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Sample records for afforded significant protection

  1. Immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Chu, A C

    1997-06-01

    Several studies have suggested a lack of correlation between sunscreen sun protection factor and protection of the skin immune system, potentially allowing greater damage to the skin by removing the natural protective erythemal response to sun exposure. Despite this, routine testing of immune protection afforded by sunscreens is not performed by industry. Current laboratory methods for investigating the efficacy of sunscreen protection of epidermal immune function use the induction of contact hypersensitivity or epidermal cell alloantigen presentation. Animal models, cell culture systems, and in vivo human studies are commonly employed, but all these systems have significant drawbacks for use in routine testing. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro system for testing the immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in human skin. Five test sunscreens plus a vehicle control were tested in a "blind" fashion for their in vitro level of immune protection. Creams were applied in a standard manner to human whole skin explants and were irradiated over a range of physiologic doses using an Oriel solar simulator. A mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction was used to quantify epidermal alloantigen-presenting capacity, in the presence or absence of test cream, for five explants. Results consistently demonstrated that all the test sunscreens protected beyond their designated sun protection factors, whereas the vehicle conferred no protection. The explant-mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction system gave consistent, reproducible results and may prove useful for the allocation of an immune protection factor to all sunscreens. PMID:9182811

  2. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  3. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Measuring the skin dose protection afforded by protective apparel with a beta spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, D.E.; Rich, B.L.; Johnson, L.O. )

    1986-10-01

    This paper reports that the protective apparel worn by radiation workers to avoid skin contamination also provides measurable protection against external beta sources. The beta contribution to the skin dose rate depends on the residual energy spectrum of the beta particles after they have penetrated the protective apparel. The shift in the beta energy spectra and consequent reduction in the shallow dose rates afforded by various items of protective apparel were investigated for a few laboratory beta sources using a beta spectrometer that is capable of dose calculations. The results presented here indicate that significant dose rates to the skin can occur despite the presence of protective apparel if high energy beta emitting isotopes are present.

  5. 77 FR 33133 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 156 RIN 0938-AR36 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection... the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), which directs the Secretary of... Services (the Secretary). The Affordable Care Act directs that the EHB reflect the scope of...

  6. New affordable options for infrastructure and asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Securitas is one of the leaders evolving with technology and delivering new forms of affordable security for mining facilities. It was called in to protect a large mothballed coal mine in the central USA, the victim of repeated thefts. First, Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs) were installed but thefts continued. Later, a new wireless video security system called Videofied which used MotionViewers which use infrared detectors to detect movement and send a 10 second clip of the intrusion to an operator. This led to the thieves being caught. 2 photos.

  7. 77 FR 70643 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation...

  8. 77 FR 31513 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 155, 156, and 157 RIN 0938-AQ67 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... Federal Register on March 27, 2012, entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment... rule regarding the codification of section 1413(c) of the Affordable Care Act. To align the...

  9. Opportunities for oncology in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kavita K; Tran, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains within it three significant legislative constructs: to enhance access to health care, improve quality, and decrease cost. Also known as the Triple Aim, these three simple, yet monumental, goals have been the object of actions to date as well as future implementation efforts. This article will identify sections of the legislation that would directly provide areas of opportunity to improve health and achieve the triple aim for the oncology profession. PMID:23714567

  10. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 41866 (July 15...) Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Interim Final Rule, 75 FR 74864, 74918-20... of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

  11. How the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act affects Texas dentists.

    PubMed

    Oneacre, Lee P

    2012-10-01

    President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) into law March 23, 2010 (P.L. 111-148), as arguably the most significant legislative health reform since the creation of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965 (1). Several PPACA provisions will impact dentists as both health care providers and small business owners and employers (2). Overall, the law significantly changes health care financing and facilitates competition in the health insurance market place through the creation of health insurance exchanges (HIX). PMID:23311030

  12. Bioassay of thermal protection afforded by candidate flight suit fabrics.

    PubMed

    Knox, F S; Wachtel, T L; McCahan, G R

    1979-10-01

    The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) porcine cutaneous bioassay technique was used to determine what mitigating effect four thermally protective flight suit fabrics would have on fire-induced skin damage. The fabrics were 4.8-ox twill weave Nomex aramide, 4.5-oz stabilized twill weave polybenzimidazole, 4.8-oz plain weave experimental high-temperature polymer (HT4), and 4.8-oz plain weave Nomex aramide (New Weave Nomex or NWN). Each fabric sample was assayed 20 times in each of four configurations: as a single layer in contact with the skin; as a single layer with a 6.35 mm (0.25 in) air gap between fabric and skin; in conjuction with a cotton T-shirt with no air gaps; and, finally, in conjuction with a T-shirt with a 6.35 mm air gap between T-shirt and fabric. Bare skin was used as a control. A JP-4 fueled furnace was used as a thermal source and was adjested to deliver a mean heat flux of 3.07 cal/cm2/s. The duration of exposure was 5 s. Four hundred burn sites were graded using clinical observation and microscopic techniques. Used as single layers, none of the fabrics demonstrated superiority in providing clinically significant protection. When used with a cotton T-shirt, protection was improved. Protection improved progressively for all fabrics and configuration when an air gap was introduced. The experimental high-temperature polymer consistently demonstrated lower heat flux transmission in all configurations, but did not significantly reduce clinical burns. PMID:518445

  13. 78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... MANAGEMENT 45 CFR Part 800 RIN 3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable... 11, 2013 (78 FR 15560) and the final rule correction published March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18246)...

  14. 78 FR 18246 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... MANAGEMENT 45 CFR Part 800 RIN 3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the..., entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for... defined in section 1402(b) of the Affordable Care Act.'' 8. On Web page 15568, in the third column,...

  15. 16 CFR 1061.8 - Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded. 1061.8 Section 1061.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.8 Information on the heightened degree of protection...

  16. 78 FR 75581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... MANAGEMENT Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the... Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges... Act of 2008; Technical Amendment to External Review for Multi-State Plan Program'' (78 FR 68240)....

  17. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...; Exchange Standards for Employers (77 FR 18310),\\1\\ hereinafter referred to as the Exchange Establishment...; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review, 78 FR 13406 (February 27, 2013), hereinafter...

  18. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  19. 78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Programs, and Market Standards'' (78 FR 37032), which was published in the Federal Register on June 19... Federal Register on March 11, 2013 (78 FR 15541), related to risk corridors and cost-sharing reduction..., 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related...

  20. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review'' (77 FR 70584). These standards apply to health... Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and Accreditation'' (77 FR 70644), herein referred to as the EHB.... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review; Final Rule...

  1. 77 FR 28790 - Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (75 FR 34538) published on June 17, 2010, it was estimated that... on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24470) relating to the Federal health care reform insurance Web Portal... Federal Register on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19297). On December 1, 2010, the Department of Health and...

  2. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; program integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and eligibility appeals. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, this final rule outlines Exchange standards with respect to eligibility appeals, agents and brokers, privacy and security, issuer direct enrollment, and the handling of consumer cases. It also sets forth standards with respect to a State's operation of the Exchange and Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). It generally is finalizing previously proposed policies without change. PMID:23991479

  3. Women's Awareness of Their Contraceptive Benefits Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Mitchell, Julie L; Velott, Diana L; Legro, Richard S; Lehman, Erik B; Confer, Lindsay; Weisman, Carol S

    2015-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act mandates that there be no out-of-pocket cost for Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods. Among 987 privately insured reproductive aged Pennsylvania women, fewer than 5% were aware that their insurance covered tubal sterilization, and only 11% were aware that they had full coverage for an intrauterine device. For the Affordable Care Act contraceptive coverage mandate to affect effective contraception use and reduce unintended pregnancies, public awareness of the expanded benefits is essential. PMID:26447910

  4. Women’s Awareness of Their Contraceptive Benefits Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Velott, Diana L.; Legro, Richard S.; Lehman, Erik B.; Confer, Lindsay; Weisman, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act mandates that there be no out-of-pocket cost for Food and Drug Administration–approved contraceptive methods. Among 987 privately insured reproductive aged Pennsylvania women, fewer than 5% were aware that their insurance covered tubal sterilization, and only 11% were aware that they had full coverage for an intrauterine device. For the Affordable Care Act contraceptive coverage mandate to affect effective contraception use and reduce unintended pregnancies, public awareness of the expanded benefits is essential. PMID:26447910

  5. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: a primer for neurointerventionalists.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-03-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA, for short) became law on 23 March 2010. It represents the most significant transformation of the American healthcare system since Medicare and Medicaid. Essentials of ACA include: (1) a mandate for individuals and businesses requiring as a matter of law that nearly every American has an approved level of health insurance or pay a penalty; (2) a system of federal subsidies to completely or partially pay for the now required health insurance for ∼34 million Americans who are currently uninsured-subsidized through Medicaid and Exchanges; (3) extensive new requirements on the health insurance industry and (4) changes in the practice of medicine. The Act is divided into 10 titles. It contains provisions that went into effect starting on 21 June 2010 with many of the provisions going into effect in 2014 and later. The ACA goes well beyond insurance and payment reform. Practicing physicians will potentially be impacted by the Independent Payment Advisory Board and the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute. PMID:21990501

  7. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted. PMID:26272884

  8. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - The Role of the School Nurse: Position Statement.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students. PMID:25926418

  9. Undocumented and uninsured: aftereffects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Agabin, Nataly; Coffin, Janis

    2015-01-01

    Although with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act millions of previously uninsured American residents will gain access to healthcare coverage, millions more will remain uninsured due to the lack of mandatory state Medicaid expansion as well as mandates that forbid undocumented immigrants and legal residents of less than five years from purchasing insurance through the newly available market exchange. With limited options for healthcare coverage due to employment and lack of citizen status, undocumented immigrants rely heavily on funds provided by both Emergency Medicaid and Disproportionate Share Hospital programs. Through reevaluation of current funding, mandates forbidding access to market exchanges, and plans to further enable access to affordable health coverage, states have the unique opportunity to both aid their residents and relieve the financial burden on healthcare facilities and Emergency Medicaid funds. PMID:26062333

  10. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: what every provider of gynecologic oncology care should know.

    PubMed

    Duska, Linda R; Engelhard, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2010. While initial implementation of the law began shortly thereafter, the full implementation will take place over the next few years. With respect to cancer care, the act was intended to make care more accessible, affordable, and comprehensive across different parts of the country. For our cancer patients and our practices, the ACA has implications that are both positive and negative. The Medicaid expansion and access to insurance exchanges are intended to increase the number of insured patients and thus improve access to care, but many states have decided to opt out of the Medicaid program and in these states access problems will persist. Screening programs will be put in place for insured patients but may supplant federally funded programs that are currently in place for uninsured patients and may not follow current screening guidelines. Both hospice and home health providers will be asked to provide more services with less funding, and quality measures, including readmission rates, will factor into reimbursement. Insured patients will have access to all phases of clinical trial research. There is a need for us as providers of Gynecologic Oncology care to be active in the implementation of the ACA in order to ensure that our patients and our practices can survive and benefit from the changes in health care reimbursement, with the ultimate goals of improving access to care and quality while reducing unsustainable costs. PMID:23500090

  11. Right-wing conspiracy? Socialist plot? The origins of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, Jill

    2014-02-01

    On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Did the ACA signify a government takeover of the health care system, a first step on the road to socialism, as conservative critics charged? Or was it, rather, a sellout to the right wing, as liberal single-payer advocates proclaimed? The ACA's key provisions, the employer mandate and the individual mandate, were Republican policy ideas, and its fundamental principles were nearly identical to the Health Equity and Access Reform Today Act of 1993 (HEART), a bill promoted by Republican senators to deflect support for President Bill Clinton's Health Security plan. Yet the ACA was also a policy legacy of the Clinton administration in important ways that rarely are acknowledged, notably Medicaid expansion and insurance company regulation. Although the ACA departed from the liberal vision of a single-payer plan and adhered closely to the objectives of those who believed that the health care system should encourage the free market, it included provisions that will make coverage more affordable, reliable, and accessible. PMID:24193605

  12. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; Small Business Health Options Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) related to the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). Specifically, this final rule amends existing regulations regarding triggering events and special enrollment periods for qualified employees and their dependents and implements a transitional policy regarding employees' choice of qualified health plans (QHPs) in the SHOP. PMID:23734400

  13. Patient navigator programs, cancer disparities, and the patient protection and affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Chabner, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Patients in vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. Patient navigator programs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Among its provisions relevant to disparities in cancer care, The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act authorizes continued funding of patient navigator programs. However, given the current economic and political environment, this funding is in jeopardy. This article describes patient navigator programs and summarizes the elements of the health care law that are relevant to these programs. It is vital that the entire oncology community remain committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among our most vulnerable patients. PMID:21804070

  14. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: impact on otolaryngology practice and research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gordon H; Davis, Matthew M

    2012-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Since its passage, the PPACA has led to increased health insurance coverage for millions more Americans, and it includes provisions leading to new avenues for clinical and health services research funding. The legislation also favors development of the primary care specialties and general surgery, increased training of midlevel health care providers, and medical training and service in underserved areas of the United States. However, the PPACA does not effectively engage otolaryngologists in quality improvement, despite modifications to the Physician Quality Reporting System. The legislation also levies a tax on cosmetic procedures, affecting both clinicians and patients. This article reviews the sections of the PPACA that are most pertinent to otolaryngologists and explains how these components of the bill will affect otolaryngologic practice and research over the coming decade. PMID:22282865

  15. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Reproductive Health: Harnessing Data to Improve Care

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has great potential to improve reproductive health through several components: expanded coverage of people of reproductive age; required coverage of many reproductive health services; and insurance exchange structures that encourage individuals and states to hold plans and providers accountable. These components can work together to improve reproductive health. But in order for this to work, consumers and states need information with which to assess plans. This review article summarizes state contracting theory and argues that states should use this structure to require health plans to collect and report meaningful data that patients, providers, plans, payers, and third-party researchers can access. Now that the Supreme Court has upheld the PPACA and states must set up health insurance exchanges, populations can benefit from improved care and outcomes through data transparency. PMID:23262767

  16. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Effect on Emergency Medicine: A Synthesis of the Data.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Eswaran, Vidya; Shah, Rohan M; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    This review synthesizes the existing literature to provide evidence-based predictions for the future of emergency care in the United States as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a focus on emergency department (ED) visit volume, acuity, and reimbursement. Patient behavior will likely be quite different for patients gaining Medicaid than for those gaining private insurance through the Marketplaces. Despite the threat of the individual mandate, not all uninsured patients will enroll, and those who choose to enroll will likely be a different population from those who remain uninsured. New Medicaid enrollees will be a sicker population and will likely increase their number of ED visits substantially. Their acuity will be higher at first but will then revert to the traditionally high number of low-acuity visits made by Medicaid patients. Most patients enrolling through the Marketplace are choosing high-deductible health plans, and they will initially avoid the ED because of high out-of-pocket costs but may present later and sicker after self-rationing their care. Most patients gaining health coverage through the Affordable Care Act will be shifting from uninsured to either Medicaid or private insurance, both of which reimburse more than self-pay, so ED collections should increase. Because of the differences between Medicaid and Marketplace plans, there will be a difference in ED volume, acuity, and financial outcomes, depending on states' current demographics, whether states expand Medicaid, and how aggressively states advertise new options for coverage in Medicaid or state health insurance Marketplaces. PMID:25976250

  17. A systems thinking approach to analysis of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Williams, John C

    2015-01-01

    The public health community is challenged with understanding the many complexities presented by systems thinking and its applications in systems modeling. The model presented encompasses multiple variables needed (eg, model building) for the construction of a conceptual system model of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The model tracks the ACA from inception, through passage, March 2010, to its current state. Justification for the need to reform the current health care system rests, in part, on the heels of social justice. Proponents of the ACA have long argued that health reform was needed by the millions of uninsured person who suffered from health disparities, took little advantage of health prevention advice, and faced issues of access to providers as well as insurers. In addition the ACA seeks to address our uncontrollable spending on health care delivery. This article highlights the ACA from a systems perspective. The conceptual model presented encompasses both health reform variables (eg, health care provisions, key legislative components, system environment) and system variables (eg, inputs, outputs, feedback, and throughput) needed to understand current health care reform efforts from a systems perspective. The model presented shows how the interrelationships and interconnections of elements of a system come together to achieve its purpose or goal. PMID:25414950

  18. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: the victory of unorthodox lawmaking.

    PubMed

    Beaussier, Anne-Laure

    2012-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a major legislative achievement of the 111th Congress. This law structurally reforms the US health care system by encouraging universal health care coverage through regulated competition among private insurance companies. When looking at the process for reform, what strikes an observer of US health care policy in the first place is that the Democratic majority was able to enact something in a political field characterized by strong resistance to change. This article builds on that observation. Arguments concentrate on the legislative process of the reform and support the idea that it may be partly explained by considering an evolution of US legislative institutions, mostly in the sense of a more centralized legislative process. Based on approximately one hundred semidirected interviews, I argue that the Democratic majority, building on lessons from both President Bill Clinton's health care reform attempt and the Republicans' strategy of using strong congressional leadership to pass social reforms, was able to overcome institutional constraints that have long prevented comprehensive change. A more centralized legislative process, which has been described as "unorthodox lawmaking," enabled the Democratic leadership to overcome multiple institutional and political veto players. PMID:22700946

  19. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Services and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Abdus, Salam; Mistry, Kamila B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined prereform patterns in insurance coverage, access to care, and preventive services use by race/ethnicity in adults targeted by the coverage expansions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We used pre-ACA household data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to identify groups targeted by the coverage provisions of the Act (Medicaid expansions and subsidized Marketplace coverage). We examined racial/ethnic differences in coverage, access to care, and preventive service use, across and within ACA relevant subgroups from 2005 to 2010. The study took place at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Rockville, Maryland. Results. Minorities were disproportionately represented among those targeted by the coverage provisions of the ACA. Targeted groups had lower rates of coverage, access to care, and preventive services use, and racial/ethnic disparities were, in some cases, widest within these targeted groups. Conclusions. Our findings highlighted the opportunity of the ACA to not only to improve coverage, access, and use for all racial/ethnic groups, but also to narrow racial/ethnic disparities in these outcomes. Our results might have particular importance for states that are deciding whether to implement the ACA Medicaid expansions. PMID:26447920

  20. Childhood Cancer Survivors' Familiarity With and Opinions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Park, Elyse R.; Stroup, Antoinette; Kinney, Anita Y.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) offers avenues to increase insurance options and access to care; however, it is unknown whether populations with pre-existing conditions, such as cancer survivors, will benefit from the expanded coverage options. We explored childhood cancer survivors' familiarity with and opinion of the ACA to understand how survivors' insurance coverage may be affected. Materials and Methods: From April to July 2012 we conducted in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews with 53 adult survivors recruited from the Utah Cancer SEER Registry. Participants were randomly selected from sex, age, and rural/urban strata and were younger than 21 years at time of diagnosis. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with NVivo 9 by two coders (kappa = 0.94). We report on the 49 participants who had heard of the ACA. Results: Most survivors were unaware of ACA provisions beyond the insurance mandate. Few knew about coverage for children up to age 26 or pre-existing insurance options. Although one third believed the ACA could potentially benefit them via expanded insurance coverage, many were concerned that the ACA would lead to rising health care costs and decreasing quality of care. Survivors had concerns specific to their cancer history, including fears of future health care rationing if they developed subsequent health problems. Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors have a low level of familiarity with the ACA and are unaware of how it may affect them given their cancer history. These survivors require targeted education to increase knowledge about the ACA. PMID:23943900

  1. 78 FR 7348 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; Exchange Standards for Employers'' (77 FR 18309). The provisions of the final rule, herein referred to as... affordability programs. We note that we expect to modify the proposed language in Sec. 155.227 (78 FR 4711) to... seeking exemptions. Similarly, we intend to modify the proposed language in Sec. 155.225 (78 FR 4710)...

  2. 78 FR 20581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Standards for Navigators and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... a State Consumer Partnership Exchange (Consumer Partnership Exchange). \\1\\ See 77 FR 18310, 18325-26... 27, 2012 (77 FR 18310), and is codified at 45 CFR Sec. 155.210. Section 1311(i)(3) of the Affordable... Eligibility and Enrollment for Exchanges, Medicaid and CHIP, and Medicaid Premiums and Cost Sharing, 78...

  3. 77 FR 17219 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... and the RFC, where relevant. On July 15, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 41950-41956... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Final Rule #0;#0...; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  4. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...This proposed rule sets forth financial integrity and oversight standards with respect to Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Qualified Health Plan (QHP) issuers in Federally-facilitated Exchanges (FFEs); and States with regard to the operation of risk adjustment and reinsurance programs. It also proposes additional standards with respect to agents and brokers. These standards, which include......

  5. 78 FR 39493 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...This final rule implements certain functions of the Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''). These specific statutory functions include determining eligibility for and granting certificates of exemption from the individual shared responsibility payment described in section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code. Additionally, this final rule implements the responsibilities of the Secretary......

  6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-02-24

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule implementing modifications to the Multi-State Plan (MSP) Program based on the experience of the Program to date. OPM established the MSP Program pursuant to the Affordable Care Act. This rule clarifies the approach used to enforce the applicable standards of the Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers that contract with OPM to offer MSP options; amends MSP standards related to coverage area, benefits, and certain contracting provisions under section 1334 of the Affordable Care Act; and makes non-substantive technical changes. PMID:25735057

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: A Primer for Hand Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States healthcare industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 Titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals. PMID:25066853

  8. The impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on radiology: beyond reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Norbash, Alexander; Allen, Bibb; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Kazerooni, Ella A; Thorwarth, William; Weinreb, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 ACR Forum focused on the noneconomic implications of the Affordable Care Act on the field of radiology, with specific attention to the importance of the patient experience, the role of radiology in public and population health, and radiology's role in the effort to lower overall health care costs. The recommendations generated from the Forum seek to inform ACR leadership on the best strategies to pursue to best prepare the radiology community for the rapidly evolving health care landscape. PMID:25557569

  9. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; exchange standards for employers. Final rule, Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-03-27

    This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges ("Exchanges"), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly compare available private health insurance options on the basis of price, quality, and other factors. The Exchanges, which will become operational by January 1, 2014, will help enhance competition in the health insurance market, improve choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing clout as large businesses. PMID:22479737

  10. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and Children and Youth With Special Health Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Christina A.; Hubner, Lauren M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Loe, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was designed to (1) decrease the number of uninsured Americans, (2) make health insurance and health care affordable, and (3) improve health outcomes and performance of the health care system. During the design of ACA, children in general and children and youth with special health care needs and disabilities (CYSHCN) were not a priority because before ACA, a higher proportion of children than adults had insurance coverage through private family plans, Medicaid, or the State Children's Health Insurance Programs (CHIP). ACA benefits CYSHCN through provisions designed to make health insurance coverage universal and continuous, affordable, and adequate. Among the limitations of ACA for CYSHCN are the exemption of plans that had been in existence before ACA, lack of national standards for insurance benefits, possible elimination or reductions in funding for CHIP, and limited experience with new delivery models for improving care while reducing costs. Advocacy efforts on behalf of CYSHCN must track implementation of ACA at the federal and the state levels. Systems and payment reforms must emphasize access and quality improvements for CYSHCN over cost savings. Developmental-behavioral pediatrics must be represented at the policy level and in the design of new delivery models to assure high quality and cost-effective care for CYSHCN. PMID:25793891

  11. Healthcare Reform and the Next Generation: United States Medical Student Attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Huntoon, Kristin M.; McCluney, Colin J.; Scannell, Christopher A.; Wiley, Elizabeth A.; Bruno, Richard; Andrews, Allen; Gorman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Context Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. Objective To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. Design, Setting, and Participants An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students) between October–December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. Main Outcome Measures Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. Results Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7%) were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6%) believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8%) opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment. PMID:21931604

  12. The neurovascular protection afforded by delayed local hypothermia after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Heon; Seo, Minchul; Han, Hyung Soo; Park, Jaechan; Suk, Kyoungho

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is a robust therapeutic tool in experimental stroke models but its clinical applications are limited. Furthermore, optimal conditions for therapeutic hypothermia, such as, temperature and the initiation and duration of cooling must be individualized. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of delayed local hypothermia, administered for 44 hr after 4 hr of reperfusion in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), using a cooling device that allowed controlled local hypothermia (31 °C) in brain. Histological data revealed that local hypothermia significantly reduced infarct volumes and glial hypertrophic activation. Brain water contents, IgG leakage, and Evans Blue extravasation were notably reduced by local hypothermia. Furthermore, local hypothermia had strong vasculoprotective effects, as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses for endothelial barrier antigen (EBA), laminin, aquaporin-4, and tight junction proteins in brain. Our data indicate that delayed/prolonged local hypothermia confers neurovascular protection, reduces brain edema, and inhibits inflammatory glial activation, and suggest that hypothermic conservation of vascular structures and functions account for the therapeutic effects of local hypothermia observed in this model of experimental stroke. PMID:23469955

  13. KCNMA1 Encoded Cardiac BK Channels Afford Protection against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Barthmes, Maria; Hattel, Helle; Thrush, A. Brianne; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Filip J.; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Losa-Reyna, Jose; Straubinger, Julia; Kniess, Angelina; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fenske, Stefanie; Biel, Martin; Ruth, Peter; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial potassium channels have been implicated in myocardial protection mediated through pre-/postconditioning. Compounds that open the Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium channel of big-conductance (BK) have a pre-conditioning-like effect on survival of cardiomyocytes after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, mitochondrial BK channels (mitoBKs) in cardiomyocytes were implicated as infarct-limiting factors that derive directly from the KCNMA1 gene encoding for canonical BKs usually present at the plasma membrane of cells. However, some studies challenged these cardio-protective roles of mitoBKs. Herein, we present electrophysiological evidence for paxilline- and NS11021-sensitive BK-mediated currents of 190 pS conductance in mitoplasts from wild-type but not BK−/− cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy of BK−/− ventricular muscles fibres showed normal ultra-structures and matrix dimension, but oxidative phosphorylation capacities at normoxia and upon re-oxygenation after anoxia were significantly attenuated in BK−/− permeabilized cardiomyocytes. In the absence of BK, post-anoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from cardiomyocyte mitochondria was elevated indicating that mitoBK fine-tune the oxidative state at hypoxia and re-oxygenation. Because ROS and the capacity of the myocardium for oxidative metabolism are important determinants of cellular survival, we tested BK−/− hearts for their response in an ex-vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infarct areas, coronary flow and heart rates were not different between wild-type and BK−/− hearts upon I/R injury in the absence of ischemic pre-conditioning (IP), but differed upon IP. While the area of infarction comprised 28±3% of the area at risk in wild-type, it was increased to 58±5% in BK−/− hearts suggesting that BK mediates the beneficial effects of IP. These findings suggest that cardiac BK channels are important for proper oxidative energy supply

  14. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Customer Funds and Funds Held in an Account for Foreign Futures and Foreign Options Transactions, 76 FR.... \\14\\ See 77 FR 6336 (Feb. 7, 2012). The Commission also included customer protection enhancements in... ] compliance with Commission requirements and the protection of customer funds. The Form 1-FR-FCM and...

  15. Plastic Surgery Practice Models and Research Aims Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Aviram M.; Yuan, Frank; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    As the healthcare landscape in the United States changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), providers are set to face numerous new challenges. Although concerns about practice sustainability with declining reimbursement have dominated the dialogue, there are more pressing changes to the healthcare funding mechanism as a whole that must be addressed. Plastic surgeons, involved in various practice models each with different relationships to hospitals, referring physicians, and payers, must understand these reimbursement changes in order to dictate adequate compensation in the future. Here we discuss bundle payments and Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), and how plastic surgeons might best engage in these new system designs. In addition, we review the value of a focused and driven health-services research agenda in plastic surgery, and the importance of this research in supporting long-term financial stability for the specialty. PMID:25626805

  16. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA . Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. ); Freeman, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  17. Biochemical Analysis of Plant Protection Afforded by a Nonpathogenic Endophytic Mutant of Colletotrichum magna1

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Regina S.; Freeman, Stanley; Clifton, David R.; Morrel, Jed; Brown, Gayle; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) “plant-defense” response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection. PMID:9952476

  18. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  19. The tertiary structure of the four-way DNA junction affords protection against DNase I cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Murchie, A I; Carter, W A; Portugal, J; Lilley, D M

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of phosphodiester bonds in the DNA of four-way helical junctions has been probed with the nuclease DNase I. Regions of protection were observed on all four strands of the junctions, that tended to be longer on the strands that are exchanged between the coaxially stacked pairs of helices. The protected regions on the continuous strands of the stacked helices were not located exactly at the junction, but were displaced towards the 3' side of the strand. This is the region of backbone that becomes located in the major groove of the opposed helix in the non-crossed, right-handed structure for the junction, and might therefore be predicted to be protected against cleavage by an enzyme. However, the major grooves of the structure remain accessible to the much smaller probe dimethyl sulphate. Images PMID:2339051

  20. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; exchange and insurance market standards for 2015 and beyond. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-05-27

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to health insurance issuers, Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), Navigators, non-Navigator assistance personnel, and other entities under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, the rule establishes standards related to product discontinuation and renewal, quality reporting, non-discrimination standards, minimum certification standards and responsibilities of qualified health plan (QHP) issuers, the Small Business Health Options Program, and enforcement remedies in Federally-facilitated Exchanges. It also finalizes: A modification of HHS's allocation of reinsurance collections if those collections do not meet our projections; certain changes to allowable administrative expenses in the risk corridors calculation; modifications to the way we calculate the annual limit on cost sharing so that we round this parameter down to the nearest $50 increment; an approach to index the required contribution used to determine eligibility for an exemption from the shared responsibility payment under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code; grounds for imposing civil money penalties on persons who provide false or fraudulent information to the Exchange and on persons who improperly use or disclose information; updated standards for the consumer assistance programs; standards related to the opt-out provisions for self-funded, non-Federal governmental plans and related to the individual market provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 including excepted benefits; standards regarding how enrollees may request access to non-formulary drugs under exigent circumstances; amendments to Exchange appeals standards and coverage enrollment and termination standards; and time-limited adjustments to the standards relating to the medical loss ratio

  1. High School Youth and Suicide Risk: Exploring Protection Afforded through Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…

  2. 78 FR 68505 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is adopting new regulations and amending existing regulations to require enhanced customer protections, risk management programs, internal monitoring and controls, capital and liquidity standards, customer disclosures, and auditing and examination programs for futures commission merchants (``FCMs''). The regulations also......

  3. Protection afforded by pre- or post-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate against liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Miyata, Keishi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Iwawaki, Takao; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-09-01

    -induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Although post-treatment with 4-PBA did not show any effects on hepatic Xbp1 mRNA splicing and JNK phosphorylation, it drastically attenuated the DNA fragmentation induced by APAP. The precise molecular mechanisms of the protection afforded by 4-PBA against APAP hepatotoxicity in mice are unclear, but they seem to involve inhibition of hepatocellular DNA fragmentation. We suggest that 4-PBA is a promising candidate as an antidote against APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:24951965

  4. Creatine affords protection against glutamate-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Ramos-Hryb, Ana Belén; Olescowicz, Gislaine; Ludka, Fabiana K; Tasca, Carla I; Gabilan, Nelson H; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-05-01

    Creatine has been reported to exert beneficial effects in several neurodegenerative diseases in which glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play an etiological role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of creatine, as compared to the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), against glutamate or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate (60-80 mM) or H2O2 (200-300 μM) for 24 h decreased cellular viability and increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of increased reactive oxygen species, ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (assessed by mono-nitrogen oxides, NOx, levels). Creatine (1-10 mM) or MK-801 (0.1-10 μM) reduced glutamate- and H2O2-induced toxicity. The protective effect of creatine against glutamate-induced toxicity involves its antioxidant effect, since creatine, similar to MK-801, prevented the increase on DCF fluorescence induced by glutamate or H2O2. Furthermore, creatine or MK-801 blocked glutamate- and H2O2-induced increases in NOx levels. In another set of experiments, the repeated, but not acute, administration of creatine (300 mg/kg, po) in mice prevented the decreases on cellular viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (assessed by tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, TMRE, probe) of hippocampal slices incubated with glutamate (10 mM). Creatine concentration-dependent decreased the amount of nitrite formed in the reaction of oxygen with NO produced from sodium nitroprusside solution, suggesting that its protective effect against glutamate or H2O2-induced toxicity might be due to its scavenger activity. Overall, the results suggest that creatine may be useful as adjuvant therapy for neurodegenerative disease treatments. PMID:26804444

  5. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl Carbamate (EC) was detected in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that frequent exposure to ethyl carbamate may increase the risk to suffer from cancers. Blackberry is rich in polyphenols and possesses potent antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of blackberry homogenates produced before (BH) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (BD) on EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that blackberry homogenates after digestion (BD) was more effective than that before digestion (BH) in ameliorating EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation revealed that BD remarkably attenuated EC-induced toxicity through restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting glutathione depletion and decreasing overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, LC-MS result implied that the better protective capacity of BD may be related to the increased content of two anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-dioxalyglucoside). Overall, the present study may give implication to prevent EC-induced health problem. PMID:27374576

  6. The Cardenolide Glycoside Acovenoside A Affords Protective Activity in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Shahira M; El Gaafary, Menna; El Sayed, Abeer M; Sabry, Omar M; Ali, Zeinab Y; Hafner, Susanne; Schmiech, Michael; Jin, Lu; Syrovets, Tatiana; Simmet, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the protective effect of the cardenolide glycoside acovenoside A (AcoA) against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. AcoA was isolated from the pericarps of Acokanthera oppositifolia to chemical homogeneity and characterized by means of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AcoA exhibited relatively low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 223.3 mg/kg bw). Repeated administration of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity manifested by reduced activity of myocardial membrane-bound ion pumps and elevated serum biomarkers of myocardial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Pretreatment of doxorubicin-exposed mice with AcoA (11.16 or 22.33 mg/kg bw, i.p.) for 2 weeks after 2 weeks of combined administration of AcoA and doxorubicin protected the animals dose dependently against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity as indicated by normalization of the levels of different myocardial markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, total antioxidant capacity, and cardiac glutathione), serum myocardial diagnostic marker enzymes (serum cardiac troponin T, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), and inflammatory markers (c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6), as well as myocardial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These effects were attributed to the negative impact of AcoA on transcription factors nuclear factor κB and interferon regulatory factor 3/7. Thus acovenoside A might act as a cardioprotective agent to prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:27247000

  7. Achieving Public Health Goals Through Medicaid Expansion: Opportunities in Criminal Justice, Homelessness, and Behavioral Health With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system—particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses—are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  8. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Parr, Allan T; Fellows, Bert; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA, for short) became law with President Obama's signature on March 23, 2010. It represents the most significant transformation of the American health care system since Medicare and Medicaid. It is argued that it will fundamentally change nearly every aspect of health care, from insurance to the final delivery of care. The length and complexity of the legislation and divisive and heated debates have led to massive confusion about the impact of ACA. It also became one of the centerpieces of 2010 congressional campaigns. Essentials of ACA include: 1) a mandate for individuals and businesses requiring as a matter of law that nearly every American have an approved level of health insurance or pay a penalty; 2) a system of federal subsidies to completely or partially pay for the now required health insurance for about 34 million Americans who are currently uninsured - subsidized through Medicaid and exchanges; 3) extensive new requirements on the health insurance industry; and 4) numerous regulations on the practice of medicine. The act is divided into 10 titles. It contains provisions that went into effect starting on June 21, 2010, with the majority of provisions going into effect in 2014 and later. The perceived major impact on practicing physicians in the ACA is related to growing regulatory authority with the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) and the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). In addition to these specifics is a growth of the regulatory regime in association with further discounts in physician reimbursement. With regards to cost controls and projections, many believe that the ACA does not fix the finances of our health care system - neither public nor private. It has been suggested that the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the administration have used creative accounting to arrive at an alleged deficit reduction; however, if everything is included appropriately and

  9. [Clinical significance of gastrointestinal decontamination under protected environment].

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Yonekura, S; Komatsuda, M; Nozaki, H; Arimori, S; Sawamura, S; Ozawa, A; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Many infections are caused by the patient's own oro-intestinal microbial flora under a protected environment. Thirty-eight patients with acute leukemia and two patients with blast crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia were treated under a protected environment with or without prophylactic antibiotics. Antibiotics used for decontamination were vancomycin (V), polymyxin B (P) and nystatin (N). The number of patients in the VPN, PN and the no antibiotic group were 13, 13 and 14, respectively. While the intestinal microbial flora was almost completely eliminated in VPN group, the number of bacteria decreased slightly in PN group. The mean number of pharyngeal and anorectal bacterial species decreased most markedly in the VPN group, but there were no significant differences among the three groups. The number of febrile days was significantly lower in the VPN and PN group than the no antibiotics group with neutrophil counts of less than 100 microliters. The average number of episodes of infection per patient was lowest in VPN group and highest in the no antibiotic group. These data indicate that VPN administration is effective for eliminating intestinal bacterial flora and resultantly protecting endogenous infections. PMID:2066589

  10. Keeping up with the Cadillacs: What Health Insurance Disparities, Moral Hazard, and the Cadillac Tax Mean to The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rebecca Adkins

    2016-03-01

    A major goal of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is to broaden health care access through the extension of insurance coverage. However, little attention has been given to growing disparities in access to health care among the insured, as trends to reduce benefits and increase cost sharing (deductibles, co-pays) reduce affordability and access. Through a political economic perspective that critiques moral hazard, this article draws from ethnographic research with the United Steelworkers (USW) at a steel mill and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) at a food-processing plant in urban Central Appalachia. In so doing, this article describes difficulties of health care affordability on the eve of reform for differentially insured working families with employer-sponsored health insurance. Additionally, this article argues that the proposed Cadillac tax on high-cost health plans will increase problems with appropriate health care access and medical financial burden for many families. PMID:25132244

  11. Mechanisms involved in protection afforded by L-arginine in ibuprofen-induced gastric damage: role of nitric oxide and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Dolores; Martin, M José; Pozo, David; Alarcón, Catalina; Esteban, José; Bruseghini, Leo; Esteras, Antonio; Motilva, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    L-Arginine (L-arg) exhibits multiple biological properties and plays an important role in the regulation of different functions in pathological conditions. Many of these effects could be achieved on this amino acid serving as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). At the gastrointestinal level, recent reports revealed its protective activities involving a hyperemic response increasing the gastric blood flow. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between NOS activity/expression and prostaglandin changes (PGs) in rats gastric mucosa, with L-arg associated resistance to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (IBP). The protective effect of oral L-arg (100 mg/kg body wt), administerred together with IBP (100 mg/kg body wt, per os), was evident enough 90 min after drug administration, although a significant protection persisted for more than 6 hr. Pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (40 mg/kg body wt, intraperitoneally), a competitive inhibitor of constitutive NOS, partly altered the protection afforded by the amino acid. In contrast, no changes could be observed after inducible NOS inhibition [aminoguanidine (AG) 50 mg/Kg body wt, intraperitoneally). L-arg, plus IBP, produced a significant increase of the cyclic GMP (cGMP) response in tissue samples from rat stomach, 90 min and 6 h after drug administration. iNOS activity and mRNA expression were higher in IBP-treated rats, and no differences were observed in inducible responses in the L-arg plus IBP group. No variations in the cNOS activity and expression were found among the different groups of animals assayed. The measurement of mucosal PGE2 content confirmed that biosynthesis of the eicosanoid is maintained by L-arg for over 90 min after IBP, while a total inhibition was observed 6 hr later. The mechanisms of the L-arg protective effect on the damaged induced by IBP could be explained by the different period after drug administration. The early

  12. Final Rules for Grandfathered Plans, Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual Limits, Rescissions, Dependent Coverage, Appeals, and Patient Protections Under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-11-18

    This document contains final regulations regarding grandfathered health plans, preexisting condition exclusions, lifetime and annual dollar limits on benefits, rescissions, coverage of dependent children to age 26, internal claims and appeal and external review processes, and patient protections under the Affordable Care Act. It finalizes changes to the proposed and interim final rules based on comments and incorporates subregulatory guidance issued since publication of the proposed and interim final rules. PMID:26595941

  13. Investigation into the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin on contractile function and the protection afforded by cyclosporin A using the work-loop assay.

    PubMed

    Gharanei, Mayel; Hussain, Afthab; James, Rob S; Janneh, Omar; Maddock, Helen

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin is known to cause cardiotoxicity through multiple routes including the build-up of reactive oxygen species and disruption of the calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes, but the effect of drug treatment on the associated biomechanics of cardiac injury remains unclear. Detecting and understanding the adverse effects of drugs on cardiac contractility is becoming a priority in non-clinical safety pharmacology assessment. The work-loop technique enables the assessment of force-length work-loop contractions, which mimic those of the pressure-volume work-loops experienced by the heart in vivo. During this study we evaluated whether the work-loop technique could potentially provide improved insight into the biomechanics associated with drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. In order to do this we investigated the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin and characterised the protection afforded by the co-administration of cyclosporin A (CsA). This study provides detailed biomechanical in vitro insight into the cardiac dysfunction associated with Doxorubicin treatment, including reduction in peak force, force during shortening and power output. These effects were significantly abrogated in doxorubicin-CsA co-treatment studies. Closely mimicking the in vivo pressure-volume muscle mechanics, this assay provides a quick and easy technique to gain a better understanding of the detailed biomechanics of drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:24509045

  14. Commentary: Personalized health planning and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: an opportunity for academic medicine to lead health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dinan, Michaela A; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Snyderman, Ralph

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) mandates the exploration of new approaches to coordinated health care delivery--such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and disease management programs--in which reimbursement is aligned with desired outcomes. PPACA does not, however, delineate a standardized approach to improve the delivery process or a specific means to quantify performance for value-based reimbursement; these details are left to administrative agencies to develop and implement. The authors propose that coordinated care can be implemented more effectively and performance quantified more accurately by using personalized health planning, which employs individualized strategic health planning and care relevant to the patient's specific needs. Personalized health plans, developed by providers in collaboration with their patients, quantify patients' health and health risks over time, identify strategies to mitigate risks and/or treat disease, deliver personalized care, engage patients in their care, and measure outcomes. Personalized health planning is a core clinical process that can standardize coordinated care approaches while providing the data needed for performance-based reimbursement. The authors argue that academic health centers have a significant opportunity to lead true health care reform by adopting personalized health planning to coordinate care delivery while conducting the research and education necessary to enable its broad clinical application. PMID:20844424

  15. Assessing Protection Afforded to the Microbiological Quality of Bedrock Groundwater from the Impacts of Septic Tank Effluent by Irish Glacial Till: A Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Alison; McCarthy, Valerie; Meehan, Robert; Flynn, Raymond

    2010-05-01

    The rural population of Ireland relies almost exclusively on on-site treatment systems for disposal of waste water. Septic tank systems, which discharge effluent to ground, constitute the dominant means of waste water disposal. Many of the areas that employ this technology rely on private or small group groundwater supplies, often located in close proximity of septic tanks. Since many of these water supplies provide raw groundwater to consumers, septic tank effluent (STE) can pose a significant hazard to the microbiological quality of drinking water. T-tests (infiltration testing) carried out prior to tank installation aim to assess the capacity of subsoils to receive STE. Tests completed across Ireland indicate that many existing septic tank systems are located in low permeability subsoils. These subsoils are assumed to afford significant protection to the microbiological quality of groundwater in the underlying bedrock units. A two year investigation in the Lough Muckno Catchment in Co. Monaghan, investigating the impact of STE on water quality, involved carrying out T-tests at three sites where effluent discharged to a dense, silty, ‘fractured' glacial till derived from the underlying bedrock and containing clasts of low grade metamorphic Ordovician and Silurian sandstone and shale. Analysis of groundwater samples collected from 28 piezometers straddling the water table within the till, down-gradient of septic tank systems at two sites, permitted faecal indicator microorganism (FIO) levels in near-surface groundwater to be established. Associated hydraulic conductivity tests (slug tests) at all three sites permitted an evaluation of the levels of horizontal hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity present in the till. Slug test results suggest that till median hydraulic conductivities range from 1.1x10-4 cm/s to 1.1x10-5 cm/s, with variability of up to 2 orders of magnitude across each site. On the other hand no significant differences in properties existed

  16. 78 FR 15409 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... parameters for these programs. \\1\\ 77 FR 17220 (March 23, 2012). Advance payments of the premium tax credit.../Av-csr-bulletin.pdf . \\3\\ 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). Federally-facilitated Exchange user fees... Affordable Care Act'' (75 FR 74864) which established standards for the MLR program. Since then, we have...

  17. 77 FR 72581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...-State Plan Issuer Requirements C. Premiums, Rating Factors, Medical Loss Ratios, and Risk Adjustment D... authority to negotiate with each MSP ``(A) a medical loss ratio; (B) a profit margin; (C) the premiums to be... the Affordable Care Act, the Director negotiates premiums, a medical loss ratio, a profit margin,...

  18. The Significance of Animal Cruelty in Child Protection Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Alberta; Pozzulo, Joanna D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency with which child protection workers (CPWs) in Ontario, Canada, seek information about animal cruelty during investigations of child maltreatment and the extent to which they consider information about animal cruelty when making decisions about whether intervention is required. The CPWs (N…

  19. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  20. 75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Dependent Coverage; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure and Recordkeeping Requirement; Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity...

  1. Protective efficacy afforded by live Pasteurella multocida vaccines in chickens is independent of lipopolysaccharide outer core structure.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; John, Marietta; Edmunds, Mark; Wright, Amy; Ford, Mark; Turni, Conny; Blackall, P J; Cox, Andrew; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2016-03-29

    Pasteurella multocida is a major animal pathogen that causes a range of diseases including fowl cholera. P. multocida infections result in considerable losses to layer and breeder flocks in poultry industries worldwide. Both killed whole-cell and live-attenuated vaccines are available; these vaccines vary in their protective efficacy, particularly against heterologous strains. Moreover, until recently there was no knowledge of P. multocida LPS genetics and structure to determine precisely how LPS structure affects the protective capacity of these vaccines. In this study we show that defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants presented as killed whole-cell vaccines elicited solid protective immunity only against P. multocida challenge strains expressing highly similar or identical LPS structures. This finding indicates that vaccination of commercial flocks with P. multocida killed cell formulations will not protect against strains producing an LPS structure different to that produced by strains included in the vaccine formulation. Conversely, protective immunity conferred by vaccination with live P. multocida strains was found to be largely independent of LPS structure. Birds vaccinated with a range of live mutants belonging to the L1 and L3 LPS genotypes, each expressing a specific truncated LPS structure, were protected against challenge with the parent strain. Moreover, birds vaccinated with any of the five LPS mutants belonging to the L1 LPS genotype were also protected against challenge with an unrelated strain and two of the five groups vaccinated with live LPS mutants belonging to the L3 genotype were protected against challenge with an unrelated strain. In summary, vaccination with live P. multocida aroA mutants producing full-length L1 or L3 LPS or vaccination with live strains producing shortened L1 LPS elicited strong protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:26892738

  2. Protection Afforded by Fluoroquinolones in Animal Models of Respiratory Infections with Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Johnny W; Moen, Scott T; Healy, Daniel; Pawlik, Jennifer E; Taormina, Joanna; Hardcastle, Jason; Thomas, John M; Lawrence, William S; Ponce, Cindy; Chatuev, Bagram M; Gnade, Bryan T; Foltz, Sheri M; Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Klimpel, Gary R; Kirtley, Michelle L; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia; Chopra, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.03 μg/ml); however, limited information is available regarding in vivo susceptibility of these infectious agents to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in small animal models. Mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models have been developed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antibiotic therapy against these life-threatening infections. Our results indicated that doses of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin required to protect mice against inhalation anthrax were approximately 18-fold higher than the doses of levofloxacin required to protect against pneumonic plague and tularemia. Further, the critical period following aerosol exposure of mice to either B. anthracis spores or Y. pestis was 24 h, while mice challenged with F. tularensis could be effectively protected when treatment was delayed for as long as 72 h postchallenge. In addition, it was apparent that prolonged antibiotic treatment was important in the effective treatment of inhalation anthrax in mice, but short-term treatment of mice with pneumonic plague or tularemia infections were usually successful. These results provide effective antibiotic dosages in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits and lay the foundation for the development and evaluation of combinational treatment modalities. PMID:21127743

  3. Protection Afforded by Fluoroquinolones in Animal Models of Respiratory Infections with Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Johnny W; Moen, Scott T; Healy, Daniel; Pawlik, Jennifer E; Taormina, Joanna; Hardcastle, Jason; Thomas, John M; Lawrence, William S; Ponce, Cindy; Chatuev, Bagram M; Gnade, Bryan T; Foltz, Sheri M; Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Klimpel, Gary R; Kirtley, Michelle L; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia; Chopra, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.03 μg/ml); however, limited information is available regarding in vivo susceptibility of these infectious agents to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in small animal models. Mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models have been developed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antibiotic therapy against these life-threatening infections. Our results indicated that doses of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin required to protect mice against inhalation anthrax were approximately 18-fold higher than the doses of levofloxacin required to protect against pneumonic plague and tularemia. Further, the critical period following aerosol exposure of mice to either B. anthracis spores or Y. pestis was 24 h, while mice challenged with F. tularensis could be effectively protected when treatment was delayed for as long as 72 h postchallenge. In addition, it was apparent that prolonged antibiotic treatment was important in the effective treatment of inhalation anthrax in mice, but short-term treatment of mice with pneumonic plague or tularemia infections were usually successful. These results provide effective antibiotic dosages in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits and lay the foundation for the development and evaluation of combinational treatment modalities. PMID:21127743

  4. A mineral sunscreen affords genomic protection against ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA radiation: in vitro and in situ assays.

    PubMed

    Cayrol, C; Sarraute, J; Tarroux, R; Redoules, D; Charveron, M; Gall, Y

    1999-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been shown to be responsible for different biological effects on human skin, including the initiation of photocarcinogenesis. Both UVB and UVA have been described as mutagenic, but the processes by which they alter the DNA are different. Although cells can repair DNA damage, some deleterious mutations nevertheless appear and can promote cancer. The risk of photocarcinogenesis is acknowledged and the frequency of photogenodermatosis is increasing. In order to evaluate the protection efficacy of a high sun protection factor (SPF) mineral sunscreen against UVB- and UVA-induced genomic alterations, we have followed two approaches. First, we have tested the sunscreen for its ability to decrease the unscheduled DNA synthesis response in vitro in human fibroblasts, as an indirect measure of UVB-induced lesions (0.005 and 0.01 J/cm2), and second, we have verified its ability to reduce the in situ end-labelling intensity in human skin as a direct measure of UVA-induced single-strand breaks (10 J/cm2). Microscopic analysis clearly demonstrated the protective effect of the sunscreen against UVB and UVA. A dose-dependent effect of mineral sunscreens was observed. There was also a relationship between the SPF and genomic protection. By limiting the accumulation of UV-induced lesions on DNA, this mineral sunscreen could limit the mutation frequency. PMID:10468796

  5. Bispecific Antibody Affords Complete Post-Exposure Protection of Mice from Both Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zak, Samantha E.; Bakken, Russell R.; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M.; Lai, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) cause severe hemorrhagic fever. There are five species of ebolavirus; among these, the Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan viruses (EBOV and SUDV, respectively) are highly pathogenic and have both caused recurring, large outbreaks. However, the EBOV and SUDV glycoprotein (GP) sequences are 45% divergent and thus antigenically distinct. Few antibodies with cross-neutralizing properties have been described to date. We used antibody engineering to develop novel bispecific antibodies (Bis-mAbs) that are cross-reactive toward base epitopes on GP from EBOV and SUDV. These Bis-mAbs exhibit potent neutralization against EBOV and SUDV GP pseudotyped viruses as well as authentic pathogens, and confer a high degree (in one case 100%) post-exposure protection of mice from both viruses. Our studies show that a single agent that targets the GP base epitopes is sufficient for protection in mice; such agents could be included in panfilovirus therapeutic antibody cocktails. PMID:26758505

  6. Bispecific Antibody Affords Complete Post-Exposure Protection of Mice from Both Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan Viruses.

    PubMed

    Frei, Julia C; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Zak, Samantha E; Bakken, Russell R; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M; Lai, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) cause severe hemorrhagic fever. There are five species of ebolavirus; among these, the Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan viruses (EBOV and SUDV, respectively) are highly pathogenic and have both caused recurring, large outbreaks. However, the EBOV and SUDV glycoprotein (GP) sequences are 45% divergent and thus antigenically distinct. Few antibodies with cross-neutralizing properties have been described to date. We used antibody engineering to develop novel bispecific antibodies (Bis-mAbs) that are cross-reactive toward base epitopes on GP from EBOV and SUDV. These Bis-mAbs exhibit potent neutralization against EBOV and SUDV GP pseudotyped viruses as well as authentic pathogens, and confer a high degree (in one case 100%) post-exposure protection of mice from both viruses. Our studies show that a single agent that targets the GP base epitopes is sufficient for protection in mice; such agents could be included in panfilovirus therapeutic antibody cocktails. PMID:26758505

  7. 17beta-estradiol affords protection against 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide-induced ovarian follicle loss in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kary E; Sipes, I Glenn; Greenstein, Ben D; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2002-03-01

    Repeated dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) accelerates atresia via apoptosis in primordial and primary follicles in ovaries of rats. The mechanisms that control atresia and VCD-induced toxicity are unknown; however, they could involve 17beta-E2. Atresia slows as animals enter puberty, whereas circulating E2 levels increase with the the onset of cyclicity. This inverse relationship suggests that E2 may be involved in the control of atresia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether treatment of immature rats with E2 could protect follicles normally destroyed by VCD-induced apoptosis. Female F344 rats were treated daily with E2, ER analogs, and/or VCD for 15 d. VCD alone caused a 50% reduction in primordial and primary follicles. Coinjection of E2 (0.1 mg/kg) and VCD (80 mg/kg) selectively protected primary follicles from VCD-induced follicle loss. This protection was mimicked by an ER agonist, genistein (0.1 mg/kg), and prevented by an ER antagonist, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (2 mg/kg). VCD treatment increased caspase-3-like activity, whereas concurrent treatment with genistein and VCD restored caspase-3-like activity to control levels. VCD treatment had no effect on circulating E2 levels, uterine weight, or E2 binding to the ER, nor could it directly displace E2 from ERbeta. These observations support the idea that ER-mediated protection against VCD-induced follicle toxicity is obtained by reducing apoptosis in small preantral follicles, although VCD does not appear to directly interact with ER. PMID:11861533

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement: opportunities in the patient protection and affordable care act to reduce cancer care disparities.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Polite, Blase N; Halpern, Michael T; Stranne, Steven K; Winer, Eric P; Wollins, Dana S; Newman, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Patients in specific vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides both opportunities and challenges for addressing cancer care disparities and access to care. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates for policies that ensure access to cancer care for the underserved. Such policies include insurance reform and the reduction of economic barriers to quality health care. Building on ASCO's prior statement on disparities in cancer care (2009), this article summarizes elements of the health care law that are relevant to cancer disparities and provides recommendations for addressing major provisions in the law. It outlines specific strategies to address insurance reform, access to care, quality of care, prevention and wellness, research on health care disparities, and diversity in the health care workforce. ASCO is committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among the most vulnerable patients. PMID:21810680

  9. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  10. Influenza A vaccines using linear expression cassettes delivered via electroporation afford full protection against challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xuefei; Söderholm, Jonas; Lin, Feng; Kobinger, Gary; Bello, Alexander; Gregg, Derek A; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y

    2012-11-01

    Alternative DNA vaccine constructs such as fully synthetic linear expressing cassettes (LECs) offer the advantage of accelerated manufacturing techniques as well as the lack of both antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial contaminants. The speed of manufacture makes LEC technology a possible future vaccination strategy for pandemic influenza outbreaks. Previously, we reported on a novel concept of DNA delivery to dermal tissue by a minimally invasive electroporation (EP) surface device powered using low voltage parameters. This device allows electroporation without penetration of electrodes into the skin. In addition to enhancing the delivery of traditional plasmid DNA vaccines, this device may also offer a safe, tolerable and efficient method to administer LECs. To assess immunogenicity and efficacy of EP-enhanced LEC delivery in mice, we designed and tested two influenza antigens in the form of LEC constructs delivered using the newly developed surface dermal EP device. Strong CTL and antibody responses were induced by the LEC versions of the DNA vaccine. When challenged with A/Canada/AB/RV1532/2009 viruses, mice immunized with LEC encoding the M2 and NP antigens recovered faster than naïve or mice immunized ID without EP. Mice immunized with equal-molar doses of LEC encoding the M2 and NP antigens demonstrated 100% survival following a lethal (100× LD50) challenge of the heterologuos and highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus (A/Vietnam/1203/04). These results suggest that influenza DNA vaccines based on LEC technology combined with the surface delivery platform are capable of fully protecting mice in a lethal challenge and the LEC based DNA constructs may serve as viable vaccine candidates. PMID:22406460

  11. Importance of Ca2+-dependent transamidation activity in the protection afforded by tissue transglutaminase against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sunando; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase II (TGase-II), which is capable of both GTP-binding and transamidation activities, has been implicated in a variety of biological disorders ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have suggested that the transamidation activity of TGase-II is necessary for the survival of cancer cells confronted with different stresses and cellular insults. When assayed in vitro, the transamidation activity of TGase-II is Ca2+-dependent. However, at present little is known regarding how the regulation by Ca2+ is manifested or if in fact it is important for the cellular functions of TGase-II. Here, we have set out to further examine the Ca2+-mediated regulation of TGase-II's transamidation activity, with our goals being to identify the Ca2+-regulatory sites on the protein and determine whether they are essential for TGase-II to confer survival to human breast cancer cells. Based on comparisons between the X-ray crystal structures for TGase-II and TGase-III, we identified three putative Ca2+-regulatory sites on TGase-II. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually alter key residues at each of the sites. These substitutions did not affect the ability of TGase-II to bind guanine nucleotides, nor did they cause any obvious changes in its cellular localization. While substitutions at the different Ca2+-regulatory sites could either slightly enhance or markedly reduce the GTP hydrolytic activity of TGase-II, mutations at each of the three sites inhibited the Ca2+-responsive transamidation activity. We further showed that the same substitutions inhibited the ability of TGase-II to protect human breast cancer cells against the apoptotic activity of doxorubicin. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-mediated regulation of transamidation activity is essential for the ability of TGase-II to confer cell survival. PMID:17073438

  12. Overview of the Affordable Care Act's impact on military and veteran mental health services: nine implications for significant improvements in care.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark C; Figley, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law. Implications of the ACA on mental health care for 9.7 million military active-duty, reserve, and family members and 22.2 million veterans, as well as 1.3 uninsured veterans, is reviewed in light of a major crisis. The authors trace historical roots of the ACA to the World War II generation and efforts to transform the mental health care system by implementing hard-won war trauma lessons. The authors posit 9 principles reflected in the ACA that represent unfulfilled generational war trauma lessons and potential transformation of the military and national mental health care systems. PMID:24669877

  13. Upregulated ATF6 contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia-afforded protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weikun; Jian, Zhao; Li, Jingwei; Luo, Lin; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Yang; Tang, Fuqin; Xiao, Yingbin

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) in the mechanism by which chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases tolerance to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Experiments were conducted using a rat model of I/R injury in vivo and isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts ex vivo. The role of Akt in this process was also investigated in vitro using rat myoblast H9c2 cells. Cell viability was measured using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase cardiac isoenzyme activity were also measured as markers of cellular damage. ATF6, Akt and phosphorylated (p)-Akt expression was analyzed by western blot analysis. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to suppress ATF6 expression. We noted that ATF6 expression in the ventricular myocardium was significantly increased in rats exposed to CIH. Furthermore, we noted that CIH preserved cardiac function after I/R in vivo and improved post-ischemic recovery of myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts. ATF6 and p-Akt expression was upregulated in cultured H9c2 cells exposed to chronic mild hypoxia compared with those cultured under normoxic conditions. Chronic mild hypoxia attenuated subsequent simulated I/R injury in H9c2 cells (48 h), as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased LDH activity. By contrast, decreased cell viability and increased LDH activity were observed in siRNA-ATF6-transfected H9c2 cells, with a concomitant reduction in p-Akt levels. These results indicated that ATF6 upregulation is involved in the mechanism by which CIH attenuates myocardial I/R injury, possibly through upregulation of p-Akt, which is a key regulator of cardiomyocyte survival. PMID:27035093

  14. Upregulated ATF6 contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia-afforded protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    JIA, WEIKUN; JIAN, ZHAO; LI, JINGWEI; LUO, LIN; ZHAO, LIANG; ZHOU, YANG; TANG, FUQIN; XIAO, YINGBIN

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) in the mechanism by which chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases tolerance to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Experiments were conducted using a rat model of I/R injury in vivo and isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts ex vivo. The role of Akt in this process was also investigated in vitro using rat myoblast H9c2 cells. Cell viability was measured using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase cardiac isoenzyme activity were also measured as markers of cellular damage. ATF6, Akt and phosphorylated (p)-Akt expression was analyzed by western blot analysis. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to suppress ATF6 expression. We noted that ATF6 expression in the ventricular myocardium was significantly increased in rats exposed to CIH. Furthermore, we noted that CIH preserved cardiac function after I/R in vivo and improved post-ischemic recovery of myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts. ATF6 and p-Akt expression was upregulated in cultured H9c2 cells exposed to chronic mild hypoxia compared with those cultured under normoxic conditions. Chronic mild hypoxia attenuated subsequent simulated I/R injury in H9c2 cells (48 h), as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased LDH activity. By contrast, decreased cell viability and increased LDH activity were observed in siRNA-ATF6-transfected H9c2 cells, with a concomitant reduction in p-Akt levels. These results indicated that ATF6 upregulation is involved in the mechanism by which CIH attenuates myocardial I/R injury, possibly through upregulation of p-Akt, which is a key regulator of cardiomyocyte survival. PMID:27035093

  15. 75 FR 81659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice--Prohibition on Lifetime Limits ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act)......

  16. Freedom of conscience and health care in the United States of america: the conflict between public health and religious liberty in the patient protection and affordable care act.

    PubMed

    West-Oram, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The recent confirmation of the constitutionality of the Obama administration's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) by the US Supreme Court has brought to the fore long-standing debates over individual liberty and religious freedom. Advocates of personal liberty are often critical, particularly in the USA, of public health measures which they deem to be overly restrictive of personal choice. In addition to the alleged restrictions of individual freedom of choice when it comes to the question of whether or not to purchase health insurance, opponents to the PPACA also argue that certain requirements of the Act violate the right to freedom of conscience by mandating support for services deemed immoral by religious groups. These issues continue the long running debate surrounding the demands of religious groups for special consideration in the realm of health care provision. In this paper I examine the requirements of the PPACA, and the impacts that religious, and other ideological, exemptions can have on public health, and argue that the exemptions provided for by the PPACA do not in fact impose unreasonable restrictions on religious freedom, but rather concede too much and in so doing endanger public health and some important individual liberties. PMID:23539432

  17. Meeting the Tobacco Cessation Coverage Requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: State Smoking Cessation Quitlines and Cost Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Linda; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether various key stakeholders considered cost sharing with state telephone-based tobacco cessation quitlines, because including tobacco cessation services as part of the required essential health benefits is a new requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We analyzed qualitative data collected from interviews conducted in April and May of 2014 with representatives of state health departments, quitline service providers, health plans, and insurance brokers in 4 US states. Results. State health departments varied in the strategies they considered the role their state quitline would play in meeting the ACA requirements. Health plans and insurance brokers referred to state quitlines because they were perceived as effective and free, but in 3 of the 4 states, the private stakeholder groups did not consider cost sharing. Conclusions. If state health departments are going to initiate cost-sharing agreements with private insurance providers, then they will need to engage a broad array of stakeholders and will need to overcome the perception that state quitline services are free. PMID:26447918

  18. Enhanced protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis afforded by BCG prime-DNA boost regimen in an early challenge mouse model is associated with increased splenic interleukin-2-producing CD4 T-cell frequency post-vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kang, Han; Yuan, Qin; Ma, Hui; Hu, Zhi-Dong; Han, De-Ping; Wu, Kang; Lowrie, Douglas B; Fan, Xiao-Yong

    2014-12-01

    The development of improved vaccines and vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been hindered by a limited understanding of the immune correlates of anti-tuberculosis protective immunity. Simple measurement of interferon-γ frequency or production per se does not provide adequate prediction of immune protection. In this study, we examined the relationship between T-cell immune responses and protective efficacy conferred by the heterologous vaccination strategy, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime-Ag85A DNA boost (B/D), in an early challenge mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The results demonstrated that mice vaccinated with the B/D regimen had a significantly reduced bacillary load compared with BCG-vaccinated mice, and the reduction in colony-forming units was associated with decreased pathology and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines in the infected lungs. Further analysis of immunogenicity showed that the superior protection afforded by the B/D regimen was associated with significantly increased frequency of splenic interleukin-2 (IL-2) -producing CD4 T cells and increased IL-2 production when measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensity post-vaccination as well. These data suggest that measurement of elevated frequency of IL-2-producing CD4 T cells or IL-2 production in the spleens of vaccinated mice can predict vaccine efficacy, at least in the B/D strategy, and add to the accumulating body of evidence suggesting that BCG prime-boost strategies may be a useful approach to the control of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:24965530

  19. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies. PMID:22065686

  20. Prime-boost vaccination with recombinant H5-fowlpox and Newcastle disease virus vectors affords lasting protection in SPF Muscovy ducks against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Niqueux, Eric; Guionie, Olivier; Amelot, Michel; Jestin, Véronique

    2013-08-28

    Vaccination protocols were evaluated in one-day old Muscovy ducklings, using an experimental Newcastle disease recombinant vaccine (vNDV-H5) encoding an optimized synthetic haemagglutinin gene from a clade 2.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV), either as a single administration or as a boost following a prime inoculation with a fowlpox vectored vaccine (vFP89) encoding a different H5 HP haemagglutinin from an Irish H5N8 strain. These vaccination schemes did not induce detectable levels of serum antibodies in HI test using a clade 2.2.1 H5N1 antigen, and only induced H5 ELISA positive response in less than 10% of vaccinated ducks. However, following challenge against a clade 2.2.1 HPAIV, both protocols afforded full clinical protection at six weeks of age, and full protection against mortality at nine weeks. Only the prime-boost vaccination (vFP89+vNDV-H5) was still fully protecting Muscovy ducks against disease and mortality at 12 weeks of age. Reduction of oropharyngeal shedding levels was also constantly observed from the onset of the follow-up at 2.5 or three days post-infection in vaccinated ducks compared to unvaccinated controls, and was significantly more important for vFP89+vNDV-H5 vaccination than for vNDV-H5 alone. Although the latter vaccine is shown immunogenic in one-day old Muscovy ducks, the present work is original in demonstrating the high efficacy of the successive administration of two different vector vaccines encoding two different H5 in inducing lasting protection (at least similar to the one induced by an inactivated reassortant vaccine, Re-5). In addition, such a prime-boost schedule allows implementation of a DIVA strategy (to differentiate vaccinated from infected ducks) contrary to Re-5, involves easy practice on the field (with injection at the hatchery and mass vaccination later on), and should avoid eventual interference with NDV maternally derived antibodies. Last, the HA insert could be updated according to

  1. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-01

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  2. Protection Afforded by a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-H5 Vaccine Against the 2014 European Highly Pathogenic H5N8 Avian Influenza Strain.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Rauw, F; van den Berg, Th; Marché, S; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, circulating in Asia (South Korea, Japan, and southern China) since the beginning of 2014, reached the European continent in November 2014. Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Hungary confirmed H5N8 infection of poultry farms of different species and of several wild bird species. Unlike the Asian highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, this HP H5N8 also went transatlantic and reached the American West Coast by the end of 2014, affecting wild birds as well as backyard and commercial poultry. This strain induces high mortality and morbidity in Galliformes, whereas wild birds seem only moderately affected. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT) vector vaccine expressing the H5 gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5) previously demonstrated a highly efficient clinical protection and reduced viral excretion against challenge with Asian HP H5N1 strains of various clades (2.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.1.1, 2.1.3, 2.1.3.2, and 2.3.2.1) and was made commercially available in various countries where the disease is endemic. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the rHVT-H5 vaccine against the first German H5N8 turkey isolate (H5N8 GE), a challenge experiment was set up in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the clinical and excretional protection was evaluated. SPF chickens were vaccinated subcutaneously at 1 day old and challenged oculonasally at 4 wk of age with two viral dosages, 10(5) and 10(6) 50% egg infective doses. Morbidity and mortality were monitored daily in unvaccinated and vaccinated groups, whereas viral shedding by oropharyngeal and cloacal routes was evaluated at 2, 5, 9, and 14 days postinoculation (dpi). Serologic monitoring after vaccination and challenge was also carried out. Despite its high antigenic divergence of the challenge H5N8 strain, a single rHVT-H5 vaccine administration at 1 day old resulted in a full clinical protection against challenge and a significant reduction

  3. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  4. Transient Loss of Protection Afforded by a Live Attenuated Non-typhoidal Salmonella Vaccine in Mice Co-infected with Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lokken, Kristen L.; Nanton, Minelva R.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; McSorley, Stephen J.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2015-01-01

    In immunocompetent individuals, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) are associated with gastroenteritis, however, there is currently an epidemic of NTS bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for invasive NTS bloodstream in African children. Here we investigated whether a live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine could be protective in mice, in the setting of concurrent malaria. Surprisingly, mice acutely infected with the nonlethal malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL exhibited a profound loss of protective immunity to NTS, but vaccine-mediated protection was restored after resolution of malaria. Absence of protective immunity during acute malaria correlated with maintenance of antibodies to NTS, but a marked reduction in effector capability of Salmonella-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Further, increased expression of the inhibitory molecule PD1 was identified on memory CD4 T cells induced by vaccination. Blockade of IL-10 restored protection against S. Typhimurium, without restoring CD4 T cell effector function. Simultaneous blockade of CTLA-4, LAG3, and PDL1 restored IFN-γ production by vaccine-induced memory CD4 T cells but was not sufficient to restore protection. Together, these data demonstrate that malaria parasite infection induces a temporary loss of an established adaptive immune response via multiple mechanisms, and suggest that in the setting of acute malaria, protection against NTS mediated by live vaccines may be interrupted. PMID:26366739

  5. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  6. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  7. Protect and enhance: Lowi's juridical democracy and the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Meiburg, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capture of Federal regulatory agencies by the groups they were supposed to be regulating has been a topic of concern in the traditional literature of public administration. In his influential book The End of Liberalism, Professor Theordore Lowi suggested that capture resulted in part from vauge delegations of authority of Congress to regulatory agencies. Lowi argued that democracy would be better served if Congress were more specific in drafting laws, if agencies made greater use of formal rulemaking in implementing them, and if the courts rejected statutes which contained excessively vague delegations of authority - a remedy which he labeled juridicial democracy. This dissertation examines Lowi's theory in light of the experience of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the requirements of the Clean Air Act to prevent the significant deterioration of air quality in areas where air was already relatively clean. The history of the program to develop and carry out these requirements, known as PSD, is described in detail from its inception in the late 1960's through EPA's final regulations in 1980. Special attention is given to the actions taken by EPA after environmental groups successfully used the courts to force EPA to develop a PSD program in 1974, how Congress responded by amending the Clean Air Act in 1977, and the difficulties these amendments and subsequent additional court reviews caused for EPA.

  8. Possible prebiotic significance of polyamines in the condensation, protection, encapsulation, and biological properties of DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Wong, C.; Chavez, P.; Gariglio, P.; Oro, J.

    1991-01-01

    Some properties of DNA condensed with spermidine have been compared with the properties of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 to determine whether condensation of DNA with these trivalent cations protects DNA against the action of DNase I and increases transcription and encapsulation of DNA into liposomes. It was shown that DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was resistant to the action of the endonuclease DNase I such as DNA condensed with spermidine was. However, DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was significantly less active in transcription with the E. coli RNA polymerase than DNA-spermidine condensed forms. In addition, it was demonstrated that both compacted forms of DNA were more efficiently encapsulated into neutral liposomes; however, negatively, charged liposomes were scarcely formed in the presence of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6. These experiments and the well documented properties of polyamines increasing the resistance to radiations and hydrolysis of nucleic acids, as well as their biological activities, such as replication, transcription, and translation, together with the low concentration of Co3+ in the environment, lead us to propose spermidine as a plausible prebiotic DNA condensing agent rather than Co3+ and the basic proteins proposed by other authors. Then, we consider the possible role and relevance of the polyamine-nucleic acids complexes in the evolution of life.

  9. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice,'' to the Office of... Security Administration (EBSA). Title of Collection: Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice....

  10. Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health. PMID:25087369

  11. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  12. High dietary protein regimens provide significant protection from mercury nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.M.; Chung, E.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The effects of high protein dietary regimens prior to the administration of inorganic mercury were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed on purified test diets containing either normal (20%) or high (60%) concentrations of protein. Mercury was administered as a single intravenous injection of mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg). All rats maintained on normal dietary protein prior to and following mercury injection exhibited severe kidney dysfunction, extensive necrosis of both second (S2) and third (S3) segments of the kidney proximal tubules, and 100% mortality. In contrast, rats maintained on high dietary protein for 48 hr or longer just prior to mercury injection and returned to normal dietary protein immediately following mercury administration all survived and exhibited normal serum creatinine and BUN values within 4 days following mercury administration. The kidneys of this latter group took up significantly less radiolabeled mercury during the first 12 hr following mercury injection, and exhibited relatively little damage to the second segments (S2) of the proximal tubules. The third segments (S3) of the proximal tubules, however, exhibited the same degree of necrosis as that observed in the control group. Maintaining rats on high dietary protein regimens for shorter periods of time prior to mercury infusion (i.e., 12 or 24 hr) also dramatically reduced subsequent acute renal failure and improved survival, although not to the extent noted following 48 hr or longer on these diets. These observations suggested that high dietary protein regimens may protect from mercury nephrotoxicity by reducing mercury uptake to the second segments (S2) of the proximal tubules during the initial period of exposure to intravenously administered mercury.

  13. Can consumers make affordable care affordable? The value of choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric J; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a "smart" default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  14. Can Consumers Make Affordable Care Affordable? The Value of Choice Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T.; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a “smart” default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  15. Characterization of Protection Afforded by a Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Diego, Ana Cristina; Athmaram, Thimmasandra N.; Stewart, Meredith; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Noad, Robert; Roy, Polly

    2011-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important, arthropod borne, emerging pathogen in Europe, causing disease mainly in sheep and cattle. Routine vaccination for bluetongue would require the ability to distinguish between vaccinated and infected individuals (DIVA). Current vaccines are effective but are not DIVA. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly immunogenic structural mimics of virus particles, that only contain a subset of the proteins present in a natural infection. VLPs therefore offer the potential for the development of DIVA compatible bluetongue vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings Merino sheep were vaccinated with either monovalent BTV-1 VLPs or a bivalent mixture of BTV-1 VLPs and BTV-4 VLPs, and challenged with virulent BTV-1 or BTV-4. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, antibody responses, and viral RNA. 19/20 animals vaccinated with BTV-1 VLPs either alone or in combination with BTV-4 VLPs developed neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1, and group specific antibodies to BTV VP7. The one animal that showed no detectable neutralizing antibodies, or group specific antibodies, had detectable viral RNA following challenge but did not display any clinical signs on challenge with virulent BTV-1. In contrast, all control animals' demonstrated classical clinical signs for bluetongue on challenge with the same virus. Six animals were vaccinated with bivalent vaccine and challenged with virulent BTV-4, two of these animals had detectable viral levels of viral RNA, and one of these showed clinical signs consistent with BTV infection and died. Conclusions There is good evidence that BTV-1 VLPs delivered as monovalent or bivalent immunogen protect from bluetongue disease on challenge with virulent BTV-1. However, it is possible that there is some interference in protective response for BTV-4 in the bivalent BTV-1 and BTV-4 VLP vaccine. This raises the question of whether all combinations of bivalent BTV vaccines are possible, or if

  16. 75 FR 77002 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... for Public Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) that are discussed below. A copy of the... collection requests (ICRs) contained in the rule described below that relates to the Affordable Care Act....

  17. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  18. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  19. Combined TIM-3 blockade and CD137 activation affords the long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) is known as a negative immune regulator and emerging data have implicated TIM-3 a pivotal role in suppressing antitumor immunity. The co-stimulatory receptor CD137 is transiently upregulated on T-cells following activation and increases their proliferation and survival when engaged. Although antagonistic anti-TIM-3 or agonistic anti-CD137 antibodies can promote the rejection of several murine tumors, some poorly immunogenic tumors were refractory to this treatment. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether combined TIM-3 blockade and CD137 activation would significantly improve the immunotherapy in the murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. Methods Mice with established ID8 tumor were intraperitoneally injected with single or combined anti-TIM-3/CD137 monoclonal antibody (mAb); mice survival was recorded, the composition and gene expression of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in these mice was analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR respectively, and the function of CD8+ cells was evaluated by ELISA and cytotoxicity assay. Results Either anti-TIM-3 or CD137 mAb alone, although effective in 3 days established tumor, was unable to prevent tumor progression in mice bearing 10 days established tumor, however, combined anti-TIM-3/CD137 mAb significantly inhibited the growth of these tumors with 60% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor inoculation. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells. The 2 mAb combination increased CD4+ and CD8+ cells and decreased immunosuppressive CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC) at tumor sites, giving rise to significantly elevated ratios of CD4+ and CD8+ cells to Treg and MDSC; This is consistent with biasing local immune response towards an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by quantitative RT-PCR data

  20. Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolani, Federico M.; Mandara, Alberto; Froncillo, Salvatore

    2008-07-08

    The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

  1. Ergonomics: Injury Protection You Can Afford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the physical health risks attributed to poor furniture and equipment ergonomics and looks at ways to help assure that furniture and equipment purchases and practices are ergonomically sound. Cautions to be wary wary of marketing hype that a company's furniture is ergonomically set, and acquire adjustable furniture and encourage students…

  2. Selective and potent furin inhibitors protect cells from anthrax without significant toxicity.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Albert G; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Cadwell, Gregory W; Liddington, Robert C; Cieplak, Piotr; Millis, Sherri Z; Desjardins, Roxane; Routhier, Sophie; Yuan, Xue Wen; Neugebauer, Witold A; Day, Robert; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-06-01

    Furin and related proprotein convertases cleave the multibasic motifs R-X-R/K/X-R in the precursor proteins and, as a result, transform the latent proproteins into biologically active proteins and peptides. Furin is present both in the intracellular secretory pathway and at the cell surface. Intracellular furin processes its multiple normal cellular targets in the Golgi and secretory vesicle compartments while cell-surface furin appears to be essential only for the processing of certain pathogenic proteins and, importantly, anthrax. To design potent, safe and selective inhibitors of furin, we evaluated the potency and selectivity of the derivatized peptidic inhibitors modeled from the extended furin cleavage sequence of avian influenza A H5N1. We determined that the N- and C-terminal modifications of the original RARRRKKRT inhibitory scaffold produced selective and potent, nanomolar range, inhibitors of furin. These inhibitors did not interfere with the normal cellular function of furin because of the likely functional redundancy existing between furin and other proprotein convertases. These furin inhibitors, however, were highly potent in blocking the furin-dependent cell-surface processing of anthrax protective antigen-83 both in vitro and cell-based assays and in vivo. We conclude that the inhibitors we have designed have a promising potential as selective anthrax inhibitors, without affecting major cell functions. PMID:20197107

  3. Selective and potent furin inhibitors protect cells from anthrax without significant toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Remacle, Albert G.; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Cadwell, Gregory W.; Liddington, Robert C.; Cieplak, Piotr; Millis, Sherri Z.; Desjardins, Roxane; Routhier, Sophie; Yuan, Xue Wen; Neugebauer, Witold A.; Day, Robert; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2010-01-01

    Furin and related proprotein convertases cleave the multibasic motifs R-X-R/K/X-R in the precursor proteins and, as a result, transform the latent proproteins into biologically active proteins and peptides. Furin is present both in the intracellular secretory pathway and at the cell surface. Intracellular furin processes its multiple normal cellular targets in the Golgi and secretory vesicle compartments while cell-surface furin appears to be essential only for the processing of certain pathogenic proteins and, importantly, anthrax. To design potent, safe and selective inhibitors of furin, we evaluated the potency and selectivity of the derivatized peptidic inhibitors modeled from the extended furin cleavage sequence of avian influenza A H5N1. We determined that the N- and C-terminal modifications of the original RARRRKKRT inhibitory scaffold produced selective and potent, nanomolar range, inhibitors of furin. These inhibitors did not interfere with the normal cellular function of furin because of the likely functional redundancy existing between furin and other proprotein convertases. These furin inhibitors, however, were highly potent in blocking the furin-dependent cell-surface processing of anthrax protective antigen-83 both in vitro and cell-based assays and in vivo. We conclude that the inhibitors we have designed have a promising potential as selective anthrax inhibitors, without affecting major cell functions. PMID:20197107

  4. Possible prebiotic significance of polyamines in the condensation, protection, encapsulation, and biological properties of DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibanez, Miguel; Wong, Carlos; Chavez, Pedro; Gariglio, Patricio; Oro, J.

    1992-01-01

    While DNA which has undergone ionic condensation with Co(3+)(NH3)6 is resistant to the action of the endonuclase DNAse I, in much the same way as DNA condensed with spermidine, it was significantly less active in transcription with the E. coli RNA polymerase than DNA-spermidine condensed forms. Although both compacted forms of DNA were more efficiently encapsulated into neutral liposomes, negatively charged liposomes were seldom formed in the presence of the present, positive ion-condensed DNA; spermidine is accordingly proposed as a plausible prebiotic DNA-condensing agent. Attention is given to the relevance of the polyimide-nucleic acids complexes in the evolution of life.

  5. Local leadership and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen L; Nichols, Beverly L; Barton, M Katherine; De LaCruz, Maria; Hernandez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Local health departments are in key positions to lead in the education and implementation efforts to advance the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The first enrollment period is over, but the efforts to enroll the uninsured and advocate for expansion of Medicaid in the states that have not yet taken on this expansion will continue for years to come. Political climates may be unsupportive, but some actions may still be possible. PMID:25423062

  6. Progress on the cardiotoxicity of sunitinib: Prognostic significance, mechanism and protective therapies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Bu, Peili

    2016-09-25

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are multi-targeted anti-cancer agents effective in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and pancreatic cancer (PC). Targeting and inhibiting a wide range of oncogenically relevant receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), TKIs have been the golden standard treatment of several types of cancer. The cardiotoxicity of TKIs, however, has also emerged alongside their anti-cancer potencies and has attracted research attention. Over the past few years significant progress has been made in developing a deeper understanding of aspects such as extent of cardiotoxicity, prognostic implications and survival predictions, toxicological mechanisms, and potential cardioprotective therapies. In this review we focus on a typical TKI sunitinib and summarize the up-to-date knowledge of sunitinib-induced cardiac abnormalities reported in clinical studies, weighing their implications of prognostic values. We also examine recent findings in underlying mechanisms, and development of potential cardioprotective agents. PMID:27531228

  7. Antibody treatment against pulmonary exposure to abrin confers significantly higher levels of protection than treatment against ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Tamar; Gal, Yoav; Elhanany, Eitan; Sapoznikov, Anita; Falach, Reut; Mazor, Ohad; Kronman, Chanoch

    2015-09-01

    Abrin, a potent plant-derived toxin bearing strong resemblance to ricin, irreversibly inactivates ribosomes by site-specific depurination, thereby precipitating cessation of protein synthesis in cells. Due to its high availability and ease of preparation, abrin is considered a biological threat, especially in context of bioterror warfare. To date, there is no established therapeutic countermeasure against abrin intoxication. In the present study, we examined the progress of pulmonary abrin intoxication in mice, evaluated the protective effect of antibody-based post-exposure therapy, and compared these findings to those observed for ricin intoxication and therapy. Salient features of abrin intoxication were found to be similar to those of ricin and include massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs, high levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and damage of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In contrast, the protective effect of anti-abrin antibody treatment was found to differ significantly from that of anti-ricin treatment. While anti-ricin treatment efficiency was quite limited even at 24h post-exposure (34% protection), administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies even as late as 72h post-exposure, conferred exceedingly high-level protection (>70%). While both anti-toxin antibody treatments caused neutrophil and macrophage levels in the lungs to revert to normal, only anti-abrin treatment brought about a significant decline in the pulmonary levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. The differential ability of the anti-toxin treatments to dampen inflammation caused by the two similar toxins, abrin and ricin, could explain the radically different levels of protection achieved following antibody treatment. PMID:26051443

  8. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission,'' to the..._PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  9. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  10. 76 FR 52663 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act Funding, DP-09-001

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Care Act Funding, DP-09-001 AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Centers (U48).'' It is the intent of CDC to fund the applications with Patient Protection Affordable Care... 4002 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148.). DATES: The effective...

  11. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  12. AAV-Delivered Antibody Mediates Significant Protective Effects against SIVmac239 Challenge in the Absence of Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sebastian P.; Martinez-Navio, José M.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term delivery of potent broadly-neutralizing antibodies is a promising approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection. We used AAV vector intramuscularly to deliver anti-SIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in IgG1 form to rhesus monkeys. Persisting levels of delivered mAb as high as 270 μg/ml were achieved. However, host antibody responses to the delivered antibody were observed in 9 of the 12 monkeys and these appeared to limit the concentration of delivered antibody that could be achieved. This is reflected in the wide range of delivered mAb concentrations that were achieved: 1–270 μg/ml. Following repeated, marginal dose, intravenous challenge with the difficult-to-neutralize SIVmac239, the six monkeys in the AAV-5L7 IgG1 mAb group showed clear protective effects despite the absence of detectable neutralizing activity against the challenge virus. The protective effects included: lowering of viral load at peak height; lowering of viral load at set point; delay in the time to peak viral load from the time of the infectious virus exposure. All of these effects were statistically significant. In addition, the monkey with the highest level of delivered 5L7 mAb completely resisted six successive SIVmac239 i.v. challenges, including a final challenge with a dose of 10 i.v. infectious units. Our results demonstrate the continued promise of this approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection in people. However, the problem of anti-antibody responses will need to be understood and overcome for the promise of this approach to be effectively realized. PMID:26248318

  13. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  14. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  15. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense. PMID:26643168

  16. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  17. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to “afford” an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by “breaking” the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool. PMID:26441612

  18. Federal Home Visiting under the Affordable Care Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Kathleen; Counts, Jacqueline; Filene, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program is part of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and provides $1.5 billion over 5 years to states, territories, and tribes with the goal of delivering evidence-based home visiting services as part of a high-quality, comprehensive early childhood system that promotes…

  19. An international analysis of cigarette affordability

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, E; van Walbeek, C P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how affordable cigarettes are in developed and developing countries, and to calculate by how much the affordability of cigarettes has changed between 1990 and 2001; and secondly, to investigate the relation between cigarette affordability and consumption. Design: Affordability was defined as the cost of cigarettes relative to per capita income. Trends in cigarette affordability, and affordability elasticities of demand, were estimated using regression techniques. Subjects: Seventy countries were investigated, of which 28 are categorised as high income developed countries, while 42 are categorised as developing countries. Cigarette prices were obtained for the main city/cities in the countries. Results: Despite the fact that cigarettes are more expensive in developed countries, the high levels of income make cigarettes more affordable in these countries vis-à-vis developing countries. Of the 28 developed countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 11 and less affordable in 17 countries during the 1990s. Of the 42 developing countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 24 and less affordable in 18 countries. Based on a cross sectional analysis, a 1% increase in the relative income price (the inverse of cigarette affordability) is expected to decrease cigarette consumption by between 0.49–0.57%. Conclusions: Cigarette affordability, more than just the price, determines cigarette consumption. While cigarettes have become more affordable in many developing countries, some developing countries (for example, South Africa, Poland, and Thailand) have implemented strong and effective tobacco control policies, and have been able to decrease cigarette consumption as a result. PMID:15564616

  20. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  1. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  2. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  3. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  7. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  8. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  9. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  10. The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is important to recognize the political and policy accomplishments of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), anticipate its limitations, and use the levers it provides strategically to address the problems it does not resolve. Passage of the ACA broke the political logjam that long stymied national progress toward equitable, quality, universal, affordable health care. It extends coverage for the uninsured who are disproportionately low income and people of color, curbs health insurance abuses, and initiates improvements in the quality of care. However, challenges to affordability and cost control persist. Public health advocates should mobilize for coverage for abortion care and for immigrants, encourage public-sector involvement in negotiating health care prices, and counter disinformation by opponents on the right. PMID:23409911

  11. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  12. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  13. Can Low-Income Americans Afford a Healthy Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Many nutritional professionals believe that all Americans, regardless of income, have access to a nutritious diet of whole grains, lean meats, and fresh vegetables and fruit. In reality, food prices pose a significant barrier for many consumers who are trying to balance good nutrition with affordability. The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), commonly cited as a model of a healthy low-cost diet, achieves cost goals by relaxing some nutrition constraints and by disregarding the usual eating habits of the American population. Diet optimization techniques, when sensitive to cost and social norms, can help identify affordable, good tasting, nutrient-rich foods that are part of the mainstream American diet. PMID:20368762

  14. Effects of nanomaterials on luciferase with significant protection and increased enzyme activity observed for zinc oxide nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Barber, S; Abdelhakiem, M; Ghosh, K; Mitchell, L; Spidle, R; Jacobs, B; Washington, L; Li, J; Wanekaya, A; Glaspell, G; DeLong, R K

    2011-12-01

    This principle goal of this research was to examine the effects of various nanomaterials on the activity and behavior of the firefly enzyme luciferase. Nanomaterials have been found to stabilize, and in some instances, shown to increase the activity of enzymes. In this study gold, manganese oxide (MnO), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials were utilized in order to test their effects on enzyme activity. Luciferase was used because its activity is easy to analyze, as it typically produces a large amount of bioluminescence easily detected by a Microtiter plate reader. Following incubation with the various nanomaterials, luciferase was subjected to degradation by several protein denaturing agents, such as heat, SDS, urea, ethanol, protease, hydrogen peroxide, and pH changes. Results indicated that luciferase activity is indeed affected when combined with nanomaterials, accompanied by both increases and decreases in enzyme activity depending on the type of nanomaterial and denaturing agent used. In most of the experiments, when incubated with ZnO nanomaterials, luciferase depicted significant increases in activity and bioluminescence. Additional experiments, in which human A375 cells were treated with luciferase-nanomaterial mixtures, also depicted increased enzyme activity and bioluminescence for luciferase incubated with ZnO nanomaterials. Ultimately, our findings indicated that when luciferase was subjected to multiple types of denaturation, zinc oxide nanomaterials dramatically preserved and increased enzyme activity and bioluminescence. PMID:22408903

  15. Immunization of mice with formalin-inactivated spores from avirulent Bacillus cereus strains provides significant protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames.

    PubMed

    Vergis, James M; Cote, Christopher K; Bozue, Joel; Alem, Farhang; Ventura, Christy L; Welkos, Susan L; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores are the infectious form of the organism for humans and animals. However, the approved human vaccine in the United States is derived from a vegetative culture filtrate of a toxigenic, nonencapsulated B. anthracis strain that primarily contains protective antigen (PA). Immunization of mice with purified spore proteins and formalin-inactivated spores (FIS) from a nonencapsulated, nontoxigenic B. anthracis strain confers protection against B. anthracis challenge when PA is also administered. To investigate the capacity of the spore particle to act as a vaccine without PA, we immunized mice subcutaneously with FIS from nontoxigenic, nonencapsulated B. cereus strain G9241 pBCXO1(-)/pBC210(-) (dcG9241), dcG9241 ΔbclA, or 569-UM20 or with exosporium isolated from dcG9241. FIS vaccination provided significant protection of mice from intraperitoneal or intranasal challenge with spores of the virulent B. anthracis Ames or Ames ΔbclA strain. Immunization with dcG9241 ΔbclA FIS, which are devoid of the immunodominant spore protein BclA, provided greater protection from challenge with either Ames strain than did immunization with FIS from BclA-producing strains. In addition, we used prechallenge immune antisera to probe a panel of recombinant B. anthracis Sterne spore proteins to identify novel immunogenic vaccine candidates. The antisera were variably reactive with BclA and with 10 other proteins, four of which were previously tested as vaccine candidates. Overall our data show that immunization with FIS from nontoxigenic, nonencapsulated B. cereus strains provides moderate to high levels of protection of mice from B. anthracis Ames challenge and that neither PA nor BclA is required for this protection. PMID:23114705

  16. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Affordability standards. 572.120...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.120 Affordability standards. (a) Initial... annual incomes of eligible families using reasonable standards and procedures consistently applied.)...

  17. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  18. Section 8: Affordable Housing for Exceptional Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wesley E.

    2009-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need. Unfortunately, affordable housing is a need that low income families who are caring for children and adults with disabilities can rarely afford without assistance. Because participating families generally pay rent of no more than 30 percent of their adjusted monthly income, the Section 8 program can provide…

  19. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  20. Vaccination with the ospA- and ospB-Negative Borrelia burgdorferi Strain 50772 Provides Significant Protection against Canine Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    LaFleur, Rhonda L.; Dant, Jennifer C.; Wasmoen, Terri L.; Jobe, Dean A.; Lovrich, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Beagles received placebo or ospA- and ospB-negative Borrelia burgdorferi before a tick challenge. A total of 28 (41%) ticks and skin biopsy specimens from each control dog (n = 10) contained B. burgdorferi. In contrast, 12 (19%) ticks recovered from the vaccine recipients (n = 10) were infected (P = 0.0077), and 5 dogs yielded spirochetes from the skin biopsy specimens (P = 0.0325). In addition, 9 (90%) placebo recipients and 4 (40%) vaccine recipients developed joint abnormalities (P = 0.0573). Therefore, vaccination with the ospA- and ospB-negative spirochete provided significant protection against Lyme disease. PMID:25972405

  1. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  2. Body-scaled affordances in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Travieso, David; Gómez-Jordana, Luis; Díaz, Alex; Lobo, Lorena; Jacobs, David M

    2015-12-15

    The research field on sensory substitution devices has strong implications for theoretical work on perceptual consciousness. One of these implications concerns the extent to which the devices allow distal attribution. The present study applies a classic empirical approach on the perception of affordances to the field of sensory substitution. The reported experiment considers the perception of the stair-climbing affordance. Participants judged the climbability of steps apprehended through a vibrotactile sensory substitution device. If measured with standard metric units, climbability judgments of tall and short participants differed, but if measured in units of leg length, judgments did not differ. These results are similar to paradigmatic results in regular visual perception. We conclude that our sensory substitution device allows the perception of affordances. More generally, we argue that the theory of affordances may enrich theoretical debates concerning sensory substitution to a larger extent than has hitherto been the case. PMID:26587958

  3. Modulation of visual attention by object affordance.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Vásquez, Patricia; Schubö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Some objects in our environment are strongly tied to motor actions, a phenomenon called object affordance. A cup, for example, affords us to reach out to it and grasp it by its handle. Studies indicate that merely viewing an affording object triggers motor activations in the brain. The present study investigated whether object affordance would also result in an attention bias, that is, whether observers would rather attend to graspable objects within reach compared to non-graspable but reachable objects or to graspable objects out of reach. To this end, we conducted a combined reaction time and motion tracking study with a table in a virtual three-dimensional space. Two objects were positioned on the table, one near, the other one far from the observer. In each trial, two graspable objects, two non-graspable objects, or a combination of both was presented. Participants were instructed to detect a probe appearing on one of the objects as quickly as possible. Detection times served as indirect measure of attention allocation. The motor association with the graspable object was additionally enhanced by having participants grasp a real object in some of the trials. We hypothesized that visual attention would be preferentially allocated to the near graspable object, which should be reflected in reduced reaction times in this condition. Our results confirm this assumption: probe detection was fastest at the graspable object at the near position compared to the far position or to a non-graspable object. A follow-up experiment revealed that in addition to object affordance per se, immediate graspability of an affording object may also influence this near-space advantage. Our results suggest that visuospatial attention is preferentially allocated to affording objects which are immediately graspable, and thus establish a strong link between an object' s motor affordance and visual attention. PMID:24567725

  4. The Affordable Care Act and Implications for Health Care Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Raven E.; Garfield, Lauren D.; Brown, Derek S.; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations report poor physical and mental health outcomes while tribal health providers and the Indian Health Service (IHS) operate in a climate of significant under funding. Understanding how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects Native American tribes and the IHS is critical to addressing the improvement of the overall access, quality, and cost of health care within AI/AN communities. This paper summarizes the ACA provisions that directly and/or indirectly affect the service delivery of health care provided by tribes and the IHS. PMID:26548665

  5. The Affordable Care Act and Implications for Health Care Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Individuals.

    PubMed

    Ross, Raven E; Garfield, Lauren D; Brown, Derek S; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations report poor physical and mental health outcomes while tribal health providers and the Indian Health Service (IHS) operate in a climate of significant under funding. Understanding how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects Native American tribes and the IHS is critical to addressing the improvement of the overall access, quality, and cost of health care within AI/AN communities. This paper summarizes the ACA provisions that directly and/or indirectly affect the service delivery of health care provided by tribes and the IHS. PMID:26548665

  6. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. Control your mind, make affordance available.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Zhu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the affordance-control interpretation of the relationship between performance and object estimation has been proposed by psychophysical and psychonomic studies. This study examined the weight estimation-performance relationship. Individuals with visual impairment or blindness put shots that varied in weight among five scales. In Experiment 1, only the perceived weight was a significant performance constraint. In Experiment 2, the weight was perceived as heavier when the participants' actions were manipulated through cognitive interpretation. The increase in perceived weight appeared to be related to performance and intrinsically scaled to the action, even when the action was only mental rather than physical. The study's findings suggest that bodily experience and action are the basis for physical judgments and likely underlie other basic cognitive interpretations of sensory stimuli. This suggestion goes hand in hand with the biofunctional approaches which assume direct experience of the integrated wholeness of one's body is fundamental for developing other kinds of awareness. Different perspectives from oriental philosophy and psychology are also discussed. PMID:25741298

  8. To repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. King, Steve [R-IA-5

    2010-03-25

    06/16/2010 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. King (IA). Petition No: 111-11. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 6/16/2010, a motion was filed to discharge the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Ways and Means, Education and Labor, the Judiciary, Natural Resources, Rules, House Administration, and Appropriations from consideration of H.R.4972. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for... Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Affordable care 2014: a tale of two boards.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Barr, Robert M; McGinty, Geraldine; Nicola, Gregory N; Schaefer, Pamela W; Silva, Ezequiel; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) became law on 23 March 2010. As part of the law, two independent boards were established. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute embodies national aspirations for employing comparative effectiveness research in healthcare decision-making, and the Independent Payment Advisory Board is focused on the need for a group of impartial experts to establish anticipatable growth rates for Medicare. Approximately 4 years after the bill was passed into law, these independent boards are at very different points in their life cycles. This article provides a status update. PMID:24962452

  10. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  11. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  12. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:19962286

  13. SDR - radio meteor affordable approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesanu, C.; Dragoiu, A.

    2012-01-01

    A software-defined radio system, or SDR, is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware (e.g., mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/ demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on an embedded computing device or a personal computer. While the concept of SDR is not new, the rapidly evolving capabilities of digital electronics render practical many processes which used to be only theoretically possible. A basic SDR system may consist of a personal computer equipped with a sound card, or other analog-to-digital converter, preceded by some form of RF front end. Significant amounts of signal processing are handed over to the general-purpose processor, rather than being done in special-purpose hardware.

  14. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  15. The Politics of Native American Health Care and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article examines an important but largely overlooked dimension of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely, its significance for Native American health care. The author maintains that reading the ACA against the politics of Native American health care policy shows that, depending on their regional needs and particular contexts, many Native Americans are well-placed to benefit from recent Obama-era reforms. At the same time, the kinds of options made available by the ACA constitute a departure from the service-based (as opposed to insurance-based) Indian Health Service (IHS). Accordingly, the author argues that ACA reforms--private marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and accommodations for Native Americans--are best read as potential "supplements" to an underfunded IHS. Whether or not Native Americans opt to explore options under the ACA will depend in the long run on the quality of the IHS in the post-ACA era. Beyond understanding the ACA in relation to IHS funding, the author explores how Native American politics interacts with the key tenets of Obama-era health care reform--especially "affordability"--which is critical for understanding what is required from and appropriate to future Native American health care policy making. PMID:26567380

  16. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  17. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  18. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  19. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  20. The Affordable Care Act and orthopaedic trauma.

    PubMed

    Issar, Neil M; Jahangir, A Alex

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has resulted in a dramatic governmental restructuring of the healthcare insurance market and delivery system. Orthopaedic traumatologists must be aware of the law's impact on their clinical practice, finances, and overall business model. This includes the effect of accountable care organizations, the Independent Payment Advisory Board, and the Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier program, as well as the impact of the Affordable Care Act's grace period provision, medical device excise tax, and cuts to funding for the Disproportionate Share Hospital program. PMID:25229683

  1. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  2. The Affordable Care Act, remedy, and litigation reform.

    PubMed

    Maher, Brendan S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) rewrote the law of private health insurance. How the ACA rewrote the law of civil remedies, however, is a question largely unexamined by scholars. Courts everywhere, including the U.S. Supreme Court, will soon confront this important issue. This Article offers a foundational treatment of the ACA on remedy. It predicts a series of flashpoints over which litigation reform battles will be fought. It identifies several themes that will animate those conflicts and trigger others. It explains how judicial construction of the statute's functional predecessor, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), converted a protective statute into a uniquely effective piece of federal litigation reform. Ultimately, it considers whether the ACA--which incorporates, modifies, and rejects ERISA in several notable ways--will experience a similar fate. PMID:25335202

  3. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  4. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  5. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  6. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  7. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  8. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  9. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  10. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  11. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  12. Capsules from Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. Manifest Significant Differences in Structure and Ability to Protect against Phagocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Glauber de S.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Pontes, Bruno; Torres, Andre; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Casadevall, Arturo; Viana, Nathan B.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frases, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Capsule production is common among bacterial species, but relatively rare in eukaryotic microorganisms. Members of the fungal Cryptococcus genus are known to produce capsules, which are major determinants of virulence in the highly pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Although the lack of virulence of many species of the Cryptococcus genus can be explained solely by the lack of mammalian thermotolerance, it is uncertain whether the capsules from these organisms are comparable to those of the pathogenic cryptococci. In this study, we compared the characteristic of the capsule from the non-pathogenic environmental yeast Cryptococcus liquefaciens with that of C. neoformans. Microscopic observations revealed that C. liquefaciens has a capsule visible in India ink preparations that was also efficiently labeled by three antibodies generated to specific C. neoformans capsular antigens. Capsular polysaccharides of C. liquefaciens were incorporated onto the cell surface of acapsular C. neoformans mutant cells. Polysaccharide composition determinations in combination with confocal microscopy revealed that C. liquefaciens capsule consisted of mannose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine. Physical chemical analysis of the C. liquefaciens polysaccharides in comparison with C. neoformans samples revealed significant differences in viscosity, elastic properties and macromolecular structure parameters of polysaccharide solutions such as rigidity, effective diameter, zeta potential and molecular mass, which nevertheless appeared to be characteristics of linear polysaccharides that also comprise capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans. The environmental yeast, however, showed enhanced susceptibility to the antimicrobial activity of the environmental phagocytes, suggesting that the C. liquefaciens capsular components are insufficient in protecting yeast cells against killing by amoeba. These results suggest that capsular

  13. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A human mission to Mars is the stated "ultimate" goal for NASA and is widely believed by the public to be the most compelling destination for America's space program. However, widely cited enormous costs - perhaps as much as a trillion dollars for a many-decade campaign - seem to be an impossible hurdle, although political and budget instability over many years may be equally challenging. More recently, a handful of increasingly detailed architectures for initial Mars missions have been developed by commercial companies that have estimated costs much less than widely believed and roughly comparable with previous major human space flight programs: the Apollo Program, the International Space Station, and the space shuttle. Several of these studies are listed in the bibliography to the workshop report. As a consequence of these new scenarios, beginning in spring, 2013 a multiinstitutional planning team began developing the content and invitee list for a winter workshop that would critically assess concepts, initiatives, technology priorities, and programmatic options to reduce significantly the costs of human exploration of Mars. The output of the workshop - findings and recommendations - would be presented in a number of forums and discussed with national leaders in human space flight. It would also be made available to potential international partners. This workshop was planned from the start to be the first in a series. Subsequent meetings, conferences, and symposia will concentrate on topics not able to be covered in December. In addition, to make progress in short meeting, a handful of ground rules were adopted by the planning team and agreed to by the participants. Perhaps the two most notable such ground rules were (1) the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion would be available during the time frame considered by the participants and (2) the International Space Station (ISS) would remain the early linchpin in preparing for Mars exploration over the coming decade

  14. 76 FR 51147 - Medicaid Program; Eligibility Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Register (76 FR 41866) (``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and... August 3, 2010 Federal Register (75 FR 45584). Second, Initial Guidance to States on Exchanges was... process for waivers for State innovation was published in the March 14, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR...

  15. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  16. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  17. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  18. An affordable open-source turbidimeter.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christopher D; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  19. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  20. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA. PMID:25121814

  1. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  3. Creating affordable Internet map server applications for regional scale applications.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Arthur J; Wagenet, Linda P; Schusler, Tania; DeGloria, Stephen D

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview and process for developing an Internet Map Server (IMS) application for a local volunteer watershed group using an Internal Internet Map Server (IIMS) strategy. The paper illustrates that modern GIS architectures utilizing an internal Internet map server coupled with a spatial SQL command language allow for rapid development of IMS applications. The implication of this approach means that powerful IMS applications can be rapidly and affordably developed for volunteer organizations that lack significant funds or a full time information technology staff. PMID:17234328

  4. Discovering affordances that determine the spatial structure of reach-to-grasp movements.

    PubMed

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2011-05-01

    Extensive research has identified the affordances used to guide actions, as originally conceived by Gibson (Perceiving, acting, and knowing: towards an ecological psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977; The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1979/1986). We sought to discover the object affordance properties that determine the spatial structure of reach-to-grasp movements--movements that entail both collision avoidance and targeting. First, we constructed objects that presented a significant collision hazard and varied properties relevant to targeting, namely, object width and size of contact surface. Participants reached-to-grasp objects at three speeds (slow, normal, and fast). In Experiment 1, we explored a "stop" task where participants grasped the objects without moving them. In Experiment 2, we studied "fly-through" movements where the objects were lifted. We discovered the object affordance properties that produced covariance in the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp. Maximum grasp aperture (MGA) reflected affordances determined by collision avoidance. Terminal grasp aperture (TGA)--when the hand stops moving but prior to finger contact--reflected affordances relevant to targeting accuracy. A model with a single free parameter predicted the prehensile spatial structure and provided a functional affordance-based account of that structure. In Experiment 3, we investigated a "slam" task where participants reached-to-grasp flat rectangular objects on a tabletop. The affordance structure of this task was found to eliminate the collision risk and thus reduced safety margins in MGA and TGA to zero for larger objects. The results emphasize the role of affordances in determining the structure and scaling of reach-to-grasp actions. Finally, we report evidence supporting the opposition vector as an appropriate unit of analysis in the study of grasping and a unit of action that maps directly to affordance properties. PMID:21484397

  5. Behavioral health parity and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard G; Beronio, Kirsten; Glied, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the passage of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), about 49 million Americans were uninsured. Among those with employer-sponsored health insurance, 2% had coverage that entirely excluded mental health benefits and 7% had coverage that entirely excluded substance use treatment benefits. The rates of noncoverage for mental and substance use disorder care in the individual health insurance markets are considerably higher. Private health insurance generally limits the extent of these benefits. The combination of MHPEA and ACA extended overall health insurance coverage to more people and expanded the scope of coverage to include mental health and substance abuse benefits. PMID:24483783

  6. 78 FR 13222 - Procedures for the Handling of Retaliation Complaints Under Section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...This document provides the interim final regulations governing the employee protection (whistleblower) provision of section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act, which added section 18C of the Fair Labor Standards Act, to provide protections to employees of health insurance issuers or other employers who may have been subject to retaliation for reporting potential violations of the law's consumer......

  7. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    PubMed Central

    Mhlanga, Brenda S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB) and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG) medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs). Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost 473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%). Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day's wage. Conclusion Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population. PMID:26245401

  8. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  9. Situated language understanding as filtering perceived affordances.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, Peter; Roy, Deb

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a computational theory of situated language understanding in which the meaning of words and utterances depends on the physical environment and the goals and plans of communication partners. According to the theory, concepts that ground linguistic meaning are neither internal nor external to language users, but instead span the objective-subjective boundary. To model the possible interactions between subject and object, the theory relies on the notion of perceived affordances: structured units of interaction that can be used for prediction at multiple levels of abstraction. Language understanding is treated as a process of filtering perceived affordances. The theory accounts for many aspects of the situated nature of human language use and provides a unified solution to a number of demands on any theory of language understanding including conceptual combination, prototypicality effects, and the generative nature of lexical items. To support the theory, we describe an implemented system that understands verbal commands situated in a virtual gaming environment. The implementation uses probabilistic hierarchical plan recognition to generate perceived affordances. The system has been evaluated on its ability to correctly interpret free-form spontaneous verbal commands recorded from unrehearsed game play between human players. The system is able to "step into the shoes" of human players and correctly respond to a broad range of verbal commands in which linguistic meaning depends on social and physical context. We quantitatively compare the system's predictions in response to direct player commands with the actions taken by human players and show generalization to unseen data across a range of situations and verbal constructions. PMID:21635295

  10. Dignity for all: affordable assisted living.

    PubMed

    Janeski, James F; Pruchnicki, Alec

    2006-01-01

    In 2026, the first of the baby boomers, including Presidents Clinton and Bush, will reach the age of 80, the average age of residents currently in assisted living facilities. In her book The Denial of Aging: Perpetual Youth, Eternal Life, and Other Dangerous Fantasies, Muriel Gillick proposes that the baby boomers will seek assisted living as an alternative to nursing home care. But what about that portion of the population not able to afford the high cost of private assisted living? What option will be available to the low-asset/low-income population in lieu of nursing home care? PMID:17214248

  11. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  12. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  13. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  14. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  18. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  19. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  20. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  1. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  2. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  3. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  4. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  5. Affordable access to care for the undocumented.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    How do you tell a sick kid that nobody cares if he gets better? That's an exaggeration, of course, but it is the fundamental message our society sends when we tell him that, because he and his family are undocumented immigrants, we are unwilling to extend them access to affordable and reliable health insurance. One major shortcoming of the Affordable Care Act is its specific exclusion of the almost twelve million undocumented immigrants-including millions of children-in this country from access to the state and federal insurance exchanges where coverage can be purchased. It is true that providing undocumented immigrants access to the exchanges and subsidies mandated by the ACA would require additional funding. However, a recent analysis in California has found that the costs of expanding state-supported care to include undocumented immigrants would largely be offset by the increased state sales tax revenue paid by managed care organizations and by reduced spending at the county level on emergency-room and hospital care of the uninsured. PMID:25231664

  6. Significant change in the construction of a door to a room with slowed down neutron field by means of commonly used inexpensive protective materials.

    PubMed

    Konefał, Adam; Łaciak, Marcin; Dawidowska, Anna; Osewski, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    The detailed analysis of nuclear reactions occurring in materials of the door is presented for the typical construction of an entrance door to a room with a slowed down neutron field. The changes in the construction of the door were determined to reduce effectively the level of neutron and gamma radiation in the vicinity of the door in a room adjoining the neutron field room. Optimisation of the door construction was performed with the use of Monte Carlo calculations (GEANT4). The construction proposed in this paper bases on the commonly used inexpensive protective materials such as borax (13.4 cm), lead (4 cm) and stainless steel (0.1 and 0.5 cm on the side of the neutron field room and of the adjoining room, respectively). The improved construction of the door, worked out in the presented studies, can be an effective protection against neutrons with energies up to 1 MeV. PMID:24324249

  7. Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welbeck, Rashida; Diamond, John; Mayer, Alexander; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2014-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen sharply over the last 40 years. Although more credit and grant aid have been made available to students, there are still major gaps between aid and the cost of attendance for many students in the United States, all of whom are left to figure out whether they can afford the remaining costs associated with…

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  9. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  10. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  11. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  12. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population. PMID:26458377

  13. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA. PMID:25811340

  14. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA. PMID:25811340

  15. Both Creatine and Its Product Phosphocreatine Reduce Oxidative Stress and Afford Neuroprotection in an In Vitro Parkinson’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D.; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; Ludka, Fabiana K.; Tasca, Carla I.; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; López, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr). This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson’s model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473) and GSK3β (Serine9). Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25424428

  16. Parasite-specific IgM plays a significant role in the protective immune response to asexual erythrocytic stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection.

    PubMed

    Couper, K N; Phillips, R S; Brombacher, F; Alexander, J

    2005-05-01

    A comparison of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in BALB/c and BALB/c IgM-deficient mice demonstrated a protective role for IgM during infection. IgM-/- mice, unlike microMT mice, display competent B cell humoral immune responses. Increased susceptibility of IgM-/- mice was demonstrated by increased mortality, an advanced ascending infection and higher peak parasitaemia, as well as enhanced anaemia and weight loss compared with wild-type mice. The recrudescent parasitaemias were also higher in the IgM-/- mice. Early specific IgM production in P. chabaudi-infected wild-type mice was followed by IgG1 and IgG2a production, while IgG1 and IgG2a production in IgM-/- mice was preceded by specific IgD production. No protective role for natural IgM against P. chabaudi AS infection was detected as passive transfer of naïve WT serum into IgM-/- mice did not alter the disease outcome or reduce parasite numbers. Passive transfer of WT antiserum, containing predominantly specific IgM, into IgM-/- mice delayed the ascending parasitaemia and reduced mortality. Similarly, coating parasitized red blood cells with WT antiserum, but not IgM-/- antisera, prior to infection also slightly delayed the ascending acute parasitaemia. Specific IgM therefore plays an important role in the limitation of parasite replication during asexual erythrocytic P. chabaudi AS infection. PMID:15987340

  17. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Levander, O A; Ager, A L; Morris, V C; May, R G

    1989-12-01

    Feeding a vitamin E-deficient diet containing 5% menhaden oil to mice affords significant protection against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant line of the malarial parasite. Nutritional manipulation may offer a new approach to the problem of drug-resistant malaria, a rapidly emerging global threat to public health. PMID:2688393

  18. Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Muller, Martin N; Reynolds, Vernon; Wrangham, Richard; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The notion of animal culture, defined as socially transmitted community-specific behaviour patterns, remains controversial, notably because the definition relies on surface behaviours without addressing underlying cognitive processes. In contrast, human cultures are the product of socially acquired ideas that shape how individuals interact with their environment. We conducted field experiments with two culturally distinct chimpanzee communities in Uganda, which revealed significant differences in how individuals considered the affording parts of an experimentally provided tool to extract honey from a standardised cavity. Firstly, individuals of the two communities found different functional parts of the tool salient, suggesting that they experienced a cultural bias in their cognition. Secondly, when the alternative function was made more salient, chimpanzees were unable to learn it, suggesting that prior cultural background can interfere with new learning. Culture appears to shape how chimpanzees see the world, suggesting that a cognitive component underlies the observed behavioural patterns. PMID:22355645

  19. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act: a Status Update.

    PubMed

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Vickers, Jasmine; Elam, Angela; Wilson, M Roy

    2015-12-01

    Persistent racial and ethnic health disparities exist in the USA, despite decades of research and public health initiatives. Several factors contribute to health disparities, including (but not limited to) implicit provider bias, access to health care, social determinants, and biological factors. Disparities in health by race/ethnicity are unacceptable and correctable. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive legislation that is focused on improving health care access, quality, and cost control. This health care reform includes specific provisions which focus on preventive care, the standardized collection of data on race, ethnicity, primary language and disability status, and health information technology. Although some provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have not been implemented, such as funding for the U.S. Public Health Sciences track, which would have addressed the shortage of medical professionals in the USA who are trained to use patient-centered, interdisciplinary, and care coordination approaches, this legislation is still poised to make great strides toward eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the unprecedented opportunities that exist for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health in the USA. PMID:26668787

  20. Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Pérez-Blanco, C. D.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme events are becoming more frequent and intense, inflating the economic damages and social hardship set-off by natural catastrophes. Amidst budgetary cuts, there is a growing concern on societies' ability to design solvent disaster recovery strategies, while addressing equity and affordability concerns. The participation of private sector along with public one through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) has gained on importance as a means to address these seemingly conflicting objectives through the provision of (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance. This is the case of many OECD countries, notably some EU Member States such as the United Kingdom and Spain. The EU legislator has adapted to this new scenario and recently produced major reforms in the legislation and regulation that govern the framework in which PPPs for (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance develop. This paper has a dual objective: (1) review the complex legal background that rules the provision of insurance against natural catastrophes in the EU after these major reforms, (2) assess the implications of the reforms and offer concise Policy Guiding Principles.

  1. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  2. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  3. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    PubMed

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26021190

  4. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (<138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL], 138–250 percent FPL, 250–400 percent FPL, and >400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  5. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Medicare Advantage Plan Availability and Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) changes in Medicare Advantage (MA) payment rates on the availability of and enrollment in MA plans. Data Sources Secondary data on MA plan offerings, contract offerings, and enrollment by state and county, in 2010–2011. Study Design We estimated regression models of the change in the number of plans, the number of contracts, and enrollment as a function of quartiles of FFS spending and pre-ACA MA payment generosity. Counties in the lowest quartile of spending are treated most generously by the ACA. Principal Findings Relative to counties in the highest quartile of spending, the number of plans in counties in the first, second, and third quartiles rose by 12 percent, 7.6 percent, and 5.4 percent, respectively. Counties with more generous MA payment rates before the ACA lost significantly more plans. We did not find a similar impact on the change in contracts or enrollment. Conclusions The ACA-induced MA payment changes reduced the number of plan choices available for Medicare beneficiaries, but they have yet affected enrollment patterns. PMID:22578065

  6. Elected Officials Travel in Parallel Universes Regarding the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    While the ink still was drying on this issue of the Journal of Allied Health, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) reached the ripe old age of 5-and-1/2 years. Simply mentioning this law to a great many members of Congress is the equivalent of administering a prick with a hot needle. Depending on whose opinions are sought, this significant piece of social legislation is considered either a monumental health policy triumph (according to a majority of Democrats) or a pitiful debacle (according to a majority of Republicans) in both chambers. Their respective points of view are aided and abetted by a small army of cheerleaders on the sidelines who inhabit pundit domains in foundations, think tanks, university policy centers, and radio/TV talk shows. Except in rare instances, neither side will admit that their opponents might be correct about some aspects of the law, because there really is not much pleasure derived from doing so. Despite their many enthusiastic proclamations regarding the ACA, it is not possible for both sides of the present controversy to be entirely correct. Hence, this essay represents an effort to describe various benefits associated with this key piece of legislation, along with some of its shortcomings. PMID:26342609

  7. The U.S. health insurance marketplace: are premiums truly affordable?

    PubMed

    Graetz, Ilana; Kaplan, Cameron M; Kaplan, Erin K; Bailey, James E; Waters, Teresa M

    2014-10-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires that individuals have health insurance or pay a penalty. Individuals are exempt from paying this penalty if the after-subsidy cost of the least-expensive plan available to them is greater than 8% of their income. For this study, premium data for all health plans offered on the state and federal health insurance marketplaces were collected; the after-subsidy cost of premiums for the least-expensive bronze plan for every county in the United States was calculated; and variations in premium affordability by age, income, and geographic area were assessed. Results indicated that-although marketplace subsidies ensure affordable health insurance for most persons in the United States-many individuals with incomes just above the subsidy threshold will lack affordable coverage and will be exempt from the mandate. Furthermore, young individuals with low incomes often pay as much as or more than older individuals for bronze plans. If substantial numbers of younger, healthier adults choose to remain uninsured because of cost, health insurance premiums across all ages may increase over time. PMID:25199512

  8. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; Martin, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  9. Mycobacterium avium infection in CD14-deficient mice fails to substantiate a significant role for CD14 in antimycobacterial protection or granulomatous inflammation

    PubMed Central

    EHLERS, STEFAN; REILING, NORBERT; GANGLOFF, SOPHIE; WOLTMANN, ALEXANDER; GOYERT, SANNA

    2001-01-01

    CD14 is a pattern-recognition receptor implicated in the inflammatory response to microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and lipoarabinomannan. In this work, we made use of CD14-deficient (CD14−/−) mice to evaluate the relative importance of CD14 in response to infection with viable, intact cells of Mycobacterium avium in vitro and in vivo. Following co-incubation of either bone marrow-derived macrophages (Mφ) or thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal Mφ from CD14−/− mice with viable M. avium, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production was significantly reduced and delayed compared to TNF secretion by infected CD14+/+ Mφ. However, following intravenous infection with a M. avium strain of either high virulence (TMC724) or intermediate virulence (SE01), there was no difference in the bacterial loads of lungs, livers or spleens at 3, 5 and 8 weeks postinfection in CD14−/− mice when compared with syngeneic CD14+/+ mice. At these time-points, TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in the liver was similar in infected CD14+/+ and CD14−/− mice, and granuloma formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase within granuloma Mφ was the same in both mouse groups. In conclusion, although the absence of CD14 results in significantly reduced and delayed TNF production in response to stimulation with M. avium in vitro, there is no evidence that CD14 plays a significant role in either the antibacterial defence or the chronic granulomatous reaction to M. avium infection in vivo. PMID:11380699

  10. Protective clothing for accident and emergency personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Steedman, D J

    1994-01-01

    There is a significant risk of clothing soilure and skin contamination from patients' blood or other body fluids whilst working in an accident and emergency (A&E) department. It is therefore unhygienic to wear personal clothing and traditional uniforms do not provide adequate protection. Contamination occurs despite operating 'universal precautions' and emergency presentations often preclude adopting such precautions despite the anticipation of possible contact with blood or other body fluids. The protection afforded to medical staff working in an A&E department by a suit made from a liquid repellent polyester fabric was assessed during the period 2 November 1992-1 January 1993. Ninety-one splash incidents were recorded. A total of 85.7% of splashes (78) were with patients' blood, 13.1% with vomitus (12) and 1.1% with pus (1). There were no instances of splashes to the suit that resulted in strike through to the inner surface or visible contamination of underlying skin. However, some 15.4% of splashes (14) resulted in contamination of exposed skin and 78.6% of these (11) occurred between glove and sleeve. Clothing of appropriated design and fabric can afford skin protection from blood and body fluid contamination. Such clothing alone does not provide overall protection and other precautions currently recommended should be taken. PMID:7921544

  11. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  12. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  13. Affordable WDM components: the polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Yin, Shing; Norwood, Robert A.; Yardley, James T.

    1998-02-01

    An advanced polymeric waveguide technology was developed for affordable WDM components that address the needs of both the Telecom and the Datacom industries. We engineered high- performance organic polymers that can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures of controlled numerical aperture and geometry. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked acrylate monomers with specific linkages that determine properties such as flexibility, toughness, loss, and environmental stability. These monomers are intermiscible, providing for precise adjustment of the refractive index from 1.3 to 1.6. In polymer form, they exhibit state-of-the-art loss values, high thermal stability, high humidity resistance, low dispersion and low birefringence. Waveguides are formed photolithographically, with the liquid monomer mixture polymerizing upon illumination in the UV via either mask exposure or laser direct writing. A wide range of rigid and flexible substrates can be used, including glass, quartz, oxidized silicon, glass-filled epoxy printed circuit board substrate, and flexible polyimide film. Waveguiding structures measuring tens of inches in length can be produced on computer boards, and guides that are meters long can be printed on rolls of plastic. We describe the fabrication of both Bragg gratings and waveguide grating routes in our polymers for filtering and demultiplexing applications in Telecom WDM systems. In Datacom, we describe polymeric components that we produced for aerospace WDM sensor systems. The importance of CAD tools in designing WDM devices is emphasized in this work. We further discuss the low-cost manufacturing of WDM components in an industrial environment.

  14. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  15. Affordance Analysis--Matching Learning Tasks with Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of "affordances" is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology…

  16. The Influence of Affordability in Strategic Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    In state houses around the country, one of the common higher education themes is affordability. As tuition costs have increased at rates exceeding that of inflation, students and families have pressed their legislative representatives to examine these increases. Affordability is a term used by various constituent groups, and its definition varies…

  17. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  18. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  19. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  20. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  1. One Hand, Two Objects: Emergence of Affordance in Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on affordances typically focus on single objects. We investigated whether affordances are modulated by the context, defined by the relation between two objects and a hand. Participants were presented with pictures displaying two manipulable objects linked by a functional (knife-butter), a spatial (knife-coffee mug), or by no relation. They…

  2. Providing Affordable Housing: Small Communities Benefit from Upgrading Dilapidated Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestekin, Kay

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Affordable Housing Opportunities Program (AHOP) created by the Eau Claire County Housing Authority in Wisconsin. The AHOP buys, renovates, and sells homes for prices below fair market value. This provides safe, sanitary housing for families who could not otherwise afford it. Describes the purchase, renovation, and sale of four…

  3. What's the Issue about Affordability of Public Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Donald Gary

    This study compared and contrasted data reports of two national policy centers on the affordability of public higher education. The study examined cost findings of the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) and the major affordability findings of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education (NCPPHE). Both policy centers…

  4. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership. 92.254 Section 92.254 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.254 Qualification as affordable...

  5. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data described above, that submission... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing... Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership. (a) Acquisition with or without rehabilitation. Housing...

  6. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  7. Conditional Deletion of the Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 Reveals That Astrocytic GLT-1 Protects against Fatal Epilepsy While Neuronal GLT-1 Contributes Significantly to Glutamate Uptake into Synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Petr, Geraldine T.; Sun, Yan; Frederick, Natalie M.; Zhou, Yun; Dhamne, Sameer C.; Hameed, Mustafa Q.; Miranda, Clive; Bedoya, Edward A.; Fischer, Kathryn D.; Armsen, Wencke; Wang, Jianlin; Danbolt, Niels C.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Aoki, Chiye J.

    2015-01-01

    GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is the major glutamate transporter in the brain, and is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, but at lower levels also in excitatory terminals. We generated a conditional GLT-1 knock-out mouse to uncover cell-type-specific functional roles of GLT-1. Inactivation of the GLT-1 gene was achieved in either neurons or astrocytes by expression of synapsin-Cre or inducible human GFAP-CreERT2. Elimination of GLT-1 from astrocytes resulted in loss of ∼80% of GLT-1 protein and of glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes. This loss was accompanied by excess mortality, lower body weight, and seizures suggesting that astrocytic GLT-1 is of major importance. However, there was only a small (15%) reduction that did not reach significance of glutamate uptake into crude forebrain synaptosomes. In contrast, when GLT-1 was deleted in neurons, both the GLT-1 protein and glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes were virtually unaffected. These mice showed normal survival, weight gain, and no seizures. However, the synaptosomal glutamate uptake capacity (Vmax) was reduced significantly (40%). In conclusion, astrocytic GLT-1 performs critical functions required for normal weight gain, resistance to epilepsy, and survival. However, the contribution of astrocytic GLT-1 to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes is less than expected, and the contribution of neuronal GLT-1 to synaptosomal glutamate uptake is greater than expected based on their relative protein expression. These results have important implications for the interpretation of the many previous studies assessing glutamate uptake capacity by measuring synaptosomal uptake. PMID:25834045

  8. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  9. To Copy-Protect or Not to Copy-Protect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the issues of software piracy, why people illegally copy software, protection afforded software developers by copyright laws, and current and future methods of disk-based protection built into software by developers and the problems these methods have created. (MBR)

  10. 76 FR 21906 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act Funding to Approved Applications Formerly Received...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to fund Approved cooperative agreement applications previously received and competed in response to CDC Funding Opportunity, CDC-RFA-IP11-010, ``Enhanced Surveillance for New Vaccine Preventable Disease.'' It is the intent of CDC to fund the applications with Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (ACA), Section 4002, appropriations.......

  11. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  12. Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings. PMID:25316210

  13. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick. PMID:25265646

  14. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call to transform the organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture. PMID:25068882

  15. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call for value-based leadership to transform quality.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals in America face a daunting and historical challenge starting in 2013 as leadership navigates their organizations toward a new port of call-the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law in March 2010 and held in abeyance waiting on 2 pivotal points-the Supreme Court's June 2012 ruling upholding the constitutionality of the ACA and the 2012 presidential election of Barack Obama bringing to reality to health care organizations that leadership now must implement the mandates of health care delivery under the ACA. This article addresses the need for value-based leadership to transform the culture of health care organizations in order to be successful in navigating uncharted waters under the unprecedented challenges for change in the delivery of quality health care. PMID:23903938

  16. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide. PMID:26567382

  17. Setting a standard of affordability for health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Linda J; Holahan, John; Hadley, Jack; Nordahl, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Massachusetts passed landmark legislation designed to expand health insurance coverage. This legislation includes a requirement that all adults enroll in a health insurance plan. This mandate takes effect only if an "affordable" plan is available. The definition of affordability for individuals and families of different incomes or circumstances is a critical decision in implementation and is relevant to any state or federal reform requiring individual premium or cost-sharing contributions, or both. This analysis was done to assist the policy design process in Massachusetts and delineates an empirically based approach to setting affordability standards. PMID:17548341

  18. Ninety-day waiting period limitation and technical amendments to certain health coverage requirements under the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-02-24

    These final regulations implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. These regulations also finalize amendments to existing regulations to conform to Affordable Care Act provisions. Specifically, these rules amend regulations implementing existing provisions such as some of the portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) because those provisions of the HIPAA regulations have become superseded or require amendment as a result of the market reform protections added by the Affordable Care Act. PMID:24611209

  19. Mammography Screening in a Large Health System Following the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Heidi D.; Weerasinghe, Roshanthi; Wang, Lian; Grunkemeier, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background Practice recommendations for mammography screening were issued by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in 2009 and expansion of insurance coverage was provided under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act soon thereafter, yet the influence of these changes on screening practices in the United States is not known. Methods To determine changes in mammography screening and their associations with new practice recommendations and the Affordable Care Act, we examined patient-level data from 249,803 screening mammograms from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012 in a large community-based health system in the northwestern United States. Associations were determined by an intervention analysis of time-series data method. Results Among women screened, 64% were age 50-74 years; 84% self-identified as white race; 62% had commercial insurance; and 70% were seen in facilities located in metropolitan areas. Practice recommendations were associated with decreased screening volumes among women age <40 (-37.4 mammograms/month; -39.4% change; P<0.001), 40-49 (-106.0 mammograms/month; -11.2% change; P<0.001), and ≥75 (-54.7 mammograms/month; -10.0% change; P<0.001), but not women age 50-74. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act was associated with increased screening among women age 50-74 (+184.3 mammograms/month; +7.2% change; P=0.001), but not women <40 or ≥75; increases for age 40-49 were of borderline statistical significance (+56.9 mammograms/month; +6% change; P=0.06). Practice recommendations were also associated with decreased screening for women with commercial insurance, while the Affordable Care Act was associated with increased screening for women with Medicare, Medicaid, or other noncommercial sources of payment. Conclusions Mammography screening volumes in a large community health system decreased among women age <50 and ≥75 in association with new U.S. Preventive Services Task Force practice recommendations, while insurance coverage

  20. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  1. Object Affordances Potentiate Responses but Do Not Guide Attentional Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Ariga, Atsunori; Yamada, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Handled objects automatically activate afforded responses. The current experiment examined whether objects that afford a response are also prioritized for attentional processing in visual search. Targets were pictures of coffee cups with handles oriented either to the right or the left. Subjects searched for a target, a right-handled vs. left-handled coffee cup, among a varying number of distractor cups oriented in the opposite direction. Responses were faster when the direction of target handle and the key press were spatially matched than mismatched (stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect), but object affordance did not moderate slopes of the search functions, indicating the absence of attentional prioritization effect. These findings imply that handled objects prime afforded responses without influencing attentional prioritization. PMID:26793077

  2. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  3. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. Joseph; Cooke, Doug; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing opinion that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget scenarios, with sustained international participation, and --- especially --- without requiring those first missions to achieve a burdensome number of goals. In response to this view, a group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December 2013. Participants reviewed scenarios for proposed affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" or "transition" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and usable definitions of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop. In the context of affordable early missions to Mars, we also discuss the recent report of the National Research Council on human space flight and a pair of recent scenarios that appear to promise reduced costs.

  4. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  5. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behavior goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects. PMID:26150778

  6. Exaggerated object affordance and absent automatic inhibition in alien hand syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Sumner, Petroc; Jackson, Stephen R.; Bajaj, Nin; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Patients with alien hand syndrome (AHS) experience making apparently deliberate and purposeful movements with their hand against their will. However, the mechanisms contributing to these involuntary actions remain poorly understood. Here, we describe two experimental investigations in a patient with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien hand behaviour in her right hand. First, we show that responses with the alien hand are made significantly more quickly to images of objects which afford an action with that hand compared to objects which afford an action with the unaffected hand. This finding suggests that involuntary grasping behaviours in AHS might be due to exaggerated, automatic motor activation evoked by objects which afford actions with that limb. Second, using a backwards masked priming task, we found normal automatic inhibition of primed responses in the patient's unaffected hand, but importantly there was no evidence of such suppression in the alien limb. Taken together, these findings suggest that grasping behaviours in AHS may result from exaggerated object affordance effects, which might potentially arise from disrupted inhibition of automatically evoked responses. PMID:23433243

  7. New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Measuring food prices per gram, rather than per calorie, is one way to make healthful vegetables appear less expensive. However, a better measure of affordability would take the nutrient content of vegetables into account. This study, based on analyses of US Department of Agriculture datasets, aimed to identify which vegetables, including juices and soups, provided the most nutrients per unit cost. Nutrient density was measured using the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium. Food cost in dollars was calculated per 100 g, per 100 kcal, per serving, and per nutrient content. One-way analyses of variance with post hoc tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results showed that tomato juices and tomato soups, dark green leafy and nonleafy vegetables, and deep yellow vegetables, including sweet potatoes, had the highest NRF scores overall. Highest NRF scores per dollar were obtained for sweet potatoes, white potatoes, tomato juices and tomato soups, carrots, and broccoli. Tomato sauces, raw tomatoes, and potato chips were eaten more frequently than were many other vegetables that were both more affordable and more nutrient-rich. These new measures of affordable nutrition can help foodservice and health professionals identify those vegetables that provide the highest nutrient density per unit cost. Processed vegetables, including soups and juices, can contribute to the quality and the affordability of the diet. PMID:23714199

  8. Twitter Sentiment Predicts Affordable Care Act Marketplace Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Sap, Maarten; Schwartz, Andrew; Town, Robert; Baker, Tom; Ungar, Lyle; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional metrics of the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and health insurance marketplaces in the United States include public opinion polls and marketplace enrollment, which are published with a lag of weeks to months. In this rapidly changing environment, a real-time barometer of public opinion with a mechanism to identify emerging issues would be valuable. Objective We sought to evaluate Twitter’s role as a real-time barometer of public sentiment on the ACA and to determine if Twitter sentiment (the positivity or negativity of tweets) could be predictive of state-level marketplace enrollment. Methods We retrospectively collected 977,303 ACA-related tweets in March 2014 and then tested a correlation of Twitter sentiment with marketplace enrollment by state. Results A 0.10 increase in the sentiment score was associated with an 8.7% increase in enrollment at the state level (95% CI 1.32-16.13; P=.02), a correlation that remained significant when adjusting for state Medicaid expansion (P=.02) or use of a state-based marketplace (P=.03). Conclusions This correlation indicates Twitter’s potential as a real-time monitoring strategy for future marketplace enrollment periods; marketplaces could systematically track Twitter sentiment to more rapidly identify enrollment changes and potentially emerging issues. As a repository of free and accessible consumer-generated opinions, this study reveals a novel role for Twitter in the health policy landscape. PMID:25707038

  9. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  10. Relationship of Affordable Care Act Implementation to Emergency Department Utilization Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Morrison, Doug; Goldstein, Ben A.; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Study objective The 2010 provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for young adults aged 19 to 25 years. It is unclear, however, how expanded coverage changes health care behavior and promotes efficient use of emergency department (ED) services. Our objective was to use population-level emergency department data to characterize any changes in diagnoses seen in ED among young adults since the implementation of the ACA dependent coverage expansion. Methods We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of 2009 to 2011 ED visits from California, Florida, and New York, using all-capture administrative data to determine how the use of ED services changed for clinical categories after the ACA provision among young adults aged 19 to 25 years compared with slightly older adults unaffected by the provision, aged 26 to 31 years. Results We analyzed a total of 10,158,254 ED visits made by 4,734,409 patients. After the implementation of the 2010 ACA provision, young adults had a relative decrease of 0.5% ED visits per 1,000 people compared with the older group. For the majority of diagnostic categories, young adults’ rates and risk of visit did not change relative to that of slightly older adults after the implementation of the ACA. However, although young adults’ ED visits significantly increased for mental illnesses (2.6%) and diseases of the circulatory system (eg, nonspecific chest pain) (4.8%), visits decreased for pregnancy-related diagnoses and diseases of the skin (eg, cellulitis, abscess) compared with that of the older group (3.7% and 3.1%, respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate that increased coverage has kept young adults out of the ED for specific conditions that can be cared for through access to other channels. As EDs face capacity challenges, these results are encouraging and offer insight into what could be expected under further insurance expansions from health care reform. PMID

  11. Update on the Affordable Care Act. King v. Burwell and Obergefell v. Hodge.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Sarah M; Moore, Nuala; Douglas, Ivor S; Cooke, Colin R

    2016-03-01

    Patients with respiratory diseases, critical illness, or sleep disorders who lack health insurance endure disparities in access to care and worse health outcomes. These disparities were partly addressed in the United States in 2010 by passage of the Affordable Care Act. Low- and moderate-income individuals and families with incomes between 138 and 400% of the federal poverty level are eligible for insurance premium subsidies when purchasing policies on the health insurance marketplace exchanges. Since the act was passed, nearly 16.5 million Americans have gained health insurance. In 2015, the act survived what may be the last significant judicial challenge to the law: King v. Burwell. The plaintiffs challenged whether people who purchased health insurance in states that use the federal insurance marketplace HealthCare.gov , rather than a state-run marketplace, were eligible to receive insurance premium subsidies. At the time of the ruling, 34 states used the federal exchange, and as a result, nearly 7.5 million people could have lost their health insurance if the court had ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. However, in King v. Burwell, the Court ruled six to three in support of the legality of subsidies regardless of type of marketplace states use, thereby ensuring continued health insurance coverage for patients in states using the federal marketplace exchange. In 2015, the Supreme Court also heard a landmark case, Obergefell v. Hodge, in which the Court upheld the right for two people of the same sex to marry, thereby opening crucial access to both state and federal benefits and protections for same-sex couples. PMID:26731515

  12. Elected Officials Travel in Parallel Universes Regarding the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative appraisal of the much debated U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often referred to as Obamacare, describes the controversy, support, and opposition from federal and state governments during the first 5.5 years since the law was passed. Its history, the impact on individual and community health status, the limitations of health reform, its accomplishments and deficiencies, and the impact of societal determinants on program implementation are presented in a refreshing, candid, objective, and knowledgeable manner. PMID:26543040

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Results on Sikorsky Aircraft Survivable Affordable Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The Survivable, Affordable, Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) will develop/produce new structural design concepts with lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity and development time, increased readiness, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts will require advanced field capable inspection technologies to help meet the SARAP structural objectives. In the area of repair, damage assessment using nondestructive inspection (NDI) is critical to identify repair location and size. The purpose of this work is to conduct an assessment of new and emerging NDI methods that can potentially satisfy the SARAP program goals.

  14. Why employers will continue to provide health insurance: the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Linda J; Buettgens, Matthew; Feder, Judith; Holahan, John

    2012-01-01

    The Congressional Budget Office, the Rand Corporation, and the Urban Institute have estimated that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will leave employer-sponsored coverage largely intact; in contrast, some economists and benefit consultants argue that the ACA encourages employers to drop coverage, thereby making both their workers and their firms better off (a "win-win" situation). This analysis shows that no such "win-win" situation exists and that employer-sponsored insurance will remain the primary source of coverage for most workers. Analysis of three issues-the terms of the ACA, worker characteristics, and the fundamental economics of competitive markets-supports this conclusion. PMID:22931019

  15. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

  16. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  17. SPACEWAY: Providing affordable and versatile communication solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, E. J.

    1995-08-01

    By the end of this decade, Hughes' SPACEWAY network will provide the first interactive 'bandwidth on demand' communication services for a variety of applications. High quality digital voice, interactive video, global access to multimedia databases, and transborder workgroup computing will make SPACEWAY an essential component of the computer-based workplace of the 21st century. With relatively few satellites to construct, insure, and launch -- plus extensive use of cost-effective, tightly focused spot beams on the world's most populated areas -- the high capacity SPACEWAY system can pass its significant cost savings onto its customers. The SPACEWAY network is different from other proposed global networks in that its geostationary orbit location makes it a truly market driven system: each satellite will make available extensive telecom services to hundreds of millions of people within the continuous view of that satellite, providing immediate capacity within a specific region of the world.

  18. SPACEWAY: Providing affordable and versatile communication solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    By the end of this decade, Hughes' SPACEWAY network will provide the first interactive 'bandwidth on demand' communication services for a variety of applications. High quality digital voice, interactive video, global access to multimedia databases, and transborder workgroup computing will make SPACEWAY an essential component of the computer-based workplace of the 21st century. With relatively few satellites to construct, insure, and launch -- plus extensive use of cost-effective, tightly focused spot beams on the world's most populated areas -- the high capacity SPACEWAY system can pass its significant cost savings onto its customers. The SPACEWAY network is different from other proposed global networks in that its geostationary orbit location makes it a truly market driven system: each satellite will make available extensive telecom services to hundreds of millions of people within the continuous view of that satellite, providing immediate capacity within a specific region of the world.

  19. Can we afford to replace chrome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; He, Long; Hector, Scott D.; Trybula, Walt

    2004-12-01

    Chrome-based absorbers have been the mainstay of the photomask industry for three decades. While chrome is attractive because of its durability and opacity, it conversely poses challenges for etch and repair. Due to large capital investments, any new absorber must be designed to work with existing scanners, mask writers, and mask inspection tools. Furthermore changing absorber materials may not improve defect control in mask blank fabrication, which is a paramount concern in blank fabrication. Consequently, blank manufacturers are reluctant to change from chrome. In terms of return on investment (ROI), the only driver to switch technologies is achieving higher mask and wafer yields. This is a reasonable assumption as both etch and repair tool suppliers believe a non-chrome material like tantalum (Ta) compounds would significantly improve their capabilities with known technologies. A high level estimate shows that with even aggressive improvement assumptions, a 100% conversion from chrome does not save money. Based on the current International SEMATECH (ISMT) cost of ownership (COO) model and improved yields for critical dimension (CD) and defects, a case can be made for converting at and below 100 nm ground rules. An industry wide conversion from chrome to a non-chrome absorber is estimated to cost $100M. By contrast, blank suppliers are reportedly spending "multiple" millions of dollars to improve chrome per year. A widespread concern is whether binary optical masks have enough life left to provide sufficient ROI. Optical lithography will continue to be of use in the foreseeable future. Even as leading-edge production moves to new technology, the main manufacturing volumes will continue to create significant demand for masks for 100 nm to 45 nm for many years. With the industry currently pushing extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the best situation would be for EUVL and optical lithography to choose the same absorber material. This creates a winning situation

  20. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  1. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  2. Personal protective equipment and dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Evans, P G; McAlinden, J J; Griffin, P

    2001-02-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) should only be used as a control measure when other measures are inappropriate or are inadequate by themselves. The person undertaking a risk assessment must exercise his or her judgment to take into account the protection afforded by the PPE. There is, therefore, considerable scope for differences in approach and it would seem sensible to eliminate these differences and ensure consistency, where possible, by reaching agreement on the attenuating effect of PPE. However, there is growing evidence that the levels of protection indicated by laboratory-based tests may not be achieved in real use situations. Studies of workplace protection suggest that the spread of contaminants inside protective clothing, including gloves, is commonplace and significant. Insufficient attention may have been paid to the effect of factors such as temperature differentials on the permeation of chemical agents through protective materials. To investigate this, a test cell was designed and built to measure the breakthrough times and subsequent permeation rate of solvents through glove materials where the temperature inside and outside the glove was representative of those that can occur in the workplace. Two chemical solvents were tested against two different glove materials at three different temperature conditions. The differences between the breakthrough times and permeation rates were measured and compared to manufacturer's test data. The practical implications are considered for risk of health and safety to the wearer. PMID:11217735

  3. Polyimide Based Nanocomposites for Affordable Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Derrick; Islam, Mohsina; Small, Sharee; Aldridge, Brandon; Campbell, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In setting forth its strategic plan, NASA has indicated that low-cost access to space is the key to unleashing the commercial potential of space and greatly expanding space research and exploration. The development of advanced materials will be an enabling technology for this quest for low-cost space access. In this research program, we are attempting to address the need for new advanced materials by developing high-performance nanodispersed inorganic/organic and organic/organic polyimide composites utilizing specific interactions. Our goal is to systematically manipulate these interactions and investigate the resulting processing morphology-property relationships. Specifically, we will investigate three main parameters on these relationships. These include (1) the type of polyimide; (2) the structure of the inorganic nanoparticle being used; and (3) manipulation of the interfacial energy. During the first year of this effort, we have demonstrated the successful synthesis of PMR-15/layered silicate nanocomposites. Morphological studies indicate that exfoliated structures were obtained in most instances, with a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated structures being observed also. Significant enhancements of the onset of decomposition were obtained by varying the strength of the interaction between the nanoparticle and the polymer. Varying the amount of a specific nanoparticle also affected the decomposition temperatures. A slight catalytic effect of the nanoparticles on both the imidization and crosslinking reaction has been observed and will be presented. In addition, incorporation of the nanoparticles was found to increase the glass transition temperature and slightly broaden the breadth of this relaxation.

  4. Control your mind, make affordance available

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Zhu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the affordance–control interpretation of the relationship between performance and object estimation has been proposed by psychophysical and psychonomic studies. This study examined the weight estimation–performance relationship. Individuals with visual impairment or blindness put shots that varied in weight among five scales. In Experiment 1, only the perceived weight was a significant performance constraint. In Experiment 2, the weight was perceived as heavier when the participants’ actions were manipulated through cognitive interpretation. The increase in perceived weight appeared to be related to performance and intrinsically scaled to the action, even when the action was only mental rather than physical. The study’s findings suggest that bodily experience and action are the basis for physical judgments and likely underlie other basic cognitive interpretations of sensory stimuli. This suggestion goes hand in hand with the biofunctional approaches which assume direct experience of the integrated wholeness of one’s body is fundamental for developing other kinds of awareness. Different perspectives from oriental philosophy and psychology are also discussed. PMID:25741298

  5. Why do so many Americans oppose the Affordable Care Act?

    PubMed

    Dalen, James E; Waterbrook, Keith; Alpert, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed by a Democratic Congress and signed into law by a Democratic president in 2010. Republican congressmen, governors, and Republican candidates have consistently opposed the ACA and have vowed to repeal it. Polls have consistently shown that it is supported by <50% of Americans. The most important goal of the ACA is to improve the health of Americans by increasing the number covered by health insurance. In the first year of its implementation, more than 10 million citizens gained health insurance. The percentage of Americans without health insurance decreased from 18% in July 2013 to 13.4% in June 2014. In addition, the ACA has eliminated many of the negative features of private insurance such as the denial of coverage for those with "prior conditions." The benefits of Medicare have been enhanced to decrease the cost of prescription drugs and to eliminate co-pays for preventive services. Despite these positive changes, a near majority of Americans still oppose the ACA, even though they approve of most of its features. They oppose the mandate that all Americans must have health insurance (the individual mandate), and they oppose a government role in health care. Yet Medicare, a mandatory insurance for seniors administered by the federal government since 1965, is overwhelmingly approved by the American public. The opposition to a government role in health care is based on the fact that that the vast majority of our citizens do not trust their government. Republicans are much less trusting of the federal government and much less supportive of a government role in health care than Democrats. The overwhelmingly negative TV ads against the ACA by the Republican candidates in the elections of 2012 and 2014 have had a major impact on Americans' views of the ACA. More than 60% of Americans have stated that most of what they know about the ACA came from watching TV. Opposition to a government role in health care

  6. Conflict in the kitchen: Contextual modulation of responsiveness to affordances.

    PubMed

    Wokke, Martijn E; Knot, Sarah L; Fouad, Aisha; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2016-02-01

    Recently, human behavior has been considered the product of continuous interactions between perception, cognition and action in which "affordances" (action possibilities the environment has to offer) play an important role. Converging evidence suggests that multiple action possibilities simultaneously compete for further processing, while external and internal factors (e.g., incoming sensory information, predictions) bias this competition. In the present study we used a stop-task to investigate whether context is able to modulate the strength of the responsiveness to affordances. We therefore placed participants in an actual kitchen and workshop during electroencephalographic recordings. A faster response to context congruent objects demonstrated that the direct surrounding is able to affect responsiveness to affordances. In addition, when responses needed to be withheld, context congruent objects evoked greater response conflict as indicated by an enhanced N2 Event Related Potential (ERP) component. PMID:26821243

  7. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  8. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  9. To Enroll or Not to Enroll? Why Many Americans Have Gained Insurance Under the Affordable Care Act While Others Have Not. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    According to the most recent Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015, an estimated 25 million adults remain uninsured. To achieve the Affordable Care Act's goal of near-universal coverage, policymakers must understand why some people are enrolling in the law's marketplace plans or in Medicaid coverage and why others are not. This analysis of the survey finds that affordability--whether real or perceived--is playing a significant role in adults' choice of marketplace plans and the decision whether to enroll at all. People who have gained coverage report significantly more positive experiences shopping for health plans than do those who did not enroll. Getting personal assistance--from telephone hotlines, navigators, and insurance brokers, among other sources--appears to make a critical difference in whether people gain health insurance PMID:26470402

  10. Predictors of Smoke-Free Policies in Affordable Multiunit Housing, North Carolina, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Suttie, Janet; Baker, Laura; Agans, Robert; Xue, Wei; Bowling, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoke-free policies can effectively protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in multiunit housing. We surveyed all affordable multiunit housing properties in North Carolina to determine the statewide prevalence of smoke-free policies and to identify predictors of smoke-free policies. Methods Representatives of affordable housing properties in North Carolina completed a mailed or online survey during June through October 2013. The primary outcome measure was presence of a smoke-free policy, defined as prohibiting smoking in all residential units. We used χ2 analysis and multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of smoke-free policies. Results Of 1,865 eligible properties, responses were received for 1,063 (57%). A total of 16.5% of properties had policies that prohibited smoking in all residential units, while 69.6% prohibited smoking in indoor common areas. In multivariate analysis, an increase in the number of children per unit was associated with a decrease in the odds of having a smoke-free policy at most properties. Newer properties across all company sizes were more likely to have smoke-free policies. Accessing units from interior hallways predicted smoke-free policies among medium-sized companies. Conclusion More smoke-free policies in affordable multiunit housing are needed to protect vulnerable populations, particularly children, from SHS exposure. Public health professionals should continue to educate housing operators about SHS and the benefits of smoke-free policies at all properties, including older ones and ones where units are accessed from outside rather than from an interior hallway. PMID:25974143

  11. Reliability and Maintainability Engineering - A Major Driver for Safety and Affordability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2011-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of an effort to design and build a safe and affordable heavy lift vehicle to go to the moon and beyond. To achieve that, NASA is seeking more innovative and efficient approaches to reduce cost while maintaining an acceptable level of safety and mission success. One area that has the potential to contribute significantly to achieving NASA safety and affordability goals is Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) engineering. Inadequate reliability or failure of critical safety items may directly jeopardize the safety of the user(s) and result in a loss of life. Inadequate reliability of equipment may directly jeopardize mission success. Systems designed to be more reliable (fewer failures) and maintainable (fewer resources needed) can lower the total life cycle cost. The Department of Defense (DOD) and industry experience has shown that optimized and adequate levels of R&M are critical for achieving a high level of safety and mission success, and low sustainment cost. Also, lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program clearly demonstrated the importance of R&M engineering in designing and operating safe and affordable launch systems. The Challenger and Columbia accidents are examples of the severe impact of design unreliability and process induced failures on system safety and mission success. These accidents demonstrated the criticality of reliability engineering in understanding component failure mechanisms and integrated system failures across the system elements interfaces. Experience from the shuttle program also shows that insufficient Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) engineering analyses upfront in the design phase can significantly increase the sustainment cost and, thereby, the total life cycle cost. Emphasis on RMS during the design phase is critical for identifying the design features and characteristics needed for time efficient processing

  12. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  13. Planetary Protection Technologies: Technical Challenges for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system, using either in situ analysis or sample return, brings with it special technical challenges in the area of planetary protection. Planetary protection (PP) requires planetary explorers to preserve biological and organic conditions for future exploration and to protect the Earth from potential extraterrestrial contamination that could occur as a result of sample return to the Earth-Moon system. In view of the exploration plans before us, the NASA Solar System Exploration Program Roadmap published in May 2003 identified planetary protection as one of 13 technologies for "high priority technology investments." Recent discoveries at Mars and Jupiter, coupled with new policies, have made this planning for planetary protection technology particularly challenging and relevant.New missions to Mars have been formulated, which present significantly greater forward contamination potential. New policies, including the introduction by COSPAR of a Category IVc for planetary protection, have been adopted by COSPAR in response. Some missions may not be feasible without the introduction of new planetary protection technologies. Other missions may be technically possible but planetary protection requirements may be so costly to implement with current technology that they are not affordable. A strategic investment strategy will be needed to focus on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce the costs of future missions. This presentation will describe some of the potential technological pathways that may be most protective.

  14. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress. PMID:26441709

  15. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress. PMID:26441709

  16. The Affordable Care Act and hospital chaplaincy: re-visioning spiritual care, re-valuing institutional wholeness.

    PubMed

    Frierdich, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the institutional dimensions of spiritual care within hospital settings in the context of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), applying policy information and systems theory to re-imagine the value and function of chaplaincy to hospital communities. This article argues that chaplaincy research and practice must look beyond only individual interventions and embrace chaplain competencies of presence, ritual, and communication as foundational tools for institutional spiritual care. PMID:26207905

  17. Affordance effects in grasping actions for graspable objects: electromyographic reaction time study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Takagi, Mineko; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2012-12-01

    It is unclear whether affordance effects shorten the reaction time in the interaction between objects and actions. This study investigated affordance effects based on compatibility between perception of graspable objects and the act of grasping. The electromyographic reaction time (EMG-RT) was used as the response, and Go/NoGo (Experiment 1) and choice (Experiment 2) reaction-time tasks were performed using combinations of two types of stimulus image (tools and animals) and two types of response task (flexion and extension of all fingers). In Experiment 1, no interaction of stimulus images and response tasks occurred, but the EMG-RT for tools was statistically significantly delayed longer than that for animals. In Experiment 2, the EMG-RT of flexion of all fingers for tools was statistically significantly delayed compared with that for animals, showing interaction. Affordance effects based on compatibility of objects and actions are the basis on human-tool interaction. This interaction induces a goal-directed act and prolongs motor execution of grasping actions for them. PMID:23409599

  18. Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

    2012-04-30

    The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of

  19. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  20. 76 FR 20354 - Notice of Intent To Award Supplemental Affordable Care Act Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Affordable Care Act Funding Notice of Intent to award supplemental Affordable Care Act funding to support...: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to use Affordable Care Act (ACA....'' Funding is appropriated under the Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148), Title IV, Section...

  1. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  2. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  3. Voters and the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M

    2014-11-13

    In this analysis of data from 27 public opinion polls, the authors examine the role of the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 congressional elections. The outcome of the elections is likely to influence implementation of the ACA and future U.S. health care policy. PMID:25353968

  4. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance Fund; and (C) Subject to, and have received at least a satisfactory performance evaluation rating... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 1282.14 Section 1282.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION...

  5. Inside the Virtual Classroom: Student Perspectives on Affordances and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates learners studying at a distance can experience perceptions of isolation and lack of "belonging" and support, which can adversely affect their learning experience and performance. Recently, the advent of affordable, accessible and reliable high-speed broadband has meant that a whole new array of digital tools to support…

  6. Music Composition Lessons: The Multimodal Affordances of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Marina; Breeze, Nick

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the multimodal affordances presented by music software and how it can provide new opportunities for students to engage with composition work in the classroom. It seeks to broaden the scope of current research into classroom composition using technology, through a study of students' environments and compositional processes…

  7. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  8. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  9. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  10. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  11. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  12. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  13. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  14. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  15. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Zone or Enterprise Community application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership. 92.254 Section 92.254 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department...

  16. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  17. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  18. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for affordable housing activities. 1006.20 Section 1006.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  19. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  20. 24 CFR 401.408 - Affordability and use restrictions required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.408 Affordability and use restrictions required....

  1. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  2. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  3. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  4. Can Canadian Seniors on Public Pensions Afford a Nutritious Diet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Johnson, C. Shanthi; Blum, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether Canada's public pensions (Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan) provided adequate income for seniors living in Nova Scotia in 2005 to afford a basic nutritious diet. Monthly incomes were compared to essential monthly expenses for four household scenarios: (a) married couple, 80 years and 78 years, in urban Nova…

  5. The Affordability Challenge in California Higher Education: Options for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    California's Master Plan for Higher Education represented a promise, of an affordable college education, to every person who could benefit. For decades, California's lawmakers honored that promise. Rapidly increasing college fees, coupled with higher costs for room and board, books, transportation, and healthcare are pricing students out of higher…

  6. Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From its conception, Richardsville Elementary was designed to be an affordable net zero facility. The design team explored numerous energy saving strategies to dramatically reduce energy consumption. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing…

  7. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  8. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  9. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  10. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  11. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  12. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  13. Toward Affordability: Policy Recommendations for Virginia Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In its 2007-13 strategic plan, Advancing Virginia: Access, Alignment, Investment, the State Council highlighted 12 strategic higher education initiatives that it believed were necessary to ensure Virginia's future. Key among these goals was improvement of the affordability of a college education in the Commonwealth. Recent events have reinforced…

  14. Learning to Identify and Actualize Affordances in a New Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Keeping abreast of new technologies and the opportunities they offer is a challenge for inservice teachers (Blake, 2008; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hanson-Smith, 2006; Hubbard, 2007; Robb, 2006). An important aspect of teacher learning about the use of technology is the ability to identify the affordances of new tools and how they can…

  15. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  16. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  17. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  18. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  19. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  20. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  1. Limb apraxia and the “affordance competition hypothesis”

    PubMed Central

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects “afford”, based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the “affordance competition hypothesis” (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that “affordance competition” may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way

  2. University Tuition, Consumer Choice and College Affordability: Strategies for Addressing a Higher Education Affordability Challenge. A NASULGC Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Peter; Shulenburger, David

    2008-01-01

    With passage of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, the Higher Education Act (HEA) is now reauthorized. What effect will it have on U.S. higher education? Students receiving Pell grants will find that college is more affordable while those who feared that the government would exert control over learning outcomes have breathed a…

  3. Determinants of accessibility and affordability of health care in post-socialist Tajikistan: evidence and policy options.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Habibov, N N

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of rising levels of inequality in health care utilisation in the post-socialist countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Against this backdrop, we investigate the determinants of accessibility and affordability of health care utilisation in Tajikistan. A modified version of the Andersen Behavioural Model is used to conceptualise the determinants of health care utilisation in Tajikistan. Poisson and Ordered Logit regression models are performed to estimate the determinants of health care utilisation. Empirical results demonstrate that poverty, chronic illness and disability are the most important determinants of health care utilisation and affordability in Tajikistan. Other significant determinants include gender, the level of education of the household head, and the availability of medical personnel at a given population point. These findings suggest an urgent need for health care reform in order to ensure equality in accessibility and affordability for the entire population. PMID:19326278

  4. Labour mobility and housing: the impact of housing tenure and housing affordability on labour migration in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force. PMID:22500343

  5. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    PubMed Central

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum. PMID:18655702

  6. 24 CFR 5.2005 - VAWA protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or... applicable, must include a description of specific protections afforded to the victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, as provided in this subpart. (b) Applicants. Admission to the program...

  7. 24 CFR 5.2005 - VAWA protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or... applicable, must include a description of specific protections afforded to the victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, as provided in this subpart. (b) Applicants. Admission to the program...

  8. 24 CFR 5.2005 - VAWA protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or... applicable, must include a description of specific protections afforded to the victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, as provided in this subpart. (b) Applicants. Admission to the program...

  9. 24 CFR 5.2005 - VAWA protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or... applicable, must include a description of specific protections afforded to the victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, as provided in this subpart. (b) Applicants. Admission to the program...

  10. DIVA defense: Broad protection for salmonella suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine was developed to confer broad protection against multiple Salmonella serovars to prevent disease and reduce pathogen colonization and shedding. Two vaccine trials were performed in swine to determine the protection afforded by the va...

  11. Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.E.; Freed, V.H.; Enos, H.F.; Duncan, R.C.; Barquet, A.; Morgade, C.; Peters, L.J.; Danauskas, J.X.

    1982-06-01

    Systemic pesticide illness in agricultural workers may result from excessive dermal exposure to pesticides. Workers who apply and mix pesticides (applicators and mixers) are not at special risk. Both acute and chronic exposures can occur from spillage or by environmental contamination of clothing. Two exposure assessment studies were conducted of Central Florida citrus grove workers who applied ethion daily. Measuring the percentage of penetration of ethion through clothing and measuring the daily urinary excretion of diethyl phosphate (DEP) were the techniques used to assess the protection afforded by changing daily to freshly laundered 100% cotton coveralls. Coveralls provided significantly greater protection than did regular clothing and the use of respirators.

  12. Motivational Affordance and Risk-Taking Across Decision Domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Scholer, Abigail A

    2016-03-01

    We propose a motivational affordance account to explain both stability and variability in risk-taking propensity in major decision domains. We draw on regulatory focus theory to differentiate two types of motivation (prevention, promotion) that play a key role in predicting risk-taking. Study 1 demonstrated that prevention motivation is negatively associated with risk-taking across six key decision domains, including health/safety, ethics, recreation, gambling, investment, and social. In contrast, promotion motivation is positively associated with risk-taking in the social and investment domains. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and provided direct evidence that promotion motivation is a strong predictor of risk-taking only in domains where there is true potential for gains. Study 3 manipulated promotion (vs. prevention) motivation experimentally to demonstrate that motivational affordance is a critical mechanism for understanding risk-taking behaviors. PMID:26802189

  13. Nesting in perception of affordances for stepping and leaping.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Bai, Jiuyang; Smith, Peter J K

    2016-08-01

    Perception of affordances for a given behavior typically reflects the task-specific action capabilities of the perceiver. However, many experiments have shown a discrepancy between the perceptual and behavioral boundaries for a given behavior. One possibility for such a discrepancy is that the context of many experimental tasks transformed what is typically a dynamic perception-action task into an analytical or reflective judgment. We investigated this hypothesis with respect to perception of maximum stepping and leaping distance. For both behaviors, perception of these affordances more closely reflected action capabilities when the perceptual task was nested within a superordinate task than when it was not (regardless of whether the behavior itself was performed). Additionally, verbal reports of perception of maximum leaping distance more closely reflected action capabilities when there was an explicit time limit on such reports. The results are discussed in the context of the ecological principle of nesting and in attentional focus during motor control tasks. PMID:27220935

  14. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities. PMID:26501969

  15. Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

  16. Clinical Preventive Services Coverage and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jared B.; Shaw, Frederic E.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires many health plans to provide coverage for certain recommended clinical preventive services without charging copays or deductible payments. This provision could lead to greater uptake of many services that can improve health and save lives. Although the coverage provision is broad, there are many caveats that also apply. It is important for providers and public health professionals to understand the nuances of the coverage rules to help maximize their potential to improve population health. PMID:25393173

  17. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  18. Affordability of emergency obstetric and neonatal care at public hospitals in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayako; Randaoharison, Pierana Gabriel; Matsui, Mitsuaki

    2011-05-01

    Timely access to emergency obstetric care is necessary to save the lives of women experiencing complications at delivery, and for newborn babies. Out-of-pocket costs are one of the critical factors hindering access to such services in low- and middle-income countries. This study measured out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section and neonatal care at an urban tertiary public hospital in Madagascar, assessed affordability in relation to household expenditure and investigated where families found the money to cover these costs. Data were collected for 103 women and 73 newborns at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Mahajanga in the Boeny region of Madagascar between September 2007 and January 2008. Out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section were catastrophic for middle and lower socio-economic households, and treatment for neonatal complications also created a big financial burden, with geographical and other financial barriers further limiting access to hospital care. This study identified 12 possible cases where the mother required an emergency caesarean section and her newborn required emergency care, placing a double burden on the household. In an effort to make emergency obstetric and neonatal care affordable and available to all, including those living in rural areas and those of medium and lower socio-economic status, well-designed financial risk protection mechanisms and a strong commitment by the government to mobilise resources to finance the country's health system are necessary. PMID:21555082

  19. Protective role of tetrahydrocurcumin against erythromycin estolate-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Murugan, P

    2004-05-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the major metabolites of curcumin, was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Wistar rats against erythromycin estolate-induced toxicity. Oral administration of THC significantly prevented the occurrence of erythromycin estolate-induced liver damage. The increased level of serum enzymes (aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides observed in rats treated with erythromycin estolate were very much reduced in rats treated with THC and erythromycin estolate. This biochemical observation were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver section. Results of this study revealed that THC could afford a significant protection against erthromycin estolate-induced hepatocellular damage. Tetrahydrocurcumin had a better protective effect when compared with Silymarin, a reference drug. PMID:14998559

  20. Healthy Libraries Develop Healthy Communities: Public Libraries and their Tremendous Efforts to Support the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lydia N.

    2015-01-01

    This article is about the dedication of public library staff and my role as the Consumer Health Coordinator for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR) to support outreach efforts for health insurance enrollment under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). ACA was created in order to ensure that all Americans have access to affordable health care. What we didn’t know is that public libraries across the nation would play such an integral role in the health insurance enrollment process. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) worked closely with public libraries in order to assist with this new role. As we approach the second enrollment and re-enrollment periods, public libraries are gearing up once again to assist with ACA. PMID:25798077

  1. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT AND MEDICAL LOSS RATIOS: NO IMPACT IN FIRST THREE YEARS.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin; Himmelstein, David U; Broder, Michael; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) set limits on insurers' overhead, mandating a medical loss ratio (MLR) of at least 80 percent in the individual and small-group markets and 85 percent in the large-group market starting in 2011. In implementing the law, the Obama administration introduced new rules that changed (and inflated) how insurers calculate MLRs, distorting time trends. We used insurers' filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to calculate the largest insurers' MLRs before and after the ACA regulations took effect, using a constant definition of MLR. MLRs averaged 83.04 percent in the three years before reform and 83.05 percent in the three years after reform. We conclude that the ACA had no impact on insurance industry overhead spending. PMID:26460451

  2. Coverage of Certain Preventive Services Under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-07-14

    This document contains final regulations regarding coverage of certain preventive services under section 2713 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act), added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. Section 2713 of the PHS Act requires coverage without cost sharing of certain preventive health services by non-grandfathered group health plans and health insurance coverage. These regulations finalize provisions from three rulemaking actions: Interim final regulations issued in July 2010 related to coverage of preventive services, interim final regulations issued in August 2014 related to the process an eligible organization uses to provide notice of its religious objection to the coverage of contraceptive services, and proposed regulations issued in August 2014 related to the definition of "eligible organization,'' which would expand the set of entities that may avail themselves of an accommodation with respect to the coverage of contraceptive services. PMID:26173301

  3. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Large Employers: A Retrospective.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Randall K

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has created a new environment for employer health benefit plan management that is influencing costs, benefit design, delivery, administration, financing and compliance as well as the positioning of health care within the benefits portfolio and the broader total rewards strategy. This article will examine the key pragmatic effects of health reform for larger employers to date, quantifying its direct costs and discussing the new dimensions of management that reform has introduced. The discussion will focus on nongrandfathered self-funded plans and will address only major influences. It is not intended to be all-encompassing and is, of necessity, general in nature. Each employer will have somewhat differing experiences and results but should find the discussion to be helpful both in understanding what has evolved as well as what is to come. PMID:26540937

  4. The State of Diabetes Prevention Policy in the USA Following the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Konchak, Juleigh Nowinski; Moran, Margaret R; O'Brien, Matthew J; Kandula, Namratha R; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in the USA, affecting over 12 % of American adults and imposing considerable health and economic burden on individuals and society. There is a strong evidence base demonstrating that lifestyle behavioral changes and some medications can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in high risk adults, and several policy and healthcare system changes motivated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have the potential to accelerate diabetes prevention. In this narrative review, we (1) offer a conceptual framework for organizing how the ACA may influence diabetes prevention efforts at the level of individuals, healthcare providers, and health systems; (2) highlight ACA provisions at each of these levels that could accelerate type 2 diabetes prevention nationwide; and (3) explore possible policy gaps and opportunity areas for future research and action. PMID:27145778

  5. Achieving a deeper understanding of the implemented provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang Qin; Polite, Blase N

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Since that time, numerous regulations have been promulgated, legal battles continue to be fought and the major provisions of the law are being implemented. In the following article, we outline components of the ACA that are relevant to cancer health care, review current implementation of the new health care reform law, and identify challenges that may lie ahead in the post-ACA era. Specifically, among the things we explore are Medicaid expansion, health insurance exchanges, essential health benefits and preventive services, subsidies, access to clinical trials, the Medicare Part D donut hole, and physician quality payment reform. PMID:24857142

  6. The Relevance of the Affordable Care Act for Improving Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David; Olfson, Mark

    2016-03-28

    Provisions of the Affordable Care Act provide unprecedented opportunities for expanded access to behavioral health care and for redesigning the provision of services. Key to these reforms is establishing mental and substance abuse care as essential coverage, extending Medicaid eligibility and insurance parity, and protecting insurance coverage for persons with preexisting conditions and disabilities. Many provisions, including Accountable Care Organizations, health homes, and other structures, provide incentives for integrating primary care and behavioral health services and coordinating the range of services often required by persons with severe and persistent mental health conditions. Careful research and experience are required to establish the services most appropriate for primary care and effective linkage to specialty mental health services. Research providing guidance on present evidence and uncertainties is reviewed. Success in redesign will follow progress building on collaborative care and other evidence-based practices, reshaping professional incentives and practices, and reinvigorating the behavioral health workforce. PMID:26666969

  7. Implications of the Affordable Care Act for occupational therapy practitioners providing services to Medicare recipients.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gail; Friesema, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA; Pub. L. 111-148) represents the largest expansion in government funding of health care since Medicare and Medicaid were established in 1965 (Curfman, Abel, & Landers, 2012). Although the health insurance mandate and Medicaid expansion have received the most attention as a result of legal challenges and the July 2012 Supreme Court ruling on the legality of the ACA (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012), other ACA initiatives may have even greater implications for occupational therapy. The ACA includes sections on improving quality and health systems performance for Medicare recipients, with some sections also applying to Medicaid recipients. Insurance companies commonly follow Medicare rules; therefore, the Medicare reforms are likely to spread across all payers, health care settings, and care recipients. PMID:23968787

  8. Why we should not use the Affordable Care Act to encourage widespread whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar N; Kelleher, J Paul

    2014-02-01

    Perry Payne argues that the health care system should encourage provision of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for most people in the near future. Payne's essay contains two distinct claims. One claim is that near-universal access to WGS would be beneficial both to individuals and to populations who, without it, could be on the losing end of widening health disparities. The second claim is that the preventive services provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) should be invoked to establish legal entitlements to WGS, without any patient cost sharing. We believe there are strong reasons to reject both of these claims. Indeed, the reasons that count against providing wide access to WGS are the very same reasons that undermine Payne's argument for providing WGS under the preventive services provisions of the ACA. PMID:24193611

  9. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  10. Medicaid program; increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage changes under the Affordable Care Act of 2010. Final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    This final rule implements the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) relating to the availability of increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) rates for certain adult populations under states' Medicaid programs. This final rule implements and interprets the increased FMAP rates that will be applicable beginning January 1, 2014 and sets forth conditions for states to claim these increased FMAP rates. PMID:23556184

  11. Comparison of the immunogenicity and protection against bovine tuberculosis following immunization by BCG-priming and boosting with adenovirus or protein based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dean, G; Whelan, A; Clifford, D; Salguero, F J; Xing, Z; Gilbert, S; McShane, H; Hewinson, R G; Vordermeier, M; Villarreal-Ramos, B

    2014-03-01

    There is a requirement for vaccines or vaccination strategies that confer better protection against TB than the current live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for use in cattle. Boosting with recombinant viral vectors expressing mycobacterial proteins, such as Ag85A, has shown a degree of promise as a strategy for improving on the protection afforded by BCG. Experiments in small animal models have indicated that broadening the immune response to include mycobacterial antigens other than Ag85A, such as Rv0288, induced by boosting with Ad5 constructs has a direct effect on the protection afforded against TB. Here, we compared the immunogenicity and protection against challenge with M. bovis afforded by boosting BCG-vaccinated cattle with a human type 5 (Ad5)-based vaccine expressing the mycobacterial antigens Ag85A (Ad5-85A); or Ag85A, Rv0251, Rv0287 and Rv0288 (Ad5-TBF); or with protein TBF emulsified in adjuvant (Adj-TBF). Boosting with TBF broaden the immune response. The kinetics of Ad5-TBF and Adj-TBF were shown to be different, with effector T cell responses from the latter developing more slowly but being more durable than those induced by Ad5-TBF. No increase in protection compared to BCG alone was afforded by Ad5-TBF or Adj-TBF by gross pathology or bacteriology. Using histopathology, as a novel parameter of protection, we show that boosting BCG vaccinated cattle with Ad5-85A induced significantly better protection than BCG alone. PMID:24269321

  12. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program Funding for Title VI Native American Programs Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care...

  13. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... and Input II. Provisions of the Proposed Regulations and Analysis of and Responses to Public Comments...; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 169 / Friday, August 30, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0... is finalizing previously proposed policies without change. DATES: These regulations are effective...

  14. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    .../exchange_q_and_a.pdf.pdf . II. Provisions of the Proposed Regulation and Analysis and Responses to Public... Request for Comment (the RFC) on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45584) inviting the public to provide input.... Response: The term ``benefit year'' is defined only for the purposes of this regulation and does not...

  15. 78 FR 42823 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Standards for Navigators and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ...This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel in Federally- facilitated Exchanges, including State Partnership Exchanges, and to non-Navigator assistance personnel in State Exchanges that are funded through federal Exchange Establishment grants. It finalizes the requirement that Exchanges must have a certified application......

  16. 76 FR 77392 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... FR 5774) seeking public comment on the rules that will govern the CO-OP program. The public comments... innovation was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). On July 15, 2011, two... Federal Register on July 20, 2011 with a comment period that ended on September 16, 2011 (76 ] FR...

  17. 76 FR 43237 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... State innovation was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). Fourth, on July... Comment On February 2, 2011, CMS published a Request for Comment (RFC) in the Federal Register (76 FR 5774... FR 41866). The terms ``individual market,'' ``small group market,'' ``SHOP,'' and ``Exchange''...

  18. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive this... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeff Wu at (301) 492-4416. Wakina Scott at (301) 492-4393. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In Federal Register Doc. 2012-6594 of March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17220- 17252),...

  19. 76 FR 60788 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41866 and 76 FR 41930, respectively), is extended from 5 p.m. Eastern Standard... Register (76 FR 41866 through 41927 and 76 FR 41930 through 41956, respectively). The first rule would... (76 FR 51148, 76 FR 51202, and 76 FR 50931, respectively), about eligibility determinations by...

  20. 78 FR 33233 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR... Payment Parameters for 2014, 78 FR 15410 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 153, 155, 156... Health Plans; Small Business Health Options Program, 77 FR 15553 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at...

  1. 75 FR 37187 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... the Federal Register on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19297 and 19335). The second phase was interim final... the Federal Register on May 13, 2010 (75 FR 27122). The third phase was interim final regulations...), published in the Federal Register on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34538). These interim final regulations are...

  2. 76 FR 41865 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... relating to Exchanges, published in the Federal Register on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45584). Second, ] Initial... March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). Fourth, two proposed regulations, including this one, are published...

  3. 76 FR 76573 - Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... section 2718 was published in the Federal Register on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19297). On December 1, 2010, HHS published an interim final rule (75 FR 74864) with 60 day public comment period, entitled ``Health... issued on December 30, 2010 (75 FR 82277). II. Provisions of the Interim Final Rule and Responses...

  4. Loss of the Endothelial Glucocorticoid Receptor Prevents the Therapeutic Protection Afforded by Dexamethasone after LPS

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Julie E.; Feng, Yan; Velazquez, Heino; Zhou, Han; Sessa, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are normally regarded as anti-inflammatory therapy for a wide variety of conditions and have been used with some success in treating sepsis and sepsis-like syndromes. We previously demonstrated that mice lacking the glucocorticoid receptor in the endothelium (GR EC KO mice) are extremely sensitive to low-dose LPS and demonstrate prolonged activation and up regulation of NF-κB. In this study we pre-treated these GR EC KO mice with dexamethasone and assessed their response to an identical dose of LPS. Surprisingly, the GR EC KO mice fared even worse than when given LPS alone demonstrating increased mortality, increased levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and increased nitric oxide release after the dexamethasone pre-treatment. As expected, control animals pre-treated with dexamethasone showed improvement in all parameters assayed. Mechanistically we demonstrate that GR EC KO mice show increased iNOS production and NF-κB activation despite treatment with dexamethasone. PMID:25299055

  5. 78 FR 69418 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (Mar. 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 155... Quality for Exchanges: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-27/pdf/2012-28473.pdf . Importance: the... Rule 78 FR 12834 (Feb. 25, 2013) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 147, 155 and 156). The draft...

  6. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... final rule with comment period (76 FR 29964), to implement the annual review ] of unreasonable increases... group health plans that are non-federal governmental plans. This proposed rule would also amend the... allow some form of gender rating in practice. In the small group market, 38 states allow health...

  7. 77 FR 42658 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... effective on August 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Adam Block at (410) 786-1698, for matters... related to accreditation of qualified health plans. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Executive Summary Beginning... report information on covered benefits. In addition, this rule establishes the first phase of a...

  8. 76 FR 51201 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions in the Individual Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45584). Second, Initial Guidance to States on Exchanges was issued on... for State innovation was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). Fourth, two proposed regulations were published in the Federal Register on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41866 and...

  9. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2013-25326 of October 30, 2013 (78 FR 65046), final rule entitled..., and Market Standards; Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014 (78...

  10. Clinical decision support for imaging in the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Hanna M; Mills, Angela M; Khorasani, Ramin; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2012-12-01

    Imaging clinical decision support (CDS) systems provide evidence for or against imaging procedures ordered within a computerized physician order entry system at the time of the image order. Depending on the pertinent clinical history provided by the ordering clinician, CDS systems can optimize imaging by educating providers on appropriate image order entry and by alerting providers to the results of prior, potentially relevant imaging procedures, thereby reducing redundant imaging. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has expedited the adoption of computerized physician order entry and CDS systems in health care through the creation of financial incentives and penalties to promote the "meaningful use" of health IT. Meaningful use represents the latest logical next step in a long chain of legislation promoting the areas of appropriate imaging utilization, accurate reporting, and IT. It is uncertain if large-scale implementation of imaging CDS will lead to improved health care quality, as seen in smaller settings, or to improved patient outcomes. However, imaging CDS enables the correlation of existing imaging evidence with outcome measures, including morbidity, mortality, and short-term imaging-relevant management outcomes (eg, biopsy, chemotherapy). The purposes of this article are to review the legislative sequence relevant to imaging CDS and to give guidance to radiology practices focused on quality and financial performance improvement during this time of accelerating regulatory change. PMID:23206649

  11. 78 FR 4093 - Extension of Comment Period for the Rulemaking Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations, 77 FR 67866... disclosures, and auditing and examination programs for futures commission merchants (``FCMs''). The...

  12. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ..., Final Rule, 77 FR 42658-42672 (July 20, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR part 156). HHS also published a... CFR 156.275, as published on July 20, 2012 (77 FR 42658), which established the first phase of an... Assurance (NCQA) and URAC as published in the Federal Register notice on November 23, 2012 (77 FR...

  13. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... three-year reinsurance program should replace commercial reinsurance or internal risk mitigation... insurance issuers to control costs. However, use of a reinsurance cap, as well as the requirement for health... insurance issuers to control costs. We invite comment regarding the best method of determining payments...

  14. What Protects Certain Nerves from Stretch Injury?

    PubMed

    Schraut, Nicholas B; Walton, Sharon; Bou Monsef, Jad; Shott, Susan; Serici, Anthony; Soulii, Lioubov; Amirouche, Farid; Gonzalez, Mark H; Kerns, James M

    2016-01-01

    The human tibial nerves is less prone to injury following joint arthroplasty compared with the peroneal nerves. Besides the anatomical distribution, other features may confer protection from stretch injury. We therefore examined the size, shape and connective tissue distribution for the two nerves. The tibial and peroneal nerves from each side of nine fresh human cadavers we reharvested mid-thigh. Proximal segments manually stretched 20%-25% were fixed in aldehyde, while the adjacent distal segments were fixed in their natural length. Paraffin sections stained by Masson's trichrome method for connective tissue were examined by light microscopy. Tibial nerves had 2X more fascicles compared with the peroneal, but the axonal content appeared similar. Analysis showed that neither nerve had a significant reduction in cross sectional area of the fascicles following stretch. However, fascicles from stretched tibial nerves become significantly more oval compared with those from unstretched controls and peroneal nerves. Tibial nerves had a greater proportion that was extrafascicular tissue (50-55%) compared with peroneal nerves (38%-42%). This epineurium was typically adipose tissue. Perineurial thickness in both nerves was directly related to fascicular size. Tibial nerves have several unique histological features associated with size, shape and tissue composition compared with the peroneal nerve. We suggest that more fascicles with their tightly bound perineurium and more robust epineurium afford protection against stretch injury. Mechanical studies should clarify how size and shape contribute to nerve protection and/or neurapraxia. PMID:26529568

  15. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  16. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  17. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  18. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  19. The Affordable Care Act versus Medicare for All.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Laurence

    2015-08-01

    Many problems facing the Affordable Care Act would disappear if the nation were instead implementing Medicare for All - the extension of Medicare to every age group. Every American would be automatically covered for life. Premiums would be replaced with a set of Medicare taxes. There would be no patient cost sharing. Individuals would have free choice of doctors. Medicare's single-payer bargaining power would slow price increases and reduce medical cost as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Taxes as a percentage of GDP would rise from below average to average for economically advanced nations. Medicare for All would be phased in by age. PMID:26124300

  20. 77 FR 26046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal...: Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-grandfathered...

  1. 76 FR 11283 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal... Affordable Care Act added Public Health Service Act section 2719, which provides rules relating to......

  2. 77 FR 17143 - Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Medicaid eligibility changes under the Affordable Care Act (listed in more detail in 76 FR 51155) and... Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435 and 457 Medicaid Program; Eligibility Changes Under the Affordable Care Act... Parts 431, 435, and 457 RIN 0938-AQ62 Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care...

  3. Learning Outcomes Afforded by Self-Assessed, Segmented Video-Print Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumi, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video-print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational…

  4. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  5. 76 FR 59702 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act (ACA) Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Notice of Intent to Award Affordable Care Act (ACA...: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to award Affordable Care Act...

  6. Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandyke, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

  7. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  8. Methadone dosing, heroin affordability, and the severity of addiction.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, P B; Lantos, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to track changes in US heroin prices from 1988 to 1995 and to determine whether changes in the affordability of heroin were associated with changes in the use of heroin by users seeking methadone treatment, as indexed by methadone dose levels. METHODS: Data on the price of heroin were from the Drug Enforcement Administration; data on methadone doses were from surveys conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1995 of 100 methadone maintenance centers. Multivariable models that controlled for time and city effects were used to ascertain whether clinics in cities where heroin was less expensive had patients receiving higher doses of methadone, which would suggest that these patients had relatively higher physiological levels of opiate addiction owing to increased heroin use. RESULTS: The amount of pure heroin contained in a $100 (US) purchase has increased on average 3-fold between 1988 and 1995. The average dose of methadone in clinics was positively associated with the affordability of local heroin (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: When heroin prices fall, heroin addicts require more methadone (a heroin substitute) to stabilize their addiction--evidence that they are consuming more heroin. PMID:10224975

  9. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-21

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO{sub 2}-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  10. Rural Affordable Care Act outreach and enrollment: what we learned during the first marketplace open enrollment period.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Linda

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) of 2010, 2 new opportunities for health care coverage were established for many uninsured individuals beginning on January 1, 2014. The first opportunity was through Medicaid expansion where states had the opportunity to expand Medicaid coverage to individuals with household incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level. The second opportunity was through the establishment of Health Insurance Marketplaces where individuals could purchase private health plans and potentially qualify for financial assistance in paying for their plans. The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) provided supplemental grant awards to help stimulate Affordable Care Act outreach and education efforts in rural communities that were being served by the Rural Health Care Services Outreach (Outreach) Grant Program. As a result, Outreach grantees enrolled 9,300 rural Americans during the initial Open Enrollment period. Valuable outreach and enrollment lessons were learned from rural communities based on discussions with the Outreach grantees who received the supplemental funding. These lessons will help rural communities prepare for the next Open Enrollment period. PMID:25494976

  11. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  12. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ – the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities.

  13. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  14. Transgenic Neospora caninum strains constitutively expressing the bradyzoite NcSAG4 protein proved to be safe and conferred significant levels of protection against vertical transmission when used as live vaccines in mice.

    PubMed

    Marugán-Hernández, V; Ortega-Mora, L M; Aguado-Martínez, A; Jiménez-Ruíz, E; Alvarez-García, G

    2011-10-13

    At present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine to prevent vertical transmission or abortion associated with Neospora caninum infection in cattle. Different vaccine formulations have been assayed, and live vaccines have shown the most promising results in terms of protection. Previously, transgenic N. caninum tachyzoites expressing the bradyzoite stage-specific NcSAG4 antigen in a constitutive manner (Nc-1 SAG4(c)) were obtained and showed a reduced persistence of parasite in inoculated mice. Thus, the present study evaluates the Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1 and Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 transgenic strains and the Nc-1 wild-type (WT) strain to determine their protective efficacy against vertical transmission and cerebral neosporosis in mice. Consequently, dams were immunized twice with 5 × 10(5) tachyzoites of each strain and challenged with 2 × 10(6) tachyzoites of a heterologous and virulent isolate at 7-10 days of gestation. The Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1 strain offered less protection than the other transgenic strain (Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1) or their ancestor (Nc-1 WT). Indeed, 40%, 7% and 5.6% of the postnatal deaths corresponded to pups from dams vaccinated with Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1, Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 and Nc-1 (WT) strains, respectively. In comparison, the non-immunized challenge group had a 100% mortality rate. In addition, mice were protected against congenital transmission; vertical transmission rates were 45%, 11.1% and 10.8% in the Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1, Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 and Nc-1 WT immunized groups, respectively, vs. 94.9% in the non-vaccinated infected group. However, this protection against the postnatal mortality and the vertical transmission was not associated with a consistent Th1 or Th2-type immune response. Nonetheless, the Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 strain appears to be the best candidate for use as a live vaccine, as evidenced by results demonstrating its high levels of protection against vertical transmission and its lower persistence in mice, making this transgenic strain safer than Nc-1 WT. PMID

  15. The impact of the Affordable Care Act on health education: perceptions of leading health educators.

    PubMed

    Gastmyer, Christine L; Pruitt, B E Buzz

    2014-05-01

    The health care system in the United States is being overhauled by major legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). This study's goal was to provide insight into the perceived impact and changes that could occur within the health education profession as a result of this health care reform legislation. Seven leaders of the health education profession participated in this qualitative research study. Six semistructured, exploratory interviews were conducted, and one participant provided written responses to the interview questions. A thematic analysis of the content of the interviews yielded five themes: (a) a fragmented sick-care system, (b) ACA becomes law: the participants' reactions, (c) ACA becomes law: the profession's reactions, (d) impact on the profession, and (e) health education in 2020. This article describes the fourth theme, the impact of the ACA on the health education profession. Leaders of the health education profession believed that the ACA creates a more favorable environment for health education practice. The positive elements of this legislation, however, will need to be protected, strengthened, and verified, through the work of health education professionals. As more mandates within the law are enacted over time, the impact on the profession, more than likely, will shift. PMID:24013465

  16. Fresh Waters and Fish Diversity: Distribution, Protection and Disturbance in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.; Pearson, Richard G.; Puschendorf, Robert; Rayner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the globally poor protection of fresh waters for their intrinsic ecological values, assessments are needed to determine how well fresh waters and supported fish species are incidentally protected within existing terrestrial protected-area networks, and to identify their vulnerability to human-induced disturbances. To date, gaps in data have severely constrained any attempt to explore the representation of fresh waters in tropical regions. Methodology and Results We determined the distribution of fresh waters and fish diversity in the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia. We then used distribution data of fresh waters, fish species, human-induced disturbances, and the terrestrial protected-area network to assess the effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas for fresh waters and fish species. We also identified human-induced disturbances likely to influence the effectiveness of freshwater protection and evaluated the vulnerability of fresh waters to these disturbances within and outside protected areas. The representation of fresh waters and fish species in the protected areas of the Wet Tropics is poor: 83% of stream types defined by order, 75% of wetland types, and 89% of fish species have less than 20% of their total Wet Tropics length, area or distribution completely within IUCN category II protected areas. Numerous disturbances affect fresh waters both within and outside of protected areas despite the high level of protection afforded to terrestrial areas in the Wet Tropics (>60% of the region). High-order streams and associated wetlands are influenced by the greatest number of human-induced disturbances and are also the least protected. Thirty-two percent of stream length upstream of protected areas has at least one human-induced disturbance present. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate the need for greater consideration of explicit protection and off-reserve management for fresh waters and supported biodiversity by showing that, even in

  17. The Massive Affordable Computing Project: Prototyping of a High Data Throughput Processing Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Mitchell A.; Mellado, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Scientific experiments are becoming highly data intensive to the point where offline processing of stored data is infeasible. High data throughput computing or High Volume throughput Computing, for future projects is required to deal with terabytes of data per second. Conventional data-centres based on typical server-grade hardware are expensive and are biased towards processing power rather than I/O bandwidth. This system imbalance can be solved with massive parallelism to increase the I/O capabilities, at the expense of excessive processing power and high energy consumption. The Massive Affordable Computing Project aims to use low-cost, ARM System on Chips to address the issue of system balance, affordability and energy efficiency. An ARM-based Processing Unit prototype is currently being developed, with a design goal of 20 Gb/s I/O throughput and significant processing power. Novel use of PCI-Express is used to address the typically limited I/O capabilities of consumer ARM System on Chips.

  18. Affordability of Meteorology Graduate Programs in the United States and Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Matthew S.; Toracinta, E. Richard

    1998-06-01

    The authors surveyed 55 university departments in the United States and Canada that grant doctor of philosophy and/or master of science degrees in meteorology or the atmospheric sciences. Two-thirds of university departments responded. Survey topics included graduate student income (stipends and health insurance benefits) and mandatory costs (tuition, fees, and health insurance costs) incurred for fall 1996.Results show that most graduate students do have funding but only one-quarter of departments indicate that health insurance benefits are provided to graduate assistants. The largest mandatory cost is typically housing, which was estimated (except for Canadian schools) with 1996 Fair Market Rent data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. For schools not providing it, the second largest cost is typically health insurance. The smallest costs are typically tuition (waived for graduate assistants in most cases) and fees.The difference between income and mandatory costs over a nine-month period gives an "effective income." Evidence was found associating greater effective income with larger departments and with locations where housing costs are larger. No significant evidence was found to associate differences in effective income with city size or geographic region. The broad range in effective income between the departments suggests that some graduate programs may be much more affordable than others.This information can aid university departments in planning budgets that keep them competitive with one another. This paper will also help prospective graduate students by raising awareness about important issues of graduate program affordability.

  19. LNG: Clean affordable energy for power and town gas in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.F.; Grant, C.W.; King, N.

    1998-02-01

    Some Asian countries such as Myanmar, Vietnam, and Indonesia are still at very low electricity consumption rates per capita, while others, such as Malaysia and Taiwan, are at much higher rates. What all Asian countries have in common is rapid growth in the demand for electricity. If the rising demand for additional electricity is not met, economic growth will be curtailed. However, all Asian countries face a major challenge in funding and constructing the required additional generating capacity fast enough to meet demand. Finding this amount of new capital is not going to be easy, and there will be much competition for scarce funds. The environmental challenge may be even greater than the financing hurdle. To date, most generation capacity in Asia has been coal based, and a significant amount of that is low technology and without flue gas desulfurization. The effect on the environment is already apparent. One argument has been that developing countries cannot afford the same standards of environmental performance as developed countries. With the levels of pollution that exist today, the question should be, can they afford not to? It has been estimated that pollution in China costs US$100 billion/a and that US$20 billion has to be spent over the next decade just to prevent worsening of pollution.

  20. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  1. Available, accessible and affordable. Malaysia. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Ismail, P Z

    1999-01-01

    While Malaysia already had policies for a balanced, equitable, and sustainable development before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the conference gave Malaysia the chance to pursue specific and more complex issues. Reproductive health services including family planning have been integrated and are available, accessible, and affordable within the existing health care system, both public and private. Since Malaysia's government needs help implementing Cairo's goals, regular consultations are held with advocacy groups, the private sector, and community groups on program design and implementation. Annual grants to nongovernmental organizations are made to ensure that programs and services ultimately reach the various target groups. While Malaysia has made progress implementing the ICPD program of action, it has more to accomplish. Economic conditions leading to a 20% across-the-board budget cut in July 1998 have not adversely affected the country's population and reproductive health programs. PMID:12322184

  2. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT: A HIDDEN JOBS KILLER?

    PubMed

    Baker, Dean; Jorgensen, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Many opponents of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) predicted the law would hurt employment. A common complaint was that the requirement that firms employing more than 50 employees either provide insurance for employees working more than 30 hours a week or pay a penalty would lead many firms to cut back workers' hours to just below the 30-hour cutoff. This article uses the Current Population Survey to compare the share of workers employed between 25-29 hours in the first four months of 2013 with the same months of 2012. While the Obama administration subsequently delayed the application of this portion of the ACA, at the time larger employers would have expected to be subject to the insurance requirement. The analysis found the share of employment in this hour band was slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012. PMID:26460453

  3. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  4. How Insurers Competed in the Affordable Care Act's First Year.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Katherine; Hall, Mark A; Jost, Timothy S

    2015-06-01

    Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), most states' individual health insurance markets were dominated by one or two insurance carriers that had little incentive to compete by providing efficient services. Instead, they competed mainly by screening and selecting people based on their risk of incurring high medical costs. One of the ACA's goals is to encourage carriers to participate in the health insurance marketplaces and to shift the focus from competing based on risk selection to processes that increase consumer value, like improving efficiency of services and quality of care. Focusing on six states--Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Maryland, Montana, and Texas--this brief looks at how carriers are competing in the new marketplaces, namely through cost-sharing and composition of provider networks. PMID:26159009

  5. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  6. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoinT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based ceramic and composite components in a number of demanding and high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. An affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT) for joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technique. These joints maintain their mechanical strength up to 1350 C in air. This technology is suitable for the joining of large and complex shaped ceramic and composite components and with certain modifications, can be applied to repair ceramic components damaged in service.

  7. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  8. Health Care Affordability: How to Make It a Reality.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a big business. US health care expenditures reached $2.9 trillion in 2013. Patient spending accounted for 28% of the total, which means patients spent approximately $810 billion in 2013 for insurance premiums, deductibles, copays, coinsurance, and noncovered health care services. How are patients expected to pay almost a trillion dollars in health care expenses? There is a need to find a health care financing methodology that will make health care affordable for all patients and families. An alternative method for funding health care is discussed that includes creating a government-funded annuity during the first decade of one's life. When this annuity matures later in life, many individuals will have amassed a large pot of money with which to pay for their (and their family's) health care treatment and products. PMID:26506289

  9. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  10. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the Illinois Residential Affordable Payment Program (IRAPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.B.; Griffin, B.S.; Lieberman, B.; Baker, D.

    1988-03-01

    The Illinois Residential Affordable Payment Program (IRAPP) was authorized by the Illinois Energy Assistance Act of 1985. IRAPP is an energy-assistance program for low-income households that have incomes of less than 125% of poverty level and receive utility services from a public utility. In return for percent of income payments, low-income households are guaranteed continuous natural gas and/or electricity utility service. The program was placed in operation in December 1985. The study reported here is an evaluation of this program. Program-eligible households were compared to determine: (1) what household characteristics lead to program participation; (2) what effects the program has on consumption of natural gas and electricity, utility-service disconnections, and low-income households' utility costs; and (3) how much the program cost per participant household.

  12. Medical loss ratio regulation under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    The minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) regulations in the Affordable Care Act guarantee that a specific percentage of health insurance premiums is spent on medical care and specified activities to improve health care quality. This paper analyzes the regulations' potential unintended consequences and incentive effects, including: higher medical costs and premiums for some insurers; less innovation to align consumer, provider, and health plan incentives, less consumer choice and increased market concentration; and the risk that insurers will pay rebates if claim costs are lower than projected when premiums are established, despite the regulations' permitted "credibility adjustments." The paper discusses modifications and alternatives to the MLR regulations to help achieve their stated goals with less potential for adverse effects. PMID:23720876

  13. Affordable housing through energy efficiency: The Northgate story

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; McAllister, J.A.; Feustel, H.E.; Patullo, C.; Buckley, T.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we evaluate a comprehensive retrofit and rehabilitation effort to improve the comfort, affordability, and energy efficiency of 336 low-income housing units. The units had complete shell retrofits, including new siding, air-infiltration barriers, new windows and doors, and both roof and foundation insulation. In addition, the existing electric-baseboard heating system was replaced with a new gas-fired boiler for each apartment. New programmable thermostats, refrigerators, and tenant education were also included in the retrofit package. The evaluation of the project included pre- and post-retrofit utility bill analysis, computer simulation to evaluate the cost and saving of the individual measures, and a comprehensive survey of the residents regarding their comfort, behavior, and satisfaction with the retrofits. The analysis has shown energy savings of more than 20% for the shell measures, with a reduction in utility bills of nearly 50% from the combined measures. The resident survey shows high tenant satisfaction with the retrofits.

  14. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  15. Respective capabilities of affordable Coronagraphs and Interferometers searching for Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Alain M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an analytic model to estimate the capabilities of space missions dedicated to the search for biosignatures in the atmosphere of rocky planets located in the Habitable Zone of nearby stars. Relations between performance and parameters such as mirror diameter, distance to target, stellar properties, are obtained.Two types of instruments are considered: Coronagraphs observing in the visible, and Nulling Interferometers observing in the thermal infrared. Missions considered as affordable are single-pupil coronagraphs with a 2.4 m primary mirror, and formation flying interferometers with 4 x 0.75 m collecting mirrors with baselines ranging from a few decameters to a few hectometers.The numbers of accessible planets are calculated as a function of ηearth, the mean number of Earth analogues and super-Earths in stellar Habitable Zones.Based on current estimates, ηearth=10% around FGK stars and 20% around M stars, the built-in coronagraph and starshade could study only ~2.0 relevant planets, and the interferometer ~14. These numbers are obtained under the major assumption that the exozodiacal light around the target stars is not an issue for any of these instruments.For the coronagraphs, our estimates are in agreement with the values recently published by Stark et al. (2014), but these authors did not consider the case of interferometers.For the long-term future, building both types of spectroscopic instruments, and using them on the same targets, will be the optimal solution because they provide complementary information. But as a first affordable space mission, the interferometer looks the more promising in term of biosignature harvest.

  16. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning. PMID:26427363

  17. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  18. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significantly. 1508.27 Section 1508.27 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.27 Significantly... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural,...

  19. Multifunction protective relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, J.; Yalla, M.; Kantor, J.

    1991-11-01

    Since the enactment of the National Energy Act of 1979, many private energy producers have been planning and building small generation and cogeneration facilities in order to sell power to the local utility. Many of the non-utility generators built after 1979 are connected directly to the closest utility distribution circuit. Aware of the problems associated with connecting generators in this manner, electric utilities across the country developed specifications and standards to allow safe and reliable interconnection. The report describes a malfunction protective relay which uses state-of-the-art digital signal processing procedures to accomplish the objective of providing most of the relay requirements of utility electrical interconnections. The relay has been demonstrated to be suitable for this critical application through extensive laboratory and in-service field testing. The relay, incorporating thirteen distinct protection functions affords the user the savings of the initial capital cost plus simplicity of installation and use.

  20. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  1. 78 FR 52832 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... the Federal Register at 76 FR 50929-50931. The public was afforded 60 days to submit written comments... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 402 RIN 0563-AC31 Catastrophic Risk Protection...

  2. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state approaches to premium rate reforms in the individual health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act protects people from being charged more for insurance based on factors like medical history or gender and establishes new limits on how insurers can adjust premiums for age, tobacco use, and geography. This brief examines how states have implemented these federal reforms in their individual health insurance markets. We identify state rating standards for the first year of full implementation of reform and explore critical considerations weighed by policymakers as they determined how to adopt the law's requirements. Most states took the opportunity to customize at least some aspect of their rating standards. Interviews with state regulators reveal that many states pursued implementation strategies intended primarily to minimize market disruption and premium shock and therefore established standards as consistent as possible with existing rules or market practice. Meanwhile, some states used the transition period to strengthen consumer protections, particularly with respect to tobacco rating. PMID:25588235

  3. Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; St. Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries. Methods We conducted a cross–sectional nationwide survey in 2011 of availability and consumer prices of 60 essential medicines in Haiti using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. The survey was conducted in 163 medicine outlets in four health care sectors (public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors). Medicine prices were expressed as ratios relative to the International Reference Price. Affordability was calculated by comparing the costs of treatment for common conditions with the salary of the lowest paid government worker and was compared to available data from four Latin American countries. Results For generic medicines, the availability in public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors was 20%, 37%, 24% and 23% of medications, respectively. Most of the available medicines were priced higher than the International Reference Price. The lowest paid government worker would need 2.5 days’ wages to treat an adult respiratory infection with generic medicines from the public sector. For treatment of common conditions with originator brands (OB) purchased from a retail pharmacy, costs were between 1.4 (anaerobic bacterial infection) and 13.7 (hyperlipidemia) days’ wages, respectively. Treatment of pediatric bacterial infections with the OB of ceftriaxone from a retail pharmacy would cost 24.6 days’ wages. Prices in Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua were frequently lower for comparable medications. Conclusions The availability of essential medicines was low and prices varied widely across all four sectors. Over 75% of Haitians live on less than US$ 2.00 /day; therefore, most

  4. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: The Promise and Limits of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    The Obama administration has confronted a formidable array of obstacles in implementing the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA has overcome those obstacles to substantially expand access to health insurance, though significant problems with its approach have emerged. What does the ACA's performance to date tell us about the possibilities and limits of health care reform in the United States? I identify key challenges in ACA implementation-the inherently disruptive nature of reform, partisan polarization, the limits of "near universal" coverage, complexity, and divided public opinion-and analyze how these issues have shaped its evolution. The article concludes by exploring the political and policy challenges that lie ahead for the ACA. PMID:27127261

  5. Dynamic affordances in embodied interactive systems: the role of display and mode of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Grechkin, Timofey Y; Plumert, Jodie M; Kearney, Joseph K

    2014-04-01

    We investigated how the properties of interactive virtual reality systems affect user behavior in full-body embodied interactions. Our experiment compared four interactive virtual reality systems using different display types (CAVE vs. HMD) and modes of locomotion (walking vs. joystick). Participants performed a perceptual-motor coordination task, in which they had to choose among a series of opportunities to pass through a gate that cycled open and closed and then board a moving train. Mode of locomotion, but not type of display, affected how participants chose opportunities for action. Both mode of locomotion and display affected performance when participants acted on their choices. We conclude that technological properties of virtual reality system (both display and mode of locomotion) significantly affected opportunities for action available in the environment (affordances) and discuss implications for design and practical applications of immersive interactive systems. PMID:24650987

  6. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Revisiting the ACA's Essential Health Benefits Requirements.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act broadens and strengthens the health insurance benefits available to consumers by requiring insurers to provide coverage of a minimum set of medical services known as "essential health benefits." Federal officials implemented this reform using transitional policies that left many important decisions to the states, while pledging to reassess that approach in time for the 2016 coverage year. This issue brief examines how states have exercised their options under the initial federal essential health benefits framework. We find significant variation in how states have developed their essential health benefits packages, including their approaches to benefit substitution and coverage of habilitative services. Federal regulators should use insurance company data describing enrollees' experiences with their coverage--information called for under the law's delayed transparency requirements--to determine whether states' differing strategies are producing the coverage improvements promised by reform. PMID:26259257

  7. Investigating cigarette affordability in 60 cities using the cigarette price‐daily income ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Ming‐yue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate cigarette affordability in 60 cities. Methods Affordability of cigarettes is defined as the ratio of the price of one pack of cigarettes to daily income (cigarette price‐daily income ratio: CPDIR). Daily income data were calculated using the mean of the seven occupations with the lowest daily wage, as listed in the 2006 Union Bank of Switzerland survey; cigarette prices in 2006 were sourced from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Results Cigarette affordability in most of the surveyed cities remains high. There is a tendency for cities with high income economies to have a high level of cigarette affordability. Most of the cities in Western Europe and South and North America have high cigarette affordability, whereas 66.7% of their counterparts in Eastern Europe have medium cigarette affordability. In Asia, all cities with high cigarette affordability belong to the group of upper middle to high income economies, except for the Philippines. In Africa, Johannesburg and Nairobi have high and medium levels of cigarette affordability, respectively. Conclusion Cigarette affordability for most of the sampled cities, especially those in high income economies, is high. There is room for increasing cigarette prices via tax increases. There is a risk that the increase in cigarette prices in newly emerging economies lags behind the high speed of economic growth being experiencing. Tax increases should be given high priority. PMID:18048622

  8. Essential drugs in AIDS care: issues of availability and affordability.

    PubMed

    Kaur, S R

    1996-01-01

    Several antiretroviral drugs against HIV/AIDS have been developed in recent years. These drugs, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, inhibit the reproduction of HIV, but do not eliminate the presence of HIV in the body. The cost of drugs to treat one person with HIV/AIDS easily runs into the thousands of US dollars per year. These new drugs are therefore routinely used in developed countries, but not among the masses in developing countries. Many of the drugs needed to treat the opportunistic infections present during advanced HIV infection and AIDS are also prohibitively expensive for both developing countries and most individuals in those countries. The imposition of World Bank and International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs together with decreased household purchasing power during the 1990s has led to increased demand for public sector services amid reduced public expenditure. The private sector is increasingly taking over the drug supply in developing countries, driving the cost of drugs out of the range of affordability for the vast majority of the poor. One strategy to contain the cost of drugs is for governments to develop and implement an integrated national drug policy based upon the concept of essential drugs and their rational use. PMID:12292110

  9. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise (<50e-), high dynamic range (100 dB), high-frame rates (> 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (< 1 W) in a compact system. This camera paves the way towards mass market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  10. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Lytle, John K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). This paper discusses the salient features of the NPSS Architecture including its interface layer, object layer, implementation for accessing legacy codes, numerical zooming infrastructure and its computing layer. The computing layer focuses on the use and deployment of these propulsion simulations on parallel and distributed computing platforms which has been the focus of NASA Ames. Additional features of the object oriented architecture that support MultiDisciplinary (MD) Coupling, computer aided design (CAD) access and MD coupling objects will be discussed. Included will be a discussion of the successes, challenges and benefits of implementing this architecture.

  11. Skill transfer, affordances and dexterity in different climbing environments.

    PubMed

    Seifert, L; Wattebled, L; L'hermette, M; Bideault, G; Herault, R; Davids, K

    2013-12-01

    This study explored how skills in one region of a perceptual-motor landscape of performance, created in part by previous experience in rock climbing, can shape those that emerge in another region (ice climbing). Ten novices in rock climbing and five intermediate rock climbers were observed climbing an icefall. Locations of right and left ice tools and crampons were videotaped from a frontal camera. Inter-individual variability of upper and lower limb couplings and types of action regarding icefall properties were assessed by cluster hierarchical analysis, distinguishing three clusters. Pelvis vertical displacement, duration and number of pelvis pauses were also analyzed. Experienced rock climbers were grouped in the same cluster and showed the highest range and variability of limb angular locations and coordination patterns, the highest vertical displacement and the shortest pelvis plateaux durations. Non-fluent climbers (clusters 2 and 3) showed low range and variability of limb angular locations and coordination patterns. In particular, climbers of cluster 3 exhibited the lowest vertical displacement, the longest plateaux durations and the greatest ratio between tool swinging and definitive anchorage. Our results exemplified the positive influence of skills in rock climbing on ice climbing performance, facilitated by the detection of affordances from environmental properties. PMID:24055363

  12. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  13. Mission and Implementation of an Affordable Lunar Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul; Lavoie, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We present an architecture that establishes the infrastructure for routine space travel by taking advantage of the Moon's resources, proximity and accessibility. We use robotic assets on the Moon that are teleoperated from Earth to prospect, test, demonstrate and produce water from lunar resources before human arrival. This plan is affordable, flexible and not tied to any specific launch vehicle solution. Individual surface pieces are small, permitting them to be deployed separately on small launchers or combined together on single large launchers. Schedule is our free variable; even under highly constrained budgets, the architecture permits this program to be continuously pursued using small, incremental, cumulative steps. The end stage is a fully functional, human-tended lunar outpost capable of producing 150 metric tonnes of water per year enough to export water from the Moon and create a transportation system that allows routine access to all of cislunar space. This cost-effective lunar architecture advances technology and builds a sustainable transportation infrastructure. By eliminating the need to launch everything from the surface of the Earth, we fundamentally change the paradigm of spaceflight.

  14. Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.

    PubMed

    Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

    2010-01-01

    Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority. PMID:20150799

  15. The Affordable Care Act: implications for cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T Bruce; Babb, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act legislation that was passed by the US Congress and signed into law by President Obama on March 23, 2010 is having a substantial effect throughout all of health care in the United States. Cardiothoracic surgeons, as hospital-based procedural specialists, bring unique assets and certain important liabilities into this massive restructuring of our health care delivery system. This article highlights how each of the 10 titles in the Obamacare legislation might affect our specialty; its collaborative relationship with our cardiovascular, medical specialty, and primary care colleagues; and our clinical practice roles and responsibilities in accountable care organizations and primary care medical homes. This article also addresses the unique assets in clinical data in medicine and quality improvement demonstrated by our specialty that have been used to help shape the current and future landscape. Finally, key resources are identified to allow the cardiothoracic community to monitor the ongoing progress of Obamacare as implementation begins. Keeping abreast of these rapidly changing developments will be an important role for our specialty societies and for practitioners alike going forward. PMID:24673956

  16. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  17. Structuring payment to medical homes after the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Samuel T; Abrams, Melinda K; Baron, Richard J; Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C; Rosenthal, Gary E; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for accountable care organizations, consider opportunities for integration, and discuss implications for policy makers and payers considering ACO models. The PCMH and ACO are complementary approaches to reformed care delivery: the PCMH ultimately requires strong integration with specialists and hospitals as seen under ACOs, and ACOs likely will require a high functioning primary care system as embodied by the PCMH. Aligning payment incentives within the ACO will be critical to achieving this integration and enhancing the care coordination role of primary care in these settings. PMID:24687292

  18. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  19. Rheumatic heart disease echocardiographic screening: approaching practical and affordable solutions.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno R; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Lopes, Eduardo L V; Rezende, Vitória M L R; Landay, Taylor; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Sable, Craig; Beaton, Andrea Z

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects at least 32.9 million people worldwide and ranks as a leading cause of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Echocardiographic screening has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for early RHD detection, and holds potential for global RHD control. However, national screening programmes have not emerged. Major barriers to implementation include the lack of human and financial resources in LMICs. Here, we focus on recent research advances that could make echocardiographic screening more practical and affordable, including handheld echocardiography devices, simplified screening protocols and task shifting of echocardiographic screening to non-experts. Additionally, we highlight some important remaining questions before echocardiographic screening can be widely recommended, including demonstration of cost-effectiveness, assessment of the impact of screening on children and communities, and determining the importance of latent RHD. While a single strategy for echocardiographic screening in all high-prevalence areas is unlikely, we believe recent advancements are bringing the public health community closer to developing sustainable programmes for echocardiographic screening. PMID:26891757

  20. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  1. Federal Restrictions on Educational Research: Privacy Protection Study Commission Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John; Weinberg, JoAnn

    1977-01-01

    The Privacy Protection Study Commission (PPSC) held public hearings on personal data record-keeping policies and practices in educational institutions in Los Angeles in October and in Washington, D.C. in November, 1976. Under consideration were the protections afforded parents and students by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.…

  2. A comparison of small, affordable seismic sources at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Ivandic, Monika; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Seismic methods have proven to be effective for monitoring the movement and location of injected CO2 within deep saline aquifers. However, a disadvantage of seismic monitoring is the high costs associated with many repeat seismic surveys as part of a long term monitoring strategy of a CO2 storage site. As the cost for the use of the seismic source is often a significant part of the overall survey cost, affordable, smaller sources would increase the potential feasibility of a long term seismic monitoring strategy. A comparison of three land seismic sources is performed at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany. Two of these sources (Vibsist 500 and Bobcat drop hammer) can be considered to be smaller and more affordable sources than those conventionally used in the seismic monitor surveys at Ketzin. In this study these smaller sources are compared to a larger more conventional Vibsist 3000 source. The subsurface target for the three sources in this comparison is the CO2 storage reservoir for the Ketzin site, located within the Triassic Stuttgart formation, which lies at a depth of approximately 600m/500ms. Two of the sources are Swept Impact (SIST) type courses (Vibsist 500 and 3000) which use hydraulic concrete breaking hammers. The third source uses a concrete breaking drop hammer tool mounted on a Bobcat loader. Data were collected along a 984m long profile with 24m receiver spacing and 12m shot spacing in 2011, 2012 and 2013 using the three different sources. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of the raw data from the three sources was performed in order to assess their relative performance. Frequency content, signal to noise ratio and penetration depth curves were calculated for the raw data. Data from the three sources was also processed using a conventional workflow to produce stacked sections which were compared. Based on the results from this study the Bobcat drop hammer source appears to perform better than the Vibsist 500 source. However both of the

  3. How Doula Care Can Advance the Goals of the Affordable Care Act: A Snapshot From New York City

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Nan; Giessler, Katie; McAllister, Elan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doula care meets each of the triple aims of the Affordable Care Act: improving health outcomes for all, improving the experience of care, and lowering costs by reducing non-beneficial and unwanted medical interventions. Cost is the greatest barrier to use of doula support. Reimbursement for doula services by private insurance, Medicaid, and Medicaid managed care organizations would significantly increase access to doulas. Widespread availability of doula care could significantly reduce cesarean rates, and increased access to community-based doula programs could reduce entrenched health disparities. PMID:26937157

  4. Neurobiological degeneracy and affordance perception support functional intra-individual variability of inter-limb coordination during ice climbing.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Wattebled, Léo; Herault, Romain; Poizat, Germain; Adé, David; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the functional intra-individual movement variability of ice climbers differing in skill level to understand how icefall properties were used by participants as affordances to adapt inter-limb coordination patterns during performance. Seven expert climbers and seven beginners were observed as they climbed a 30 m icefall. Movement and positioning of the left and right hand ice tools, crampons and the climber's pelvis over the first 20 m of the climb were recorded and digitized using video footage from a camera (25 Hz) located perpendicular to the plane of the icefall. Inter-limb coordination, frequency and types of action and vertical axis pelvis displacement exhibited by each climber were analysed for the first five minutes of ascent. Participant perception of climbing affordances was assessed through: (i) calculating the ratio between exploratory movements and performed actions, and (ii), identifying, by self-confrontation interviews, the perceptual variables of environmental properties, which were significant to climbers for their actions. Data revealed that experts used a wider range of upper and lower limb coordination patterns, resulting in the emergence of different types of action and fewer exploratory movements, suggesting that effective holes in the icefall provided affordances to regulate performance. In contrast, beginners displayed lower levels of functional intra-individual variability of motor organization, due to repetitive swinging of ice tools and kicking of crampons to achieve and maintain a deep anchorage, suggesting lack of perceptual attunement and calibration to environmental properties to support climbing performance. PMID:24587084

  5. The Affordable Care Act, Substance Use Disorders, and Low-Income Clients: Implications for Social Work.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Heather A; Wahler, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Social workers are leaders in the substance abuse services field and may often work in substance use disorder (SUD) education, prevention, assessment, treatment, or resource coordination and case management roles. As the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) (2010) drives changes in the fields of health and behavioral health, social workers have an opportunity to lead structural changes at the micro and macro levels that will have a positive impact on low-income clients with SUDs. In this article, authors examine the current state of SUDs and health care access, the impact of the ACA on the field, and implications for social work practice and education. Social workers should seek specialized education and credentialing in SUD services, know how to help clients apply for health care coverage, and advocate for integrated substance abuse treatment and health care programs and an expansion of Medicaid in their local communities. Social workers are well positioned to be a voice for clients to ensure that the current structural changes result in a better, integrated system of care that is able to respond to the needs of low-income clients with SUDs. PMID:27501640

  6. Insurers' policies on coverage for behavior management services and the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on dental insurance coverage for behavior management services depends upon the child's source of insurance (Medicaid, CHIP, private commercial) and the policies that govern each such source. This contribution describes historical and projected sources of pediatric dental coverage, catalogues the seven behavior codes used by dentists, compares how often they are billed by pediatric and general dentists, assesses payment policies and practices for behavioral services across coverage sources, and describes how ACA coverage policies may impact each source. Differences between Congressional intent to ensure comprehensive oral health services with meaningful consumer protections for all legal-resident children and regulatory action by the Departments of Treasury and Health and Human Services are explored to explain how regulations fail to meet Congressional intent as of 2014. The ACA may additionally impact pediatric dentistry practice, including dentists' behavior management services, by expanding pediatric dental training and safety net delivery sites and by stimulating the evolution of novel payment and delivery systems designed to move provider incentives away from procedure-based payments and toward health outcome-based payments. PMID:24717753

  7. Radiation protectants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seed, Thomas M

    2005-11-01

    In today's heightened nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment, there is an increased need to have safe and effective means to protect not only special high-risk service groups, but also the general population at large, from the health hazards of unintended ionizing radiation exposures. An unfulfilled dream has been to have a globally effective pharmacologic that could be easily taken orally without any undue side effects prior to a suspected or impending nuclear/radiological event; such an ideal radioprotective agent has yet to be identified, let alone fully developed and approved for human use. No one would argue against the fact that this is problematic and needs to be corrected, but where might the ultimate solution to this difficult problem be found? Without question, representative species of the aminothiol family [e.g., Amifostine (MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland)] have proven to be potent cytoprotectants for normal tissues subjected to irradiation or to radiomimetic chemicals. Although Amifostine is currently used clinically, drug toxicity, limited times of protection, and unfavorable routes of administration, all serve to limit the drug's utility in nonclinical settings. A full range of research and development strategies is being employed currently in the hunt for new safe and effective radioprotectants. These include: (1) large scale screening of new chemical classes or natural products; (2) restructuring/reformulating older protectants with proven efficacies but unwanted toxicities; (3) using nutraceuticals that are only moderately protective but are essentially nontoxic; (4) using low dose combinations of potentially toxic but efficacious agents that protect through different routes to foster radioprotective synergy; and (5) accepting a lower level of drug efficacy in lieu of reduced toxicity, banking on the premise that the protection afforded can be leveraged by post-exposure therapies. Although it is difficult to predict which of these

  8. Some perspectives on affordable healthcare systems in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y T; Yan, Y S; Poon, C C Y

    2007-01-01

    Consistent with the global population trend, China is becoming an aging society. Over one-fifth of the world's elderly population (aged 65 and over) lives in China. Statistics show that the elderly populace in China constitutes 8% of the total population in 2006 and the percentage will be tripled to become 24% in 2050. As a result, there is inevitably an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease that accounted for almost 80% of all deaths in China in 2005. On the other hand, from 1978 to 2003, the total expenditure on healthcare in China increased from 11.02 billion RMB up to 658.41 billion RMB, and in terms of GDP, it is an increase from 3.04% to 5.62%. The annual average increase (12.1%) in healthcare investment is therefore even higher than the annual rate of GDP increase (9.38%) during the last two decades. Meeting the long-term healthcare needs of this growing elderly population and escalating healthcare expenditure pose a grim challenge to the current Chinese healthcare system and the solvency of state budgets. In fact, the healthcare services in China have become less accessible since the early 1980s when its costs soared up. The rising costs have prevented many Chinese people from seeking early medical care. The phenomenon has created a wide disparity in seeking healthcare between urban and rural areas. These trends are of particular concern to the elderly, who have higher healthcare needs yet lesser means to afford the services. Furthermore, according to the 3rd National Health Service Survey, 79.1% of rural residents and 44.8% of urban citizens did not have any form of medical insurance. Such a low percentage of coverage of medical insurance indicates that many people may not be able to afford medical services when they suffer from severe diseases. Therefore, there is a great need of a more effective and low-cost healthcare system. A new system that can allow multi-level, multi-dimensional and standardized healthcare services for urban and rural

  9. Identifying perceived barriers and benefits to reducing energy consumption in an affordable housing complex using the Community-Based Social Marketing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaves, Daniel

    Energy production and consumption has a negative impact on both environmental and human health. Energy consumption can be directly impacted by human behavior, especially in the residential sector. As a result, this sector has been studied significantly; however, energy reducing behavior change research focusing on the affordable housing sector has not been studied thoroughly to date. This study seeks to implement the first two phases of the Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM) framework in an affordable housing setting. The goals were to identify the optimal behaviors for energy reduction based on phase one survey results and to identify the perceived benefits and barriers associated with those behaviors. Additionally, this study identified nuances in the CBSM process that researchers should take into consideration when implementing CBSM in an affordable housing environment.

  10. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  11. On Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Manthous, Constantine A.; Sofair, Andre N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicaid is the federal program, administered by states, for health care for the poor. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has added a large number of new recipients to this program. Hypothesis: Medicaid programs in some, if not many, states do not provide patients uniform access to subspecialty care guaranteed by the federal statutes. Insofar as the ACA does not address this pre-existing “sub-specialty gap” and more patients are now covered by Medicaid under the ACA, the gap is likely to increase and may contribute to disparities of health care access and outcomes. Methods: A brief description of previous studies demonstrating or suggesting a subspecialty gap in Medicaid services is accompanied by perspectives of the authors, using published literature — most notably the Denver, Colorado health care system — to propose various solutions that may be deployed to address gaps in subspecialty coverage. Results: All published studies describing the Medicaid subspecialty gap are qualitative, survey designs. There are no authoritative objective data regarding the exact prevalence of gaps for each subspecialty in each state. However, surveys of caregivers suggest that gaps were prevalent in the United States prior to initiation of the ACA. Even fewer papers have addressed solutions (in light of the paucity of data describing the magnitude of the problem), and proposed solutions remain speculative and not grounded in objective data. Conclusions: There is reason to believe that a substantial proportion of U.S. citizens — those who are guaranteed a full complement of health services through Medicaid — have difficult or no access to some subspecialty services, many of which other citizens take for granted. This problem deserves greater attention to verify its existence, quantify its magnitude, and develop solutions. PMID:25506291

  12. Preparedness of Americans for the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Silvia Helena; Wuppermann, Amelie C.; Carman, Katherine Grace; Bauhoff, Sebastian; McFadden, Daniel L.; Kapteyn, Arie; Winter, Joachim K.; Goldman, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether individuals are sufficiently informed to make reasonable choices in the health insurance exchanges established by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We document knowledge of health reform, health insurance literacy, and expected changes in healthcare using a nationally representative survey of the US population in the 5 wk before the introduction of the exchanges, with special attention to subgroups most likely to be affected by the ACA. Results suggest that a substantial share of the population is unprepared to navigate the new exchanges. One-half of the respondents did not know about the exchanges, and 42% could not correctly describe a deductible. Those earning 100–250% of federal poverty level (FPL) correctly answered, on average, 4 out of 11 questions about health reform and 4.6 out of 7 questions about health insurance. This compares with 6.1 and 5.9 correct answers, respectively, for those in the top income category (400% of FPL or more). Even after controlling for potential confounders, a low-income person is 31% less likely to score above the median on ACA knowledge questions, and 54% less likely to score above the median on health insurance knowledge than a person in the top income category. Uninsured respondents scored lower on health insurance knowledge, but their knowledge of ACA is similar to the overall population. We propose that simplified options, decision aids, and health insurance product design to address the limited understanding of health insurance contracts will be crucial for ACA’s success. PMID:24706843

  13. Affordable and personalized lighting using inverse modeling and virtual sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Chandrayee; Chen, Benjamin; Richards, Jacob; Dhinakaran, Aparna; Agogino, Alice; Martin, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have great potential to enable personalized intelligent lighting systems while reducing building energy use by 50%-70%. As a result WSN systems are being increasingly integrated in state-ofart intelligent lighting systems. In the future these systems will enable participation of lighting loads as ancillary services. However, such systems can be expensive to install and lack the plug-and-play quality necessary for user-friendly commissioning. In this paper we present an integrated system of wireless sensor platforms and modeling software to enable affordable and user-friendly intelligent lighting. It requires ⇠ 60% fewer sensor deployments compared to current commercial systems. Reduction in sensor deployments has been achieved by optimally replacing the actual photo-sensors with real-time discrete predictive inverse models. Spatially sparse and clustered sub-hourly photo-sensor data captured by the WSN platforms are used to develop and validate a piece-wise linear regression of indoor light distribution. This deterministic data-driven model accounts for sky conditions and solar position. The optimal placement of photo-sensors is performed iteratively to achieve the best predictability of the light field desired for indoor lighting control. Using two weeks of daylight and artificial light training data acquired at the Sustainability Base at NASA Ames, the model was able to predict the light level at seven monitored workstations with 80%-95% accuracy. We estimate that 10% adoption of this intelligent wireless sensor system in commercial buildings could save 0.2-0.25 quads BTU of energy nationwide.

  14. Affordable Care Act risk adjustment: overview, context, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses will be able to purchase private health insurance through competitive marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge and the incentive for plans to avoid sicker enrollees. This article--the first of three in the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review--describes the key program goal and issues in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk adjustment methodology, and identifies key choices in how the methodology responds to these issues. The goal of the HHS risk adjustment methodology is to compensate health insurance plans for differences in enrollee health mix so that plan premiums reflect differences in scope of coverage and other plan factors, but not differences in health status. The methodology includes a risk adjustment model and a risk transfer formula that together address this program goal as well as three issues specific to ACA risk adjustment: 1) new population; 2) cost and rating factors; and 3) balanced transfers within state/market. The risk adjustment model, described in the second article, estimates differences in health risks taking into account the new population and scope of coverage (actuarial value level). The transfer formula, described in the third article, calculates balanced transfers that are intended to account for health risk differences while preserving permissible premium differences. PMID:25364625

  15. Scientific experimentation afforded by the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Asteroid Mission (IAM) affords scientists the opportunity to perform interesting and important experimentations. This opportunity is not sufficient in its own right to mandate inclusion of science into the mission. Certain scientific experimentations are essential to the success of the mission, and are the driving force behind the inclusion of science. Instrument designs incorporate the need for direct contribution to the success of the mining mission. Examples of these applications include the search for additional candidate asteroids, especially at the Earth-Sun Trojan points, with an infrared telescope facility; a gamma ray burst detector provides the crew with real-time notification of potentially harmful solar-flare activity; and a materials processing laboratory provides information on the porosity, composition, and crystalline structure of samples to optimize the mining operations in addition to yielding great insight into the history and formation of the solar-system. Instrument designs have emphasized the use of off-the-shelf hardware, demonstrated technologies. Their scientific value is derived from the location on an interplanetary platform, not necessarily advancements in technology or detection methods. Instrumentation will be delivered to the IAM project after completion of a thorough certification program. The program will include qualification, acceptance, performance, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, vibration, electromagnetic susceptibility and compatibility, and calibration testing. After delivery to the assembly-site in low-Earth orbit, an additional series of functional and compatibility tests will be required prior to initiation of the mission. The scientific instrumentation proposed for the IAM consists of experiments using a Gamma Ray Burst Detector, a Infrared Observatory, a Materials Processing Facility, Long-Wavelength Radar, Seismic Measurement Devices, Cosmic Ray Detectors, Interplanetary Plasma Measurements, a Solar

  16. The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

  17. The States and Public Higher Education Policy: Affordability, Access, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E., Ed.

    The selections in this volume explore the debates surrounding issues of affordability, access, and accountability in higher education. The contributors identify these issues as the three key policy issues facing public higher education in the opening years of the new century. Following an introduction, "The Changing Dynamics of Affordability,…

  18. Quality or Affordability: Trade-Offs for Early Childhood Programs? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Barbara

    The demand for child care services in the United States continues to grow, stretching the levels of program quality to the limit. In fact, the country is facing a crisis in child care. Affordable child care continues to be a major issue for many families. Solutions to the current crisis in child care must, in addition to insuring affordability,…

  19. California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. National Center Report #07-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, William; Frankle, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights the affordability gaps faced by California's community colleges. Despite the lowest tuition in the country and tuition waivers for the lowest-income students, many California students struggle to afford the total cost of education, which includes housing, food, health care, and textbooks. And although California students are…

  20. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing...: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition. OMB Approval Number: N/A. Type of Request: New. Form Number: N/A. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Innovation...