. Space Transportation System - Status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of detailed illustrations present graphically the status of the STS. The Shuttle vehicle is compared to other expendable vehicles hitherto used by NASA, and data on the Shuttle's components and dimensions and weights are provided. Also presented is the mission profile for the Shuttle and the installation of Spacelab into the Orbiter. Illustrations cover the steps of the vehicle preparation for launch and a chart is given representing current plans for the launch of various payloads. Finally, the automated beam builder for aluminum beams, orbital test of a space machine for fabrication of structural elements or beams and a multibeam communications antenna, which can be used for very small receivers, are described.

  19. Which body for embodied cognition? Affordance and language within actual and perceived reaching space.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; Costantini, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    The mental representation of one's own body does not necessarily correspond to the physical body. For instance, a dissociation between perceived and actual reach-ability has been shown, that is, individuals perceive that they can reach objects that are out of grasp. We presented participants with 3D pictures of objects located at four different distances, namely near-reaching space, actual-reaching space, perceived-reaching space and non-reaching space. Immediately after they were presented with function, manipulation, observation or pointing verbs and were required to judge if the verb was compatible with the object. Participants were faster with function and manipulation verbs than with observation and pointing verbs. Strikingly, with both function and manipulation verbs participants were faster when objects were presented in actual than the perceived reaching space. These findings suggest that our knowledge of the world is implicitly built online through behaviour, and is not necessarily reflected in explicit estimates or conscious representations.

  20. An overview of European space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    With the completion of the launch rocket series Ariane 1 to 4, Europe will have reached the same capacity to transport commercial payloads as the USA has with the Space Shuttle and the kick stages which are presently operative. The near term development of these capacities would require Europe to develop a larger launch rocket, Araine 5. Further motivations for this rocket are access to manned spaceflight, the development of an European space station, and the demand for shuttle technology. Shuttle technology is the subject of research being done in France on the winged re-entry vehicle Hermes. Operation of the European space station Columbus will require development of an interorbital transport system to facilitate traffic between the various segments of the space station. All European space transportation systems will have to match their quality to that of the other countries involve in space flight. All areas of development are marked not only by possible cooperation but also by increased competition because of increasing commercialization of space flight.

  1. Space Radiation Transport Methods Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Prael, R. E.; Norbury, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

    2002-01-01

    Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary design concepts to the final design. In particular, we will discuss the progress towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic code for which the current HZETRN evaluates the lowest order asymptotic term. HZETRN is the first deterministic solution to the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design practice enabling development of integrated multidisciplinary design optimization methods. A single ray trace in ISS FEM geometry requires 14 milliseconds and severely limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given in terms of reconfigurable computing and could be utilized in the final design as verification of the deterministic method optimized design.

  2. Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) study is to identify candidate engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) to identify and evaluate candidate LOX/HC engine configurations for the Advanced Space Transportation System for an early 1995 IOC and a late 2000 IOC; (2) to select one optimum engine for each time period; 3) to prepare a conceptual design for each configuration; (4) to develop a technology plan for the 2000 IOC engine; and, (5) to prepare preliminary programmatic planning and analysis for the 1995 IOC engine.

  3. Space Transportation System (STS): Emergency support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janoski, T.; Nicholson, L.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for emergency support of the Space Transportation System (STS) are summarized. Coverage would be provided by the DSN during emergencies that would prevent communications between the shuttle and the White Sands TDRSS receiving station. The DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  4. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  5. Transport methods and interactions for space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Schimmerling, Walter S.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous S.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Norbury, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the program in space radiation protection at the Langley Research Center is given. The relevant Boltzmann equations are given with a discussion of approximation procedures for space applications. The interaction coefficients are related to solution of the many-body Schroedinger equation with nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Various solution techniques are discussed to obtain relevant interaction cross sections with extensive comparison with experiments. Solution techniques for the Boltzmann equations are discussed in detail. Transport computer code validation is discussed through analytical benchmarking, comparison with other codes, comparison with laboratory experiments and measurements in space. Applications to lunar and Mars missions are discussed.

  6. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  7. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Space... proposals to continue the development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system...

  8. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  9. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem "module" or "box" components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic "upgrade infrastructure" needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of prequalified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS

  10. Space transportation activities in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  11. Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

  12. Rockot-an available launch system for affordable access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, U.; Kinnersley, M.; Freeborn, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Rockot launcher will perform its fifth launch, the first commercial launch, in Spring 2000 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia carrying two American satellites into a LEO orbit. In preparation for that a launch pad verification flight will be carried out in November this year to prove the functionality of the adapted facilities at the Plesetsk launch site and by placing a Russian satellite into a highly inclined orbit. The results of the launches will be described in detail in the paper as well as the installations at the launch site. Eurockot, the German-Russian joint-venture company marketing and managing the Rockot launch vehicle is meanwhile an integral part of the space launch community. Eurockot was formed by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. A brief overview of its activities, the commercial program and the performance/services offered by Eurockot is presented. Rockot can launch satellites weighing up to 1850 kg into polar or other low earth orbits (LEO). The Rockot launch vehicle is based on the former Russian SS-19 strategic missile. The first and second stages are inherited from the SS-19, the third stage Breeze which has already been developed has multiple ignition capability. The Breeze upper stage is under production at Khrunichev in Moscow. The Rockot launch system is flight proven and is operated from the Plesetsk as well as from the Baikonur launch site. .

  13. Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1998-12-01

    The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation.

  14. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depots to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing, and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. A Mars Orbital Depot is also described to support ongoing Mars missions. New concepts for vehicle designs are presented that can be launched on current 5-meter diameter expendable launch vehicles. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a LEO Depot, L1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. The high-energy depots at L1 and Mars orbit are compatible with, but do not require, electric propulsion tug use for propellant and/or cargo delivery. New reusable in-space crew transportation vehicles include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot and the L1 Depot, a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface, and a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) to support crew missions from the L1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroid, and Mars destinations. A 6 meter diameter Mars lander concept is presented that can be launched without a fairing based on the Delta IV heavy Payload Planners Guide, which indicates feasibility of a 6.5 meter fairing. This lander would evolve to re-usable operations when propellant production is established on Mars. Figure 1 provides a summary of the possible missions this infrastructure can support. Summary mission profiles are presented

  15. Capability and Technology Performance Goals for the Next Step in Affordable Human Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    The capability for living off the land, commonly called in-situ resource utilization, is finally gaining traction in space exploration architectures. Production of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere is called an enabling technology for human return from Mars, and a flight demonstration to be flown on the Mars 2020 robotic lander is in development. However, many of the individual components still require technical improvements, and system-level trades will be required to identify the best combination of technology options. Based largely on work performed for two recent roadmap activities, this paper defines the capability and technology requirements that will need to be achieved before this game-changing capability can reach its full potential.

  16. Affordable Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) Testing on Large Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Edward; Curry, Bruce; Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perform System-Level EMI testing of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) spacecraft in situ in the Kennedy Space Center's Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Facility in 6 days. The only way to execute the system-level EMI testing and meet this schedule challenge was to perform the EMI testing in situ in the Final Assembly & System Test (FAST) Cell in a reverberant mode, not the direct illumination mode originally planned. This required the unplanned construction of a Faraday Cage around the vehicle and FAST Cell structure. The presence of massive steel platforms created many challenges to developing an efficient screen room to contain the RF energy and yield an effective reverberant chamber. An initial effectiveness test showed marginal performance, but improvements implemented afterward resulted in the final test performing surprisingly well! The paper will explain the design, the challenges, and the changes that made the difference in performance!

  17. In-Space Transportation with Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    1998-01-01

    The annual report covers the research conducted on the following topics related to the use of spaceborne tethers for in-space transportation: ProSEDS tether modeling (current collection analyses, influence of a varying tether temperature); proSEDS mission analysis and system dynamics (tether thermal model, thermo-electro-dynamics integrated simulations); proSEDS-tether development and testing (tether requirements, deployment test plan, tether properties testing, deployment tests); and tethers for reboosting the space-based laser (mission analysis, tether system preliminary design, evaluation of attitude constraints).

  18. Organizing for low cost space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the management concepts and organizational structure NASA is establishing to operate the Space Transportation System. Policies which would encourage public and commercial organizations and private individuals to use the new STS are discussed, and design criteria for experiments, spacecraft, and other systems elements are considered. The design criteria are intented to facilitate cost reductions for space operations. NASA plans for the transition from currently used expendable launch vehicles to Shuttle use and Shuttle pricing policies are explained in detail. Hardware development is basically complete, management functions have been defined, pricing policies have been published, and procedures for user contact and services have been places into operation.

  19. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  20. Utilization of space resources in the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Utilization of space resources (i.e., raw materials obtained from nonterrestrial sources) has often been cited as a prerequisite for large-scale industrialization and habitation of space. While transportation of extremely large quantities of material from Earth would be costly and potentially destructive to our environment, vast quantities of usable resources might be derived from the Moon, the asteroids, and other celestial objects in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. The primary purpose of the parametric cost model developed as part of this study is to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the economics of space resource utilization. In the near term, this information can be used to devise strategies for technology development so that capabilities developed will produce cost-effective results.

  1. Utilization of space resources in the space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Michael C.

    Utilization of space resources (i.e., raw materials obtained from nonterrestrial sources) has often been cited as a prerequisite for large-scale industrialization and habitation of space. While transportation of extremely large quantities of material from Earth would be costly and potentially destructive to our environment, vast quantities of usable resources might be derived from the Moon, the asteroids, and other celestial objects in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. The primary purpose of the parametric cost model developed as part of this study is to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the economics of space resource utilization. In the near term, this information can be used to devise strategies for technology development so that capabilities developed will produce cost-effective results.

  2. National Space Transportation System (NSTS) technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, David L.; Ulrich, Kimberly K.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is one of the Nation's most valuable resources, providing manned transportation to and from space in support of payloads and scientific research. The NSTS program is currently faced with the problem of hardware obsolescence, which could result in unacceptable schedule and cost impacts to the flight program. Obsolescence problems occur because certain components are no longer being manufactured or repair turnaround time is excessive. In order to achieve a long-term, reliable transportation system that can support manned access to space through 2010 and beyond, NASA must develop a strategic plan for a phased implementation of enhancements which will satisfy this long-term goal. The NSTS program has initiated the Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA) project with the following objectives: eliminate hardware obsolescence in critical areas, increase reliability and safety of the vehicle, decrease operational costs and turnaround time, and improve operational capability. The strategy for ASA will be to first meet the mandatory needs - keep the Shuttle flying. Non-mandatory changes that will improve operational capability and enhance performance will then be considered if funding is adequate. Upgrade packages should be developed to install within designated inspection periods, grouped in a systematic approach to reduce cost and schedule impacts, and allow the capability to provide a Block 2 Shuttle (Phase 3).

  3. NASA Space Radiation Transport Code Development Consortium.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Lawrence W

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the University of Tennessee (lead institution), the University of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking.

  4. Impact of ηEarth on the Capabilities of Affordable Space Missions to Detect Biosignatures on Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Alain; Defrère, Denis; Malbet, Fabien; Labadie, Lucas; Absil, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytic model to estimate the capabilities of space missions dedicated to the search for biosignatures in the atmosphere of rocky planets located in the habitable zone of nearby stars. Relations between performance and mission parameters, such as mirror diameter, distance to targets, and radius of planets, are obtained. Two types of instruments are considered: coronagraphs observing in the visible, and nulling interferometers in the thermal infrared. Missions considered are: single-pupil coronagraphs with a 2.4 m primary mirror, and formation-flying interferometers with 4 × 0.75 m collecting mirrors. The numbers of accessible planets are calculated as a function of ηEarth. When Kepler gives its final estimation for ηEarth, the model will permit a precise assessment of the potential of each instrument. Based on current estimations, ηEarth = 10% around FGK stars and 50% around M stars, the coronagraph could study in spectroscopy only ∼1.5 relevant planets, and the interferometer ∼14.0. These numbers are obtained under the major hypothesis that the exozodiacal light around the target stars is low enough for each instrument. In both cases, a prior detection of planets is assumed and a target list established. For the long-term future, building both types of spectroscopic instruments, and using them on the same targets, will be the optimal solution because they provide complementary information. But as a first affordable space mission, the interferometer looks the more promising in terms of biosignature harvest.

  5. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  6. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  7. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  8. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; MacDonald, Rod; Faszer, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's largest tracked vehicle known, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a key element of the Space Shuttle ground systems, the crawler transports the entire 12-million-pound stack comprising the orbiter, the mobile launch platform (MLP), the external tank (ET), and the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad. This rollout, constituting a 3.5-5.0-mile journey at a top speed of 0.9 miles-per-hour, requires over 8 hours to reach either Launch Complex 39A or B. This activity is only a prelude to the spectacle of sound and fury of the Space Shuttle launch to orbit in less than 10 minutes and traveling at orbital velocities of Mach 24. This paper summarizes preliminary results from the Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study, encompassing test and engineering analysis of significant sound sources to measure and record full frequency spectrum and intensity of the various noise sources and to analyze the conditions of vibration. Additionally, data such as ventilation criteria, plus operational procedures were considered to provide a comprehensive noise suppression design for implementation. To date, sound attenuation study and results on Crawler 2 have shown significant noise reductions ranging from 5 to 24 dBA.

  9. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  10. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  11. Utility of Space Transportation System to Space Communication Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    A potentially cost effective technique was investigated of launching operational satellites into synchronous orbit using the space transportation system (STS). This technique uses an unguided spinning solid rocket motor as the means for boosting a satellite from a low altitude shuttle parking orbit into a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft is then injected into a geosynchronous orbit by an apogee kick motor fired at transfer orbit apogee. The approach is essentially that used on all Delta and Atlas-Centaur launches of synchronous satellites with the shuttle orbiter performing the function of the first two stages of the Delta three stage launch vehicle and the perigee kick motor performing the function of the Delta third state. It is concluded that the STS can be useful to the space communication community as well as to other geostationary satellite system users if the recommended actions are implemented.

  12. Overview of the Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG) strategic planning support efforts for earth to orbit transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankhoff, Walter F.; Hope, William P., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    An essential requirement of a successful space program is the assurance of a safe affordable routine access to space. In view of this, a national organization known as the Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG) has been directed for the past two years toward supporting strategic planning for earth-to-orbit space transportation and propulsion systems. This paper presents a short description of the approach the SPSG followed in their space transportation and propulsion systems strategic planning support activities. The SPSG study emphasized the identification of the transportation systems users/customers and the characteristics of attributes most valued by them in earth-to-LEO payload transportation services. The study initiated the process known as Quality Function Deployment to ensure that the customer/user real requirements and needs are properly addressed and that the transportation system concepts advocated had the greatest probability of satisfying the custosmer's requirements and desired attributes.

  13. Space transportation alternatives for large space programs: The International Space University Summer Session, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, the International Space University (ISU) held its Summer Session in Kitakyushu, Japan. This paper summarizes and expands upon some aspects of space solar power and space transportation that were considered during that session. The issues discussed in this paper are the result of a 10-week study by the Space Solar Power Program design project members and the Space Transportation Group to investigate new paradigms in space propulsion and how those paradigms might reduce the costs for large space programs. The program plan was to place a series of power satellites in Earth orbit. Several designs were studied where many kW, MW, or GW of power would be transmitted to Earth or to other spacecraft in orbit. During the summer session, a space solar power system was also detailed and analyzed. A high-cost space transportation program is potentially the most crippling barrier to such a space power program. At ISU, the focus of the study was to foster and develop some of the new paradigms that may eliminate the barriers to low cost for space exploration and exploitation. Many international and technical aspects of a large multinational program were studied. Environmental safety, space construction and maintenance, legal and policy issues of frequency allocation, technology transfer and control and many other areas were addressed. Over 120 students from 29 countries participated in this summer session. The results discussed in this paper, therefore, represent the efforts of many nations.

  14. Space transportation alternatives for large space programs: The International Space University Summer Session, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the International Space University (ISU) held its Summer Session in Kitakyushu, Japan. This paper summarizes and expands upon some aspects of space solar power and space transportation that were considered during that session. The issues discussed in this paper are the result of a 10-week study by the Space Solar Power Program design project members and the Space Transportation Group to investigate new paradigms in space propulsion and how those paradigms might reduce the costs for large space programs. The program plan was to place a series of power satellites in Earth orbit. Several designs were studied where many kW, MW, or GW of power would be transmitted to Earth or to other spacecraft in orbit. During the summer session, a space solar power system was also detailed and analyzed. A high-cost space transportation program is potentially the most crippling barrier to such a space power program. At ISU, the focus of the study was to foster and develop some of the new paradigms that may eliminate the barriers to low cost for space exploration and exploitation. Many international and technical aspects of a large multinational program were studied. Environmental safety, space construction and maintenance, legal and policy issues of frequency allocation, technology transfer and control and many other areas were addressed. Over 120 students from 29 countries participated in this summer session. The results discussed in this paper, therefore, represent the efforts of many nations.

  15. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  16. Space Radiation Transport Code Development: 3DHZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    The space radiation transport code, HZETRN, has been used extensively for research, vehicle design optimization, risk analysis, and related applications. One of the simplifying features of the HZETRN transport formalism is the straight-ahead approximation, wherein all particles are assumed to travel along a common axis. This reduces the governing equation to one spatial dimension allowing enormous simplification and highly efficient computational procedures to be implemented. Despite the physical simplifications, the HZETRN code is widely used for space applications and has been found to agree well with fully 3D Monte Carlo simulations in many circumstances. Recent work has focused on the development of 3D transport corrections for neutrons and light ions (Z < 2) for which the straight-ahead approximation is known to be less accurate. Within the development of 3D corrections, well-defined convergence criteria have been considered, allowing approximation errors at each stage in model development to be quantified. The present level of development assumes the neutron cross sections have an isotropic component treated within N explicit angular directions and a forward component represented by the straight-ahead approximation. The N = 1 solution refers to the straight-ahead treatment, while N = 2 represents the bi-directional model in current use for engineering design. The figure below shows neutrons, protons, and alphas for various values of N at locations in an aluminum sphere exposed to a solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. The neutron fluence converges quickly in simple geometry with N > 14 directions. The improved code, 3DHZETRN, transports neutrons, light ions, and heavy ions under space-like boundary conditions through general geometry while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. A brief overview of the 3D transport formalism for neutrons and light ions is given, and extensive benchmarking results with the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, FLUKA, and

  17. IMPACT OF η{sub Earth} ON THE CAPABILITIES OF AFFORDABLE SPACE MISSIONS TO DETECT BIOSIGNATURES ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Léger, Alain; Defrère, Denis; Malbet, Fabien; Absil, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytic model to estimate the capabilities of space missions dedicated to the search for biosignatures in the atmosphere of rocky planets located in the habitable zone of nearby stars. Relations between performance and mission parameters, such as mirror diameter, distance to targets, and radius of planets, are obtained. Two types of instruments are considered: coronagraphs observing in the visible, and nulling interferometers in the thermal infrared. Missions considered are: single-pupil coronagraphs with a 2.4 m primary mirror, and formation-flying interferometers with 4 × 0.75 m collecting mirrors. The numbers of accessible planets are calculated as a function of η{sub Earth}. When Kepler gives its final estimation for η{sub Earth}, the model will permit a precise assessment of the potential of each instrument. Based on current estimations, η{sub Earth} = 10% around FGK stars and 50% around M stars, the coronagraph could study in spectroscopy only ∼1.5 relevant planets, and the interferometer ∼14.0. These numbers are obtained under the major hypothesis that the exozodiacal light around the target stars is low enough for each instrument. In both cases, a prior detection of planets is assumed and a target list established. For the long-term future, building both types of spectroscopic instruments, and using them on the same targets, will be the optimal solution because they provide complementary information. But as a first affordable space mission, the interferometer looks the more promising in terms of biosignature harvest.

  18. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  19. Making astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We have built a social interface and funding model based on collaborative consumption to empower public access to powerful telescopes.Slooh’s robotic observatories put anyone with a desire to look up and wonder in the driver’s seat of powerful mountaintop telescopes. Our members have taken millions of images of over 50,000 objects in the night sky, from tracking asteroids for NASA to discovering supernovae. Slooh launched December 25th, 2003 from our flagship observatory at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands and in the ensuing decade we’ve built a network of 20+ observatory partners around the world to capture every magical moment in outer space. We are the world’s largest community of people peering into space together.About SloohSlooh makes astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves. Since 2003 Slooh has connected telescopes to the Internet for access by the broader public. Slooh’s automated observatories develop celestial images in real-time for broadcast to the Internet. Slooh’s technology is protected by Patent No.: US 7,194,146 B2 which was awarded in 2006. Slooh members have taken over 3m photos/150,000 FITS of over 50,000 celestial objects, participated in numerous discoveries with leading astronomical institutions and made over 2,000 submissions to the Minor Planet Center. Slooh’s flagship observatories are situated on Mt. Teide, in partnership with the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and in Chile, in partnership with the Catholic University. Slooh has also broadcast live celestial events from partner observatories in Arizona, Japan, Hawaii, Cypress, Dubai, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Norway. Slooh’s free live broadcasts of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), comets, transits, eclipses, solar activity etc. feature narration by astronomy experts Will Gater, Bob Berman, Paul Cox and Eric Edelman and are syndicated to

  20. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert

    1992-10-01

    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  1. Optimal selection of space transportation fleet to meet multi-mission space program needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Montoya, Alex J.

    1989-01-01

    A space program that spans several decades will be comprised of a collection of missions such as low earth orbital space station, a polar platform, geosynchronous space station, lunar base, Mars astronaut mission, and Mars base. The optimal selection of a fleet of several recoverable and expendable launch vehicles, upper stages, and interplanetary spacecraft necessary to logistically establish and support these space missions can be examined by means of a linear integer programming optimization model. Such a selection must be made because the economies of scale which comes from producing large quantities of a few standard vehicle types, rather than many, will be needed to provide learning curve effects to reduce the overall cost of space transportation if these future missions are to be affordable. Optimization model inputs come from data and from vehicle designs. Each launch vehicle currently in existence has a launch history, giving rise to statistical estimates of launch reliability. For future, not-yet-developed launch vehicles, theoretical reliabilities corresponding to the maturity of the launch vehicles' technology and the degree of design redundancy must be estimated. Also, each such launch vehicle has a certain historical or estimated development cost, tooling cost, and a variable cost. The cost of a launch used in this paper includes the variable cost plus an amortized portion of the fixed and development costs. The integer linear programming model will have several constraint equations based on assumptions of mission mass requirements, volume requirements, and number of astronauts needed. The model will minimize launch vehicle logistic support cost and will select the most desirable launch vehicle fleet.

  2. Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, B.; Eberle, B.; Woodcock, G.; Negast, B.

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with a readily accessible reference volume and history for the Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan (IISTP) phase I effort. This report was prepared by Gray Research, Inc. as a partial fulfillment of the Integrated Technology Assessment Center subcontract No. 4400037135 in support of the IISTP phase I effort within the In-Space Investment Area of the Advanced Space Transportation Program managed at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Much of the data used in the preparation of this report was taken from analyses, briefings, and reports prepared by the vast number of dedicated engineers and scientists who participated in the IISTP phase I effort. The opinions and ideas expressed in this report are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of NASA in whole or in part. Reaching the outer solar system is a struggle against time and distance. The most distant planets are 4.5 to 6 billion kilometers from the Sun and to reach them in any reasonable time requires much higher values of specific impulse than can be achieved with conventional chemical rockets. In addition, the few spacecraft that have reached beyond Jupiter have used gravity assist, mainly by Jupiter, that is only available for a few months' period every 13 or so years. This permits only very infrequent missions and mission planners are very reluctant to accept travel times greater than about ten years since this is about the maximum for which one can have a realistic program plan. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (ISP) technologies will enable much more effective exploration of our Solar System and will permit mission designers to plan missions to "fly anytime, anywhere and complete a host of science objectives at the destinations' with greater reliability and safety. With a wide range of possible missions and candidate propulsion technologies with very diverse characteristics, the question of which technologies are

  3. Integrated In-space Transportation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farris, B.; Eberle, B.; Woodcock, G.; Negast, B.; Johnson, Les (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with a readily accessible reference volume and history for the Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan (IISTP) phase I effort. This report was prepared by Gray Research, Inc. as a partial fulfillment of the Integrated Technology Assessment Center subcontract No. 4400037135 in support of the IISTP phase I effort within the In-Space Investment Area of the Advanced Space Transportation Program managed at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Much of the data used in the preparation of this report was taken from analyses, briefings, and reports prepared by the vast number of dedicated engineers and scientists who participated in the IISTP phase I effort. The opinions and ideas expressed in this report are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of NASA in whole or in part. Reaching the outer solar system is a struggle against time and distance. The most distant planets are 4.5 to 6 billion kilometers from the Sun and to reach them in any reasonable time requires much higher values of specific impulse than can be achieved with conventional chemical rockets. In addition, the few spacecraft that have reached beyond Jupiter have used gravity assist, mainly by Jupiter, that is only available for a few months' period every 13 or so years. This permits only very infrequent missions and mission planners are very reluctant to accept travel times greater than about ten years since this is about the maximum for which one can have a realistic program plan. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (ISP) technologies will enable much more effective exploration of our Solar System and will permit mission designers to plan missions to "fly anytime, anywhere and complete a host of science objectives at the destinations' with greater reliability and safety. With a wide range of possible missions and candidate propulsion technologies with very diverse characteristics, the question of which technologies are

  4. Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazier, F. W., Jr. (Compiler); Gardner, J. E. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The workshop was held to provide a forum for communication within the space materials and structures technology developer and user communities. Workshop participants were organized into a Vehicle Technology Requirements session and three working panels: Materials and Structures Technologies for Vehicle Systems; Propulsion Systems; and Entry Systems. The goals accomplished were (1) to develop important strategic planning information necessary to transition materials and structures technologies from lab research programs into robust and affordable operational systems; (2) to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas between technology developers and users; and (3) to provide senior NASA management with a review of current space transportation programs, related subjects, and specific technology needs. The workshop thus provided a foundation on which a NASA and industry effort to address space transportation materials and structures technologies can grow.

  5. Biological transport processes and space dimension.

    PubMed

    Nadler, W; Stein, D L

    1991-08-01

    We discuss the generic time behavior of reaction-diffusion processes capable of modeling various types of biological transport processes, such as ligand migration in proteins and gating fluctuations in ion channel proteins. The main observable in these two cases, the fraction of unbound ligands and the probability of finding the channel in the closed state, respectively, exhibits an algebraic t-1/2 decay at intermediate times, followed by an exponential cutoff. We provide a simple framework for understanding these observations and explain their ubiquity by showing that these qualitative results are independent of space dimension. We also derive an experimental criterion to distinguish between a one-dimensional process and one whose effective dimension is higher.

  6. Combustion experimentation aboard the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the preliminary concept, specifications, and general requirements of a proposed Combustion Facility (CF) for the Spacelab payload of the Space Transportation System. The CF will permit an experimenter to use suitably contained liquid, gas, or solid fuels. He can specify and establish the composition and pressure level of the atmosphere in which the combustion will take place. It will be possible to characterize the experiment with common types of instrumentation as well as selected specialized equipment, to study the combustion process visually by direct observation and by motion picture coverage, and to obtain time histories of pertinent experimental parameters. During an experimental period, the CF will depend on Spacelab resources for power, heat rejection, and vacuum. Activating the CF and preparing it for the various experiments, performing the experiments, and shutting down the facility will be largely manual operations performed by flight personnel.

  7. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  8. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  9. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  10. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  11. Space power stations - Space construction, transportation, and pre-development, space project requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R.

    1977-01-01

    Several features of solar energy space power stations are discussed. An end-to-end analysis of a system using silicon solar cells is reviewed, and the merits of construction in low earth orbit and in geosynchronous orbit are compared. A suggested space construction procedure, described in detail, would use a 'beam builder', an automated machine, to fabricate the first sublevel truss structural members from strip stock material that is stored on reels. An assembly jig would then be used to position a number of beam builders in the proper location and to support the beams as they are produced to facilitate joining them to form the final space power station structure. Space projects for evaluating the construction concept are proposed, and a possible space construction sequence is considered. Space transportation that would be required in conjunction with the space power station is described.

  12. A Flexible Reusable Space Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrobon, S. S.

    A crewless reusable vertical take-off horizontal landing space transportation system is investigated. The single stage launch vehicle goes into a very low orbit around the Earth. At burnout, the payload is deployed. At apogee, the upper stage fires to put the payload into its desired orbit. The launch vehicle continues in a single orbit of the Earth, re-entering the atmosphere and returning to the launch site. We call this near single stage to orbit (NSTO). For satellite payloads, the satellite and upper stage are carried in a reusable pod attached to the top of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, the pod is replaced by a small winged vehicle which can be used for crew transfer and rescue from the International Space Station. This allows the launch vehicle to use a common bulkhead between the fuel and oxidiser tanks, further reducing launch vehicle mass. A number of propellant combinations are investigated. Computer simulations indicate that liquid oxygen with quadricyclene promises to give the largest payload mass for similar size vehicles. The launch vehicle can also be modified to be a fly- back booster for a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV). In this case the upper stage and payload are replaced with jet engines and kerosene fuel tanks. A pod is used to recover the second stage engines for reuse.

  13. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  14. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

  15. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  16. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  17. Light transport on path-space manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Wenzel Alban

    The pervasive use of computer-generated graphics in our society has led to strict demands on their visual realism. Generally, users of rendering software want their images to look, in various ways, "real", which has been a key driving force towards methods that are based on the physics of light transport. Until recently, industrial practice has relied on a different set of methods that had comparatively little rigorous grounding in physics---but within the last decade, advances in rendering methods and computing power have come together to create a sudden and dramatic shift, in which physics-based methods that were formerly thought impractical have become the standard tool. As a consequence, considerable attention is now devoted towards making these methods as robust as possible. In this context, robustness refers to an algorithm's ability to process arbitrary input without large increases of the rendering time or degradation of the output image. One particularly challenging aspect of robustness entails simulating the precise interaction of light with all the materials that comprise the input scene. This dissertation focuses on one specific group of materials that has fundamentally been the most important source of difficulties in this process. Specular materials, such as glass windows, mirrors or smooth coatings (e.g. on finished wood), account for a significant percentage of the objects that surround us every day. It is perhaps surprising, then, that it is not well-understood how they can be accommodated within the theoretical framework that underlies some of the most sophisticated rendering methods available today. Many of these methods operate using a theoretical framework known as path space integration. But this framework makes no provisions for specular materials: to date, it is not clear how to write down a path space integral involving something as simple as a piece of glass. Although implementations can in practice still render these materials by side

  18. Progression of Space Transportation - Transitioning from Government to Commercial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight began as the exclusive province of government, however, starting in the 1980's the United States began to promote commercial participation in space transportation. Beginning with Executive policy and extending through legislation and regulation, NASA has embarked on facilitating the commercialization of space transportation to serve NASA needs and enable a non-NASA market place. This presentation provides background on the transition to commercial space transportation and the specific role NASA is playing in that endeavor.

  19. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around {dollar_sign}200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of {dollar_sign}200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around 200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of 200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist.

  1. Language and Content "Integration": The Affordances of Additional Languages as a Tool within a Single Curriculum Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    "Language across the curriculum" has been pivotal in establishing a knowledge base on the role of language for accessing opportunities afforded by the curriculum. Yet, the ubiquity of language "within" all facets of human activity--not least of all the more abstract domains of thinking and relating with others--can easily…

  2. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 12: Space Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels comprised user…

  3. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  4. Future space transportation system architecture avionics requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard; Engelund, Walt

    1993-12-01

    NASA began a multi-center study in January 1993 to examine options for providing the most cost effective space transportation system in the future. The key advanced avionics requirements for these vehicle concepts are envisioned to provide significantly improved operational efficiency and effectiveness. It is very desirable to have adaptive guidance, navigation, and control approaches that will allow launch and return in almost any weather condition. The vehicles must be able to accommodate atmospheric density variations and winds without software changes. The flight operations must become much more autonomous in all flight regimes like an aircraft, and preflight checkout should make use of the onboard systems. When the vehicle returns to the launch site, subsystem health must be known and maintenance tasks scheduled accordingly. Ground testing of most subsystems must be eliminated. Also, the health monitoring system must be designed to enhance the ability to abort the mission significantly and save the crew and the vehicle. The displays and controls must be much less complex than current systems and must significantly reduce pilot work load. It is important to have low power, light weight displays and controls. Rendezvous and docking and all flight phases must have autopilot capability to reduce pilot work load for routine operations and in abort situations. The vehicles must have the demonstrated ability to return to the launch site. Abort from all mission phases can put additional demands on the communications system.

  5. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  6. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-10-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  7. Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium was held to provide a forum for communication within the propulsion within the propulsion technology developer and user communities. Emphasis was placed on propulsion requirements and initiatives to support current, next generation, and future space transportation systems, with the primary objectives of discerning whether proposed designs truly meet future transportation needs and identifying possible technology gaps, overlaps, and other programmatic deficiencies. Key space transportation propulsion issues were addressed through four panels with government, industry, and academia membership. The panels focused on systems engineering and integration; development, manufacturing and certification; operational efficiency; and program development and cultural issues.

  8. Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium. Volume 2: Symposium proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transportation Propulsion Symposium was held to provide a forum for communication within the propulsion technology developer and user communities. Emphasis was placed on propulsion requirements and initiatives to support current, next generation, and future space transportation systems, with the primary objectives of discerning whether proposed designs truly meet future transportation needs and identifying possible technology gaps, overlaps, and other programmatic deficiencies. Key space transportation propulsion issues were addressed through four panels with government, industry, and academia membership. The panels focused on systems engineering and integration; development, manufacturing and certification; operational efficiency; and program development and cultural issues.

  9. Development trends in space transportation systems: From Hermes to Saenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vontein, Volker; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The criteria for the development of future space transportation systems are given. A trend in reducing transportation costs by reutilizing transportation systems is outlined. The European Hermes project represents a first step towards reutilization and manned winged apparatus. The technological and organizational requirements and the German participation in this project are described. The Saenger concept is shown as a logical advancement of this project, and of the corresponding technology. It consists of a two stage winged space tug with horizontal launch. A space transportation system with low launching costs, higher safety, and mission flexibility is expected. It should complete cargo rocket Ariane 5.

  10. Economic Analysis on the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) NASA Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performed the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) to provide information to support end-of-the-decade decisions on possible near-term US Government (USG) investments in space transportation. To gain a clearer understanding of the costs and benefits of the broadest range of possible space transportation options, six teams, five from aerospace industry companies and one internal to NASA, were tasked to answer three primary questions: a) If the Space Shuttle system should be replaced; b) If so, when the replacement should take place and how the transition should be implemented; and c) If not, what is the upgrade strategy to continue safe and affordable flight of the Space Shuttle beyond 2010. The overall goal of the Study was "to develop investment options to be considered by the Administration for the President's FY2001 budget to meet NASA's future human space flight requirements with significant reductions in costs." This emphasis on government investment, coupled with the participation by commercial f'trms, required an unprecedented level of economic analysis of costs and benefits from both industry and government viewpoints. This paper will discuss the economic and market models developed by the in-house NASA Team to analyze space transportation architectures, the results of those analyses, and how those results were reflected in the conclusions and recommendations of the STAS NASA Team. Copyright 1999 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. No copyright is asserted in the United States under Title 17, U.$. Code. The U.S. Government has a royalty-free license to exercise all rights under the copyright claimed herein for Governmental purposes. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner.

  11. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is...

  12. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  13. 14 CFR 401.1 - The Office of Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. 401.1 Section 401.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Commercial Space Transportation. The Office of Commercial Space Transportation, referred to in...

  14. Effects of Nuclear Interactions in Space Radiation Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Barghouty, A. F.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation effects behind materials in human mission to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes affect predictions from such radiation transport codes. In particular, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on fluxes, dose and dose-equivalent from galactic cosmic rays behind typical shielding materials.

  15. Effects of Nuclear Interactions in Space Radiation Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Barghouty, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation effects behind materials in human missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes affect predictions from such radiation transport codes. In particular, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on fluxes, dose and dose-equivalent from galactic cosmic rays behind typical shielding materials.

  16. 77 FR 65443 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  17. 77 FR 44707 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  18. 77 FR 58607 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance..., Licensing and Evaluation Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800... Space Transportation. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  19. 77 FR 20531 - Correction of Authority Citations for Commercial Space Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...] Correction of Authority Citations for Commercial Space Transportation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... the FAA's commercial space transportation regulations. This action is necessary to correct affected... Space Transportation, Office of the Chief Counsel, Regulations Division, AGC-200, Federal...

  20. 77 FR 48585 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group (OWG) of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC)....

  1. 78 FR 1917 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES: The teleconference will take place on...

  2. 78 FR 70093 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  3. 77 FR 71474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Charter Renewal AGENCY... Renewal of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). SUMMARY: FAA announces the... (FAA) on the critical matters facing the U.S. commercial space transportation industry. This...

  4. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  5. User community development for the space transportation system/Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    The New User Function plan for identifying beneficial uses of space is described. Critical issues such as funding, manpower, and protection of user proprietary rights are discussed along with common barriers which impede the development of a user community. Studies for developing methodologies of identifying new users and uses of the space transportation system are included.

  6. Next generation: In-space transportation system(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Fredrick; Redus, Jerry; Kelley, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the next generation In-Space Transportation System presents a unique challenge to the design of a propulsion system for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Never before have the requirements for long-life, multiple mission use, space basing, high reliability, man-rating, and minimum maintenance come together with performance in one system that must protect the lives of space travelers, support the mission logistics needs, and do so at an acceptable cost. The challenge that is presented is to quantify the bounds of these requirements. The issue is one of degree. The length of acceptable life in space, the time it takes for reuse to pay off, and the degree to which space basing is practical (full, partial, or expended) are the issues that determine the reusable bounds of a design and include dependability, contingency capabilities, resilency, and minimum dependence on a maintenance node in preparation for and during a mission. Missions to planet earth, other non-NASA missions, and planetary missions will provide important but less demanding requirements for the transportation systems of the future. The mission proposed for the SEI require a family of transportation vehicles to meet the requirements for establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon and eventually on Mars. Specialized vehicles are needed to accomplish the different phases of each mission. These large scale missions require assembly in space and will provide the greatest usage of the planned integrated transportation system. The current approach to defining the In-Space Transportation System for the SEI Moon missions with later Mars mission applications is presented. Several system development options, propulsion concepts, current/proposed activities are reviewed, and key propulsion design criteria, issues, and technology challenges for the next generation In-Space Transportation System(s) are outlined.

  7. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  8. An air-breathing ballistic space transporter for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. A.; Buehler, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    With increasing transport requirements, reusable space transporters again receive serious consideration in Europe as successors to the Ariane family. The paper deals with a hydrogen-ramjet-propelled, 1-1/2-stage reusable ballistic space transporter with vertical take-off and landing and using liquid hydrogen/oxygen rockets. This novel concept was developed in a theoretical study at the University of Stuttgart. The results are compared with recently published studies of several other European space transporter concepts. The data derived for the Istra - concept are: 15.4 Mg payload into low Earth-orbit, 155 Mg gross lift-off mass, 10% payload ratio, which represents a 57% propellant saving, and 44% reduction in dry mass (structure and engines) compared with comparable two-stage pure rocket concepts.

  9. Space transportation system payload interface verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers STS payload-interface verification requirements and the capability provided by STS to support verification. The intent is to standardize as many interfaces as possible, not only through the design, development, test and evaluation (DDT and E) phase of the major payload carriers but also into the operational phase. The verification process is discussed in terms of its various elements, such as the Space Shuttle DDT and E (including the orbital flight test program) and the major payload carriers DDT and E (including the first flights). Five tools derived from the Space Shuttle DDT and E are available to support the verification process: mathematical (structural and thermal) models, the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory, the Shuttle Manipulator Development Facility, and interface-verification equipment (cargo-integration test equipment).

  10. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  11. Description of transport codes for space radiation shielding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Wilson, John W; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation in the space environment is one of the hazards faced by crews in space missions. As space radiations traverse spacecraft, habitat shielding, or tissues, their energies and compositions are altered by interactions with the shielding. Modifications to the radiation fields arise from atomic interactions of charged particles with orbital electrons and nuclear interactions leading to projectile and target fragmentation, including secondary particles such as neutrons, protons, mesons, and nuclear recoils. The transport of space radiation through shielding can be simulated using Monte Carlo techniques or deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation. To determine shielding requirements and to resolve radiation constraints for future human missions, the shielding evaluation of a spacecraft concept is required as an early step in the design process. To do this requires (1) accurate knowledge of space environmental models to define the boundary condition for transport calculations, (2) transport codes with detailed shielding and body geometry models to determine particle transmission into areas of internal shielding and at each critical body organ, and (3) the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and biological risks by applying the corresponding response models for space radiation against the particle spectra that have been accurately determined from the transport code. This paper reviews current transport codes and analyzes their accuracy through comparison to laboratory and spaceflight data. This paper also introduces a probabilistic risk assessment approach for the evaluation of radiation shielding. PMID:23032892

  12. In-Space Transportation Propulsion Architecture Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Almost all space propulsion development and application has been chemical. Aerobraking has been used at Venus and Mars, and for entry at Jupiter. One electric propulsion mission has been flown (DS-1) and electric propulsion is in general use by commercial communications satellites for stationkeeping. Gravity assist has been widely used for high-energy missions (Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, etc.). It has served as a substitute for high-energy propulsion but is limited in energy gain, and adds mission complexity as well as launch opportunity restrictions. It has very limited value for round trip missions such as humans to Mars and return. High-energy space propulsion has been researched for many years, and some major developments, such as nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), undertaken. With the exception of solar electric propulsion at a scale of a few kilowatts, high-energy space propulsion has never been used on a mission. Most mission studies have adopted TRL 6 technology because most have looked for a near-term start. The current activity is technology planning aimed at broadening the options available to mission planners. Many of the illustrations used in this report came from various NASA sources; their use is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Effects of Nuclear Interactions on Accuracy of Space Radiation Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Barghouty, A. F.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts and electronic equipments is one major obstacle in long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation effects behind materials in human missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport. In particular, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on fluxes, dose and dose-equivalent from galactic cosmic rays behind typical shielding materials. These results tell us at what energies nuclear cross sections are the most important for radiation risk evaluations, and how uncertainties in our knowledge about nuclear fragmentations relate to uncertainties in space transport predictions.

  14. 14 CFR 401.1 - The Office of Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. 401.1 Section 401.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.1 The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. The Office...

  15. 14 CFR 401.1 - The Office of Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. 401.1 Section 401.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.1 The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. The Office...

  16. 14 CFR 401.1 - The Office of Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. 401.1 Section 401.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.1 The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. The Office...

  17. 14 CFR 401.1 - The Office of Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. 401.1 Section 401.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.1 The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. The Office...

  18. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  19. Description of Transport Codes for Space Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation describes transport codes and their use for studying and designing space radiation shielding. When combined with risk projection models radiation transport codes serve as the main tool for study radiation and designing shielding. There are three criteria for assessing the accuracy of transport codes: (1) Ground-based studies with defined beams and material layouts, (2) Inter-comparison of transport code results for matched boundary conditions and (3) Comparisons to flight measurements. These three criteria have a very high degree with NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG.

  20. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  1. Space power systems technology enablement study. [for the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. D.; Stearns, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The power system technologies which enable or enhance future space missions requiring a few kilowatts or less and using the space shuttle were assessed. The advances in space power systems necessary for supporting the capabilities of the space transportation system were systematically determined and benefit/cost/risk analyses were used to identify high payoff technologies and technological priorities. The missions that are enhanced by each development are discussed.

  2. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusel, O.; Droba, M.; Noll, D.; Schulte, K.; Schneider, P. P.; Wiesner, C.

    2016-02-01

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  3. Space Transportation and the Computer Industry: Learning from the Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, M. L.; Rasky, D.

    2002-01-01

    Since the space shuttle began flying in 1981, NASA has made a number of attempts to advance the state of the art in space transportation. In spite of billions of dollars invested, and several concerted attempts, no replacement for the shuttle is expected before 2010. Furthermore, the cost of access to space has dropped very slowly over the last two decades. On the other hand, the same two decades have seen dramatic progress in the computer industry. Computational speeds have increased by about a factor of 1000 and available memory, disk space, and network bandwidth has seen similar increases. At the same time, the cost of computing has dropped by about a factor of 10000. Is the space transportation problem simply harder? Or is there something to be learned from the computer industry? In looking for the answers, this paper reviews the early history of NASA's experience with supercomputers and NASA's visionary course change in supercomputer procurement strategy.

  4. Quantum parameter space of dissipative directed transport.

    PubMed

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G

    2015-01-01

    Quantum manifestations of isoperiodic stable structures (QISSs) have a crucial role in the current behavior of quantum dissipative ratchets. In this context, the simple shape of the ISSs has been conjectured to be an almost exclusive feature of the classical system. This has drastic consequences for many properties of the directed currents, the most important one being that it imposes a significant reduction in their maximum values, thus affecting the attainable efficiency at the quantum level. In this work we prove this conjecture by means of comprehensive numerical explorations and statistical analysis of the quantum states. We are able to describe the quantum parameter space of a paradigmatic system for different values of ℏ(eff) in great detail. Moreover, thanks to this we provide evidence on a mechanism that we call parametric tunneling by which the sharp classical borders of the regions in parameter space become blurred in the quantum counterpart. We expect this to be a common property of generic dissipative quantum systems.

  5. Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop. Volume 2; Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazier, Frank W., Jr. (Compiler); Gardner, James E. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop was held on September 23-26, 1991, in Newport News, Virginia. The workshop, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight and the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, was held to provide a forum for communication within the space materials and structures technology developer and user communities. Workshop participants were organized into a Vehicle Technology Requirements session and three working panels: Materials and Structures Technologies for Vehicle Systems, Propulsion Systems, and Entry Systems.

  6. Advanced space transportation system support contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The general focus is on a phase 2 lunar base, or a lunar base during the period after the first return of a crew to the Moon, but before permanent occupancy. The software effort produced a series of trajectory programs covering low earth orbit (LEO) to various node locations, the node locations to the lunar surface, and then back to LEO. The surface operations study took a lunar scenario in the civil needs data base (CNDB) and attempted to estimate the amount of space-suit work or extravehicular activity (EVA) required to set up the base. The maintenance and supply options study was a first look at the problems of supplying and maintaining the base. A lunar surface launch and landing facility was conceptually designed. The lunar storm shelter study examined the problems of radiation protection. The lunar surface construction and equipment assembly study defined twenty surface construction and assembly tasks in detail.

  7. Interplanetary space transport using inertial fusion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.

    1998-04-20

    In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for interplanetary propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts.

  8. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems (CASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the in-house and contract work accomplished under the CASTS Project. In July 1975 the CASTS Project was initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K (600 F) operational capability for application to aerospace vehicles. Major tasks include: (1) screening composites and adhesives, (2) developing fabrication procedures and specifications, (3) developing design allowables test methods and data, and (4) design and test of structural elements and construction of an aft body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle which will be ground tested. Portions of the information are from ongoing research and must be considered preliminary. The CASTS Project is scheduled to be completed in September 1983.

  9. In-Space Transportation with Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    1999-01-01

    Any analysis of electrodynamic tethers for Space Station applications will soon arrive at the conclusion that currents on the order of 10 A are required. For power generation, we have to foresee needs of several kilowatts even for an emergency backup system. For reboost, we need thrust forces on the order of a Newton, due to the large aerodynamic drag of the Station. In addition, we are restricted by the need to keep perturbations to the Station environment to a minimum. Very long tethers are ruled out by this condition, as they would move the system's center of gravity too much and pose additional operational problems when the Station is docking with other spacecraft. It is easy to show that "standard" tether systems, such as TSS-1, which rely on a large spherical surface to collect electron current from the ionosphere, are unsuitable for ISS applications. A study conducted by MSFC into the possible use of the TSS - 1/R system on the Space Station came to the conclusion that it did not make sense. A quick calculation, using the 10 A benchmark, shows why. TSS-LR collected I A, while the satellite was biased to 1.5 kV. This was twice what had been predicted. Even so, the current collected by the satellite was observed to increase only as the square root of the bias voltage. Thus, to achieve 10 A with the TSS-1 system under the same (daytime) conditions would require a bias voltage of 150 kV, or a tether length of over 850 km! Going to a larger surface would help some, but there is a strong law of diminishing returns for that route. Even if very large spheres were to be allowed (say of 8 m radius), which might achieve useful power levels during optimal conditions of daytime plasma densities with a tether 10 km long, they would suffer from the other Achilles heel of passive spherical collectors: a strong drop in the current (and power goes as the square of the current), as the low plasma densities are encountered during the third of the orbit which is in the Earth

  10. Expendable launch vehicle transportation for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Logistics transportation will be a critical element in determining the Space Station Freedom's level of productivity and possible evolutionary options. The current program utilizes the Space Shuttle as the only logistics support vehicle. Augmentation of the total transportation capability by expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) may be required to meet demanding requirements and provide for enhanced manifest flexibility. The total operational concept from ground operations to final return of support hardware or its disposal is required to determine the ELV's benefits and impacts to the Space Station Freedom program. The characteristics of potential medium and large class ELVs planned to be available in the mid-1990's (both U.S. and international partners' vehicles) indicate a significant range of possible transportation systems with varying degrees of operational support capabilities. The options available for development of a support infrastructure in terms of launch vehicles, logistics carriers, transfer vehicles, and return systems is discussed.

  11. Considerations when analyzing investment in space transportation business ventures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Greenberg, Joel

    2000-07-01

    Private sector investment in space transportation, as in most business situations, requires the development of realistic and believable business plans that demonstrate that if an investment is made that there is a reasonable chance that the indicated financial performance will attract the necessary financing. The business plan must also indicate the assumptions upon which the plan rests, and as has become almost second nature to the space transportation industry, the necessary role of the government in risk reduction and/or capital formation [i.e., government actions that are necessary to make the business venture financially attractive]. This paper discusses and describes several factors that must be considered, by both government and industry, when developing a business plan for obtaining financing for space transportation business ventures.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A picture of Space Power Systems space transportation costs at the present time is given with respect to accuracy as stated, reasonableness of the methods used, assumptions made, and uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  13. A space radiation transport method development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Prael, R. E.; Norbury, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

    2004-01-01

    Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary design concepts to the final design. In particular, we will discuss the progress towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic code for which the current HZETRN evaluates the lowest-order asymptotic term. HZETRN is the first deterministic solution to the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard finite element method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design practice enabling development of integrated multidisciplinary design optimization methods. A single ray trace in ISS FEM geometry requires 14 ms and severely limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given in terms of re-configurable computing and could be utilized in the final design as verification of the deterministic method optimized design. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  14. A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment Electron Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    A deterministic computational procedure for describing the transport of electrons in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive transport calculations essential for electron radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the transport formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.

  15. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  16. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on full-scale development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  17. Space resources. Volume 2: Energy, power, and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Space Resources report covers a number of technical and policy issues concerning the energy and power to carry out advanced space missions and the means of transportation to get to the sites of those missions. Discussed in the first half of this volume are the technologies which might be used to provide power and a variety of ways to convert power from one form to another, store it, move it wherever it is needed, and use it. In the second half of this volume, various kinds of transportation, including both interplanetary and surface systems, are discussed.

  18. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  19. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  20. Propulsion technology needs for advanced space transportation systems. [orbit maneuvering engine (space shuttle), space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans are formulated for chemical propulsion technology programs to meet the needs of advanced space transportation systems from 1980 to the year 2000. The many possible vehicle applications are reviewed and cataloged to isolate the common threads of primary propulsion technology that satisfies near term requirements in the first decade and at the same time establish the technology groundwork for various potential far term applications in the second decade. Thrust classes of primary propulsion engines that are apparent include: (1) 5,000 to 30,000 pounds thrust for upper stages and space maneuvering; and (2) large booster engines of over 250,000 pounds thrust. Major classes of propulsion systems and the important subdivisions of each class are identified. The relative importance of each class is discussed in terms of the number of potential applications, the likelihood of that application materializing, and the criticality of the technology needed. Specific technology programs are described and scheduled to fulfill the anticipated primary propulsion technology requirements.

  1. A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

  2. Transport equations for multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to present a unified approach to the study of transport phenomena in multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas. In particular, a system of generalized transport equations is presented that can be applied to widely different plasma flow conditions. The generalized transport equations can describe subsonic and supersonic flows, collision-dominated and collisionless flows, plasma flows in rapidly changing magnetic field configurations, multicomponent plasma flows with large temperature differences between the interacting species, and plasma flows that contain anisotropic temperature distributions. In addition, if Maxwell's equations of electricity and magnetism are added to the system of transport equations, they can be used to model electrostatic shocks, double layers, and magnetic merging processes. These transport equations also contain terms which act to regulate both the heat flow and temperature anisotropy, processes which appear to be operating in the solar wind.

  3. Final report of the SPS space transportation workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    After a brief description of space power system concepts and the current status of the SPS program, issues relevant to earth-surface-to-low-earth-orbit (ESLEO) and orbit-to-orbit transport are discussed. For ESLEO, vehicle concepts include shuttle transportation systems, heavy lift launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Orbit transfer vehicle missions include transport of cargo and the SPS module from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit as well as personnel transport. Vehicles discussed for such missions include chemical rocket orbital transfer vehicles, and electric orbital transfer vehicles. Further discussions include SPS station-keeping and attitude control, intra-orbit transport, and advanced propulsion and vehicle concepts. (LEW)

  4. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    PubMed Central

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  5. Utility of space transportation system to space communication community: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) offers the opportunity for maintaining, and perhaps accelerating, growth of the space communication community. This new launch vehicle service, however, must be obtained at a cost lower than the current expandable launch vehicles cost. A cost competitive STS is defined for geostationary payloads. It is concluded that the STS will be useful to the space communication community, as well as to other geostationary satellite system users, if the proposed recommendations are adapted.

  6. 14 CFR 401.3 - The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. 401.3 Section 401.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL... Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. The Office is headed by an...

  7. Space Transportation Technology Workshop: Propulsion Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Space Transportation Technology Workshop topics, including Propulsion Research and Technology (PR&T) project level organization, FY 2001 - 2006 project roadmap, points of contact, foundation technologies, auxiliary propulsion technology, PR&T Low Cost Turbo Rocket, and PR&T advanced reusable technologies RBCC test bed.

  8. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Addendum: Design definition document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Gas generator engine characteristics and results of engine configuration refinements are discussed. Updated component mechanical design, performance, and manufacturing information is provided. The results are also provided of ocean recovery studies and various engine integration tasks. The details are provided of the maintenance plan for the Space Transportation Booster Engine.

  9. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  10. Mars Missions Using Emerging Commercial Space Transportation Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    New Discoveries regarding the Martian Environment may impact Mars mission planning. Transportation of investigation payloads can be facilitated by Commercial Space Transportation options. The development of Commercial Space Transportation. Capabilities anticipated from various commercial entities are examined objectively. The potential for one of these options, in the form of a Mars Sample Return mission, described in the results of previous work, is presented to demonstrate a high capability potential. The transportation needs of the Mars Environment Team Project at ISU 2016 may fit within the payload capabilities of a Mars Sample Return mission, but the payload elements may or may not differ. Resource Modules will help you develop a component of a strategy to address the Implications of New Discoveries in the Martian Environment using the possibility of efficient, commercial space transportation options. Opportunities for open discussions as appropriate during the team project formulation period at the end of each Resource Module. The objective is to provide information that can be incorporated into your work in the Team Project including brainstorming.

  11. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a clear picture of SPS space transportation costs at the present time with respect to their accuracy as stated, the reasonableness of the methods used, the assumptions made, and the uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives - to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  13. Validation of a comprehensive space radiation transport code.

    PubMed

    Shinn, J L; Cucinotta, F A; Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Badavi, F F; Badhwar, G D; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Tripathi, R K; Clowdsley, M S; Heinbockel, J H; Xapsos, M A

    1998-12-01

    The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation.

  14. 14 CFR 401.3 - The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. 401.3 Section 401.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.3 The Associate Administrator for...

  15. 14 CFR 401.3 - The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. 401.3 Section 401.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.3 The Associate Administrator for...

  16. 14 CFR 401.3 - The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. 401.3 Section 401.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.3 The Associate Administrator for...

  17. Centaur operations at the space station: Cost and transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to expand on the results of an initial study entitled Centaur Operations at the Space Station. The previous study developed technology demonstration missions (TDMs) that utilized the Centaur G-prime upper stage to advance OTV technologies required for accomodations and operations at the Space Station. An initial evaluation was performed of the cost to NASA for TDM implementation. Due to the potential for commercial communication satellite operation utilizing the TDM hardware, an evaluation of the Centaur's transportation potential was also performed.

  18. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  19. Experiment Definition Using the Space Laboratory, Long Duration Exposure Facility, and Space Transportation System Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Albert P.; Wood, Joan M.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate experiments designed for the space shuttle transportation system and the long duration exposure facility are summarized. The data format covers: experiment title, Experimenter, technical abstract, benefits/justification, technical discussion of experiment approach and objectives, related work and experience, experiment facts space properties used, environmental constraints, shielding requirements, if any, physical description, and sketch of major elements. Information was also included on experiment hardware, research required to develop experiment, special requirements, cost estimate, safety considerations, and interactions with spacecraft and other experiments.

  20. Aerothermodynamic testing requirements for future space transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Miller, Charles G., III

    1995-03-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamic and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles. It provides crucial information to other disciplines involved in the development process such as structures, materials, propulsion, and avionics. Sources of aerothermodynamic information include ground-based facilities, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this triad is required to provide the optimum requirements while reducing undue design conservatism, risk, and cost. This paper discusses the role of ground-based facilities in the design of future space transportation system concepts. Testing methodology is addressed, including the iterative approach often required for the assessment and optimization of configurations from an aerothermodynamic perspective. The influence of vehicle shape and the transition from parametric studies for optimization to benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book is discussed. Future aerothermodynamic testing requirements including the need for new facilities are also presented.

  1. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  2. Estimation of Space Transportation System Zenit-3SL Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, V. K.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Kovalev, B. A.; Goldstein, Yu. M.

    The authors analyze the competitiveness of the space transportation system Zenit-3SL in the global market of the commercial GEO-missions. The analysis is based on an original economic-mathematical model in which the summary cost of freights of competitive launchers is minimized. Their research within the framework of this model showed that Zenit-2SL has a potential possibility of assimilating up to 65% of the GEO-missions market.

  3. The space transportation main engine phase A' study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Space Transportation Main Engine Phase A prime study was conducted over a 7 month period as an extension to the Phase A study. The Phase A prime program was designed to expand the study effort completed in Phase A, focusing on the baseline engine configuration selected. Analysis and trade studies were conducted to further optimize some of the major engine subsystems. These changes resulted in improvements to the baseline engine. Several options were evaluated for consideration by vehicle contractors.

  4. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; Martin, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  5. Space transportation. [user needs met by information derived from satellites and the interface with space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    User-oriented panels were formed to examine practical applications of information or services derived from earth orbiting satellites. Topics discussed include: weather and climate; uses of communication; land use planning; agriculture, forest, and range; inland water resources; retractable resources; environmental quality; marine and maritime uses; and materials processing in space. Emphasis was placed on the interface of the space transportation system (STS) with the applications envisioned by the user panels. User requirements were compared with expected STS capabilities in terms of availability, carrying payload to orbit, and estimated costs per launch. Conclusions and recommendations were reported.

  6. Advanced Hall Electric Propulsion for Future In-space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    2001-01-01

    The Hall thruster is an electric propulsion device used for multiple in-space applications including orbit raising, on-orbit maneuvers, and de-orbit functions. These in-space propulsion functions are currently performed by toxic hydrazine monopropellant or hydrazine derivative/nitrogen tetroxide bi-propellant thrusters. The Hall thruster operates nominally in the 1500 sec specific impulse regime. It provides greater thrust to power than conventional gridded ion engines, thus reducing trip times and operational life when compared to that technology in Earth orbit applications. The technology in the far term, by adding a second acceleration stage, has shown promise of providing over 4000s Isp, the regime of the gridded ion engine and necessary for deep space applications. The Hall thruster system consists of three parts, the thruster, the power processor, and the propellant system. The technology is operational and commercially available at the 1.5 kW power level and 5 kW application is underway. NASA is looking toward 10 kW and eventually 50 kW-class engines for ambitious space transportation applications. The former allows launch vehicle step-down for GEO missions and demanding planetary missions such as Europa Lander, while the latter allows quick all-electric propulsion LEO to GEO transfers and non-nuclear transportation human Mars missions.

  7. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Defense Satellite Communications Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), after covering the lower portion of Deep Space 1, workers adjust the anti-static blanket covering the upper portion. The blanket will protect the spacecraft during transport to the launch pad. Deep Space 1 is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS.

  8. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Defense Satellite Communication Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), move to the workstand the second conical section leaf of the payload transportation container for Deep Space 1. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS.

  9. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Defense Satellite Communications Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers place an anti-static blanket over the lower portion of Deep Space 1, to protect the spacecraft during transport to the launch pad. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS.

  10. Space Shuttle Transportation (Roll-Out) Loads Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Kenny B.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; James, George H.; Richart, Jene A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) consists of three primary components; an Orbiter Vehicle, an External Fuel Tank, and two Solid Rocket Boosters. The Orbiter Vehicle and Solid Rocket Boosters are reusable components, and as such, they are susceptible to durability issues. Recently, the fatigue load spectra for these components have been updated to include load histories acquired during the rollout phase of the STS processing for flight. Using traditional program life assessment techniques, the incorporation of these "rollout" loads produced unacceptable life estimates for certain Orbiter structural members. As a result, the Space Shuttle System Engineering and Integration Office has initiated a program to re-assess the method used for developing the "rollout" loads and performing the life assessments. In the fall of 2003 a set of tests were preformed to provide information to either validate existing load spectra estimation techniques or generate new load spectra estimation methods. Acceleration and strain data were collected from two rollouts of a partial-stack configuration of the Space Shuttle. The partial stack configuration consists of two Solid Rocket Boosters tied together at the upper External Tank attachment locations mounted on the Mobile Launch Platform carried by a Crawler Transporter (CT). In the current analysis, the data collected from this test is examined for consistency in speed, surface condition effects, and the characterization of the forcing function. It is observed that the speed of the CT is relatively stable. The dynamic response acceleration of the partial-stack is slightly sensitive to the surface condition of the road used for transport, and the dynamic response acceleration of the partial-stack generally increases as the transport speed increases. However, the speed sensitivity is dependent on the measurement location. Finally, the character of the forcing function is narrow-banded with the primary drivers being harmonics of two CT

  11. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  12. Radiation Transport and Shielding for Space Exploration and High Speed Flight Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maung, Khin Maung; Trapathi, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    Transportation of ions and neutrons in matter is of direct interest in several technologically important and scientific areas, including space radiation, cosmic ray propagation studies in galactic medium, nuclear power plants and radiological effects that impact industrial and public health. For the proper assessment of radiation exposure, both reliable transport codes and accurate data are needed. Nuclear cross section data is one of the essential inputs into the transport codes. In order to obtain an accurate parametrization of cross section data, theoretical input is indispensable especially for processes where there is little or no experimental data available. In this grant period work has been done on the studies of the use of relativistic equations and their one-body limits. The results will be useful in choosing appropriate effective one-body equation for reaction calculations. Work has also been done to improve upon the data base needed for the transport codes used in the studies of radiation transport and shielding for space exploration and high speed flight transportation. A phenomenological model was developed for the total absorption cross sections valid for any system of charged and/or uncharged collision pairs for the entire energy range. The success of the model is gratifying. It is being used by other federal agencies, national labs and universities. A list of publications based on the work during the grant period is given below and copies are enclosed with this report.

  13. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Transportation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Pamela W.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Marshall's effort to sustain space transportation solutions through product lines that include: 1) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 2) Life Support Systems; and 3) and Earth and Space Science Spacecraft Systems, and Operations.

  14. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Defense Satellite Communications Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), the lower part of Deep Space 1 is enclosed with the conical section leaves of the payload transportation container prior to its move to Launch Pad 17A. The spacecraft is targeted for launch Oct. 25 aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  15. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Defense Satellite Communication Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), begin attaching the conical section leaves of the payload transportation container on Deep Space 1 before launch, targeted for Oct. 25 aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight- tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  16. Transport pathways within percolating pore space networks of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Kevin; Walker, David M.; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2013-06-01

    Granular media can be regarded as a mixture of two components: grains and the material filling the voids or pores between the grains. Pore properties give rise to a range of applications such as modelling ground water flow, carbon capture and sequestration. The grains within a dense granular material respond to deformation (e.g., shearing or compression) by rearranging to create local zones of compression and zones of dilatation (i.e., regions of high pore space). Descriptions of the deformation are typically focused on analysis of the solid skeleton via topology of physical contact networks of grains but an alternative perspective is to consider network representations of the evolving anisotropic pore space. We demonstrate how to construct pore space networks that express the local size of voids about a grain through network edge weights. We investigate sectors of the loading history when a percolating giant component of the pore space network exists. At these states the grains are in a configuration more prone to the efficient transport of material (e.g., fluid flow, mineral/gas deposits). These pathways can be found through examination of the weighted shortest paths percolating the boundaries of the material. In particular, network weights biased towards large void space results in efficient percolating pathways traversing the shear band in the direction of principal stress within a 2D granular assembly subject to high strains.

  17. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... 102-3.160, notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space...

  18. Transport of 3D space charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Jian-Qin

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the theoretical analysis and the computer code design for the intense pulsed beam transport. Intense beam dynamics is a very important issue in low-energy high-current accelerators and beam transport systems. This problem affects beam transmission and beam qualities. Therefore, it attracts the attention of the accelerator physicists worldwide. The analysis and calculation for the intense beam dynamics are very complicated, because the state of particle motion is dominated not only by the applied electromagnetic fields, but also by the beam-induced electromagnetic fields (self-fields). Moreover, the self fields are related to the beam dimensions and particle distributions. So, it is very difficult to get the self-consistent solutions of particle motion analytically. For this reason, we combine the Lie algebraic method and the particle in cell (PIC) scheme together to simulate intense 3D beam transport. With the Lie algebraic method we analyze the particle nonlinear trajectories in the applied electromagnetic fields up to third order approximation, and with the PIC algorithm we calculate the space charge effects to the particle motion. Based on the theoretical analysis, we have developed a computer code, which calculates beam transport systems consisting of electrostatic lenses, electrostatic accelerating columns, solenoid lenses, magnetic and electric quadruples, magnetic sextupoles, octopuses and different kinds of electromagnetic analyzers. The optimization calculations and the graphic display for the calculated results are provided by the code.

  19. A shadowgraph study of Space Transportation System (STS): The Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    A shadowgraph study of the space transportation system (STS), the space shuttle launch vehicle, is presented. The shadowgraphs presented in this study were obtained over the past 10 years from wind tunnel tests performed in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during the space shuttle development program. Shadowgraphs of the STS at various angles-of-attack and roll angles are shown for the Mach range of 0.6 to 4.96. The major flow field phenomena over the mated vehicle configuration are shown in these shadowgraphs. Shadowgraphs are also presented for the orbiter without the lower stack (reentry configuration) and the lower stack without the orbiter. A short study of external tank nose geometry effects on the mated vehicles flow field is presented. These shadowgraphs are used in the aerothermodynamic analysis of the external flow conditions the launch vehicle encounters during the ascent stage of flight.

  20. High thermal-transport capacity heat pipes for space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Albert W.; Gustafson, Eric; Roukis, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests of several dual-slot heat pipe test articles. The dual-slot configuration has a very high thermal transport capability and has been identified as a very promising candidate for the radiator system for the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. Two six-foot long aluminum heat pipes were built and tested with ammonia and acetone. A 20-ft long heat pipe was also built and tested with ammonia. The test results have been compared with performance predictions. A thermal transport capacity of 2000 W at an adverse tilt of 1 in. and a 1000 W capacity at an adverse tilt of 2 in. were achieved on the 20-ft long heat pipe. These values are in close agreement with the predicted performance limits.

  1. A space transportation system for early lunar exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Dana G.; Hodge, John R.; Frost, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) based on existing technology and liberal use of existing or planned national and international space infrastructure. The objective of the studies described herein was to define a LTS capable of delivering and servicing a manned lunar outpost shortly after the turn of the century. Alternative approaches examined used derivatives of elements from the planned National Launch System or existing international assets to reduce development and launch costs. This study incorporates many design features determined by contracted NASA efforts to reduce nonrecurring and recurring costs for a LTS.

  2. A space transportation system for early lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Dana G.; Hodge, John R.; Frost, Cynthia L.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) based on existing technology and liberal use of existing or planned national and international space infrastructure. The objective of the studies described herein was to define a LTS capable of delivering and servicing a manned lunar outpost shortly after the turn of the century. Alternative approaches examined used derivatives of elements from the planned National Launch System or existing international assets to reduce development and launch costs. This study incorporates many design features determined by contracted NASA efforts to reduce nonrecurring and recurring costs for a LTS.

  3. Overview of Recent Radiation Transport Code Comparisons for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Lawrence

    Recent advances in radiation transport code development for space applications have resulted in various comparisons of code predictions for a variety of scenarios and codes. Comparisons among both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes have been made and published by vari-ous groups and collaborations, including comparisons involving, but not limited to HZETRN, HETC-HEDS, FLUKA, GEANT, PHITS, and MCNPX. In this work, an overview of recent code prediction inter-comparisons, including comparisons to available experimental data, is presented and discussed, with emphases on those areas of agreement and disagreement among the various code predictions and published data.

  4. Aerothermodynamic challenges of the Saenger space-transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschel, E. H.

    1991-09-01

    The two-stage-to-orbit Saenger space transportation system is the reference concept of the German hypersonics technology program. The technology development concentrates first on the needs of the lower stage. Its requirements on aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration are sketched. The aerothermodynamic design challenge is discussed and the design tools and the design methodology are reviewed. The calibration of both the computational and the experimental methods, as well as the test of vehicle components like the inlet, control surfaces etc., make the Hypersonic Technology Experimental vehicle (HYTEX) mandatory. Contents and workplan of the technology program 'aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration' are laid out. Selected results from the current work are presented.

  5. Space radiation transport properties of polyethylene-based composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R. K.; Barghouty, A. F.; Dahche, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials that can serve as both effective shielding materials against cosmic-ray and energetic solar particles in deep space, as well as structural materials for habitat and spacecraft, remain a critical and mission enabling component in mission planning and exploration. Polyethylene is known to have excellent shielding properties due to its low density, coupled with high hydrogen content. Polyethylene-fiber reinforced composites promise to combine this shielding effectiveness with the required mechanical properties of structural materials. Samples of polyethylene-fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite 1-5 cm thick were prepared at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and tested against a 500 MeV/nucleon Fe beam at the HIMAC facility of NIRS in Chiba, Japan. This paper presents measured and calculated results for the radiation transport properties of these samples.

  6. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  7. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  8. Project LOCOST: Laser or Chemical Hybrid Orbital Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Alan; Kost, Alicia; Lampshire, Gregory; Larsen, Rob; Monahan, Bob; Wright, Geoff

    1990-01-01

    A potential mission in the late 1990s is the servicing of spacecraft assets located in GEO. The Geosynchronous Operations Support Center (GeoShack) will be supported by a space transfer vehicle based at the Space Station (SS). The vehicle will transport cargo between the SS and the GeoShack. A proposed unmanned, laser or chemical hybrid orbital space transfer vehicle (LOCOST) can be used to efficiently transfer cargo between the two orbits. A preliminary design shows that an unmanned, laser/chemical hybrid vehicle results in the fuel savings needed while still providing fast trip times. The LOCOST vehicle receives a 12 MW laser beam from one Earth orbiting, solar pumped, iodide Laser Power Station (LPS). Two Energy Relay Units (ERU) provide laser beam support during periods of line-of-sight blockage by the Earth. The baseline mission specifies a 13 day round trip transfer time. The ship's configuration consist of an optical train, one hydrogen laser engine, two chemical engines, a 18 m by 29 m box truss, a mission-flexible payload module, and propellant tanks. Overall vehicle dry mass is 8,000 kg. Outbound cargo mass is 20,000 kg, and inbound cargo mass is 6,000 kg. The baseline mission needs 93,000 kg of propellants to complete the scenario. Fully fueled, outbound mission mass is 121,000 kg. A regeneratively cooled, single plasma, laser engine design producing a maximum of 768 N of thrust is utilized along with two traditional chemical engines. The payload module is designed to hold 40,000 kg of cargo, though the baseline mission specifies less. A proposed design of a laser/chemical hybrid vehicle provides a trip time and propellant efficient means to transport cargo from the SS to a GeoShack. Its unique, hybrid propulsion system provides safety through redundancy, allows baseline missions to be efficiently executed, while still allowing for the possibility of larger cargo transfers.

  9. Space Shuttle 2 Advanced Space Transportation System. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adinaro, James N.; Benefield, Philip A.; Johnson, Shelby D.; Knight, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation into the feasibility of establishing a second generation space transportation system is summarized. Incorporating successful systems from the Space Shuttle and technological advances made since its conception, the second generation shuttle was designed to be a lower-cost, reliable system which would guarantee access to space well into the next century. A fully reusable, all-liquid propellant booster/orbiter combination using parallel burn was selected as the base configuration. Vehicle characteristics were determined from NASA ground rules and optimization evaluations. The launch profile was constructed from particulars of the vehicle design and known orbital requirements. A stability and control analysis was performed for the landing phase of the orbiter's flight. Finally, a preliminary safety analysis was performed to indicate possible failure modes and consequences.

  10. Future Concepts for Integrating the Space Launch System and the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle into a Reusable Space Transportation Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes the Space Launch System (SLS), the Mulit-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), the International Space Station (ISS), and propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for commercial crew, cargo, and propellant launches to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and/or the ISS. The SLS provides all payload and propellant launches to the Earth-Moon Langrange Point 1 (EML1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The ISS or follow-on LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to Earth-Moon L1 for EML1 Depot missions. The EML1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched utilizing the SLS and current ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) derived from the MPCV and a reusable Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, EML1 Depot and missions beyond the Earth-Moon vicinity; a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the EML1 Depot and the lunar surface; and a new reusable Deep Space Habitat (DSH) with a CTV to support crew missions from the EML1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroids, and a Mars Orbital Depot. The LEO Depot, EML1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing SLS and current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this

  11. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  12. Oxygen Transport Across Space-Filling Biological Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chen

    2005-03-01

    Space-filling fractal surfaces play a fundamental role in how organisms function and in how structure determines function at various levels. In this project we developed an efficient and powerful algorithm, rope-walk algorithm, for solving diffusion equations of transport of species across the space-filling fractal surface. We performed analytic computations of the oxygen current across the alveolar membranes in the lung, as a function of diffusion coefficient and membrane permeability, using the rope-walk algorithm, without adjustable parameters. The analytic calculation identifies the four cases as sharply delineated screening regimes and finds that the lung operates in the partial-screening regime, close to the transition to no screening, and in the no-screening regime, for respiration at rest and in exercise respectively. The gas exchange satisfies six criteria of optimal design: maximum current; minimum waste of surface area; minimum permeability; maximum fault tolerance; minimum waiting time and maximum current increase when going from rest to exercise. This extraordinary, multiply optimized performance is a direct consequence of the space-filling membrane architecture.

  13. Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

    1991-01-01

    A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

  14. Advanced regenerative-cooling techniques for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Shoji, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A review of regenerative-cooling techniques applicable to advanced planned engine designs for space booster and orbit transportation systems has developed the status of the key elements of this cooling mode. This work is presented in terms of gas side, coolant side, wall conduction heat transfer, and chamber life fatigue margin considerations. Described are preliminary heat transfer and trade analyses performed using developed techniques combining channel wall construction with advanced, high-strength, high-thermal-conductivity materials (NARloy-Z or Zr-Cu alloys) in high heat flux regions, combined with lightweight steel tubular nozzle wall construction. Advanced cooling techniques such as oxygen cooling and dual-mode hydrocarbon/hydrogen fuel operation and their limitations are indicated for the regenerative cooling approach.

  15. Space transportation system solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, fail-safe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system has completed the major portion of qualification and verification tests and is prepared to be cleared for the first Shuttle flight (STS-1). Substantiation data will include analytical and test data.

  16. Space Transportation System solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, failsafe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system completed the required qualification and verification tests and is certified for the intended application. Substantiation data include analytical and test data.

  17. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  18. Thermal blanket insulation for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of weaving Nextel ceramic and Nicalon silicon carbide yarns into integrally woven, three dimensional fluted core fabrics was demonstrated. Parallel face fabrics joined with woven fabric ribs to form triangular cross section flutes between the faces were woven into three single and one double layer configuration. High warp yarn density in the double layer configuration caused considerable yarn breakage during weaving. The flutes of all four fabrics were filled with mandrels made from Q-Fiber Felt and FRCI-20-12 to form candidate insulation panels for advanced Space Transportation Systems. Procedures for preparing and inserting the mandrels were developed. Recommendations are made on investigating alternate methods for filling the flutes with insulation, and for improving the weaving of these types of fabrics.

  19. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  20. Reusable Hybrid Propellant Modules for Outer-Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Mankins, John C.

    2005-01-01

    A report summarizes the concept of reusable hybrid propellant modules (HPMs), which would be used in outer space for long-term cryogenic storage of liquefied spacecraft-propellant gases, including for example, oxygen and hydrogen for combustion-based chemical rocket engines and xenon for electric thrusters. The HPM concept would provide the fundamental building block for an efficient, reusable in-space transportation system for both crewed and uncrewed missions. Each HPM would be equipped to implement an advanced zero-boil-off method of managing cryogenic fluids, and would include a fluid-transfer interface comprising standardized fittings that would be compatible with fittings on all supply facilities and on spacecraft to be supplied. The HPM, combined with a chemical or electric orbital transfer spacecraft, would provide an integrated propulsion system. HPMs would supply chemical propellant for time-critical transfers such as crewed missions, and utilize the more efficient electric-propulsion transfer vehicles to transport filled HPMs to the destinations and to return empty HPMs back to near-Earth orbits or other intermediate locations for replenishment and reuse. The HPM prepositioned using electric propulsion would provide the chemical propellant for the crew s return trip in a much more efficient manner than a chemical-only approach. The propellants to fill the HPMs would be delivered from the Earth or other initial supply locations to the intermediate locations by use of automated, compatible spacecraft designed specifically for that purpose. Additionally, multiple HPMs could be aggregated and positioned in orbits and on planets, moons, and asteroids to supply fluids to orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft.

  1. An Improved Neutron Transport Algorithm for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.

    2000-01-01

    A low-energy neutron transport algorithm for use in space radiation protection is developed. The algorithm is based upon a multigroup analysis of the straight-ahead Boltzmann equation by using a mean value theorem for integrals. This analysis is accomplished by solving a realistic but simplified neutron transport test problem. The test problem is analyzed by using numerical and analytical procedures to obtain an accurate solution within specified error bounds. Results from the test problem are then used for determining mean values associated with rescattering terms that are associated with a multigroup solution of the straight-ahead Boltzmann equation. The algorithm is then coupled to the Langley HZETRN code through the evaporation source term. Evaluation of the neutron fluence generated by the solar particle event of February 23, 1956, for a water and an aluminum-water shield-target configuration is then compared with LAHET and MCNPX Monte Carlo code calculations for the same shield-target configuration. The algorithm developed showed a great improvement in results over the unmodified HZETRN solution. In addition, a two-directional solution of the evaporation source showed even further improvement of the fluence near the front of the water target where diffusion from the front surface is important.

  2. University of Tennessee Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research had projects with space applications in six major areas: laser materials processing, artificial intelligence/expert systems, space transportation, computational methods, chemical propulsion, and electric propulsion. The closeout status of all these projects is addressed.

  3. 77 FR 16891 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  4. 78 FR 69742 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  5. 75 FR 54002 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  6. 76 FR 30232 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance... associated with suborbital space flight. The reduced gravity levels are: --0.00 g 0.05 g for 17 continuous... Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue, SW.,...

  7. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  8. Helicity transport from solar convection zone to interplanetary space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic helicity is a physical quantity that describes field topology. It is also a conserved quantity as Berger in 1984 demonstrated that the total magnetic helicity is still conserved in the corona even when there is a fast magnetic reconnection. It is generally believed that solar magnetic fields, together with their helicity, are created in the convection zone by various dynamo processes. These fields and helicity are transported into the corona through solar photosphere and finally released into the interplanetary space via various processes such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar winds. Here I will give a brief review on our recent works, first on helicity observations on the photosphere and how to understand these observations via dynamo models. Mostly, I will talk about what are the possible consequences of magnetic helicity accumulation in the corona, namely, the formation of magnetic flux ropes, CMEs taking place as an unavoidable product of coronal evolution, and flux emergences as a trigger of CMEs. Finally, I will address on in what a form magnetic field in the interplanetary space would accommodate a large amount of magnetic helicity that solar dynamo processes have been continuously producing.

  9. Transport and Use of a Centaur Second Stage in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, James M.; Morgowicz, Bernard; Drucker, Eric; Tompkins, Paul D.; Kennedy, Brian; Barber, Robert D,; Luzod, Louie T.; Kennedy, Brian Michael; Luzod, Louie T.

    2010-01-01

    As nations continue to explore space, the desire to reduce costs will continue to grow. As a method of cost reduction, transporting and/or use of launch system components as integral components of missions may become more commonplace in the future. There have been numerous scenarios written for using launch vehicle components (primarily space shuttle used external tanks) as part of flight missions or future habitats. Future studies for possible uses of launch vehicle upper stages might include asteroid diverter using gravity orbital perturbation, orbiting station component, raw material at an outpost, and kinetic impactor. The LCROSS (Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was conceived as a low-cost means of determining whether water exists at the polar regions of the moon. Manifested as a secondary payload with the LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) spacecraft aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle, LCROSS guided its spent Centaur Earth Departure Upper Stage (EDUS) into the lunar crater Cabeu's, as a kinetic impactor. This paper describes some of the challenges that the LCROSS project encountered in planning, designing, launching with and carrying the Centaur upper stage to the moon.

  10. Aluminum-fueled rockets for the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew Hall

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum-fueled engines, used to propel orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's), offer benefits to the Space Transportation System (STS) if scrap aluminum can be scavenged at a reasonable cost. Aluminum scavenged from Space Shuttle external tanks could replace propellants hauled from Earth, thus allowing more payloads to be sent to their final destinations at the same Shuttle launch rate. To allow OTV use of aluminum fuel, two new items would be required: a facility to reprocess aluminum from external tanks and an engine for the OTV which could burn aluminum. Design of the orbital transfer vehicle would have to differ substantially from current concepts for it to carry and use the aluminum fuel. The aluminum reprocessing facility would probably have a mass of under 15 metric tons and would probably cost less that $200,000,000. Development of an aluminum-burning engine would no doubt be extremely expensive (1 to 2 billion dollars), but this amount would be adequately repaid by increased STS throughput. Engine production cost is difficult to estimate, but even an extremely high cost (e.g., $250,000,000 per engine) would not significantly increase orbit-raising expenses.

  11. Opening a new era in space. [Space Transportation System utilizing Shuttle, Spacelab and Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, P. E.; Bold, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The overall payload planning aimed at initial projected use of the Space Transportation System (STS) which will establish a new capability for exploring and using space through operations of the Shuttle, Spacelab, and Interim Upper Stage (IUS) in the Eighties is reviewed, and the significance of this planning for science and technology is discussed. The first payloads will fly on the STS during Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) beginning in March 1979. Primary OFT objectives include verifying flight systems and the Shuttle's ability to accomodate various types of payloads in different mission modes. The STS schedule will build up to as many as 60 flights in 1984. The STS payloads will make contributions to the management on a global scale of the interrelationship of production, consumption, population growth, and pollution.

  12. Transportation Systems Analyses (TSA): Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST). A preliminary programmatic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffey, Jack; Lowrey, Alan

    1996-01-01

    This report overviews the strategic implications of the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program. The analysis postulates the anticipated HRST market (window is 2006-30, with a 2015 focus). Next the analysis speculates on market 'price of entry' for several potential markets. HRST is envisioned as a NASA overlay to either the STS modernization or the on-going RLV initiative. Three NASA options are reviewed. An example HRST program (MagLifter + RBCC RLV) is assessed in terms of financial/political issues. The merits of HRST-vs-RLV are briefly examined. Finally, a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) HRST application is reviewed.

  13. In-Space Transportation for NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percy, Thomas K.; McGuire, Melissa; Polsgrove, Tara

    2015-01-01

    As the nation embarks on a new and bold journey to Mars, significant work is being done to determine what that mission and those architectural elements will look like. The Evolvable Mars Campaign, or EMC, is being evaluated as a potential approach to getting humans to Mars. Built on the premise of leveraging current technology investments and maximizing element commonality to reduce cost and development schedule, the EMC transportation architecture is focused on developing the elements required to move crew and equipment to Mars as efficiently and effectively as possible both from a performance and a programmatic standpoint. Over the last 18 months the team has been evaluating potential options for those transportation elements. One of the key aspects of the EMC is leveraging investments being made today in missions like the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) mission using derived versions of the Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) propulsion systems and coupling them with other chemical propulsion elements that maximize commonality across the architecture between both transportation and Mars operations elements. This paper outlines the broad trade space being evaluated including the different technologies being assessed for transportation elements and how those elements are assembled into an architecture. Impacts to potential operational scenarios at Mars are also investigated. Trades are being made on the size and power level of the SEP vehicle for delivering cargo as well as the size of the chemical propulsion systems and various mission aspects including Inspace assembly and sequencing. Maximizing payload delivery to Mars with the SEP vehicle will better support the operational scenarios at Mars by enabling the delivery of landers and habitation elements that are appropriately sized for the mission. The purpose of this investigation is not to find the solution but rather a suite of solutions with potential application to the challenge of sending cargo and crew to Mars

  14. 14 CFR 401.3 - The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator to exercise the Secretary's authority to license or permit and otherwise regulate commercial space transportation and to discharge the Secretary's responsibility to encourage, facilitate, and promote...

  15. Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Hand-Held Photography: Space Transportation System (STS) 41-6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, Barbara S.; Palmer, Wesley F.

    1985-01-01

    This document catalogs Space Shuttle hand-held Earth observations photography which was collected on the Space Transportation System (STS) 41-G mission of October 1984. The catalog includes the following data for each of 2480 frames: geographical name, feature description, latitude and longitude, percentage of cloud cover, look direction and tilt, lens focal length, exposure evaluation, stereopairs, and orbit number. The catalog is a product of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project, Solar System Exploration Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  16. Space shuttle: Program overview. [low-cost transportation to and from earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The primary design and operations goal for the space shuttle program to provide low-cost transportation to and from earth orbits for the purpose of conducting investigations in space via spacelabs and free flying or automated satellites is reviewed. The space shuttle system and mission profile is described along with the space shuttle orbiter system and payloads accommodations, attachments, and handling. The implications the space shuttle program has for international cooperation in space are mentioned.

  17. 78 FR 21003 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Licenses to Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) for Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy Commercial Launch... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Availability of the... Final Environmental Assessment for Falcon 9 and Falcon 9 Heavy Launch Vehicle Programs from Space...

  18. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Space Transportation Workshop Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, J. P.

    1980-07-01

    Space transportation requirements are major elements in the technical and economic realization of the entire SPS concept. First, steps in enhancing the shuttle include the Titan based liquid boost module (LBM) and liquid propellant boosters (LPB) to replace the present solid rocket boosters (SRB). The next choice between new ballistic or winged boosters must still be made; as well as the choice between series (staged) and parallel operation. Entirely new vehicles of large size are required before the economic and environmental problems of the prototype, or even demonstration, SPS can be resolved. Social impacts such as noise, and atmospheric pollution, locally and in the ionosphere, must be fully addressed. Although rather advanced technology and well developed operational management is required to properly target the average cost of gross cargo payloads into LEO at 30 $ (1979)/kg for the construction of the initial SPS, the further goal for repetitive construction of 30 to 60 SPS at 15 $ (1979)/kg for all operational payloads require the use of very advanced, long lived vehicles with a sophisticated operational organization using off shore, equatorial launch sites.

  19. Advances in Space Transportation Technology Toward the NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    2000-01-01

    disassembly and inspections required for the Space Shuttle's subsystems, the next generation vehicle's on-board health monitoring systems will could tell the ground crews which systems need replacement before landing. In twenty-five years, vehicles will be re-flown within one with crews numbering less than one hundred. Fully automated ground processing systems must require only a handful of personnel to launch the vehicle. Due to the increased intelligence of on-board systems, only cursory walk-around inspections would be required between flights An assessment of the progress in breakthrough technologies toward these goals by the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program is presented. These breakthrough technologies include combined rocket and air breathing propulsion, high strength lightweight structures, high temperature materials, vehicle health management, and flight operations.

  20. 76 FR 67018 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  1. Future space transportation systems systems analysis study, phase 1 technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The requirements of projected space programs (1985-1995) for transportation vehicles more advanced than the space shuttle are discussed. Several future program options are described and their transportation needs are analyzed. Alternative systems approaches to meeting these needs are presented.

  2. 75 FR 16901 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of the meetings of the Commercial...

  3. MBB strategy consideration: From microsystem technique to the space transportation system SAENGER 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    Microsystems technique, as an example of technology developments, and the future space transportation system SAENGER 2 are treated. Microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics are presented. The characteristics of the materials used in microsystems technology are discussed. Economic and nonpolluting solar energy systems for future space systems are discussed. The status and the future of hypersonic transportation systems are discussed.

  4. Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium. Volume 3: Panel Session Summaries and Presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium was held at the Pennsylvania State University on June 25 to 29, 1990. Emphasis was placed on propulsion requirements and initiatives to support current, next generation, and future space transportation systems, with the primary objectives of discerning whether proposed designs truly meet future transportation needs and identifying possible technology gaps, overlaps and other programmatic deficiencies. Key space transportation propulsion issues are addressed through four panels with government, industry, and academia membership. The panel focused on systems engineering and integration; development, manufacturing, and certification; operational efficiency; program development; and cultural issues.

  5. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1: Technical report, appendices. [a discussion of orbit transfer vehicles, lunar transport vehicles, space shuttles, and reusable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transportation mass requirements developed for each mission and transportation mode were based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission (i.e. rubber vehicles). The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data will form the basis for conceptual configurations of the transportation elements in a later phase of study. An investigation of the weight growth approach to future space transportation systems analysis is presented. Parameters which affect weight growth, past weight histories, and the current state of future space-mission design are discussed. Weight growth factors of from 10 percent to 41 percent were derived for various missions or vehicles.

  6. Space transportation presentation to SSTAC/ARTS Review Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the programs of the materials and structures division of the integrated technology plan for the civil space program is presented. The Department of Defense and NASA will jointly develop and jointly fund development of a new space launch system to meet civil and national space needs and will actively consider commercial space needs. The goals of the new launch program are to greatly improve national launch capability, reduce operating costs, improve reliability, responsiveness, and mission performance.

  7. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  8. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  9. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  10. 75 FR 75621 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Waiver of Autonomous Reentry Restriction for a Reentry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Commercial Space Transportation Reusable Launch Vehicle and Reentry Licensing Regulations, 64 FR 19626, 19645..., 2010 launch date planned at the time of the filing of the petition. However, in its petition, SpaceX... left in orbit to reenter randomly at some later time. SpaceX's mitigation measures are of...

  11. The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, F. R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

  12. Space transportation vehicle design evaluation using saturated designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1993-01-01

    An important objective in the preliminary design and evaluation of space transportation vehicles is to find the best values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic (e.g. dry weight). For a given configuration, the vehicle performance can be determined by the use of complex sizing and performance evaluation computer programs. These complex computer programs utilize iterative algorithms and they are generally too expensive and/or difficult to use directly in multidisciplinary design optimization. An alternative is to use response surface methodology (RSM) and obtain quadratic polynomial approximations to the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. In RSM, these approximation models are then used to determine optimum design parameter values and for rapid sensitivity studies. Constructing a second-order model requires that 'n' design parameters be studied at least at 3 levels (values) so that the coefficients in the model can be estimated. There, 3(n) factorial experiments (point designs or observations) may be necessary. For small values of 'n' such as two or three, this design works well. However, when a large number of design parameters are under study, the number of design points required for a full-factorial design may become excessive. Fortunately, these quadratic polynomial approximations can be obtained by selecting an efficient design matrix using central composite designs (CCD) from design of experiments theory. Each unique point design from the CCD matrix is then conducted using computerized analysis tools (e.g. POST, CONSIZ, etc.). In the next step, least squares regression analysis is used to calculate the quadratic polynomial coefficients from the data. However, in some multidisciplinary applications involving a large number of design variables and several disciplines, the computerized performance synthesis programs may get too time consuming and expensive to run even with the use of

  13. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  14. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W. (Inventor); Dean, William G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two storage containers are disclosed within which food or biological samples may be stored for transfer in a module by the space shuttle to a space station while maintaining the food or samples at very low temperatures. The container is formed in two parts, each part having an inner shell and an outer shell disposed about the inner shell. The space between the shells is filled with a continuous wrap multi-layer insulation and a getter material. The two parts of the container have interlocking members and when connected together are sealed for preventing leakage from the space between the shells. After the two parts are filled with frozen food or samples they are connected together and a vacuum is drawn in the space between the shells and the container is stored in the module. For the extremely low temperature requirements of biological samples, an internal liner having a phase change material charged by a refrigerant coil is disposed in the space between the shells, and the container is formed from glass fiber material including honeycomb structural elements. All surfaces of the glass fiber which face the vacuum space are lined with a metal foil.

  15. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

    2004-01-01

    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  16. Economic Metrics for Commercial Reusable Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    baseline. Still, economic metrics for technology development in these Programs and projects remain fairly straightforward, being based on reductions in acquisition and operating costs of the Systems. One of the most challenging requirements that NASA levies on its Programs is to plan for the commercialization of the developed technology. Some NASA Programs are created for the express purpose of developing technology for a particular industrial sector, such as aviation or space transportation, in financial partnership with that sector. With industrial investment, another set of goals, constraints and expectations are levied on the technology program. Economic benefit metrics then expand beyond cost and cost savings to include the marketability, profit, and investment return requirements of the private sector. Commercial investment criteria include low risk, potential for high return, and strategic alignment with existing product lines. These corporate criteria derive from top-level strategic plans and investment goals, which rank high among the most proprietary types of information in any business. As a result, top-level economic goals and objectives that industry partners bring to cooperative programs cannot usually be brought into technical processes, such as systems engineering, that are worked collaboratively between Industry and Government. In spite of these handicaps, the top-level economic goals and objectives of a joint technology program can be crafted in such a way that they accurately reflect the fiscal benefits from both Industry and Government perspectives. Valid economic metrics can then be designed that can track progress toward these goals and objectives, while maintaining the confidentiality necessary for the competitive process.

  17. NASA space transportation plans and roles of a mixed fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the results of a September, 1987 NASA 'mixed fleet' launching resources/scheduling study that predicated capability projections on a fleet of available ELVs. The launch capability projections extended as far as 1995, and in their later phases encompassed the resumption of Space Shuttle operations and the availability of Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, which could accomplish such things as the reboosting of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1991, and even the Shuttle-Derived Vehicle, of which two distinct concepts are presently being considered; both would heavily rely on Space Shuttle hardware, but would be unmanned.

  18. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, William G.; Owen, James W.

    1988-04-01

    This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

  19. Columbia's first flight shakes down space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Young, D.; White, T.

    1981-01-01

    The first space shuttle mission is described. Topics include launch preparations, flight profile, trajectory, and landing operations. The spaceflight tracking and data network is discussed and the photography and television schedules are included.

  20. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, William G (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

  1. Space transportation system and associated payloads: Glossary, acronyms, and abbreviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of some of the acronyms and abbreviations now in everyday use in the shuttle world is presented. It is a combination of lists that were prepared at Marshall Space Flight Center and Kennedy and Johnson Space Centers, places where intensive shuttle activities are being carried out. This list is intended as a guide or reference and should not be considered to have the status and sanction of a dictionary.

  2. Structure of the isotropic transport operators in three independent space variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Shumays, I. K.; Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Based on the idea of separation of variables, a spectral theory for the three-dimensional, stationary, isotropic transport operator in a vector space of complex-valued Borel functions results in continuous sets of regular and generalized eigenfunctions.

  3. Spaceliner Class Operability Gains Via Combined Airbreathing/ Rocket Propulsion: Summarizing an Operational Assessment of Highly Reusable Space Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael B.; Escher, William J. d.

    1999-01-01

    In discussing a new NASA initiative in advanced space transportation systems and technologies, the Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Arthur G. Stephenson, noted that, "It would use new propulsion technology, air-breathing engine so you don't have to carry liquid oxygen, at least while your flying through the atmosphere. We are calling it Spaceliner 100 because it would be 100 times cheaper, costing $ 100 dollars a pound to orbit." While airbreathing propulsion is directly named, rocket propulsion is also implied by, "... while you are flying through the atmosphere." In-space final acceleration to orbital speed mandates rocket capabilities. Thus, in this informed view, Spaceliner 100 will be predicated on combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion, the technical subject of this paper. Interestingly, NASA's recently concluded Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study focused on the same affordability goal as that of the Spaceliner 100 initiative and reflected the decisive contribution of combined propulsion as a way of expanding operability and increasing the design robustness of future space transports, toward "aircraft like" capabilities. The HRST study built on the Access to Space Study and the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) development activities to identify and characterize space transportation concepts, infrastructure and technologies that have the greatest potential for reducing delivery cost by another order of magnitude, from $1,000 to $100-$200 per pound for 20,000 lb. - 40.000 lb. payloads to low earth orbit (LEO). The HRST study investigated a number of near-term, far-term, and very far-term launch vehicle concepts including all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) concepts, concepts with launch assist, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) concepts, advanced expendable vehicles, and more far term ground-based laser powered launchers. The HRST study consisted of preliminary concept studies, assessments

  4. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  5. Earth-to-Geostationary Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.

  6. Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research Fifth Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Fifth Annual Technical Symposium, sponsored by the UT-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR), is organized to provide an overview of the technical accomplishments of the Center's five Research and Technology focus areas during the past year. These areas include chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, commerical space transportation, computational methods, and laser materials processing. Papers in the area of artificial intelligence/expert systems are also presented.

  7. DART: Delta Advanced Reusable Transport. An alternate manned space system proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART) craft is being developed to add, multiple, rapid, and cost effective space access to the U.S. capability and to further the efforts towards a permanent space presence. The DART craft provides an augmentative and an alternative system to the Shuttle. As a supplement launch vehicle, the DART adds low cost and easily accessible transport of crew and cargo to specific space destinations to the U.S. program. This adds significant opportunities for manned rated missions that do not require Shuttle capabilities. In its alternative role, the DART can provide emergency space access and satellite repair, the continuation of scientific research, and the furthering of U.S. manned efforts in the event of Shuttle incapabilities. In addition, the DART is being designed for Space Station Freedom compatibility, including its use as a 'lifeboat' emergency reentry craft for Freedom astronauts, as well as the transport of crew and cargo for station resupply.

  8. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Wrapped in an anti-static blanket for protection, Deep Space 1 is moved out of the Defense Satellite Communications Systems Processing Facility (DPF) at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) for its trip to Launch Pad 17A. The spacecraft will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket on Oct. 25. Deep Space 1 is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  9. Towards a 3D Space Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tripathl, R. K.; Cicomptta, F. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

    2002-01-01

    High-speed computational procedures for space radiation shielding have relied on asymptotic expansions in terms of the off-axis scatter and replacement of the general geometry problem by a collection of flat plates. This type of solution was derived for application to human rated systems in which the radius of the shielded volume is large compared to the off-axis diffusion limiting leakage at lateral boundaries. Over the decades these computational codes are relatively complete and lateral diffusion effects are now being added. The analysis for developing a practical full 3D space shielding code is presented.

  10. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  11. Ariane 5-Hermes - A new space transportation system for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raillon, E.

    Design features and missions of the Ariane 5 launch vehicle and the Hermes space plane are described. Ariane 5 will be able to lift 15 tons to LEO and two 2.5 ton payloads to GEO. Other LEO missions may include scientific or space processing experiments, orbiting platform tending, and crew relief at the Space Station. The Ariane 5 will have two composite casing solid rocket boosters delivering 450 tons thrust and a main HM 60 LOX engine providing over 100 tons thrust. Several payload shroud designs are being developed for diverse missions. Hermes is designed to be a modular part of an integral launch system that can lift either manned or unmanned payloads into space. The 11 m wingspan Hermes will carry 3500-4500 kg, 35 cu m of cargo and from 2-6 human passangers. The maximum orbital altitude will be 400 km with a flight duration of 1-3 weeks, depending on the crew size. Reentry will be hypersonic glide to a runway landing.

  12. HyPlane for Space Tourism and Business Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, R.

    In the present work a preliminary study on a small hypersonic airplane for a long duration space tourism mission is presented. It is also consistent with a point-to-point medium range (5000-6000 km) hypersonic trip, in the frame of the "urgent business travel" market segment. The main ideas is to transfer technological solutions developed for aeronautical and space atmospheric re-entry systems to the design of such a hypersonic airplane. A winged vehicle characterized by high aerodynamic efficiency and able to manoeuvre along the flight path, in all aerodynamic regimes encountered, is taken into consideration. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle and Turbine-Based Combined Cycle engines are investigated to ensure higher performances in terms of flight duration and range. Different flight-paths are also considered, including sub-orbital parabolic trajectories and steady state hypersonic cruise. The former, in particular, takes advantage of the high aerodynamic efficiency during the unpowered phase, in combination with a periodic engine actuation, to guarantee a long duration oscillating flight path. These trajectories offer Space tourists the opportunity of extended missions, characterized by repeated periods of low-gravity at altitudes high enough to ensure a wide view of the Earth from Space.

  13. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Transportation systems reference data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Transportation mass requirements are developed for various mission and transportation modes based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission. The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data are described.

  14. Space shuttle transportation system techniques for user/use development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gripshover, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of obtaining new uses for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) was treated in the same way marketing problems are handled by industrial organizations. Techniques used by industry to obtain new ideas and customers were evaluated and analyzed for their relevance to the STS. Marketing barrier-data were used to develop strategy which called for a middleman organization to assist NASA in achieving its objectives. The importance of prompt initiation of the recommended strategy was established.

  15. Trade study: Liquid hydrogen transportation - Kennedy Space Center. [cost and operational effectivenss of shipping methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cryogenic transportation methods for providing liquid hydrogen requirements are examined in support of shuttle transportation system launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the time frames 1982-1991 in terms of cost and operational effectiveness. Transportation methods considered included sixteen different options employing mobile semi-trailer tankers, railcars, barges and combinations of each method. The study concludes that the most effective method of delivering liquid hydrogen from the vendor production facility in New Orleans to Kennedy Space Center includes maximum utilization of existing mobile tankers and railcars supplemented by maximum capacity mobile tankers procured incrementally in accordance with shuttle launch rates actually achieved.

  16. Generation and transport of space charge waves in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaraj, Jayakar C. T.; Beaudoin, Brian; Feldman, Donald; Kishek, Rami; Bernal, Santiago; Sutter, David; Reiser, Martin; O'Shea, Patrick

    2009-01-22

    An experimental study of longitudinal dynamics of space charge dominated beams is presented. We use drive-laser driven perturbations to study the evolution of space charge waves on an intese electron beam. Collective effects like propagation of space charge waves, superposition of waves and crossing of waves are presented and verified with 1-D cold fluid model theory. Multi-turn transport and other collective effects in UMER are discussed.

  17. Informed maintenance for next generation space transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jack J.

    2001-02-01

    Perhaps the most substantial single obstacle to progress of space exploration and utilization of space for human benefit is the safety & reliability and the inherent cost of launching to, and returning from, space. The primary influence in the high costs of current launch systems (the same is true for commercial and military aircraft and most other reusable systems) is the operations, maintenance and infrastructure portion of the program's total life cycle costs. Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) maintenance and design have traditionally been two separate engineering disciplines with often conflicting objectives-maximizing ease of maintenance versus optimizing performance, size and cost. Testability analysis, an element of Informed Maintenance (IM), has been an ad hoc, manual effort, in which maintenance engineers attempt to identify an efficient method of troubleshooting for the given product, with little or no control over product design. Therefore, testability deficiencies in the design cannot be rectified. It is now widely recognized that IM must be engineered into the product at the design stage itself, so that an optimal compromise is achieved between system maintainability and performance. The elements of IM include testability analysis, diagnostics/prognostics, automated maintenance scheduling, automated logistics coordination, paperless documentation and data mining. IM derives its heritage from complimentary NASA science, space and aeronautic enterprises such as the on-board autonomous Remote Agent Architecture recently flown on NASA's Deep Space 1 Probe as well as commercial industries that employ quick turnaround operations. Commercial technologies and processes supporting NASA's IM initiatives include condition based maintenance technologies from Boeing's Commercial 777 Aircraft and Lockheed-Martin's F-22 Fighter, automotive computer diagnostics and autonomous controllers that enable 100,000 mile maintenance free operations, and locomotive monitoring

  18. The design and development of a mobile transporter system for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    The analyses, selection process, and conceptual design of potential candidate Mobile Transporter (MT) systems to move the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) about the exposed faces of the Space Station truss structure are described. The actual requirements for a manipulator system on the space station are discussed, including potential tasks to be performed. The SSRMS operating environment and control methods are analyzed with potential design solutions highlighted. Three general categories of transporter systems are identified and analyzed. Several design solution have emerged that will satisfy these requirements. Their relative merits are discussed, and unique variations in each system are rated for functionality.

  19. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  20. Satellite services - An added benefit of the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herardian, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that the greatest economic benefit can be achieved by the Space Shuttle Orbiter's use as a satellite servicing platform if the following conditions are fulfilled: (1) the international user community must build serviceability features into its satellite and orbital platform designs, based on a common set of guidelines; (2) the various tools required for satellite servicing must be developed in a timely manner; and (3) servicing costs must be kept as low as possible, in order to appeal to the greatest number and variety of satellite operators. A three-part program development schedule is proposed, beginning with near-Orbiter servicing in low earth orbit, continuing with servicing at orbital heights between the low and geosynchronous at greater distances from the Orbiter, and culminating in the early 1990's with the use of the Space Operations Center (SOC) platform for servicing at all orbital heights.

  1. Enhancing space transportation: The NASA program to develop electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Watkins, Marcus A.; Byers, David C.; Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology (OAET) supports a research and technology (R and T) program in electric propulsion to provide the basis for increased performance and life of electric thruster systems which can have a major impact on space system performance, including orbital transfer, stationkeeping, and planetary exploration. The program is oriented toward providing high-performance options that will be applicable to a broad range of near-term and far-term missions and vehicles. The program, which is being conducted through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Lewis Research Center (LeRC) includes research on resistojet, arcjets, ion engines, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and electrodeless thrusters. Planning is also under way for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) as part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI).

  2. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  3. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited).

    PubMed

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  4. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  5. Solar power satellites. A review of the space transportation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearn, D. G.

    1980-03-01

    The options available for lifting both heavy payloads and personnel to low Earth orbit, and from there to geostationary orbit are reviewed. It is concluded that conventional launcher technology using liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen engines should be adequate for the former task. The latter can best be accomplished using electric propulsion with ion thrusters being the most suitable devices, owing to their high efficiency and advanced state of development. Environmental effects of such a transportation system are considered and it is concluded that they should be acceptable.

  6. Visualization of Space Radiation Transport: Assessment with High Resolution Human Head Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saganti, Premkumar; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Porter, Linda

    Space radiation environment is being monitored in near earth orbit on the International Space Station (ISS) and in all of the Space Shuttle (STS) flights as well as with some of the deepspace probes such as the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) at Mars for understanding and assessing the space radiation risk for human explorations. The science of the space radiation environment and its transport through the human biological systems is very complex. Space radiation transport not only includes the primary high energetic particles from the free galactic space and also the secondary particles generated in the shielding shell of the space vehicle. Though little, human tissue offers several gradations of self shielding for the radiation environment as a function of the tissue density and depth. The human shield model used by us in the past was originally developed by NASA for assessing the radiation transport into the human body that included a limited set of tissue densities ( 11). In our current approach we expand this human tissue model with a larger data set representation ( 50) of tissue density variations based on the visible human body data. Cross-sectional image planes of the visible human body from MRI and CT data sets are being used for estimating the radiation transport calculations at a higher tissue gradation. This data is then translated to the geometric model for radiation transport visualization. Once the transport of the radiation dose and particle flux is calculated, visualization of the data is achieved utilizing in-house built algorithms. We present radiation distribution and visualization in the human head.

  7. Structures of the fractional spaces generated by the difference neutron transport operator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Taskin, Abdulgafur

    2015-09-18

    The initial boundary value problem for the neutron transport equation is considered. The first, second and third order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of this problem are presented. Highly accurate difference schemes for neutron transport equation based on Padé approximation are constructed. In applications, stability estimates for solutions of difference schemes for the approximate solution of the neutron transport equation are obtained.The positivity of the neutron transport operator in Slobodeckij spaces is proved. Numerical techniques are developed and algorithms are tested on an example in MATLAB.

  8. Space Transportation Avionics Technology Symposium. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the symposium was to examine existing and planned avionics technology processes and products and to recommend necessary changes for strengthening priorities and program emphases. Innovative changes in avionics technology development and design processes, identified during the symposium, are needed to support the increasingly complex, multi-vehicle, integrated, autonomous space-based systems. Key technology advances make such a major initiative viable at this time: digital processing capabilities, integrated on-board test/checkout methods, easily reconfigurable laboratories, and software design and production techniques.

  9. Space Transportation Avionics Technology Symposium. Volume 2: Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the symposium was to examine existing and planned avionics technology processes and products and to recommend necessary changes for strengthening priorities and program emphases. Innovative changes in avionics technology development and design processes are needed to support the increasingly complex, multi-vehicle, integrated, autonomous space-based systems. Key technology advances make such a major initiative viable at this time: digital processing capabilities, integrated on-board test/checkout methods, easily reconfigurable laboratories, and software design and production techniques.

  10. Wigner transformation, momentum space topology, and anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Using derivative expansion applied to the Wigner transform of the two- point Green function we analyse the anomalous quantum Hall effect (AQHE), and the chiral magnetic effect (CME). The corresponding currents are proportional to the momentum space topological invariants. We reproduce the conventional expression for the Hall conductivity in 2 + 1 D. In 3 + 1 D our analysis allows to explain systematically the AQHE in topological insulators and Weyl semimetals. At the same time using this method it may be proved, that the equilibrium CME is absent in the wide class of solids, as well as in the properly regularized relativistic quantum field theory.

  11. STS-95 space experiment for plant growth and development, and auxin polar transport.

    PubMed

    Ueda, J; Miyamoto, K; Yuda, T; Hoshino, T; Sato, K; Fujii, S; Kamigaichi, S; Izumi, R; Ishioka, N; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    2000-06-01

    The principal objective of the space experiment, BRIC-AUX on STS-95, was the integrated analysis of the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings in space, and the effect of microgravity conditions in space on auxin polar transport in the segments. Microgravity conditions in space strongly affected the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings. Etiolated pea and maize seedlings were leaned and curved during space flight, respectively. Finally the growth inhibition of these seedlings was also observed. Roots of some pea seedlings grew toward the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Extensibilities of cell walls of the third internode of etiolated pea epicotyls and the top region of etiolated maize coleoptiles which were germinated and grown under microgravity conditions in space were significantly low. Activities of auxin polar transport in the second internode segments of etiolated pea seedlings and coleoptile segments of etiolated maize seedlings were significantly inhibited and extremely promoted, respectively, under microgravity conditions in space. These results strongly suggest that auxin polar transport as well as the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on the earth.

  12. Access from Space: A New Perspective on NASA's Space Transportation Technology Requirements and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The need for robust and reliable access from space is clearly demonstrated by the recent loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia; as well as the NASA s goals to get the Shuttle re-flying and extend its life, build new vehicles for space access, produce successful robotic landers and s a q k retrr? llisrions, and maximize the science content of ambitious outer planets missions that contain nuclear reactors which must be safe for re-entry after possible launch aborts. The technology lynch pin of access from space is hypersonic entry systems such the thermal protection system, along with navigation, guidance and control (NG&C). But it also extends to descent and landing systems such as parachutes, airbags and their control systems. Current space access technology maturation programs such as NASA s Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program or the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) program focus on maturing laboratory demonstrated technologies for potential adoption by specific mission applications. A key requirement for these programs success is a suitable queue of innovative technologies and advanced concepts to mature, including mission concepts enabled by innovative, cross cutting technology advancements. When considering space access, propulsion often dominates the capability requirements, as well as the attention and resources. From the perspective of access from space some new cross cutting technology drivers come into view, along with some new capability opportunities. These include new miniature vehicles (micro, nano, and picosats), advanced automated systems (providing autonomous on-orbit inspection or landing site selection), and transformable aeroshells (to maximize capabilities and minimize weight). This paper provides an assessment of the technology drivers needed to meet future access from space mission requirements, along with the mission capabilities that can be envisioned from innovative, cross cutting access from space technology developments.

  13. Comparison of space radiation calculations for deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, James; Barghouty, Abdulnasser; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Tripathi, Ram; Watts, John; Yepes, Pablo

    For space radiation protection of astronauts or electronic equipments, it is necessary to develop and use accurate radiation transport codes. Radiation transport codes include deterministic codes, such as HZETRN from NASA and UPROP from the Naval Research Laboratory, and Monte Carlo codes such as FLUKA, the Geant4 toolkit and HETC-HEDS. The deterministic codes and Monte Carlo codes complement each other in that deterministic codes are very fast while Monte Carlo codes are more elaborate. Therefore it is important to investigate how well the results of deterministic codes compare with those of Monte Carlo transport codes and where they differ. In this study we evaluate these different codes in their space radiation applications by comparing their output results in the same given space radiation environments, shielding geometry and material. Typical space radiation environments such as the 1977 solar minimum galactic cosmic ray environment are used as the well-defined input, and simple geometries made of aluminum, water and/or polyethylene are used to represent the shielding material. We then compare various outputs of these codes, such as the dose-depth curves and the flux spectra of different fragments and other secondary particles. These comparisons enable us to learn more about the main differences between these space radiation transport codes. At the same time, they help us to learn the qualitative and quantitative features that these transport codes have in common.

  14. Indian space transportation programme: Near term outlook and issues for commercialisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, Narayan Prasad

    2015-05-01

    The Indian space transportation programme has grown from strength to strength with the launching of sounding rockets in the 60's to the development of heavy lift vehicles for telecommunication satellites in the present decade. With the growing market confidence in Indian Space Research Organisation's ability to reliably deliver payloads to low Earth orbit with its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, there is an inherent opportunity for India to cater to the commercial market. The present work assesses the current launch capacity of India in retrospect of international launches and provides India's outlook for the space transportation in the current decade. Launch capacity correlation with the requirements within the Indian space programme as well as the current space transportation infrastructure have been considered to identify bottlenecks in catering to the current national requirements alongside securing a greater market share in the international launch market. The state of commercialisation of launch vehicle development has been presented to provide an overview of policy and organisational issues for commercialisation of space transportation in India.

  15. Descriptions of experiments selected for the Space Transportation System (STS) materials processing in space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Summaries are presented for the first group of materials processing experiments planned for a shuttle mission. Outlined are the objectives, the approach, the rationale for the use of space, and the anticipated results for each experiment.

  16. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  17. The Space Transportation System summer environment on launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a 2D flow and thermalanalysis to determine the solar effect on the Space Shuttle launch components subsequent to the external tank (ET) loading operation in extremely hot conditions. An existing CFD code Parabolic Hyperbolic or Elliptical Numerical Integration Code Series was used in the study. The analysis was done for a 2D slice between planes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the STS and passing through the lower portions of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs), the ET, and the wing of the Orbiter. The results are presented as local and average values of the heat transfer coefficient, and the Nusselt number, and the surface temperature around the RSRMs and the ET. Solar heating effects increased the surface temperatures of the RSRMs by 9-11 F. Higher prelaunch surface temperatures measured on the east and west RSRMs (in the inboard region between the RSRMs and the ET) during 19 most recent launches of the STS are correlated as a function of the ambient temperature.

  18. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 2: Design definition document and environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  19. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  20. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with

  1. Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. V.; Thompson, R. L.; Lubick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study is summarized of extraterrestrial (space) disposal of radioactive waste. The initial work on the evaluation and comparison of possible space destinations and launch vehicles is reported. Only current or planned space transportation systems were considered. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles, by about a factor of two. The space shuttle will require a third stage to perform the disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission this could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur. Of the destinations considered, high earth orbits (between geostationary and lunar orbit altitudes), solar orbits (such as a 0.90 AU circular solar orbit) or a direct injection to solar system escape appear to be the best candidates. Both earth orbits and solar orbits have uncertainties regarding orbit stability and waste package integrity for times on the order of a million years.

  2. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  3. Observation of complete space-charge-limited transport in metal-oxide-graphene heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Wang, Guang; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn; Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn

    2015-01-12

    The metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures have abundant physical connotations. As one of the most important physical properties, the electric transport property of the gold-chromium oxide-graphene heterostructure has been studied. The experimental measurement shows that the conductive mechanism is dominated by the space-charge-limited transport, a kind of bulk transport of an insulator with charge traps. Combining the theoretical analysis, some key parameters such as the carrier mobility and trap energy also are obtained. The study of the characteristics of the metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures is helpful to investigate the graphene-based electronic and photoelectric devices.

  4. Transport calculations and accelerator experiments needed for radiation risk assessment in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, Lembit

    2008-01-01

    The major uncertainties on space radiation risk estimates in humans are associated to the poor knowledge of the biological effects of low and high LET radiation, with a smaller contribution coming from the characterization of space radiation field and its primary interactions with the shielding and the human body. However, to decrease the uncertainties on the biological effects and increase the accuracy of the risk coefficients for charged particles radiation, the initial charged-particle spectra from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and the Solar Particle Events (SPEs), and the radiation transport through the shielding material of the space vehicle and the human body, must be better estimated Since it is practically impossible to measure all primary and secondary particles from all possible position-projectile-target-energy combinations needed for a correct risk assessment in space, accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes must be used. These codes are also needed when estimating the risk for radiation induced failures in advanced microelectronics, such as single-event effects, etc., and the efficiency of different shielding materials. It is therefore important that the models and transport codes will be carefully benchmarked and validated to make sure they fulfill preset accuracy criteria, e.g. to be able to predict particle fluence, dose and energy distributions within a certain accuracy. When validating the accuracy of the transport codes, both space and ground based accelerator experiments are needed The efficiency of passive shielding and protection of electronic devices should also be tested in accelerator experiments and compared to simulations using different transport codes. In this paper different multipurpose particle and heavy ion transport codes will be presented, different concepts of shielding and protection discussed, as well as future accelerator experiments needed for testing and validating codes and shielding materials. PMID:19205295

  5. International cooperation in space transportation: Results of the AIAA Hawaii conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, J.

    In 1992, the International Committee of the AIAA sponsored a workshop in Hawaii entitled 'International Space Cooperation: Learning form the Past, Planning for the Future' which attempted to understand how the recent dramatic changes in the world situation might impact future international cooperation in space. This workshop formed the basis for a second workshop, also in Hawaii, entitled 'International Space Cooperation: Getting Serious about How' in December 1994. The second workshop built on the past findings and was designed to formulate approaches on how to make international cooperation work for a number of international space activities. A distinguished group of 65 experts from fifteen countries were organized into five working groups within the larger workshop to address five diverse areas: Global Space Systems Services, International Space Cooperation for Peacekeeping, Cooperative Human and Robotic Exploration of Space, International Cooperation in Space Transportation, and Solar Power to Earth dealing with near and longer term space projects where international cooperation might play a part. Work was conducted in both working group sessions and plenary sessions to stimulate and encourage the greatest exchange of ideas among the participants as possible. A report on the entire workship is available from the AIAA. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of the International Cooperation in Space Transporation topic.

  6. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, George

    1986-01-01

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  7. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, George

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  8. Methods of treating complex space vehicle geometry for charged particle radiation transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current methods of treating complex geometry models for space radiation transport calculations are reviewed. The geometric techniques used in three computer codes are outlined. Evaluations of geometric capability and speed are provided for these codes. Although no code development work is included several suggestions for significantly improving complex geometry codes are offered.

  9. The effect of three space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pigs during transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocking density is an important aspect of transport which could affect animal health and welfare, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three different space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pig...

  10. Graphite/Polyimide Composites. [conference on Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B. (Editor); Davis, J. G., Jr. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed under the Composites for Advanced Space Transportation System Project is reported. Specific topics covered include fabrication, adhesives, test methods, structural integrity, design and analysis, advanced technology developments, high temperature polymer research, and the state of the art of graphite/polyimide composites.

  11. New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2012-11-01

    Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated.

  12. New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2012-01-01

    Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated. PMID:23155481

  13. Transport of Space Environment Electrons: A Simplified Rapid-Analysis Computational Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Katz, Robert; Chang, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    A computational procedure for describing transport of electrons in condensed media has been formulated for application to effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The procedure is based on earlier parameterizations established from numerous electron beam experiments. New parameterizations have been derived that logically extend the domain of application to low molecular weight (high hydrogen content) materials and higher energies (approximately 50 MeV). The production and transport of high energy photons (bremsstrahlung) generated in the electron transport processes have also been modeled using tabulated values of photon production cross sections. A primary purpose for developing the procedure has been to provide a means for rapidly performing numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. Several favorable comparisons have been made with previous calculations for typical space environment spectra, which have indicated that accuracy has not been substantially compromised at the expense of computational speed.

  14. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  15. Space Shuttle and Launch Pad Lift-Off Debris Transport Analysis: SRB Plume-Driven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Strutzenberg, Louis; Dougherty, Sam; Radke, Jerry; Liever, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-Off model developed for potential Lift-Off Debris transport. A critical Lift-Off portion of the flight is defined from approximately 1.5 sec after SRB Ignition up to 'Tower Clear', where exhaust plume interactions with the Launch Pad occur. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and Launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. The CFD model works in conjunction with a debris particle transport model and a debris particle impact damage tolerance model. These models have been used to assess the effects of the Space Shuttle plumes, the wind environment, their interactions with the Launch Pad, and their ultimate effect on potential debris during Lift-Off. Emphasis in this paper is on potential debris that might be caught by the SRB plumes.

  16. The actions of the European Space Agency to prepare for future space transportation systems - The FESTIP programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Heinrich A.

    1992-12-01

    The Future European Space Transportation Investigations Program (FESTIP) has been entrusted with the conceptual development and evaluation of such techniques and technologies relevant to next-generation launch vehicle configurations as CFD for severe aerothermodynamics, refractory materials and structures, advanced rocket and airbreathing propulsion, and subsystem designs. The FESTIP reference configurational concepts encompass a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable rocket, a TSTO airbreathing/rocket hybrid, a reusable SSTO dual-cycle engined craft such as NASA's NASP, and a reusable SSTO rocket.

  17. Space adaptation syndrome: Incidence and operational implications for the space transportation system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Better methods for the prediction, prevention, and treatment of the space adaptation syndome (SAS) were developed. A systematic, long range program of operationally oriented data collection on all individuals flying space shuttle missions was initiated. Preflight activities include the use of a motion experience questionnaire, laboratory tests of susceptibility to motion sickness induced by Coriolis stimuli and determinations of antimotion sickness drug efficacy and side effects. During flight, each crewmember is required to provide a daily report of symptom status, use of medications, and other vestibular related sensations. Additional data are obtained postflight. During the first nine shuttle missions, the reported incidence of SAS has been48%. Self-induced head motions and unusual visual orientation attitudes appear to be the principal triggering stimuli. Antimotion sickness medication, was of limited therapeutic value. Complete recovery from symptoms occurred by mission day three or four. Also of relevance is the lack of a statistically significant correlation between the ground based Coriolis test and SAS. The episodes of SAS have resulted in no impact to shuttle mission objectives and, no significant impact to mission timelines.

  18. Mission and Implementation of an Affordable Lunar Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul; Lavoie, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We present an architecture that establishes the infrastructure for routine space travel by taking advantage of the Moon's resources, proximity and accessibility. We use robotic assets on the Moon that are teleoperated from Earth to prospect, test, demonstrate and produce water from lunar resources before human arrival. This plan is affordable, flexible and not tied to any specific launch vehicle solution. Individual surface pieces are small, permitting them to be deployed separately on small launchers or combined together on single large launchers. Schedule is our free variable; even under highly constrained budgets, the architecture permits this program to be continuously pursued using small, incremental, cumulative steps. The end stage is a fully functional, human-tended lunar outpost capable of producing 150 metric tonnes of water per year enough to export water from the Moon and create a transportation system that allows routine access to all of cislunar space. This cost-effective lunar architecture advances technology and builds a sustainable transportation infrastructure. By eliminating the need to launch everything from the surface of the Earth, we fundamentally change the paradigm of spaceflight.

  19. A variational approach for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-09-14

    Recent development of theoretical method for dissipative quantum transport has achieved notable progresses in the weak or strong electron-phonon coupling regime. However, a generalized theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space had not been established. In this work, a variational polaron theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide range of electron-phonon coupling is developed. The optimal polaron transformation is determined by the optimization of the Feynman-Bogoliubov upper bound of free energy. The free energy minimization ends up with an optimal mean-field Hamiltonian and a minimal interaction Hamiltonian. Hence, second-order perturbation can be applied to the transformed system, resulting in an accurate and efficient method for the treatment of dissipative quantum transport with different electron-phonon coupling strength. Numerical benchmark calculation on a single site model coupled to one phonon mode is presented. PMID:26619516

  20. A variational approach for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-09-14

    Recent development of theoretical method for dissipative quantum transport has achieved notable progresses in the weak or strong electron-phonon coupling regime. However, a generalized theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space had not been established. In this work, a variational polaron theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide range of electron-phonon coupling is developed. The optimal polaron transformation is determined by the optimization of the Feynman-Bogoliubov upper bound of free energy. The free energy minimization ends up with an optimal mean-field Hamiltonian and a minimal interaction Hamiltonian. Hence, second-order perturbation can be applied to the transformed system, resulting in an accurate and efficient method for the treatment of dissipative quantum transport with different electron-phonon coupling strength. Numerical benchmark calculation on a single site model coupled to one phonon mode is presented.

  1. Reliable Transport over SpaceWire for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Dailey, Christopher; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin

    2003-01-01

    combination of requirements necessitates a redundant, fault tolerant, high- speed, low mass, low power network with a low Bit error Rate(1E-9- 1E-12). The ISIM systems team performed many studies of the various network architectures that meeting these requirements. The architecture selected uses the Spacewire protocol, with the addition of a new transport and network layer added to implement end-to-end reliable transport. The network and reliable transport mechanism must be implemented in hardware because of the high average information rate and the restriction on the ability of the detectors to buffer data due to power and size restrictions. This network and transport mechanism was designed to be compatible with existing Spacewire links and routers so that existing equipment and designs may be leveraged upon. The transport layer specification is being coordinated with European Space Agency (ESA), Spacewire Working Group and the Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) PlK Standard Onboard Interface (SOIF) panel, with the intent of developing a standard for reliable transport for Spacewire. Changes to the protocol presented are likely since negotiations are ongoing with these groups. A block of RTL VHDL that implements a multi-port Spacewire router with an external user interface will be developed and integrated with an existing Spacewire Link design. The external user interface will be the local interface that sources and sinks packets onto and off of the network (Figure 3). The external user interface implements the network and transport layer and handles acknowledgements and re-tries of packets for reliable transport over the network. Because the design is written in RTL, it may be ported to any technology but will initially be targeted to the new Actel Accelerator series (AX) part. Each link will run at 160 Mbps and the power will be about 0.165 Watt per link worst case in the Actel AX.

  2. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, the Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the middecade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including: Development, test, evaluation, and verification. Program management and control. Flight readiness certification. Launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations. Sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate that the crew transportation system operates in the appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks. The Commercial Crew Program will present progress to date and how it manages safety and reduces risk.

  3. Ion transport in complex layered graphene-based membranes with tuneable interlayer spacing

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi; Jiang, Gengping; Garvey, Christopher J.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Simon, George P.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the transport properties of ions confined in nanoporous carbon is generally difficult because of the stochastic nature and distribution of multiscale complex and imperfect pore structures within the bulk material. We demonstrate a combined approach of experiment and simulation to describe the structure of complex layered graphene-based membranes, which allows their use as a unique porous platform to gain unprecedented insights into nanoconfined transport phenomena across the entire sub–10-nm scales. By correlation of experimental results with simulation of concentration-driven ion diffusion through the cascading layered graphene structure with sub–10-nm tuneable interlayer spacing, we are able to construct a robust, representative structural model that allows the establishment of a quantitative relationship among the nanoconfined ion transport properties in relation to the complex nanoporous structure of the layered membrane. This correlation reveals the remarkable effect of the structural imperfections of the membranes on ion transport and particularly the scaling behaviors of both diffusive and electrokinetic ion transport in graphene-based cascading nanochannels as a function of channel size from 10 nm down to subnanometer. Our analysis shows that the range of ion transport effects previously observed in simple one-dimensional nanofluidic systems will translate themselves into bulk, complex nanoslit porous systems in a very different manner, and the complex cascading porous circuities can enable new transport phenomena that are unattainable in simple fluidic systems. PMID:26933689

  4. Molecular phase space transport in water: Non-stationary random walk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerukh, Dmitry; Ryabov, Vladimir; Taiji, Makoto

    2009-11-01

    Molecular transport in phase space is crucial for chemical reactions because it defines how pre-reactive molecular configurations are found during the time evolution of the system. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulated atomistic trajectories we test the assumption of the normal diffusion in the phase space for bulk water at ambient conditions by checking the equivalence of the transport to the random walk model. Contrary to common expectations we have found that some statistical features of the transport in the phase space differ from those of the normal diffusion models. This implies a non-random character of the path search process by the reacting complexes in water solutions. Our further numerical experiments show that a significant long period of non-stationarity in the transition probabilities of the segments of molecular trajectories can account for the observed non-uniform filling of the phase space. Surprisingly, the characteristic periods in the model non-stationarity constitute hundreds of nanoseconds, that is much longer time scales compared to typical lifetime of known liquid water molecular structures (several picoseconds).

  5. Demonstration plan for real time receiving and processing of flight data from the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.; Avery, Don E.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a detailed demonstration test plan for receiving and processing data from experiments being conducted on the Space Transportation System near real time at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This task can readily be achieved using the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). The Space Shuttle data flow is described including both the payload and the mission data. A description is presented of the OARE instrument which is used to measure low frequency Space Shuttle accelerations in nano-gs. Procedures are shown for obtaining the required mission data and OARE payload data at LaRC. The demonstration test plan schedule and costs are presented. It is recommended that both the OARE data and the pertinent Space Shuttle mission data be received at LaRC over the NASA Communication System (NASCOM) on a near real time basis.

  6. STARS - Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System for the National Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Leroy J.; Doempke, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    The concept, implementation, and long-range goals of a Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System (STARS) for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) are discussed. The requirement was established as a direct result of the recommendations of the Rogers Commission investigation of the circumstances of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. STARS outlines the requirements for the supportability-trend data collection, analysis, and reporting requirements that each of the project offices supporting the Space Shuttle are required to provide to the NSTS program office. STARS data give the historic and predictive logistics information necessary for all levels of NSTS management to make safe and cost-effective decisions concerning the smooth flow of Space Shuttle turnaround.

  7. Electrochemical control of iodine disinfectant for space transportation system and space station potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical microbial check valve method (EC-MCV) for controlling the iodine disinfectant in potable water (PW) for NASA's space operations was proposed. The factors affecting the design and performance of the unit were analyzed. This showed that it would be feasible to construct a recyclable unit in a small volume that will operate in either an iodine removal or addition mode. The EC-MCV should remove active iodine species rapidly from PW, but the rapid delivery rates at end-use may make complete removal of excess I(-) difficult under some conditions. Its performace change with AgI buildup needs to be investigated, as this controls the time for recycling the unit. The EC-MCV has advantages over the passive microbial check valve (MCV) method currently in use, as it would allow precise control of the I2 level and would not introduce excess I(-) to the water. The presence of oxygen in the EC-MCV needs to be investigated as it could affect the efficiency of I2 addition and excess I(-) removal.

  8. Disentangling steric and electrostatic factors in nanoscale transport through confined space.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Steven F; Mitchell, Nick; Martin, Hugh; Wiggin, Matt; Marziali, Andre; Coveney, Peter V; Siwy, Zuzanna; Howorka, Stefan

    2013-08-14

    The voltage-driven passage of biological polymers through nanoscale pores is an analytically, technologically, and biologically relevant process. Despite various studies on homopolymer translocation there are still several open questions on the fundamental aspects of pore transport. One of the most important unresolved issues revolves around the passage of biopolymers which vary in charge and volume along their sequence. Here we exploit an experimentally tunable system to disentangle and quantify electrostatic and steric factors. This new, fundamental framework facilitates the understanding of how complex biopolymers are transported through confined space and indicates how their translocation can be slowed down to enable future sensing methods.

  9. Ion activities in the lateral intercellular spaces of gallbladder epithelium transporting at low external osmolarities.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, T

    1983-01-01

    The ion activities in the lateral spaces of the unilateral preparation of the gallbladder of Rana catesbiana were measured by double-barrelled ion-selective microelectrodes. The bladders were bathed in a saline solution with a low osmolarity (62 mOsm) containing, in mM: 27 Na+, 27 Cl-, 2 K+, 1 Ca++, 4 HCO3-. Working at reduced osmolarities had the advantage of an increased volume transport and of widened intercellular spaces. The reference barrel recorded an electrical potential of +2.7 mV in the spaces; they contained a solution similar to the external solution. The electrodes recorded a Na+ concentration of 27 mM, a K+ concentration of 1.7 mM, a Ca++ concentration of 0.69 mM and a Cl- concentration of 28.5 mM. In the spaces there was a lower resistance between the tip of the electrode and the serosal bath than that recorded with the tip in the lumen, and injection of fluorescent dye (11 A diameter) via the electrodes did not stain the cells. The concentrations in the secretion were similar to those in the spaces. The intracellular compartment had an apparent K+ concentration of 95 mM, and the concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were both about 5 mM. These data indicate that when the gallbladder is bathed with hypotonic solutions and is transporting fluid at approximately three or four times the normal rate, there are no significant osmotic gradients between the lumen and the lateral spaces. It is suggested that transcellular transport of water is implemented by a combination of high osmotic permeabilities across both mucosal and serosal cell membranes and low reflection coefficients (for K+ salts) at the serosal cell membranes. PMID:6606049

  10. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  11. Space Radiation Transport Codes: A Comparative Study for Galactic Cosmic Rays Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Gabriel, Tony; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Slaba, Tony

    For long duration and/or deep space human missions, protection from severe space radiation exposure is a challenging design constraint and may be a potential limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues, microelectronic devices, and materials. In deep space missions, where the Earth's magnetic field does not provide protection from space radiation, the GCR environment is significantly enhanced due to the absence of geomagnetic cut-off and is a major component of radiation exposure. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on the accuracy of the input information as well as radiation transport codes used, and so systematic verification of codes is necessary. In this study, comparisons are made between the deterministic code HZETRN2006 and the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS and FLUKA for an aluminum shield followed by a water target exposed to the 1977 solar minimum GCR spectrum. Interaction and transport of high charge ions present in GCR radiation environment provide a more stringent constraint in the comparison of the codes. Dose, dose equivalent and flux spectra are compared; details of the comparisons will be discussed, and conclusions will be drawn for future directions.

  12. Atmospheric science facility pallet-only mode space transportation system payload (feasibility study), Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility is assessed of employing a pallet-only mode for conducting Atmospheric Magnetospheric Plasmas-in-Space experiments. A baseline design incorporating the experiment and instrument descriptions is developed. The prime instruments are packaged into four pallets in a physical and functional manner compatible with the Space Transportation System capabilities and/or constraints and an orbiter seven-day mission timeline. Operational compatibility is verified between the orbiter/payload and supporting facilities. The development status and the schedule requirements applicable to the Atmospheric Science Facility mission are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and discussed.

  13. Comparing Best Practices to Standards in the Context of Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, D.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices are often discussed as preferred over more formal standards to create order when dealing with safety issues in commercial space transportation. Looking at best practices in other global commercial contexts, the paper examines, inter alia, whom best practices protect, whether they provide enough of a definable minimum standard, whether they can be used to limit liability of a private space actor, and whether they hinder innovation. Though these are broad issues, the study is intended to briefly introduce some of the legal ramifications of these concepts to the marketplace employing them.

  14. Mission roles for the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) with the space transportation system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the characteristics of solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) for the space transportation system. Emphasis is placed on the rationale leading to the concepts for the development and operations program which enhances the cost effectiveness of the SEPS operating with the space transportation system. The approach in describing design concepts and configurations is concerned with the decision controlling factors and selection criteria. The mission roles for the SEPS in accomplishing proposed space activities are defined.

  15. PATH: a lumped-element beam-transport simulation program with space charge

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    PATH is a group of computer programs for simulating charged-particle beam-transport systems. It was developed for evaluating the effects of some aberrations without a time-consuming integration of trajectories through the system. The beam-transport portion of PATH is derived from the well-known program, DECAY TURTLE. PATH contains all features available in DECAY TURTLE (including the input format) plus additional features such as a more flexible random-ray generator, longitudinal phase space, some additional beamline elements, and space-charge routines. One of the programs also provides a simulation of an Alvarez linear accelerator. The programs, originally written for a CDC 7600 computer system, also are available on a VAX-VMS system. All of the programs are interactive with input prompting for ease of use.

  16. MESTRN: A Deterministic Meson-Muon Transport Code for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.; Wilson, John W.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2004-01-01

    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations, so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation fields are modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method used to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is developed. This method was then used to develop software, which was used to calculate the fluxes of pions and muons after the transport of a cosmic ray spectrum through aluminum and water. Software descriptions are given in the appendices.

  17. Space allowance during commercial long distance transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to study space allowance in cattle during commercial long haul transport (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys, delivered to livestock transport carriers, gathered information on the number, BW, and distribution of cattle by trailer compartment as well as the characteristics of the transport vehicles used. Space allowance (SA; m(2)/animal), allometric coefficient (k = SA / BW(0.6667)), and the percentage of deviation from recommended SA (DRSA; %) in the Canadian Codes of Practice were calculated for each compartment of the trailers. All quad-axle (77%) and tri-axle (23%) cattle trailers were reported with 5 compartments (nose, deck, belly, back, and doghouse). Sixty percent of all animals were carried in the middle compartments (deck and belly), 30% in the rear (back and doghouse), and 10% in the front or nose. Approximately 30% of the journeys required that the cattle be redistributed at the Canada-USA border to comply with different axle weight regulations, and most journeys moved them between the deck and the doghouse. Total loaded weight increased and the number of animals decreased with increasing BW of the animals. space allowance, k-value, and DRSA were least for calves and feeders compared with fat and cull cattle (p < 0.01). Both total loaded weight and number of animals increased with the number of axles in the trailer, being greatest in quad-axle trailers pulled by push tractors, which were most frequently used. Space allowance (k-value) was least in vehicles with greater number of axles and transporting the lightest cattle (i.e., quad-axles trailers transporting calves and feeders). Space allowance, k-value, and variability among journeys were least in the middle compartments (belly and deck), followed by the back, then doghouse and nose compartments of the trailers showing the largest values (p < 0.05). Many factors contributed to the variability in SA such as body size (smaller animals are placed more densely

  18. Phase-space finite elements in a least-squares solution of the transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, C.; Fan, W.; Pautz, S.

    2013-07-01

    The linear Boltzmann transport equation is solved using a least-squares finite element approximation in the space, angular and energy phase-space variables. The method is applied to both neutral particle transport and also to charged particle transport in the presence of an electric field, where the angular and energy derivative terms are handled with the energy/angular finite elements approximation, in a manner analogous to the way the spatial streaming term is handled. For multi-dimensional problems, a novel approach is used for the angular finite elements: mapping the surface of a unit sphere to a two-dimensional planar region and using a meshing tool to generate a mesh. In this manner, much of the spatial finite-elements machinery can be easily adapted to handle the angular variable. The energy variable and the angular variable for one-dimensional problems make use of edge/beam elements, also building upon the spatial finite elements capabilities. The methods described here can make use of either continuous or discontinuous finite elements in space, angle and/or energy, with the use of continuous finite elements resulting in a smaller problem size and the use of discontinuous finite elements resulting in more accurate solutions for certain types of problems. The work described in this paper makes use of continuous finite elements, so that the resulting linear system is symmetric positive definite and can be solved with a highly efficient parallel preconditioned conjugate gradients algorithm. The phase-space finite elements capability has been built into the Sceptre code and applied to several test problems, including a simple one-dimensional problem with an analytic solution available, a two-dimensional problem with an isolated source term, showing how the method essentially eliminates ray effects encountered with discrete ordinates, and a simple one-dimensional charged-particle transport problem in the presence of an electric field. (authors)

  19. Safety policy and requirements for payloads using the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The safety policy and requirements are established applicable to the Space Transportation System (STS) payloads and their ground support equipment (GSE). The requirements are intended to protect flight and ground personnel, the STS, other payloads, GSE, the general public, public-private property, and the environment from payload-related hazards. The technical and system safety requirements applicable to STS payloads (including payload-provided ground and flight supports systems) during ground and flight operations are contained.

  20. 78 FR 35087 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the SpaceX Texas Launch Site AGENCY: DOT, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), lead Federal agency; and National Aeronautics and Space...

  1. Affordable TB treatments. South.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    This short article reports the proceedings of a session of the World Health Organization (WHO) on tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management. 15 million persons are infected with both TB and HIV; 11 million of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. Current TB management relies on finding cases and treating them. According to Paul Nunn of WHO, the role of preventive therapy is unclear. Jensa Bell, of Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, reported on the cost effectiveness of prevention with isoniazid (INH) in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct medical costs of the drug for 6 months are CHF171/year of life saved. When social costs of TB and prevention of secondary cases are included, INH prophylaxis saves money; initial investment is CHF34.50/person treated, while cost averted is CHF36.24/person treated. Mary Mulindwa, of the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda, studied reasons for nonadherence to TB preventive regimens in a clinical trial. Major reasons included the following: 1) transport difficulties; 2) caring for a sick family member; 3) change of address without informing the home visitor; and 4) stigma of being seen with a health worker. Richard Chaisson, of the CP-CRA004/ACTG177 study group, reported results from a trial comparing prevention with INH for 12 months to rifampin plus pyrazinamide (R/P) for 2 months in 1600 tuberculin-positive, HIV-positive people without active disease in the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Haiti. "Effective therapy" with INH was equal to at least 6 months of continuous adherence; 67% of patients met this standard. 80% of R/P patients were adherent. Over 3 years, there were 26 confirmed cases of TB in the INH group and 19 in the R/P group; these results are equivalent. However, Chaisson noted that the cost and feasibility of R/P treatment in resource-poor settings should be considered.

  2. Affordable TB treatments. South.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    This short article reports the proceedings of a session of the World Health Organization (WHO) on tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management. 15 million persons are infected with both TB and HIV; 11 million of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. Current TB management relies on finding cases and treating them. According to Paul Nunn of WHO, the role of preventive therapy is unclear. Jensa Bell, of Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, reported on the cost effectiveness of prevention with isoniazid (INH) in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct medical costs of the drug for 6 months are CHF171/year of life saved. When social costs of TB and prevention of secondary cases are included, INH prophylaxis saves money; initial investment is CHF34.50/person treated, while cost averted is CHF36.24/person treated. Mary Mulindwa, of the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda, studied reasons for nonadherence to TB preventive regimens in a clinical trial. Major reasons included the following: 1) transport difficulties; 2) caring for a sick family member; 3) change of address without informing the home visitor; and 4) stigma of being seen with a health worker. Richard Chaisson, of the CP-CRA004/ACTG177 study group, reported results from a trial comparing prevention with INH for 12 months to rifampin plus pyrazinamide (R/P) for 2 months in 1600 tuberculin-positive, HIV-positive people without active disease in the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Haiti. "Effective therapy" with INH was equal to at least 6 months of continuous adherence; 67% of patients met this standard. 80% of R/P patients were adherent. Over 3 years, there were 26 confirmed cases of TB in the INH group and 19 in the R/P group; these results are equivalent. However, Chaisson noted that the cost and feasibility of R/P treatment in resource-poor settings should be considered. PMID:12222196

  3. HZETRN: Description of a free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    1995-01-01

    The high-charge-and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN is developed to address the problems of free-space radiation transport and shielding. The HZETRN program is intended specifically for the design engineer who is interested in obtaining fast and accurate dosimetric information for the design and construction of space modules and devices. The program is based on a one-dimensional space-marching formulation of the Boltzmann transport equation with a straight-ahead approximation. The effect of the long-range Coulomb force and electron interaction is treated as a continuous slowing-down process. Atomic (electronic) stopping power coefficients with energies above a few A MeV are calculated by using Bethe's theory including Bragg's rule, Ziegler's shell corrections, and effective charge. Nuclear absorption cross sections are obtained from fits to quantum calculations and total cross sections are obtained with a Ramsauer formalism. Nuclear fragmentation cross sections are calculated with a semiempirical abrasion-ablation fragmentation model. The relation of the final computer code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. A detailed description of the flow of the computer code, input requirements, sample output, and compatibility requirements for non-VAX platforms are provided.

  4. HZETRN: Description of a free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    1995-05-01

    The high-charge-and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN is developed to address the problems of free-space radiation transport and shielding. The HZETRN program is intended specifically for the design engineer who is interested in obtaining fast and accurate dosimetric information for the design and construction of space modules and devices. The program is based on a one-dimensional space-marching formulation of the Boltzmann transport equation with a straight-ahead approximation. The effect of the long-range Coulomb force and electron interaction is treated as a continuous slowing-down process. Atomic (electronic) stopping power coefficients with energies above a few A MeV are calculated by using Bethe's theory including Bragg's rule, Ziegler's shell corrections, and effective charge. Nuclear absorption cross sections are obtained from fits to quantum calculations and total cross sections are obtained with a Ramsauer formalism. Nuclear fragmentation cross sections are calculated with a semiempirical abrasion-ablation fragmentation model. The relation of the final computer code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. A detailed description of the flow of the computer code, input requirements, sample output, and compatibility requirements for non-VAX platforms are provided.

  5. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  6. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation. PMID:26631412

  7. Effects of floor space during transport and journey time on indicators of stress and transport losses of market-weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Ellis, M; Rojo-Gómez, A; Curtis, S E; Wolter, B F; Peterson, C M; Peterson, B A; Ritter, M J; Brinkmann, J

    2011-11-01

    The effects of floor space on the trailer and journey time during transport from the farm to the packing plant on indicators of stress (open-mouth breathing, muscle tremors, and skin discoloration) and on the incidence of transport losses (dead on arrival, nonambulatory, noninjured, and nonambulatory, injured) were evaluated in a study involving 160 loads of market-weight pigs (BW 124.7 ± 4.38 kg) using a split-plot design with a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) journey time [main plot; short (<1 h) and long (3 h)] and 2) floor space (subplot; 0.396, 0.415, 0.437, 0.462, 0.489, and 0.520 m(2)/pig, which is equivalent to 0.317, 0.332, 0.350, 0.370, 0.391, and 0.416 m(2)/100 kg of BW, respectively). Two consecutively loaded trailers were randomly allotted to journey time treatment. Floor space treatments were compared in the front 3 compartments on the top and bottom decks of the trailer and were created by varying the number of pigs per compartment, which confounds the effect of floor space with group size. Of the 17,652 pigs transported in 954 test compartments, 0.24% died or became nonambulatory. Neither journey time nor floor space had an effect (P > 0.05) on the incidence of dead and nonambulatory, injured pigs, or on total transport losses. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between journey time and floor space treatments for the incidences of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs and open-mouth breathing. For 2 of the smallest floor spaces (0.415 and 0.437 m(2)/pig), the incidence of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs was greater on short than on long journeys; for the other 4 floor spaces there was no effect (P > 0.05) of journey time. The incidence of open-mouth breathing for the 3 smallest floor spaces was greater (P < 0.05) for short than long journeys, whereas there was no effect (P > 0.05) of journey time for the 3 greatest floor spaces. The frequency of skin discoloration was greater (P < 0.001) for pigs transported at the 2 smallest floor spaces

  8. Space Transportation System (STS) propellant scavenging system study. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The objectives are to define the most efficient and cost effective methods for scavenging cryogenic and storable propellants and then define the requirements for these scavenging systems. For cryogenic propellants, scavenging is the transfer of propellants from the Shuttle orbiter external tank (ET) and/or main propulsion subsystems (MPS) propellant lines into storage tanks located in the orbiter payload bay for delivery to the user station by a space based transfer stage or the Space Transportation System (STS) by direct insertion. For storable propellants, scavenging is the direct transfer from the orbital maneuvering subsystem (OMS) and/or tankage in the payload bay to users in LEO as well as users in the vicinity of the Space Station.

  9. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding.

  10. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  11. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 1: Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. [feasibility of using space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Ramler, J. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.

  12. Particle radiation transport and effects models from research to space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Giovanni; Nieminen, Petteri; Rivera, Angela; Ibarmia, Sergio; Truscott, Pete; Lei, Fan; Desorgher, Laurent; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kruglanski, Michel; Messios, Neophytos

    Assessment of risk from potential radiation-induced effects to space systems requires knowledge of both the conditions of the radiation environment and of the impact of radiation on sensi-tive spacecraft elements. During sensitivity analyses, test data are complemented by models to predict how external radiation fields are transported and modified in spacecraft materials. Radiation transport is still itself a subject of research and models are continuously improved to describe the physical interactions that take place when particles pass through shielding materi-als or hit electronic systems or astronauts, sometimes down to nanometre-scale interactions of single particles with deep sub-micron technologies or DNA structures. In recent years, though, such radiation transport models are transitioning from being a research subject by itself, to being widely used in the space engineering domain and finally being directly applied in the context of operation of space weather services. A significant "research to operations" (R2O) case is offered by Geant4, an open source toolkit initially developed and used in the context of fundamental research in high energy physics. Geant4 is also being used in the space domain, e.g. for modelling detector responses in science payloads, but also for studying the radiation environment itself, with subjects ranging from cosmic rays, to solar energetic particles in the heliosphere, to geomagnetic shielding. Geant4-based tools are now becoming more and more integrated in spacecraft design procedures, also through user friendly interfaces such as SPEN-VIS. Some examples are given by MULASSIS, offering multi-layered shielding analysis capa-bilities in realistic spacecraft materials, or GEMAT, focused on micro-dosimetry in electronics, or PLANETOCOSMICS, describing the interaction of the space environment with planetary magneto-and atmospheres, or GRAS, providing a modular and easy to use interface to various analysis types in simple or

  13. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  14. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  15. Results of EVA/mobile transporter space station truss assembly tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.; Lake, M. S.; Jensen, J. K.; Wallsom, R. E.; Phelps, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Underwater neutral buoyance tests were conducted to evaluate the use of a Mobile Transporter concept in conjunction with EVA astronauts to construct the Space Station Freedom truss structure. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15 foot square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices (mobile foot restraints). The average unit assembly time (which included integrated installation of utility trays) was 27.6 s/strut, or 6 min/bay. The results of these tests indicate that EVA assembly of space station size structures can be significantly enhanced when using a Mobile Transporter equipped with astronaut positioning devices. Rapid assembly time can be expected and are dependent primarily on the rate of translation permissible for on-orbit operations. The concept used to demonstate integrated installation of utility trays requires minimal EVA handling and consequentially, as the results show, has little impact on overall assembly time.

  16. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. Joseph; Cooke, Doug; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing opinion that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget scenarios, with sustained international participation, and --- especially --- without requiring those first missions to achieve a burdensome number of goals. In response to this view, a group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December 2013. Participants reviewed scenarios for proposed affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" or "transition" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and usable definitions of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop. In the context of affordable early missions to Mars, we also discuss the recent report of the National Research Council on human space flight and a pair of recent scenarios that appear to promise reduced costs.

  17. Space Shuttle and Launch Pad Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Lift-off Debris Transport Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Sam; West, Jeff; Droege, Alan; Wilson, Josh; Liever, Peter; Slaby, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-off CFD model developed for potential Lift-off Debris transport for return-to-flight. The Lift-off portion of the flight is defined as the time starting with tanking of propellants until tower clear, approximately T0+6 seconds, where interactions with the launch pad cease. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. Simplifications required in the construction of the model are presented and discussed. A body-fitted overset grid of up to 170 million grid points was developed which allowed positioning of the Vehicle relative to the Launch Pad over the first six seconds of Climb-Out. The CFD model works in conjunction with a debris particle transport model and a debris particle impact damage tolerance model. These models have been used to assess the interactions of the Space Shuttle plumes, the wind environment, and their interactions with each other and the Launch Pad and their ultimate effect on potential debris during Lift-off.

  18. A nu-space for ICS: characterization and application to measure protein transport in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Chen, Lingfeng; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new generalized theoretical framework for image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). Using this framework, we extend the ICS method in time-frequency (ν, nu) space to map molecular flow of fluorescently tagged proteins in individual living cells. Even in the presence of a dominant immobile population of fluorescent molecules, nu-space ICS (nICS) provides an unbiased velocity measurement, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the flow, without requiring filtering. We also develop and characterize a tunable frequency-filter for STICS that allows quantification of the density, the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of biased diffusion. We show that the techniques are accurate over a wide range of parameter space in computer simulation. We then characterize the retrograde flow of adhesion proteins (α6- and αLβ2-GFP integrins and mCherry-paxillin) in CHO.B2 cells plated on laminin and ICAM ligands respectively. STICS with a tunable frequency filter, in conjunction with nICS, measures two new transport parameters, the density and transport bias coefficient (a measure of the diffusive character of a flow/biased diffusion), showing that molecular flow in this cell system has a significant diffusive component. Our results suggest that the integrinligand interaction, along with the internal myosin-motor generated force, varies for different integrin-ligand pairs, consistent with previous results. PMID:24223019

  19. Growth and development, and auxin polar transport in higher plants under microgravity conditions in space: BRIC-AUX on STS-95 space experiment.

    PubMed

    Ueda, J; Miyamoto, K; Yuda, T; Hoshino, T; Fujii, S; Mukai, C; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    1999-12-01

    The principal objectives of the space experiment, BRIC-AUX on STS 95, were the integrated analysis of the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings in space and a study of the effects of microgravity conditions in space on auxin polar transport in these segments. Microgravity significantly affected the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings were the most oriented toward about 40 to 60 degrees from the vertical. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings were curved at random during space flight but coleoptiles were almost straight. Finally the growth inhibition of these seedlings in space was also observed. Roots of some pea seedlings grew toward to the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Extensibilities of cell walls of the third internode of etiolated pea epicotyls and the top region of etiolated maize coleoptiles, which were germinated and grown under microgravity conditions in space, were significantly low as compared with those grown on the ground of the earth. Activities of auxin polar transport in the second internode segments of etiolated pea seedlings and coleoptile segments of etiolated maize seedlings were significantly inhibited and promoted, respectively, under microgravity conditions in space. These results strongly suggest that auxin polar transport as well as the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on the earth.

  20. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  1. Surface Charge- and Space-Dependent Transport of Proteins in Crowded Environments of Nanotailored Posts

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chang Kyoung; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Retterer, Scott T; Siuti, Piro; Iyer, Sukanya; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    The reaction and diffusion of molecules across barriers and through crowded environments is integral to biological system function and to separation technologies. Ordered, microfabricated post arrays are a promising route to creating synthetic barriers with controlled chemical and physical characteristics. They can be used to create crowded environments, to mimic aspects of cellular membranes, and to serve as engineered replacements of polymer-based separation media. Here, the translational diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyante and various forms of green fluorescent protein (GFP), including 'supercharged' variants, are examined in a silicon-based post array environment. The technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is combined with analytical approximations and numerical simulations to assess the relative effects of reaction and diffusion on molecular transport, respectively. FRAP experiments were conducted for 64 different cases where the molecular species, the density of the posts, and the chemical surface charge of the posts were varied. In all cases, the dense packing of the posts hindered the diffusive transport of the fluorescent species. The supercharged GFPs strongly interacted with oppositely charged surfaces. With similar molecular and surface charges, transport is primarily limited by hindered diffusion. For conventional, enhanced GFP in a positively charged surface environment, transport was limited by the coupled action of hindered diffusion and surface interaction with the posts. Quantification of the size-, space-, time-, and charge-dependent translational diffusion in the post array environments can provide insight into natural processes and guide the design and development of selective membrane systems.

  2. Crew/Automation Interaction in Space Transportation Systems: Lessons Learned from the Glass Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    The progressive integration of automation technologies in commercial transport aircraft flight decks - the 'glass cockpit' - has had a major, and generally positive, impact on flight crew operations. Flight deck automation has provided significant benefits, such as economic efficiency, increased precision and safety, and enhanced functionality within the crew interface. These enhancements, however, may have been accrued at a price, such as complexity added to crew/automation interaction that has been implicated in a number of aircraft incidents and accidents. This report briefly describes 'glass cockpit' evolution. Some relevant aircraft accidents and incidents are described, followed by a more detailed description of human/automation issues and problems (e.g., crew error, monitoring, modes, command authority, crew coordination, workload, and training). This paper concludes with example principles and guidelines for considering 'glass cockpit' human/automation integration within space transportation systems.

  3. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  4. Recent developments in the space transportation system for the solar power satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation session of the SPS Program Review held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA at Lincoln, Nebraska on April 23-25, 1980 was a good overview of the current status of the space vehicles dedicated to the SPS program. Emphasis, correctly, was upon the highest cost element of the system - the launch vehicle. A major conclusion from the session was that an improved program strategy on SPS launch vehicle development is emerging. A much smaller HLLV (100 ton payload class) can drastically reduce the present $24 billion HLLV investment to initiate placement of operational SPSs. A more advanced, much larger, HLLV can be developed during the 30-year (or more) placement interval to drastically reduce the recurring costs and thus the investment cost ($/kW) of the average SPS. Use of a near-equatorial launch site, either on shore (Kourou) or an offshore structure can also reduce Reference System transportation costs.

  5. HZETRN: A heavy ion/nucleon transport code for space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Forooz F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.

    1991-01-01

    The galactic heavy ion transport code (GCRTRN) and the nucleon transport code (BRYNTRN) are integrated into a code package (HZETRN). The code package is computer efficient and capable of operating in an engineering design environment for manned deep space mission studies. The nuclear data set used by the code is discussed including current limitations. Although the heavy ion nuclear cross sections are assumed constant, the nucleon-nuclear cross sections of BRYNTRN with full energy dependence are used. The relation of the final code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. Error generation and propagation is discussed, and comparison is made with simplified analytic solutions to test numerical accuracy of the final results. A brief discussion of biological issues and their impact on fundamental developments in shielding technology is given.

  6. Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study. Volume 3: Program Cost estimates and work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study is to contribute to the ALS development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine development configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost; and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  7. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  8. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  9. Working fluid selection for space-based two-phase heat transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclinden, Mark O.

    1988-01-01

    The working fluid for externally-mounted, space-based two-phase heat transport systems is considered. A sequence of screening criteria involving freezing and critical point temperatures and latent heat of vaporization and vapor density are applied to a data base of 860 fluids. The thermal performance of the 52 fluids which pass this preliminary screening are then ranked according to their impact on the weight of a reference system. Upon considering other nonthermal criteria (flammability, toxicity, and chemical stability) a final set of 10 preferred fluids is obtained. The effects of variations in system parameters is investigated for these 10 fluids by means of a factorial design.

  10. The versatility of a truss mounted mobile transporter for in-space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G.; Lake, Mark S.; Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Mobile Transporter (MT) evolution from early erectable structures assembly activities is detailed. The MT operational features which are required to support astronauts performing on-orbit structure construction or spacecraft assembly functions are presented and discussed. Use of the MT to perform a variety of assembly functions is presented. Estimated EVA assembly times for a precision segmented reflector approximately 20 m in diameter are presented. The EVA/MT technique under study for construction of the reflector (and the entire spacecraft) is illustrated. Finally, the current status of development activities and test results involving the MT and Space Station structural assembly are presented.

  11. Modeling for health monitoring and control with applications to the Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmicki, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    The work reported herein represents a continuation of work begun at MSFC during the 1991 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. During this period, the author proposed and studied a paradigm for the analysis and synthesis of Integrated Health Monitoring and Control Systems (IHMCS) for rocket engines. This work was motivated by NASA's desire to develop advanced propulsion systems which could operate with increased cost. The Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) whose function it is to provide primary thrust for the National Launch System (NLS) family of vehicles is a primary example of this trend.

  12. 21st century space transportation system design approach - HL-20 personnel launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard W.; Piland, William M.

    1993-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to and overview of the research that was conducted on the HL-20 lifting body. The concept has been defined as an option for a personnel launch system (PLS) that is intended to carry six to eight Space Station Freedom crew persons. In this role the HL-20 will complement the Space Shuttle operation and ensure the ability to transport people to and from Earth orbit after the year 2000. The research covers a broad range of disciplines, including aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating and thermal protection systems, structural design, subsystem definition, trajectory and guidance system development for entry and abort, production and operations, and human factors. This article also presents the lifting-body heritage, design features of the concept, and HL-20/PLS mission requirements.

  13. Heat pipe heat transport system for the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Life issues relating to a sodium heat pipe heat transport system are described. The heat pipe system provides heat, at a temperature of 1050 K, to a 50 kWe Stirling engine/linear alternator power converter called the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC). The converter is being developed under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration program. Since corrosion of heat pipe materials in contact with sodium can impact the life of the heat pipe, a literature review of sodium corrosion processes was performed. It was found that the impurity reactions, primarily oxygen, and dissolution of alloy elements were the two corrosion process likely to be operative in the heat pipe. Approaches that are being taken to minimize these corrosion processes are discussed.

  14. Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed. PMID:18554382

  15. Next generation earth-to-orbit space transportation systems: Unmanned vehicles and liquid/hybrid boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    The United States civil space effort when viewed from a launch vehicle perspective tends to categorize into pre-Shuttle and Shuttle eras. The pre-Shuttle era consisted of expendable launch vehicles where a broad set of capabilities were matured in a range of vehicles, followed by a clear reluctance to build on and utilize those systems. The Shuttle era marked the beginning of the U.S. venture into reusable space launch vehicles and the consolidation of launch systems used to this one vehicle. This led to a tremendous capability, but utilized men on a few missions where it was not essential and compromised launch capability resiliency in the long term. Launch vehicle failures, between the period of Aug. 1985 and May 1986, of the Titan 34D, Shuttle Challenger, and the Delta vehicles resulted in a reassessment of U.S. launch vehicle capability. The reassessment resulted in President Reagan issuing a new National Space Policy in 1988 calling for more coordination between Federal agencies, broadening the launch capabilities and preparing for manned flight beyond the Earth into the solar system. As a result, the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA are jointly assessing the requirements and needs for this nations's future transportation system. Reliability/safety, balanced fleet, and resiliency are the cornerstone to the future. An insight is provided into the current thinking in establishing future unmanned earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation needs and capabilities. A background of previous launch capabilities, future needs, current and proposed near term systems, and system considerations to assure future mission need will be met, are presented. The focus is on propulsion options associated with unmanned cargo vehicles and liquid booster required to assure future mission needs will be met.

  16. EBQ code: transport of space-charge beams in axially symmetric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.C.

    1982-11-01

    Such general-purpose space charge codes as EGUN, BATES, WOLF, and TRANSPORT do not gracefully accommodate the simulation of relativistic space-charged beams propagating a long distance in axially symmetric devices where a high degree of cancellation has occurred between the self-magnetic and self-electric forces of the beam. The EBQ code was written specifically to follow high current beam particles where space charge is important in long distance flight in axially symmetric machines possessing external electric and magnetic field. EBQ simultaneously tracks all trajectories so as to allow procedures for charge deposition based on inter-ray separations. The orbits are treated in Cartesian geometry (position and momentum) with z as the independent variable. Poisson's equation is solved in cylindrical geometry on an orthogonal rectangular mesh. EBQ can also handle problems involving multiple ion species where the space charge from each must be included. Such problems arise in the design of ion sources where different charge and mass states are present.

  17. Options For Development of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houta, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission system have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed.

  18. 41 CFR 102-73.215 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of Transportation lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of special purpose space may the Department of Transportation lease? 102-73.215 Section 102-73.215 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease Special Purpose Space...

  19. 41 CFR 102-73.215 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of Transportation lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What types of special purpose space may the Department of Transportation lease? 102-73.215 Section 102-73.215 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease Special Purpose Space...

  20. Comparative evaluation of Space Transportation System (STS)-3 flight and acoustic test random vibration response of the OSS-1 payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    On, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the Space Transportation System (STS)-3 flight and acoustic test random vibration response of the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) payload is presented. The results provide insight into the characteristics of vibroacoustic response of pallet payload components in the payload bay during STS flights.

  1. The transportation of fine arts materials aboard the space shuttle Columbia. GAS payload No. 481: Vertical horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Ellery; Wishnow, Howard

    1988-01-01

    The Vertical Horizons experiment represents an initial investigation into the transportation of fine arts materials aboard a space shuttle. Within the confines of a GAS canister, artist quality fine arts materials were packaged and exposed to the rigors of space flight in an attempt to identify adverse effects.

  2. The Affordability Challenge in California Higher Education: Options for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    California's Master Plan for Higher Education represented a promise, of an affordable college education, to every person who could benefit. For decades, California's lawmakers honored that promise. Rapidly increasing college fees, coupled with higher costs for room and board, books, transportation, and healthcare are pricing students out of higher…

  3. k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy: A Method for Accurate Transport Measurements Independent of Fluorophore Photophysics

    PubMed Central

    Kolin, David L.; Ronis, David; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    We present the theory and application of reciprocal space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS). This technique measures the number density, diffusion coefficient, and velocity of fluorescently labeled macromolecules in a cell membrane imaged on a confocal, two-photon, or total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. In contrast to r-space correlation techniques, we show kICS can recover accurate dynamics even in the presence of complex fluorophore photobleaching and/or “blinking”. Furthermore, these quantities can be calculated without nonlinear curve fitting, or any knowledge of the beam radius of the exciting laser. The number densities calculated by kICS are less sensitive to spatial inhomogeneity of the fluorophore distribution than densities measured using image correlation spectroscopy. We use simulations as a proof-of-principle to show that number densities and transport coefficients can be extracted using this technique. We present calibration measurements with fluorescent microspheres imaged on a confocal microscope, which recover Stokes-Einstein diffusion coefficients, and flow velocities that agree with single particle tracking measurements. We also show the application of kICS to measurements of the transport dynamics of α5-integrin/enhanced green fluorescent protein constructs in a transfected CHO cell imaged on a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope using charge-coupled device area detection. PMID:16861272

  4. Simulation of reusable cislunar space transportation systems with special consideration of chemical propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ress, R.

    1983-01-01

    The design of a multicomponent space transportation system to support such missions as nuclear-waste disposal, GEO solar-power-satellite construction, and lunar mining or manufacturing is investigated by means of computer simulations involving reusable chemically propelled spacecraft. The simulation comprises mission, spacecraft, facilities, management, production, and cost models and is based on currently available technologies and current costs. The main requirements for the system are supply of a lunar station and transport of 100 Gg/yr or more from earth or moon to GEO, with a system life of about 60 yr; and it is found that they are best met by a two-stage 9.5 Gg ballistic launcher, three types of shuttle vehicles, and space stations in GEO and lunar orbit to provide the shuttles with H2 and O2, respectively. Up to 730 launches and 1000 shuttle flights (on each route) per year at costs of $30-50/kg for earth-Leo, $100-150/kg for earth GEO, anad $40-60/kg for moon-GEO predicted.

  5. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  6. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Vibration Analysis in Support of Rollout Fatigue Load Spectra Verification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; Meyer, Karl A.; Nerolich, Shaun M.; Burton, Roy C.; Gosselin, Armand M.

    2004-01-01

    The Crawler Transporter (CT), designed and built for the Apollo Program in the 1960's and surpassing its initial operational life, has become an integral part of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). The CT transports the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) stack, atop the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP), from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad. This support structure provides hydraulic jacking, leveling and load equalization for the 12 million pound stack on its 3.5-5.0 mile rollout to the launch pad. Major elements of the SSV, consisting of the orbiter, solid rocket boosters (SRB) and external tank (ET) have required fatigue analyses as part of the mission life certification. Compared to rollout vibration, the SSV sees relatively high vibration loads during launch, ascent, descent and landing phases of the mission. Although preliminary measured SRB vibration levels during rollout were of low amplitude and frequency, the duration of the rollout phase is typically high, from 5-6 hours. As part of an expanded mission life assessment, additional certification effort was initiated to define fatigue load spectra for rollout. This study addresses the CT vibration analyses in support of the rollout fatigue study. Structural models developed for modal and vibration analyses were used to identify unique CT, CT/MLP and CT/MLP/SRB vibration characteristics for comparison to instrumented rollout tests. Whereas the main structural and vibration characteristics of the SSV are well defined, minimum analytical and vibration test data on the Crawler Transporter were available. Unique vibration characteristics of the CT are attributable to the drive mechanism, hydraulic jacking system, structural framing and the CT-to-MLP support pad restraints. Initial tests performed on the CT/MLP/SRB configuration showed reasonable correlation with predicted mode shapes and frequencies.

  7. Current flow paths in deformed graphene: from quantum transport to classical trajectories in curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Thomas; Szpak, Nikodem

    2016-05-01

    In this work we compare two fundamentally different approaches to the electronic transport in deformed graphene: (a) the condensed matter approach in which current flow paths are obtained by applying the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method to the tight-binding model with local strain, (b) the general relativistic approach in which classical trajectories of relativistic point particles moving in a curved surface with a pseudo-magnetic field are calculated. The connection between the two is established in the long-wave limit via an effective Dirac Hamiltonian in curved space. Geometrical optics approximation, applied to focused current beams, allows us to directly compare the wave and the particle pictures. We obtain very good numerical agreement between the quantum and the classical approaches for a fairly wide set of parameters, improving with the increasing size of the system. The presented method offers an enormous reduction of complexity from irregular tight-binding Hamiltonians defined on large lattices to geometric language for curved continuous surfaces. It facilitates a comfortable and efficient tool for predicting electronic transport properties in graphene nanostructures with complicated geometries. Combination of the curvature and the pseudo-magnetic field paves the way to new interesting transport phenomena such as bending or focusing (lensing) of currents depending on the shape of the deformation. It can be applied in designing ultrasensitive sensors or in nanoelectronics.

  8. THE LONGITUDINAL TRANSPORT OF ENERGETIC IONS FROM IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES IN INTERPLANETARY SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Giacalone, J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    We present a study of the longitudinal spread of energetic charged particles from a localized instantaneous compact source on the Sun. Our study utilizes a diffusive-transport model for the propagation of energetic ions in interplanetary space. We show that even for very small values of the ratio of perpendicular to parallel diffusion coefficients-a few percent-the particles spread significantly in longitude. Spatial diffusion and adiabatic energy loss of ions in the interplanetary plasma cause impulsive particle events at Earth's orbit to last a few days. In this time, the combination of transport both along and across the local Parker-spiral magnetic field and the longitudinal motion of the magnetic lines of forces rooted at the Sun as it rotates leads to substantial longitudinal transport of the particles. We show that spacecraft separated by as much as 180 Degree-Sign or more may observe events associated with compact solar sources, such as those from impulsive solar flares. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent multi-spacecraft observations.

  9. Making personalized medicine more affordable.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Precision medicine holds promise to solve the conundrums of clinical care. Foremost is the well-known but vexing problem of heterogeneity and the tyranny of the mean. Who will respond to a treatment? How can patients avoid the harms of treatments that will not work for them? And if we know who to treat, will that make care more efficient and less costly? But the converse can also be true: treatments become more expensive as the costs of development must be distributed across smaller populations. Next-generation sequencing is making genetic testing radically cheaper. But the costs of medical tests also include false-positive results, incidental findings, and the cascade of follow-up. The affordability of precision medicine is intertwined with the broader issue of affordability of our healthcare system, and will require all stakeholders to assume stewardship for access and sustainability. PMID:25728478

  10. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  11. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  12. A three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in laboratory and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Candice Rockell

    In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. The shielding and exposure of space travelers is controlled by the transport properties of the radiation through the spacecraft, its onboard systems and the bodies of the individuals themselves. Meeting the challenge of future space programs will therefore require accurate and efficient methods for performing radiation transport calculations to analyze and predict shielding requirements. One such method, which is developed in this dissertation, is based on a three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in both laboratory and space.

  13. Results of demonstration test for receiving and processing of flight data from the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the methodology used for receiving, processing, and analyzing flight data from the Space Transportation System at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) on a near real time basis. The task was performed in October 1993 during the STS-58 mission using data from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). The transmitting and receiving of OARE data on a near real time basis at LaRC were highly successful. The time to receive and record the data from the payload tape recorder required 20 to 30 minutes. Payload tape recorder data were downlinked at intervals of 4 to 6 hours rather than continuously. The quality check of the data at LaRC required 2 minutes. Four to 5 minutes of time was required to obtain preliminary acceleration levels of the Orbiter that are within 1 micro-g of the absolute accelerations This demonstration has shown that, with operational modifications LaRC has the capability to serve as a User Operation Center for receiving and processing flight data from the Space Shuttle and Space Station.

  14. A quality function deployment method applied to highly reusable space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) currently in work the goal of which is to add definition and insight to the development of long term Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST). The objective here is twofold. First, to describe the process, the actual QFD experience as applies to the HRST study. Second, to describe the preliminary results of this process, in particular the assessment of possible directions for future pursuit such as promising candidate technologies or approaches that may finally open the space frontier. The iterative and synergistic nature of QFD provides opportunities in the process for the discovery of what is key in so far as it is useful, what is not, and what is merely true. Key observations on the QFD process will be presented. The importance of a customer definition as well as the similarity of the process of developing a technology portfolio to product development will be shown. Also, the relation of identified cost and operating drivers to future space vehicle designs that are robust to an uncertain future will be discussed. The results in particular of this HRST evaluation will be preliminary given the somewhat long term (or perhaps not?) nature of the task being considered. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Truck Shoe Qualification Tests and Analyses for Return-to-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; Meyer, Karl A.; Burton, Roy C.; Gosselin, Armand M.

    2005-01-01

    A vital element to Launch Complex 39 (LC39) and NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) mobile launch transfer operation is a 3 million kilogram behemoth known as the Crawler Transporter (CT). Built in the 1960's, two CT's have accumulated over 1700+ miles each and have been used for the Apollo and the Space Shuttle programs. Recent observation of fatigue cracks on the CT shoes led to a comprehensive engineering, structural and metallurgical evaluation to assess the root cause that necessitated procurement of over 1000 new shoes. This paper documents the completed dynamic and compression tests on the old and new shoes respectively, so as to certify them for Space Shuttle's return-to-flight (RTF). Measured strain data from the rollout tests was used to develop stress/loading spectra and static equivalent load for qualification testing of the new shoes. Additionally, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to conduct sensitivity analyses of various contact parameters and structural characteristics for acceptance of new shoes.

  16. Lunar utilization. [materials resources and cislunar transportation considerations for space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The resources, techniques, and purposes to which lunar materials could be put are discussed, with attention given to transporting lunar materials to cislunar space for the construction of space manufacturing and habitable facilities. A model molecule, demandite, which represents the mole fraction of all materials used in the U.S. in 1967, is used to assess the lunar resources defined during Apollo missions. It is shown that duplication of the same manufacturing, fuel, and life-support systems in space as those on earth would cost several orders of magnitude more if the materials originated on earth than on the moon. The demandite would be sent into cislunar orbit using linear electric motors. Lunar surface concentrations of pyroxenes, olivine, feldspars, ilmenite, basalts, anorthostatic rocks, and breccias are reviewed, noting that carbon in the regolith is solar-wind derived, while in lunar rocks the carbon is indigenous. Lunar mining techniques are envisioned, especially the capacity to move large masses at 1/6 the effort required on the earth.

  17. A quality function deployment method applied to highly reusable space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) currently in work the goal of which is to add definition and insight to the development of long term Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST). The objective here is twofold. First, to describe the process, the actual QFD experience as applies to the HRST study. Second, to describe the preliminary results of this process, in particular the assessment of possible directions for future pursuit such as promising candidate technologies or approaches that may finally open the space frontier. The iterative and synergistic nature of QFD provides opportunities in the process for the discovery of what is key in so far as it is useful, what is not, and what is merely true. Key observations on the QFD process will be presented. The importance of a customer definition as well as the similarity of the process of developing a technology portfolio to product development will be shown. Also, the relation of identified cost and operating drivers to future space vehicle designs that are robust to an uncertain future will be discussed. The results in particular of this HRST evaluation will be preliminary given the somewhat long term (or perhaps not?) nature of the task being considered.

  18. Transport Properties of He-N{sub 2} Binary Gas Mixtures for CBC Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel P.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-21

    In order to reduce the size and mass of the single-shaft turbo-machines, with little impact on the size of the heat transfer components in the CBC loop, He-Xe binary mixture with a molecular weight of 40 g/mole has been the working fluid of choice in space nuclear reactor power systems with Close Brayton Cycle (CBC) for energy conversion. This working fluid is also a suitable coolant for the fission reactors heat source designed with fast neutron energy spectra. For space nuclear reactors with thermal neutron energy spectra, however, the high capture neutron cross-section of Xe will reduce the beginning-of-life excess reactivity of the reactor, decreasing its effective operation lifetime. In addition, the neutron activation of Xe in the reactor will introduce a radioactivity source term in the CBC loop. Alternative working fluids with no activation concerns and comparable performance are N{sub 2} and the binary mixtures of He-N{sub 2}. This paper calculates the transport properties of these working fluids and compares their values to those of noble gas binary mixtures at the temperatures and pressures expected in CBC space reactor power system applications. Also investigated is the impact of using these working fluids on the pressure losses, heat transfer coefficient, and the aerodynamic loading of the blades in the CBC turbo-machines.

  19. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  20. The development of a simplified Fin Folding Mechanism for a future space transportation vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian; Heinrich, Beat; Sutter, Guido; Spycher, Peter; Urmston, Peter

    2005-07-01

    In the time when the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) was being considered as a follow on joint venture between ESA and NASA, Contraves Space AG was being considered as the sub-contractor for the Fin Folding Mechanism. Although due to the lack of funding in the USA, the CRV programme was stopped, ESTEC decided to continue the development of the Fin Folding Mechanism (FFM) for a "future Space Transportation Vehicle" (STV) for launch and re-entry. Contraves Space was subsequently awarded with a contract to develop a simplified mechanism to replace the mechanism that was designed for CRV. The function of the FFM is to fold the Vehicle Fin inboard so that any future STV can be accommodated in today's launchers. The FFM must be able to support the fin during launch, deploy the fin and then support the fin in the deployed position during re-entry. Contraves Space reviewed the functionality of the old CRV design, with its' different mechanisms for each of the functions, and a synchronisation system, and established a novel design where one mechanism can be used to perform all three functions. The final design utilises a four bar link mechanism, driven over-centre in both of the end positions, driven by a high-torque drive unit comprising a Harmonic Drive, a conventional gearbox and a 3 Phase DC motor. To protect the high-torque drive system against stall, a clutch has been utilised based on spring and rotating ball technology. These devices are used seldom in space, but as surviving stall is often a problem for mechanisms, the results from the test programme will be interesting with respect to the use of such devices in future space mechanisms. The design of the mechanism consists of three almost identical nodes, one of which has been built and is undergoing "qualification" testing at Contraves Space. The mechanism will be subjected to the full range of tests including, functional tests, random vibration tests, thermal vacuum tests and a static load test. This paper will detail

  1. Visions of tomorrow: A focus on national space transportation issues; Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Goddard Memorial Symposium, Greenbelt, MD, Mar. 18-20, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on U.S. space transportation systems development discusses opportunities for aerospace students in prospective military, civil, industrial, and scientific programs, current strategic conceptualization and program planning for future U.S. space transportation, the DOD space transportation plan, NASA space transportation plans, medium launch vehicle and commercial space launch services, the capabilities and availability of foreign launch vehicles, and the role of commercial space launch systems. Also discussed are available upper stage systems, future space transportation needs for space science and applications, the trajectory analysis of a low lift/drag-aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicle, possible replacements for the Space Shuttle, LEO to GEO with combined electric/beamed-microwave power from earth, the National Aerospace Plane, laser propulsion to earth orbit, and a performance analysis for a laser-powered SSTO vehicle.

  2. Aquaporin-4–dependent K+ and water transport modeled in brain extracellular space following neuroexcitation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Byung-Ju; Zhang, Hua; Binder, Devin K.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium (K+) ions released into brain extracellular space (ECS) during neuroexcitation are efficiently taken up by astrocytes. Deletion of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in mice alters neuroexcitation by reducing ECS [K+] accumulation and slowing K+ reuptake. These effects could involve AQP4-dependent: (a) K+ permeability, (b) resting ECS volume, (c) ECS contraction during K+ reuptake, and (d) diffusion-limited water/K+ transport coupling. To investigate the role of these mechanisms, we compared experimental data to predictions of a model of K+ and water uptake into astrocytes after neuronal release of K+ into the ECS. The model computed the kinetics of ECS [K+] and volume, with input parameters including initial ECS volume, astrocyte K+ conductance and water permeability, and diffusion in astrocyte cytoplasm. Numerical methods were developed to compute transport and diffusion for a nonstationary astrocyte–ECS interface. The modeling showed that mechanisms b–d, together, can predict experimentally observed impairment in K+ reuptake from the ECS in AQP4 deficiency, as well as altered K+ accumulation in the ECS after neuroexcitation, provided that astrocyte water permeability is sufficiently reduced in AQP4 deficiency and that solute diffusion in astrocyte cytoplasm is sufficiently low. The modeling thus provides a potential explanation for AQP4-dependent K+/water coupling in the ECS without requiring AQP4-dependent astrocyte K+ permeability. Our model links the physical and ion/water transport properties of brain cells with the dynamics of neuroexcitation, and supports the conclusion that reduced AQP4-dependent water transport is responsible for defective neuroexcitation in AQP4 deficiency. PMID:23277478

  3. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  4. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  5. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-03-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  6. Intrinsic non-ohmic electronic transport properties of the transparent In-Zn-O compound nanobelts under ohmic contact and out of the space charge limited transport region.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zhang, Xitian; Gao, Hong

    2016-02-19

    It is generally accepted that the nonlinear I-V characteristics for semiconductor nanostructures are mainly induced by the Schottky contacts or by the space charge limited transport mechanism. We perform I-V measurements on undoped and doped In-Zn-O compound nanobelts and confirm that their intrinsic non-ohmic transport behaviors are not caused by these mechanisms. A model based on the hopping assisted trap state electrons transport process is introduced to explain the nonlinear I-V characteristics and to extract their electrical parameters. An understanding of this trap-state influenced carrier transport can advance the progress of nanomaterials applications and enable us to distinguish their intrinsic transport behaviors from contact effects. The results also indicate that the material has good electrical properties and can be used as a potential substitute for In2O3.

  7. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  8. Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D

    1998-04-25

    In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not

  9. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  10. A development of logistics management models for the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, M. J.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Abell, J. B.; Lippiatt, T. F.

    1983-01-01

    A new analytic queueing approach was described which relates stockage levels, repair level decisions, and the project network schedule of prelaunch operations directly to the probability distribution of the space transportation system launch delay. Finite source population and limited repair capability were additional factors included in this logistics management model developed specifically for STS maintenance requirements. Data presently available to support logistics decisions were based on a comparability study of heavy aircraft components. A two-phase program is recommended by which NASA would implement an integrated data collection system, assemble logistics data from previous STS flights, revise extant logistics planning and resource requirement parameters using Bayes-Lin techniques, and adjust for uncertainty surrounding logistics systems performance parameters. The implementation of these recommendations can be expected to deliver more cost-effective logistics support.

  11. Design and fabrication of brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich structural panels for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of two large brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels, the establishment of a test plan, the design and fabrication of a test fixture to subject the panels to cyclic thermal gradients and mechanical loads equivalent to those imposed on an advanced space transportation vehicle during its boost and entry trajectories are discussed. The panels will be supported at four points, creating three spans. The outer spans are 45.7 cm (18 in.) and the center span 76.2 cm (30 in). Specimen width is 30.5 cm (12 in.). The panels were primarily designed by boost conditions simulated by subjecting the panels to liquid nitrogen, 77K (-320 F) on one side and 455K (360 F) on the other side and by mechanically imposing loads representing vehicle fuel pressure loads. Entry conditions were simulated by radiant heating to 1034K (1400 F). The test program subjected the panels to 500 boost thermal conditions. Results are presented.

  12. Space applications of the MITS electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, R.P.; Lorence, L.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Morel, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    The MITS multigroup/continuous-energy electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system has matured to the point that it is capable of addressing more realistic three-dimensional adjoint applications. It is first employed to efficiently predict point doses as a function of source energy for simple three-dimensional experimental geometries exposed to simulated uniform isotropic planar sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 4.0 MeV. Results are in very good agreement with experimental data. It is then used to efficiently simulate dose to a detector in a subsystem of a GPS satellite due to its natural electron environment, employing a relatively complex model of the satellite. The capability for survivability analysis of space systems is demonstrated, and results are obtained with and without variance reduction.

  13. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Hydraulic mechanism to limit torsional loads between the IUS and space transportation system orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) is a two-stage booster used by NASA and the Defense Department to insert payloads into geosynchronous orbit from low-Earth orbit. The hydraulic mechanism discussed here was designed to perform a specific dynamic and static interface function within the Space Transportation System's Orbiter. Requirements, configuration, and application of the hydraulic mechanism with emphasis on performance and methods of achieving zero external hydraulic leakage are discussed. The hydraulic load-leveler mechanism meets the established design requirements for operation in a low-Earth orbit. Considerable testing was conducted to demonstrate system performance and verification that external leakage had been reduced to zero. Following each flight use of an ASE, all hydraulic mechanism components are carefully inspected for leakage. The ASE, including the hydraulic mechanism, has performed without any anomalies during all IUS flights.

  15. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Volume 2: Addendum 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The potential of a common Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) design was evaluated for use with both the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Advanced Launch System (ALS). A goal is to have a common Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen (LO2/LH2) engine developed for both the ALS booster and the core stage. The LO2/LH2 option for the STS was evaluated to identify potential LRB program cost reductions. The objective was to identify the structural impacts to the external tank (ET), and to determine if any significant ET re-development costs are required as a result of the larger LO2/LH2 LRB. The potential ET impacts evaluated are presented.

  16. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a technology demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Scott, V. S.; Kupchock, Andrew W.; Selmer, Patrick A.

    2015-09-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a multi-wavelength lidar instrument developed to enhance Earth Science remote sensing capabilities from the International Space Station. The CATS project was chartered to be an experiment in all senses: science, technology, and management. As a low-cost project following a strict build-to-cost/ build-to-schedule philosophy, CATS is following a new management approach while also serving as a technology demonstration for future NASA missions. This presentation will highlight the CATS instrument and science objectives with emphasis on how the ISS platform enables the specific objectives of the payload. The development process used for CATS and a look at data being produced by the instrument will also be presented.

  17. Technology development of the Space Transportation System mission and terrestrial applications of satellite technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is discussed, including the launch processing system, the thermal protection subsystem, meteorological research, sound supression water system, rotating service structure, improved hypergol or removal systems, fiber optics research, precision positioning, remote controlled solid rocket booster nozzle plugs, ground operations for Centaur orbital transfer vehicle, parachute drying, STS hazardous waste disposal and recycle, toxic waste technology and control concepts, fast analytical densitometry study, shuttle inventory management system, operational intercommunications system improvement, and protective garment ensemble. Terrestrial applications are also covered, including LANDSAT applications to water resources, satellite freeze forecast system, application of ground penetrating radar to soil survey, turtle tracking, evaluating computer drawn ground cover maps, sparkless load pulsar, and coupling a microcomputer and computing integrator with a gas chromatograph.

  18. Homojunction GaAs solar cells grown by close space vapor transport

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Jason W.; Ritenour, Andrew J.; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-06-08

    We report on the first pn junction solar cells grown by homoepitaxy of GaAs using close space vapor transport (CSVT). Cells were grown both on commercial wafer substrates and on a CSVT absorber film, and had efficiencies reaching 8.1%, open circuit voltages reaching 909 mV, and internal quantum efficiency of 90%. The performance of these cells is partly limited by the electron diffusion lengths in the wafer substrates, as evidenced by the improved peak internal quantum efficiency in devices fabricated on a CSVT absorber film. Unoptimized highly-doped n-type emitters also limit the photocurrent, indicating that thinner emitters with reduced doping, and ultimately wider band gap window or surface passivation layers, are required to increase the efficiency.

  19. High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

  20. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  1. A receptor state space model of the insulin signalling system in glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Gray, Catheryn W; Coster, Adelle C F

    2015-12-01

    Insulin is a potent peptide hormone that regulates glucose levels in the blood. Insulin-sensitive cells respond to insulin stimulation with the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM), enabling the clearance of glucose from the blood. Defects in this process can give rise to insulin resistance and ultimately diabetes. One widely cited model of insulin signalling leading to glucose transport is that of Sedaghat et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 283, E1084-E1101. Consisting of 20 deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs), it is the most comprehensive model of insulin signalling to date. However, the model possesses some major limitations, including the non-conservation of key components. In the current work, we detail mathematical and sensitivity analyses of the Sedaghat model. Based on the results of these analyses, we propose a reduced state space model of the insulin receptor subsystem. This reduced model maintains the input-output relation of the original model but is computationally more efficient, analytically tractable and resolves some of the limitations of the Sedaghat model.

  2. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  3. The Rationale/Benefits of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion for NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  4. Mass storage systems for data transport in the early space station era 1992-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, Richard (Editor); Dalton, John (Editor); Healey, Mike (Editor); Kempster, Linda (Editor); Martin, John (Editor); Mccaleb, Fred (Editor); Sobieski, Stanley (Editor); Sos, John (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Program will provide a vehicle to deploy an unprecedented number of data producing experiments and operational devices. Peak down link data rates are expected to be in the 500 megabit per second range and the daily data volume could reach 2.4 terabytes. Such startling requirements inspired an internal NASA study to determine if economically viable data storage solutions are likely to be available to support the Ground Data Transport segment of the NASA data system. To derive the requirements for data storage subsystems, several alternative data transport architectures were identified with different degrees of decentralization. Data storage operations at each subsystem were categorized based on access time and retrieval functions, and reduced to the following types of subsystems: First in First out (FIFO) storage, fast random access storage, and slow access with staging. The study showed that industry funded magnetic and optical storage technology has a reasonable probability of meeting these requirements. There are, however, system level issues that need to be addressed in the near term.

  5. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  6. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios. PMID:16480117

  7. Development of tailorable advanced blanket insulation for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calamito, Dominic P.

    1987-01-01

    Two items of Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI) for Advanced Space Transportation Systems were produced. The first consisted of flat panels made from integrally woven, 3-D fluted core having parallel fabric faces and connecting ribs of Nicalon silicon carbide yarns. The triangular cross section of the flutes were filled with mandrels of processed Q-Fiber Felt. Forty panels were prepared with only minimal problems, mostly resulting from the unavailability of insulation with the proper density. Rigidizing the fluted fabric prior to inserting the insulation reduced the production time. The procedures for producing the fabric, insulation mandrels, and TABI panels are described. The second item was an effort to determine the feasibility of producing contoured TABI shapes from gores cut from flat, insulated fluted core panels. Two gores of integrally woven fluted core and single ply fabric (ICAS) were insulated and joined into a large spherical shape employing a tadpole insulator at the mating edges. The fluted core segment of each ICAS consisted of an Astroquartz face fabric and Nicalon face and rib fabrics, while the single ply fabric segment was Nicalon. Further development will be required. The success of fabricating this assembly indicates that this concept may be feasible for certain types of space insulation requirements. The procedures developed for weaving the ICAS, joining the gores, and coating certain areas of the fabrics are presented.

  8. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios.

  9. Economical Space Transportation: a Road not yet Traveled or Gleanings of a Lifelong Rocketman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two years have past since I criticized the design of the shuttle in my article in Aeronautics and Astronautics, entitled Shuttles--What Price Elegance? At that time I predicted that the shuttle would not reduce the cost of space transportation, as its proponents almost pleadingly averred. I called it a money sponge of unparalleled capacity. I have since labeled it as the worst combination of primary features that could possibly be assembled into one vehicle. While I called the concept puerile, I lauded its makers for their execution - for their ability to make such a ludicrous concept work at all. It has been nearly sixty years since I pointed the way to low cost space transportation with my Sea Dragon concept. Simple, reusable, two stages to orbit, pressure-fed propulsion and recovery in the ocean by parachute. Since that date, billions have been spent on even more elegant approaches to reusable vehicles, and substantially nothing on the big, dumb reusable booster concept. As of now, all of the more elegant approaches have been cancelled, but the urge to elegance above common sense is still with us. I am sure that a single stage to orbit, reusable vehicle is possible, or will be within the next fifty years. I am equally sure, however, that it will not be economical. It will very probably be worse than the shuttle. We want two stages rather than one because it allows the upper stage to use very low pressures. We want parachute recovery in the ocean because it offers 70% of the Earth's surface to land in, and easy tow-back from anywhere. Perhaps it is necessary for the older generation to die out for the realities of over- sophistication to sink into the heads of our space engineers. All technologies mature, and ultimately reach a point where further sophistication is uneconomical. Launch vehicles reached this point long before they were invented. The big liquid ICBMs were useless as ballistic missiles and more sophisticated than necessary as space launch

  10. Highly reusable space transportation: Approaches for reducing ETO launch costs to $100 - $200 per pound of payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS) suggests that considerable market expansion in earth-to-orbit transportation would take place if current launch prices could be reduced to around $400 per pound of payload. If these low prices can be achieved, annual payload delivered to low earth orbit (LEO) is predicted to reach 6.7 million pounds. The primary market growth will occur in communications, government missions, and civil transportation. By establishing a cost target of $100-$200 per pound of payload for a new launch system, the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program has clearly set its sights on removing the current restriction on market growth imposed by today's high launch costs. In particular, achieving the goal of $100-$200 per pound of payload will require significant coordinated efforts in (1) marketing strategy development, (2) business planning, (3) system operational strategy, (4) vehicle technical design, and (5) vehicle maintenance strategy.

  11. New Lidar Capabilities in Space: An Overview of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Hlavka, D. L.; Selmer, P. A.; Hart, W. D.; Palm, S. P.; Nowottnick, E. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rodier, S. D.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Buchard, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), built at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a payload for the International Space Station (ISS), is set to launch in the late 2014. CATS is an elastic backscatter lidar operating in one of three science modes with three wavelengths (1064, 532, 355 nm) and HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at the 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. The CATS science modes are described in Figure 1. The ISS orbit is a 51 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of about 405 km. This orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three day repeat cycle. Thus, science applications of CATS include cloud and aerosol climate studies, air quality monitoring, and smoke/volcanic plume tracking. Current uncertainties in cloud and aerosol properties limit our ability to accurately model the Earth's climate system and predict climate change. These limitations are due primarily to difficulties in adequately measuring aerosols and clouds on a global scale. A primary science objectives of CATS is to provide global aerosol and cloud vertical profile data in near real time to for assimilation in aerosol transport models such as the NASA GEOS-5 model. Furthermore, the vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties provided by CATS will complement current and future passive satellite sensors. Another important science objective of CATS is to advance technology in support of future mission development. CATS will employ 355 nm and HSRL capabilities, as well as depolarization at multiple wavelengths. These expanded measurement capabilities will provide the science community with new and improved global data products that have yet to be retrieved from space-based lidar. In preparation for launch, simulations of the CATS lidar signal are produced using GEOS5 model data to develop and test future data products. An example of the simulated CATS attenuated

  12. Angular neutron transport investigation in the HZETRN free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Wilson, J.W.

    1997-05-01

    Extension of the high charge and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN for angular transport of neutrons is considered. For this paper, only light ion transport, He{sup 4} and lighter, will be analyzed using a pure solar proton source. The angular transport calculator is the ANISN/PC program which is being controlled by the HZETRN program. The neutron flux values are compared for straight-ahead transport and angular transport in one dimension. The shield material is aluminum and the target material is water. The thickness of these materials is varied; however, only the largest model calculated is reported which is 50 gm/cm{sup 2} of aluminum and 100 gm/cm{sup 2} of water. The flux from the ANISN/PC calculation is about two orders of magnitude lower than the flux from HZETRN for very low energy neutrons. It is only a magnitude lower for the neutrons in the 10 to 20 MeV range in the aluminum and two orders lower in the water. The major reason for this difference is in the transport modes: straight-ahead versus angular. The angular treatment allows a longer path length than the straight-ahead approximation. Another reason is the different cross section sets used by the ANISN/PC-BUGLE-80 mode and the HZETRN mode. The next step is to investigate further the differences between the two codes and isolate the differences to just the angular versus straight-ahead transport mode. Then, create a better coupling between the angular neutron transport and the charged particle transport.

  13. Abort System Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction for Capsule-Type Space Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    小澤, 啓伺; 北村, 圭一; 花井, 勝祥; 三好, 理也; 森, 浩一; 中村, 佳朗

    The space transportation system using capsule/rocket configurations such as Apollo and Soyuz are simple compared with Space Shuttle, and have several merits from the viewpoint of reliability. The capsule/rocket system will take over the Space Shuttle, after it retires in 2010. As the Space Shuttle accidents had been caused by several factors, e.g., aerodynamic interaction of shock waves ahead of its wing, advanced abort systems such as LAS (Launch Abort System) are required for the capsule/rocket system. In the present study, as a baseline configuration, a combination of a cone and a cylinder is employed as a CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle), which consists of a capsule (LAV: Launch Abort Vehicle) and a rocket (SM: Service Module). By changing the relative position of the two components as well as the profile area of the rocket, their effects on the capsule/rocket aerodynamic interaction and characteristics (drag and pitching moment) are experimentally and numerically investigated at a supersonic speed (M∞ = 3.0). It is found from the results that the clearance have little effects on the flow field for the case of the baseline configuration. The capsule always showed a positive drag (CD = 0.34), which means that thrust is required to overcome the drag. Otherwise the capsule will recontact the rocket. However in the case where the rocket contact area is 2.2 times as large as the capsule profile, more favorable effects were obtained. Especially in the case of a certain clearance (h/D = 0.40), the drag coefficient of the capsule is CD = -0.35, which means that the capsule suffers a thrust force from the aerodynamic interaction. Under this condition, if capsule has a pitch angle with 5 degrees instantaneously, then pitching moment coefficient becomes CMp = -0.41 therefore capsule stabilize. However, in the case of a very small clearance (h/D ∝ 0.00), the flow becomes unsteady involving pulsating shock wave, leading to a potentially risky separation of the capsule.

  14. "A space-time ensemble Kalman filter for state and parameter estimation of groundwater transport models"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briseño, Jessica; Herrera, Graciela S.

    2010-05-01

    Herrera (1998) proposed a method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks that involves space and time in a combined form. The method was applied later by Herrera et al (2001) and by Herrera and Pinder (2005). To get the estimates of the contaminant concentration being analyzed, this method uses a space-time ensemble Kalman filter, based on a stochastic flow and transport model. When the method is applied, it is important that the characteristics of the stochastic model be congruent with field data, but, in general, it is laborious to manually achieve a good match between them. For this reason, the main objective of this work is to extend the space-time ensemble Kalman filter proposed by Herrera, to estimate the hydraulic conductivity, together with hydraulic head and contaminant concentration, and its application in a synthetic example. The method has three steps: 1) Given the mean and the semivariogram of the natural logarithm of hydraulic conductivity (ln K), random realizations of this parameter are obtained through two alternatives: Gaussian simulation (SGSim) and Latin Hypercube Sampling method (LHC). 2) The stochastic model is used to produce hydraulic head (h) and contaminant (C) realizations, for each one of the conductivity realizations. With these realization the mean of ln K, h and C are obtained, for h and C, the mean is calculated in space and time, and also the cross covariance matrix h-ln K-C in space and time. The covariance matrix is obtained averaging products of the ln K, h and C realizations on the estimation points and times, and the positions and times with data of the analyzed variables. The estimation points are the positions at which estimates of ln K, h or C are gathered. In an analogous way, the estimation times are those at which estimates of any of the three variables are gathered. 3) Finally the ln K, h and C estimate are obtained using the space-time ensemble Kalman filter. The realization mean for each one

  15. Computational Transport Modeling of High-Energy Neutrons Found in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brad; Theriot, Corey A.; Rohde, Larry H.; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    The high charge and high energy (HZE) particle radiation environment in space interacts with spacecraft materials and the human body to create a population of neutrons encompassing a broad kinetic energy spectrum. As an HZE ion penetrates matter, there is an increasing chance of fragmentation as penetration depth increases. When an ion fragments, secondary neutrons are released with velocities up to that of the primary ion, giving some neutrons very long penetration ranges. These secondary neutrons have a high relative biological effectiveness, are difficult to effectively shield, and can cause more biological damage than the primary ions in some scenarios. Ground-based irradiation experiments that simulate the space radiation environment must account for this spectrum of neutrons. Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS), it is possible to simulate a neutron environment that is characteristic of that found in spaceflight. Considering neutron dosimetry, the focus lies on the broad spectrum of recoil protons that are produced in biological targets. In a biological target, dose at a certain penetration depth is primarily dependent upon recoil proton tracks. The PHITS code can be used to simulate a broad-energy neutron spectrum traversing biological targets, and it account for the recoil particle population. This project focuses on modeling a neutron beamline irradiation scenario for determining dose at increasing depth in water targets. Energy-deposition events and particle fluence can be simulated by establishing cross-sectional scoring routines at different depths in a target. This type of model is useful for correlating theoretical data with actual beamline radiobiology experiments. Other work exposed human fibroblast cells to a high-energy neutron source to study micronuclei induction in cells at increasing depth behind water shielding. Those findings provide supporting data describing dose vs. depth across a water-equivalent medium. This

  16. An overview of the current technology relevant to the design and development of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Digendra K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project was to review the latest literature relevant to the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The search was focused on the following engine components: (1) gas generator; (2) hydrostatic/fluid bearings; (3) seals/clearances; (4) heat exchanges; (5) nozzles; (6) nozzle/main combustion chamber joint; (7) main injector face plate; and (8) rocket engine.

  17. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A human mission to Mars is the stated "ultimate" goal for NASA and is widely believed by the public to be the most compelling destination for America's space program. However, widely cited enormous costs - perhaps as much as a trillion dollars for a many-decade campaign - seem to be an impossible hurdle, although political and budget instability over many years may be equally challenging. More recently, a handful of increasingly detailed architectures for initial Mars missions have been developed by commercial companies that have estimated costs much less than widely believed and roughly comparable with previous major human space flight programs: the Apollo Program, the International Space Station, and the space shuttle. Several of these studies are listed in the bibliography to the workshop report. As a consequence of these new scenarios, beginning in spring, 2013 a multiinstitutional planning team began developing the content and invitee list for a winter workshop that would critically assess concepts, initiatives, technology priorities, and programmatic options to reduce significantly the costs of human exploration of Mars. The output of the workshop - findings and recommendations - would be presented in a number of forums and discussed with national leaders in human space flight. It would also be made available to potential international partners. This workshop was planned from the start to be the first in a series. Subsequent meetings, conferences, and symposia will concentrate on topics not able to be covered in December. In addition, to make progress in short meeting, a handful of ground rules were adopted by the planning team and agreed to by the participants. Perhaps the two most notable such ground rules were (1) the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion would be available during the time frame considered by the participants and (2) the International Space Station (ISS) would remain the early linchpin in preparing for Mars exploration over the coming decade

  18. Convective Heat Transfer in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor of the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Rashid A.; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This simulation involved a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of a full motor initial grain of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) of the Space Transportation System (STS). It was conducted with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) commercial code FLUENT. This analysis was performed to: a) maintain continuity with most related previous analyses, b) serve as a non-vectored baseline for any three-dimensional vectored nozzles, c) provide a relatively simple application and checkout for various CFD solution schemes, grid sensitivity studies, turbulence modeling and heat transfer, and d) calculate nozzle convective heat transfer coefficients. The accuracy of the present results and the selection of the numerical schemes and turbulence models were based on matching the rocket ballistic predictions of mass flow rate, head end pressure, vacuum thrust and specific impulse, and measured chamber pressure drop. Matching these ballistic predictions was found to be good. This study was limited to convective heat transfer and the results compared favorably with existing theory. On the other hand, qualitative comparison with backed-out data of the ratio of the convective heat transfer coefficient to the specific heat at constant pressure was made in a relative manner. This backed-out data was devised to match nozzle erosion that was a result of heat transfer (convective, radiative and conductive), chemical (transpirating), and mechanical (shear and particle impingement forces) effects combined.

  19. Highly Reusable Space Transportation System Concept Evaluation (The Argus Launch Vehicle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Bellini, Peter X.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a conceptual design study that was performed in support of NASA's recent Highly Reusable Space Transportation study. The Argus concept uses a Maglifter magnetic-levitation sled launch assist system to accelerate it to a takeoff ground speed of 800 fps on its way to delivering a payload of 20,000 lb. to low earth orbit. Main propulsion is provided by two supercharged ejector rocket engines. The vehicle is autonomous and is fully reusable. A conceptual design exercise determined the vehicle gross weight to be approximately 597,250 lb. and the dry weight to be 75,500 lb. Aggressive weight and operations cost assumptions were used throughout the design process consistent with a second-generation reusable system that might be deployed in 10-15 years. Drawings, geometry, and weight of the concept are included. Preliminary development, production, and operations costs along with a business scenario assuming a price-elastic payload market are also included. A fleet of three Argus launch vehicles flying a total of 149 flights per year is shown to have a financial internal rate of return of 28%. At $169/lb., the recurring cost of Argus is shown to meet the study goal of $100/lb.-$200/lb., but optimum market price results in only a factor of two to five reduction compared to today's launch systems.

  20. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of metal alloys in the space transportation system launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz

    1990-01-01

    AC impedance measurements were performed to investigate the corrosion resistance of 18 alloys under conditions similar to the Space Transportation System (STS) launch environment. The alloys were: (1) zirconium 702; (2) Hastelloy C-22, C-276, C-4, and B-2; (3) Inconel 600 and 825; (4) Ferralium 255; (5) Inco Alloy G-3; (6) 20Cb-3; (7) SS 904L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 304L; (8) ES 2205; and (9) Monel 400. AC impedance data were gathered for each alloy at various immersion times in 3.55 percent NaCl-0.1N HCl. Polarization resistance values were obtained for the Nyguist plots at each immersion time using the EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT software package available with the 388 electrochemical impedance software. Hastelloy C-22 showed the highest overall values for polarization resistance while Monel 400 and Inconel 600 had the lowest overall values. There was good general correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys at the beach corrosion testing site, and the expected rate of corrosion as predicted based on the polarization resistance values obtained. The data indicate that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to predict the corrosion performance of metal alloys.

  1. Numerical simulation of heat and mass transport during space crystal growth with MEPHISTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Minwu; Raman, Raghu; Degroh, Henry C., III

    1995-01-01

    The MEPHISTO space experiments are collaborative United States and French investigations aimed at understanding the fundamentals of crystal growth. Microgravity experiments were conducted aboard the USMP-1 and -2 missions on STS-52 and 62 in October 1992 and March 1994 respectively. MEPHISTO is a French designed and built Bridgman type furnace which uses the Seebeck technique to monitor the solid/liquid interface temperature and Peltier pulsing to mark the location and shape of the solid/liquid interface. In this paper the Bridgman growth of Sn-Bi and Bi-Sn under terrestrial and microgravity conditions is modeled using the finite element code, FIDAP*. The numerical model considers fully coupled heat and mass transport, fluid motion and solid/liquid phase changes in the crystal growth process. The primary goals of this work are: to provide a quantitative study of the thermal buoyancy-induced convection in the melt for the two flight experiments; to compare the vertical and horizontal growth configurations and systematically evaluate the effects of various gravity levels on the solute segregation. Numerical results of the vertical and horizontal Bridgman growth configurations are presented.

  2. Extracellular mass transport considerations for space flight research concerning suspended and adherent in vitro cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaus, David M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Nelson, Emily S.; Hammond, Timmothy G.

    2004-01-01

    Conducting biological research in space requires consideration be given to isolating appropriate control parameters. For in vitro cell cultures, numerous environmental factors can adversely affect data interpretation. A biological response attributed to microgravity can, in theory, be explicitly correlated to a specific lack of weight or gravity-driven motion occurring to, within or around a cell. Weight can be broken down to include the formation of hydrostatic gradients, structural load (stress) or physical deformation (strain). Gravitationally induced motion within or near individual cells in a fluid includes sedimentation (or buoyancy) of the cell and associated shear forces, displacement of cytoskeleton or organelles, and factors associated with intra- or extracellular mass transport. Finally, and of particular importance for cell culture experiments, the collective effects of gravity must be considered for the overall system consisting of the cells, their environment and the device in which they are contained. This does not, however, rule out other confounding variables such as launch acceleration, on orbit vibration, transient acceleration impulses or radiation, which can be isolated using onboard centrifuges or vibration isolation techniques. A framework is offered for characterizing specific cause-and-effect relationships for gravity-dependent responses as a function of the above parameters.

  3. Heating and sterilization technology for long-duration space missions: transport processes in a reusable package.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Sudhir K; Jun, Soojin; Somavat, Romel; Samaranayake, Chaminda; Yousef, Ahmed; Pandit, Ram B

    2009-04-01

    Long-duration space missions require a high-quality, shelf-stable food supply but must also contend with packaging waste after use. We have developed a package, adapted from a military pouch, that enables heating of foods to serving temperature. After the food is consumed, the package may be reused for containment and sterilization of waste, and, potentially, for packaging and sterilizing foods grown on a Mars base. Packages are equipped with electrodes to permit ohmic heating of internal constituents. Heat transfer within the package was modeled using the energy transport equation, coupled with the Laplace equation for electric field strength distribution. The model was verified by temperature measurements during a sample experimental run, and it was used to optimize the package design. Waste sterilization within the package was also studied and confirmed. Mass transfer (electrode component migration) was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; the findings have shown concentrations within products to be well below current daily dietary exposure levels. Microbiological studies for sterilization indicated the need for package redesign to ensure parallel electrode configuration, as well as the use of supplemental external heaters along the nonelectrode walls of the package. Temperature profiles during heating of these packages have been determined.

  4. An Improved Elastic and Nonelastic Neutron Transport Algorithm for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Shinn, Judy L.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron transport algorithm including both elastic and nonelastic particle interaction processes for use in space radiation protection for arbitrary shield material is developed. The algorithm is based upon a multiple energy grouping and analysis of the straight-ahead Boltzmann equation by using a mean value theorem for integrals. The algorithm is then coupled to the Langley HZETRN code through a bidirectional neutron evaporation source term. Evaluation of the neutron fluence generated by the solar particle event of February 23, 1956, for an aluminum water shield-target configuration is then compared with MCNPX and LAHET Monte Carlo calculations for the same shield-target configuration. With the Monte Carlo calculation as a benchmark, the algorithm developed in this paper showed a great improvement in results over the unmodified HZETRN solution. In addition, a high-energy bidirectional neutron source based on a formula by Ranft showed even further improvement of the fluence results over previous results near the front of the water target where diffusion out the front surface is important. Effects of improved interaction cross sections are modest compared with the addition of the high-energy bidirectional source terms.

  5. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing the Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) with Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) was studied. Feasibility required acceptable technical risk, program costs, and a program plan which supports STS requirements. Three major goals were identified to direct booster design and operation: increased STS safety and reliability; STS/LRB integration with minimum impact; and increased STS performance. Two booster engine designs were studied. The first engine design was a turbopump-fed engine with state-of-the-art design, and the second was a pressure-fed engine which might provide a lower cost alternative to the pump-fed concept. Both booster concepts were carried through to completion of conceptual design and all system impacts and program costs were identified. Applications for LRB use in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program were studied using the pump-fed LRB baseline concept and variations on the baseline concept. Support for the Pressure-Fed Booster Test Bed (PFBTB) included test program planning and costs and technical support.

  6. Extracellular mass transport considerations for space flight research concerning suspended and adherent in vitro cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Klaus, David M; Benoit, Michael R; Nelson, Emily S; Hammond, Timmothy G

    2004-03-01

    Conducting biological research in space requires consideration be given to isolating appropriate control parameters. For in vitro cell cultures, numerous environmental factors can adversely affect data interpretation. A biological response attributed to microgravity can, in theory, be explicitly correlated to a specific lack of weight or gravity-driven motion occurring to, within or around a cell. Weight can be broken down to include the formation of hydrostatic gradients, structural load (stress) or physical deformation (strain). Gravitationally induced motion within or near individual cells in a fluid includes sedimentation (or buoyancy) of the cell and associated shear forces, displacement of cytoskeleton or organelles, and factors associated with intra- or extracellular mass transport. Finally, and of particular importance for cell culture experiments, the collective effects of gravity must be considered for the overall system consisting of the cells, their environment and the device in which they are contained. This does not, however, rule out other confounding variables such as launch acceleration, on orbit vibration, transient acceleration impulses or radiation, which can be isolated using onboard centrifuges or vibration isolation techniques. A framework is offered for characterizing specific cause-and-effect relationships for gravity-dependent responses as a function of the above parameters.

  7. Making Spaceflight Practical and Affordable: Spacecraft Designs and Their Degree of Operability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    As we push toward new and diverse space transportation capabilities, reduction in operations cost will become increasingly important. Achieving affordable and safe human spaceflight capabilities will be the mark of success for new programs and new providers. This paper reviews NASA s history in developing and operating human rated spacecraft, reviewing the key aspects of spacecraft design and their resultant impacts on operations phase complexity and cost. Specific examples from current and past programs are provided to tie together early program requirements, design implementation and resulting real-time operations experience into a complete "story" of design decisions and operational results. Based on these experiences, recommended techniques are outlined to enable earlier and more effective assessment of operations concerns during the design process.

  8. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY... availability of the Final EA and FONSI for the Launch and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets... rockets and WhiteKnightTwo carrier aircraft at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California....

  9. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  10. Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

  11. A solution of the monoenergetic neutral particle transport equation for adjacent half-spaces with anisotropic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Mostacci, D.; Previti, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present highly accurate solutions to the neutral particle transport equation in a half-space. While our initial motivation was in response to a recently published solution based on Chandrasekhar's H-function, the presentation to follow has taken on a more comprehensive tone. The solution by H-functions certainly did achieved high accuracy but was limited to isotropic scattering and emission from spatially uniform and linear sources. Moreover, the overly complicated nature of the H-function approach strongly suggests that its extension to anisotropic scattering and general sources is not at all practical. For this reason, an all encompassing theory for the determination of highly precise benchmarks, including anisotropic scattering for a variety of spatial source distributions, is presented for particle transport in a half-space. We illustrate the approach via a collection of cases including tables of 7-place flux benchmarks to guide transport methods developers. The solution presented can be applied to a considerable number of one and two half-space transport problems with variable sources and represents a state-of-the-art benchmark solution.

  12. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  13. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  14. Real-space method for first-principles electron transport calculations: Self-energy terms of electrodes for large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomoya; Tsukamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We present a fast and stable numerical technique to obtain the self-energy terms of electrodes for first-principles electron transport calculations. Although first-principles calculations based on the real-space finite-difference method are advantageous for execution on massively parallel computers, large-scale transport calculations are hampered by the computational cost and numerical instability of the computation of the self-energy terms. Using the orthogonal complement vectors of the space spanned by the generalized Bloch waves that actually contribute to transport phenomena, the computational accuracy of transport properties is significantly improved with a moderate computational cost. To demonstrate the efficiency of the present technique, the electron transport properties of a Stone-Wales (SW) defect in graphene and silicene are examined. The resonance scattering of the SW defect is observed in the conductance spectrum of silicene since the σ* state of silicene lies near the Fermi energy. In addition, we found that one conduction channel is sensitive to a defect near the Fermi energy, while the other channel is hardly affected. This characteristic behavior of the conduction channels is interpreted in terms of the bonding network between the bilattices of the honeycomb structure in the formation of the SW defect. The present technique enables us to distinguish the different behaviors of the two conduction channels in graphene and silicene owing to its excellent accuracy.

  15. Origin of how steam rockets can reduce space transport cost by orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.; Larson, T.K.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Rice, J.W.; Hill, T.J.; Richins, W.D.; Parlier, L.; Werner, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A brief sketch shows the origin of why and how thermal rocket propulsion has the unique potential to dramatically reduce the cost of space transportation for most inner solar system missions of interest. Orders of magnitude reduction in cost are apparently possible when compared to all processes requiring electrolysis for the production of rocket fuels or propellants and to all electric propulsion systems. An order of magnitude advantage can be attributed to rocket propellant tank factors associated with storing water propellant, compared to cryogenic liquids. An order of magnitude can also be attributed to the simplicity of the extraction and processing of ice on the lunar surface, into an easily stored, non-cryogenic rocket propellant (water). A nuclear heated thermal rocket can deliver thousands of times its mass to Low Earth Orbit from the Lunar surface, providing the equivalent to orders of magnitude drop in launch cost for mass in Earth orbit. Mass includes water ice. These cost reductions depend (exponentially) on the mission delta-v requirements being less than about 6 km/s, or about 3 times the specific velocity of steam rockets (2 km/s, from Isp 200 sec). Such missions include: from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit, (LLO), from LLO to lunar escape, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), from LEO to Earth Escape, from LEO to Mars Transfer Orbit, from LLO to GEO, missions returning payloads from about 10{percent} of the periodic comets using propulsive capture to orbits around Earth itself, and fast, 100 day missions from Lunar Escape to Mars. All the assertions depend entirely and completely on the existence of abundant, nearly pure ice at the permanently dark North and South Poles of the Moon. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  17. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  18. ECLIPSE, an Emerging Standardized Modular, Secure and Affordable Software Toolset in Support of Product Assurance, Quality Assurance and Project Management for the Entire European Space Industry (from Innovative SMEs to Primes and Institutions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennetti, Andrea; Ansari, Salim; Dewhirst, Tori; Catanese, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    The development of satellites and ground systems (and the technologies that support them) is complex and demands a great deal of rigor in the management of both the information it relies upon and the information it generates via the performance of well established processes. To this extent for the past fifteen years Sapienza Consulting has been supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the management of this information and provided ESA with ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization) Standards based Project Management (PM), Product Assurance (PA) and Quality Assurance (QA) software applications. In 2009 Sapienza recognised the need to modernize, standardizing and integrate its core ECSS-based software tools into a single yet modularised suite of applications named ECLIPSE aimed at: • Fulfilling a wider range of historical and emerging requirements, • Providing a better experience for users, • Increasing the value of the information it collects and manages • Lowering the cost of ownership and operation • Increasing collaboration within and between space sector organizations • Aiding in the performance of several PM, PA, QA, and configuration management tasks in adherence to ECSS standards. In this paper, Sapienza will first present the toolset, and a rationale for its development, describing and justifying its architecture, and basic modules composition. Having defined the toolset architecture, this paper will address the current status of the individual applications. A compliance assessment will be presented for each module in the toolset with respect to the ECSS standard it addresses. Lastly experience from early industry and Institutional users will be presented.

  19. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 3, part 2: Operational and flight support plan. [analysis of transportation requirements for rocket engine in support of space tug program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shubert, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Transportation requirements are considered during the engine design layout reviews and maintenance engineering analyses. Where designs cannot be influenced to avoid transportation problems, the transportation representative is advised of the problems permitting remedies early in the program. The transportation representative will monitor and be involved in the shipment of development engine and GSE hardware between FRDC and vehicle manufacturing plant and thereby will be provided an early evaluation of the transportation plans, methods and procedures to be used in the space tug support program. Unanticipated problems discovered in the shipment of development hardware will be known early enough to permit changes in packaging designs and transportation plans before the start of production hardware and engine shipments. All conventional transport media can be used for the movement of space tug engines. However, truck transport is recommended for ready availability, variety of routes, short transit time, and low cost.

  20. Nuclear Physics Issues in Space Radiation Risk Assessment-The FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code Used for Space Radiation Measurement and Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. T.

    2007-02-12

    The long term human exploration goals that NASA has embraced, requires the need to understand the primary radiation and secondary particle production under a variety of environmental conditions. In order to perform accurate transport simulations for the incident particles found in the space environment, accurate nucleus-nucleus inelastic event generators are needed, and NASA is funding their development. For the first time, NASA is including the radiation problem into the . design of the next manned exploration vehicle. The NASA-funded FLUER-S (FLUKA Executing Under ROOT-Space) project has several goals beyond the improvement of the internal nuclear physics simulations. These include making FLUKA more user-friendly. Several tools have been developed to simplify the use of FLUKA without compromising its accuracy or versatility. Among these tools are a general source input, ability of distributive computing, simplification of geometry input, geometry and event visualization, and standard FLUKA scoring output analysis using a ROOT GUI. In addition to describing these tools we will show how they have been used for space radiation environment data analysis in MARIE, IVCPDS, and EVCPDS. Similar analyses can be performed for future radiation measurement detectors before they are deployed in order to optimize their design. These tools can also be used in the design of nuclear-based power systems on manned exploration vehicles and planetary surfaces. In addition to these space applications, the simulations are being used to support accelerator based experiments like the cross-section measurements being performed at HIMAC and NSRL at BNL.