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  1. Bispecific Antibody Affords Complete Post-Exposure Protection of Mice from Both Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zak, Samantha E.; Bakken, Russell R.; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M.; Lai, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) cause severe hemorrhagic fever. There are five species of ebolavirus; among these, the Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan viruses (EBOV and SUDV, respectively) are highly pathogenic and have both caused recurring, large outbreaks. However, the EBOV and SUDV glycoprotein (GP) sequences are 45% divergent and thus antigenically distinct. Few antibodies with cross-neutralizing properties have been described to date. We used antibody engineering to develop novel bispecific antibodies (Bis-mAbs) that are cross-reactive toward base epitopes on GP from EBOV and SUDV. These Bis-mAbs exhibit potent neutralization against EBOV and SUDV GP pseudotyped viruses as well as authentic pathogens, and confer a high degree (in one case 100%) post-exposure protection of mice from both viruses. Our studies show that a single agent that targets the GP base epitopes is sufficient for protection in mice; such agents could be included in panfilovirus therapeutic antibody cocktails. PMID:26758505

  2. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  3. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. New affordable options for infrastructure and asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Securitas is one of the leaders evolving with technology and delivering new forms of affordable security for mining facilities. It was called in to protect a large mothballed coal mine in the central USA, the victim of repeated thefts. First, Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs) were installed but thefts continued. Later, a new wireless video security system called Videofied which used MotionViewers which use infrared detectors to detect movement and send a 10 second clip of the intrusion to an operator. This led to the thieves being caught. 2 photos.

  5. 77 FR 31513 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 155, 156, and 157 RIN 0938-AQ67 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... Federal Register on March 27, 2012, entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment... rule regarding the codification of section 1413(c) of the Affordable Care Act. To align the...

  6. 16 CFR 1061.8 - Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protection afforded. 1061.8 Section 1061.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.8 Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded... State or local requirement provides a significantly higher degree of protection from the risk of...

  7. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of the multi-state plan program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges.

    PubMed

    2013-03-11

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final regulation establishing the Multi-State Plan Program (MSPP) pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. Through contracts with OPM, health insurance issuers will offer at least two multi-State plans (MSPs) on each of the Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges). One of the issuers must be non-profit. Under the law, an MSPP issuer may phase in the States in which it offers coverage over 4 years, but it must offer MSPs on Exchanges in all States and the District of Columbia by the fourth year in which the MSPP issuer participates in the MSPP. This rule aims to balance adhering to the statutory goals of MSPP while aligning its standards to those applying to qualified health plans to promote a level playing field across health plans.

  8. 78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... MANAGEMENT 45 CFR Part 800 RIN 3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Office of... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

  9. Bioassay of thermal protection afforded by candidate flight suit fabrics.

    PubMed

    Knox, F S; Wachtel, T L; McCahan, G R

    1979-10-01

    The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) porcine cutaneous bioassay technique was used to determine what mitigating effect four thermally protective flight suit fabrics would have on fire-induced skin damage. The fabrics were 4.8-ox twill weave Nomex aramide, 4.5-oz stabilized twill weave polybenzimidazole, 4.8-oz plain weave experimental high-temperature polymer (HT4), and 4.8-oz plain weave Nomex aramide (New Weave Nomex or NWN). Each fabric sample was assayed 20 times in each of four configurations: as a single layer in contact with the skin; as a single layer with a 6.35 mm (0.25 in) air gap between fabric and skin; in conjuction with a cotton T-shirt with no air gaps; and, finally, in conjuction with a T-shirt with a 6.35 mm air gap between T-shirt and fabric. Bare skin was used as a control. A JP-4 fueled furnace was used as a thermal source and was adjested to deliver a mean heat flux of 3.07 cal/cm2/s. The duration of exposure was 5 s. Four hundred burn sites were graded using clinical observation and microscopic techniques. Used as single layers, none of the fabrics demonstrated superiority in providing clinically significant protection. When used with a cotton T-shirt, protection was improved. Protection improved progressively for all fabrics and configuration when an air gap was introduced. The experimental high-temperature polymer consistently demonstrated lower heat flux transmission in all configurations, but did not significantly reduce clinical burns. PMID:518445

  10. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... July 15, 2011 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 153 Patient Protection and... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  11. 78 FR 66653 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...-04902 (78 FR 15410), the final rule entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice... Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014''. This correcting amendment... section reference to the Affordable Care Act. On page 15495, in our discussion of estimating the value...

  12. 78 FR 75581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... MANAGEMENT Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the... Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges... Act of 2008; Technical Amendment to External Review for Multi-State Plan Program'' (78 FR 68240)....

  13. 78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Programs, and Market Standards'' (78 FR 37032), which was published in the Federal Register on June 19... Federal Register on March 11, 2013 (78 FR 15541), related to risk corridors and cost-sharing reduction..., 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related...

  14. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient... FR 17220 (March 23. 2012). \\3\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and..., 78 FR 15410 and 15541 (Mar. 11, 2013). Table of Contents I. Background A. Legislative Overview...

  15. 77 FR 28790 - Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (75 FR 34538) published on June 17, 2010, it was estimated that... on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24470) relating to the Federal health care reform insurance Web Portal... Federal Register on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19297). On December 1, 2010, the Department of Health and...

  16. 78 FR 42823 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Standards for Navigators and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... CHIP, and Medicaid Premiums and Cost Sharing, 78 FR 4594 (proposed Jan. 22, 2013). \\2\\ Patient... Personnel, 78 FR 20581 (proposed April 5, 2013). A. Introduction The Patient Protection and Affordable Care... Exchange). States may also assume both of these types of responsibilities. \\3\\ See 77 FR 18310,...

  17. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  18. 16 CFR 1061.8 - Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded. 1061.8 Section 1061.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... comparing available test results for the Commission statute, standard, or regulation and the State or...

  19. Women’s Awareness of Their Contraceptive Benefits Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Velott, Diana L.; Legro, Richard S.; Lehman, Erik B.; Confer, Lindsay; Weisman, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act mandates that there be no out-of-pocket cost for Food and Drug Administration–approved contraceptive methods. Among 987 privately insured reproductive aged Pennsylvania women, fewer than 5% were aware that their insurance covered tubal sterilization, and only 11% were aware that they had full coverage for an intrauterine device. For the Affordable Care Act contraceptive coverage mandate to affect effective contraception use and reduce unintended pregnancies, public awareness of the expanded benefits is essential. PMID:26447910

  20. Women's Awareness of Their Contraceptive Benefits Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Mitchell, Julie L; Velott, Diana L; Legro, Richard S; Lehman, Erik B; Confer, Lindsay; Weisman, Carol S

    2015-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act mandates that there be no out-of-pocket cost for Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods. Among 987 privately insured reproductive aged Pennsylvania women, fewer than 5% were aware that their insurance covered tubal sterilization, and only 11% were aware that they had full coverage for an intrauterine device. For the Affordable Care Act contraceptive coverage mandate to affect effective contraception use and reduce unintended pregnancies, public awareness of the expanded benefits is essential.

  1. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted. PMID:26272884

  2. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted.

  3. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: a primer for neurointerventionalists.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-03-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA, for short) became law on 23 March 2010. It represents the most significant transformation of the American healthcare system since Medicare and Medicaid. Essentials of ACA include: (1) a mandate for individuals and businesses requiring as a matter of law that nearly every American has an approved level of health insurance or pay a penalty; (2) a system of federal subsidies to completely or partially pay for the now required health insurance for ∼34 million Americans who are currently uninsured-subsidized through Medicaid and Exchanges; (3) extensive new requirements on the health insurance industry and (4) changes in the practice of medicine. The Act is divided into 10 titles. It contains provisions that went into effect starting on 21 June 2010 with many of the provisions going into effect in 2014 and later. The ACA goes well beyond insurance and payment reform. Practicing physicians will potentially be impacted by the Independent Payment Advisory Board and the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute. PMID:21990501

  4. Protecting the Student: A Critique of the Procedural Protection Afforded to American and English Students in University Disciplinary Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurack, Walter

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that natural justice principles animating English procedural law and due process jurisprudence playing the same role in American law should be interpreted to protect the intrinsic values associated with fair disciplinary hearing. This approach demands that college students facing expulsion or suspension be afforded an impartial…

  5. Completing the Affordability Picture: The Need for More Data on Financial Aid. Report 09-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2009-01-01

    The Commission adopted two affordability reports in 2008. One report examined costs for students at a four-year public university who live on campus. The other examined costs for students living in their parent's home while studying at a community college. Costs were compared to trends in family income over the past 30 years. The resulting report…

  6. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: opportunities for prevention and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Frederic E; Asomugha, Chisara N; Conway, Patrick H; Rein, Andrew S

    2014-07-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which was enacted by the US Congress in 2010, marks the greatest change in US health policy since the 1960s. The law is intended to address fundamental problems within the US health system, including the high and rising cost of care, inadequate access to health insurance and health services for many Americans, and low health-care efficiency and quality. By 2019, the law will bring health coverage--and the health benefits of insurance--to an estimated 25 million more Americans. It has already restrained discriminatory insurance practices, made coverage more affordable, and realised new provisions to curb costs (including tests of new health-care delivery models). The new law establishes the first National Prevention Strategy, adds substantial new funding for prevention and public health programmes, and promotes the use of recommended clinical preventive services and other measures, and thus represents a major opportunity for prevention and public health. The law also provides impetus for greater collaboration between the US health-care and public health systems, which have traditionally operated separately with little interaction. Taken together, the various effects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act can advance the health of the US population.

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - The Role of the School Nurse: Position Statement.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students. PMID:25926418

  8. How the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act affects Texas dentists.

    PubMed

    Oneacre, Lee P

    2012-10-01

    President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) into law March 23, 2010 (P.L. 111-148), as arguably the most significant legislative health reform since the creation of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965 (1). Several PPACA provisions will impact dentists as both health care providers and small business owners and employers (2). Overall, the law significantly changes health care financing and facilitates competition in the health insurance market place through the creation of health insurance exchanges (HIX). PMID:23311030

  9. Implementing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: the time is now.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Employers all across the country should be in full swing as they prepare to implement the tougher parts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) employer provisions, which are about to come online and take effect in 2014. This article reviews these more challenging requirements and their complications, including how employer calculations over whether to continue to offer coverage might vary by industry characteristics. The author then looks further ahead to the "Cadillac" tax and discusses how this liability may affect every employer's decision about its health care strategy leading up to 2018. PMID:23943954

  10. Can Community Colleges Afford to Improve Completion? Measuring the Cost and Efficiency Consequences of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Crosta, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to improve completion rates and efficiency despite limited economic evidence on how to do so and the consequences of different reform strategies. Here, we set out an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate…

  11. Right-wing conspiracy? Socialist plot? The origins of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, Jill

    2014-02-01

    On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Did the ACA signify a government takeover of the health care system, a first step on the road to socialism, as conservative critics charged? Or was it, rather, a sellout to the right wing, as liberal single-payer advocates proclaimed? The ACA's key provisions, the employer mandate and the individual mandate, were Republican policy ideas, and its fundamental principles were nearly identical to the Health Equity and Access Reform Today Act of 1993 (HEART), a bill promoted by Republican senators to deflect support for President Bill Clinton's Health Security plan. Yet the ACA was also a policy legacy of the Clinton administration in important ways that rarely are acknowledged, notably Medicaid expansion and insurance company regulation. Although the ACA departed from the liberal vision of a single-payer plan and adhered closely to the objectives of those who believed that the health care system should encourage the free market, it included provisions that will make coverage more affordable, reliable, and accessible.

  12. Right-wing conspiracy? Socialist plot? The origins of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, Jill

    2014-02-01

    On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Did the ACA signify a government takeover of the health care system, a first step on the road to socialism, as conservative critics charged? Or was it, rather, a sellout to the right wing, as liberal single-payer advocates proclaimed? The ACA's key provisions, the employer mandate and the individual mandate, were Republican policy ideas, and its fundamental principles were nearly identical to the Health Equity and Access Reform Today Act of 1993 (HEART), a bill promoted by Republican senators to deflect support for President Bill Clinton's Health Security plan. Yet the ACA was also a policy legacy of the Clinton administration in important ways that rarely are acknowledged, notably Medicaid expansion and insurance company regulation. Although the ACA departed from the liberal vision of a single-payer plan and adhered closely to the objectives of those who believed that the health care system should encourage the free market, it included provisions that will make coverage more affordable, reliable, and accessible. PMID:24193605

  13. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: what every provider of gynecologic oncology care should know.

    PubMed

    Duska, Linda R; Engelhard, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2010. While initial implementation of the law began shortly thereafter, the full implementation will take place over the next few years. With respect to cancer care, the act was intended to make care more accessible, affordable, and comprehensive across different parts of the country. For our cancer patients and our practices, the ACA has implications that are both positive and negative. The Medicaid expansion and access to insurance exchanges are intended to increase the number of insured patients and thus improve access to care, but many states have decided to opt out of the Medicaid program and in these states access problems will persist. Screening programs will be put in place for insured patients but may supplant federally funded programs that are currently in place for uninsured patients and may not follow current screening guidelines. Both hospice and home health providers will be asked to provide more services with less funding, and quality measures, including readmission rates, will factor into reimbursement. Insured patients will have access to all phases of clinical trial research. There is a need for us as providers of Gynecologic Oncology care to be active in the implementation of the ACA in order to ensure that our patients and our practices can survive and benefit from the changes in health care reimbursement, with the ultimate goals of improving access to care and quality while reducing unsustainable costs. PMID:23500090

  14. Post-acute care and vertical integration after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Shay, Patrick D; Mick, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated changes resulting from the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act-including the proposed adoption of bundled payment systems and the promotion of accountable care organizations-have generated considerable controversy as U.S. healthcare industry observers debate whether such changes will motivate vertical integration activity. Using examples of accountable care organizations and bundled payment systems in the American post-acute healthcare sector, this article applies economic and sociological perspectives from organization theory to predict that as acute care organizations vary in the degree to which they experience environmental uncertainty, asset specificity, and network embeddedness, their motivation to integrate post-acute care services will also vary, resulting in a spectrum of integrative behavior.

  15. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: impact on otolaryngology practice and research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gordon H; Davis, Matthew M

    2012-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Since its passage, the PPACA has led to increased health insurance coverage for millions more Americans, and it includes provisions leading to new avenues for clinical and health services research funding. The legislation also favors development of the primary care specialties and general surgery, increased training of midlevel health care providers, and medical training and service in underserved areas of the United States. However, the PPACA does not effectively engage otolaryngologists in quality improvement, despite modifications to the Physician Quality Reporting System. The legislation also levies a tax on cosmetic procedures, affecting both clinicians and patients. This article reviews the sections of the PPACA that are most pertinent to otolaryngologists and explains how these components of the bill will affect otolaryngologic practice and research over the coming decade. PMID:22282865

  16. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Reproductive Health: Harnessing Data to Improve Care

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has great potential to improve reproductive health through several components: expanded coverage of people of reproductive age; required coverage of many reproductive health services; and insurance exchange structures that encourage individuals and states to hold plans and providers accountable. These components can work together to improve reproductive health. But in order for this to work, consumers and states need information with which to assess plans. This review article summarizes state contracting theory and argues that states should use this structure to require health plans to collect and report meaningful data that patients, providers, plans, payers, and third-party researchers can access. Now that the Supreme Court has upheld the PPACA and states must set up health insurance exchanges, populations can benefit from improved care and outcomes through data transparency. PMID:23262767

  17. Chemical induction of cellular antioxidants affords marked protection against oxidative injury in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhuoxiao; Li, Yunbo

    2002-03-22

    Extensive evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are critically involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Consistent with this concept, administration of exogenous antioxidants has been shown to be protective against oxidative cardiovascular injury. However, whether induction of endogenous antioxidants by chemical inducers in vasculature also affords protection against oxidative vascular cell injury has not been extensively investigated. In this study, using rat aortic smooth muscle A10 cells as an in vitro system, we have studied the induction of cellular antioxidants by the unique chemoprotector, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione [corrected] (D3T) and the protective effects of the D3T-induced cellular antioxidants against oxidative cell injury. Incubation of A10 cells with micromolar concentrations of D3T for 24 h resulted in a significant induction of a battery of cellular antioxidants in a concentration-dependent manner. These included reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, GSSG reductase, GSH S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. To further examine the protective effects of the induced endogenous antioxidants against oxidative cell injury, A10 cells were pretreated with D3T and then exposed to either xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine, 4-hydroxynonenal, or cadmium. We observed that D3T pretreatment of A10 cells led to significant protection against the cytotoxicity induced by XO/xanthine, 4-hydroxynonenal or cadmium, as determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium reduction assay. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that a number of endogenous antioxidants in vascular smooth muscle cells can be induced by exposure to D3T, and that this chemical induction of cellular antioxidants is accompanied by markedly increased resistance to oxidative vascular cell injury.

  18. Office of River Protection Mission Completion Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegman, S. A.; Hewitt, W. M.; Yuracko, K.; Holbrook, J. H.

    2002-02-26

    DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) is readying itself to commence construction of a Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) that will start the process of turning Hanford tank waste into glass. The plant is state-of-the art and includes reasonable flexibility to improve operations as technology and operational understandings improve. During its 40 year design life the plant has the capability to treat half of the total volume of tank waste and reduce risk to the public by up to ninety percent. Looking beyond initial processing towards the project end state, however, it is apparent that ORP's baseline approach is part of the issue raised by the DOE Secretary when he said that $300 billion and 75 years is too costly and too long for DOE's environmental cleanups. ORP has reviewed its cost and schedule drivers and has started identifying areas where better technologies and risk-based strategies could substantially decrease its life cycle cost and schedule. Specific technologies under consideration will be discussed along with expected return on investment. ORP is totally committed to taking all steps necessary during cleanup to protect human health and the environment and to comply with appropriate regulations and commitments. But, ORP is also very conscious of the fact that the history of Hanford production and tank farm operations has resulted in very large tank-to-tank variabilities in the waste constituents. Not all tank wastes demand the same high level of rigor in treatment as provided by the WTP in order to protect people and the environment. Parallel treatment paths, keyed to the hazards and chemical challenges each tank presents, need to be developed. The WTP vitrification capabilities should be deployed for the higher risk wastes that require vitrification. By getting wastes in the proper paths for treatment based upon their chemical characteristics and inherent risks, ORP will be able to both accelerate the cleanup schedule and bring its life cycle and annual

  19. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Effect on Emergency Medicine: A Synthesis of the Data.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Eswaran, Vidya; Shah, Rohan M; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    This review synthesizes the existing literature to provide evidence-based predictions for the future of emergency care in the United States as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a focus on emergency department (ED) visit volume, acuity, and reimbursement. Patient behavior will likely be quite different for patients gaining Medicaid than for those gaining private insurance through the Marketplaces. Despite the threat of the individual mandate, not all uninsured patients will enroll, and those who choose to enroll will likely be a different population from those who remain uninsured. New Medicaid enrollees will be a sicker population and will likely increase their number of ED visits substantially. Their acuity will be higher at first but will then revert to the traditionally high number of low-acuity visits made by Medicaid patients. Most patients enrolling through the Marketplace are choosing high-deductible health plans, and they will initially avoid the ED because of high out-of-pocket costs but may present later and sicker after self-rationing their care. Most patients gaining health coverage through the Affordable Care Act will be shifting from uninsured to either Medicaid or private insurance, both of which reimburse more than self-pay, so ED collections should increase. Because of the differences between Medicaid and Marketplace plans, there will be a difference in ED volume, acuity, and financial outcomes, depending on states' current demographics, whether states expand Medicaid, and how aggressively states advertise new options for coverage in Medicaid or state health insurance Marketplaces. PMID:25976250

  20. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Effect on Emergency Medicine: A Synthesis of the Data.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Eswaran, Vidya; Shah, Rohan M; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    This review synthesizes the existing literature to provide evidence-based predictions for the future of emergency care in the United States as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a focus on emergency department (ED) visit volume, acuity, and reimbursement. Patient behavior will likely be quite different for patients gaining Medicaid than for those gaining private insurance through the Marketplaces. Despite the threat of the individual mandate, not all uninsured patients will enroll, and those who choose to enroll will likely be a different population from those who remain uninsured. New Medicaid enrollees will be a sicker population and will likely increase their number of ED visits substantially. Their acuity will be higher at first but will then revert to the traditionally high number of low-acuity visits made by Medicaid patients. Most patients enrolling through the Marketplace are choosing high-deductible health plans, and they will initially avoid the ED because of high out-of-pocket costs but may present later and sicker after self-rationing their care. Most patients gaining health coverage through the Affordable Care Act will be shifting from uninsured to either Medicaid or private insurance, both of which reimburse more than self-pay, so ED collections should increase. Because of the differences between Medicaid and Marketplace plans, there will be a difference in ED volume, acuity, and financial outcomes, depending on states' current demographics, whether states expand Medicaid, and how aggressively states advertise new options for coverage in Medicaid or state health insurance Marketplaces.

  1. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Impact on Urologic Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Kirk A.; Penson, David F.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as well as its amendments were signed into law. This sweeping legislation was aimed at controlling spiraling healthcare costs and redressing significant disparities in healthcare access and quality. Cancer diagnoses and their treatments constitute a large component of rising healthcare expenditures and, not surprisingly, the legislation will have a significant influence on cancer care in the United States. Because genitourinary malignancies represent an impressive 25% of all cancer diagnoses per year, this legislation could have a profound impact on urologic oncology. To this end, we will present key components of this landmark legislation, including the proposed expansion to Medicaid coverage, the projected role of Accountable Care Organizations, the expected creation of quality reporting systems, the formation of an independent Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, and enhanced regulation on physician-owned practices. We will specifically address the anticipated effect of these changes on urological cancer care. Briefly, the legal ramifications and current barriers to the statutes will be examined. PMID:22819697

  2. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Services and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Abdus, Salam; Mistry, Kamila B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined prereform patterns in insurance coverage, access to care, and preventive services use by race/ethnicity in adults targeted by the coverage expansions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We used pre-ACA household data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to identify groups targeted by the coverage provisions of the Act (Medicaid expansions and subsidized Marketplace coverage). We examined racial/ethnic differences in coverage, access to care, and preventive service use, across and within ACA relevant subgroups from 2005 to 2010. The study took place at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Rockville, Maryland. Results. Minorities were disproportionately represented among those targeted by the coverage provisions of the ACA. Targeted groups had lower rates of coverage, access to care, and preventive services use, and racial/ethnic disparities were, in some cases, widest within these targeted groups. Conclusions. Our findings highlighted the opportunity of the ACA to not only to improve coverage, access, and use for all racial/ethnic groups, but also to narrow racial/ethnic disparities in these outcomes. Our results might have particular importance for states that are deciding whether to implement the ACA Medicaid expansions. PMID:26447920

  3. Protection against Acute Hepatocellular Injury Afforded by Liver Fibrosis Is Independent of T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lacoste, Benoit; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Lapierre, Pascal; Bilodeau, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Collagen produced during the process of liver fibrosis can induce a hepatocellular protective response through ERK1 signalling. However, the influence of T cells and associated cytokine production on this protection is unknown. In addition, athymic mice are frequently used in hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft experiments but current methods limit our ability to study the impact of liver fibrosis in this setting due to high mortality. Therefore, a mouse model of liver fibrosis lacking T cells was developed using Foxn1 nu/nu mice and progressive oral administration of thioacetamide (TAA) [0.01–0.02%] in drinking water. Fibrosis developed over a period of 16 weeks (alpha-SMA positive area: 20.0 ± 2.2%, preCol1a1 mRNA expression: 11.7 ± 4.1 fold changes, hydroxyproline content: 1041.2 ± 77μg/g of liver) at levels comparable to that of BALB/c mice that received intraperitoneal TAA injections [200 μg/g of body weight (bw)] (alpha-SMA positive area: 20.9 ± 2.9%, preCol1a1 mRNA expression: 13.1 ± 2.3 fold changes, hydroxyproline content: 931.6 ± 14.8μg/g of liver). No mortality was observed. Athymic mice showed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during fibrogenesis (control 0.03 ± 0.01 vs 16 weeks 0.22 ± 0.06AU; P<0.05). The fibrosis-induced hepatoprotection against cytotoxic agents, as assessed histologically and by serum AST levels, was not affected by the absence of circulating T cells (anti-Fas JO2 [0.5μg/g bw] for 6h (fibrotic 4665 ± 2596 vs non-fibrotic 13953 ± 2260 U/L; P<0.05), APAP [750 mg/kg bw] for 6 hours (fibrotic 292 ± 66 U/L vs non-fibrotic 4086 ± 2205; P<0.01) and CCl4 [0.5mL/Kg bw] for 24h (fibrotic 888 ± 268 vs non-fibrotic 15673 ± 2782 U/L; P<0.001)). In conclusion, liver fibrosis can be induced in athymic Foxn1 nu/nu mice without early mortality. Liver fibrosis leads to ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, circulating T lymphocytes and associated cytokines are not involved in the hepatocellular protection afforded by liver fibrosis. PMID

  4. 78 FR 7348 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    .... HHS Audit Authority (Sec. 156.606) e. Eligibility for Minimum Essential Coverage III. Collection of...; Exchange Standards for Employers'' (77 FR 18309). The provisions of the final rule, herein referred to as... affordability programs. We note that we expect to modify the proposed language in Sec. 155.227 (78 FR 4711)...

  5. 78 FR 20581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Standards for Navigators and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... a State Consumer Partnership Exchange (Consumer Partnership Exchange). \\1\\ See 77 FR 18310, 18325-26... 27, 2012 (77 FR 18310), and is codified at 45 CFR Sec. 155.210. Section 1311(i)(3) of the Affordable... Eligibility and Enrollment for Exchanges, Medicaid and CHIP, and Medicaid Premiums and Cost Sharing, 78...

  6. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: A Primer for Hand Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States healthcare industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 Titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals. PMID:25066853

  7. The patient protection and Affordable Care Act: a primer for hand surgeons.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States health care industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals.

  8. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; exchange standards for employers. Final rule, Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-03-27

    This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges ("Exchanges"), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly compare available private health insurance options on the basis of price, quality, and other factors. The Exchanges, which will become operational by January 1, 2014, will help enhance competition in the health insurance market, improve choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing clout as large businesses.

  9. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; exchange standards for employers. Final rule, Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-03-27

    This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges ("Exchanges"), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly compare available private health insurance options on the basis of price, quality, and other factors. The Exchanges, which will become operational by January 1, 2014, will help enhance competition in the health insurance market, improve choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing clout as large businesses. PMID:22479737

  10. A Healthy New World: Emergent Opportunities for Clinical Psychologists in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Manderscheid, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is radically transforming the health and mental health care landscape. Emergent opportunities exist for clinical psychologists to redefine their role in healthcare. We reflect on the Chor and colleagues article (this issue) elucidating key issues for psychologists, and present additional recommendations for consideration. Specifically, we highlight three points: (1) moving beyond just training and hoping; (2) recovery, not just symptom reduction; and (3) it’s a healthy new world. Under each of these points, we suggest tactics for how to achieve these goals. PMID:24954983

  11. Plastic surgery practice models and research aims under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Aviram M; Yuan, Frank; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-02-01

    As the health care landscape in the United States changes under the Affordable Care Act, providers are set to face numerous new challenges. Although concerns about practice sustainability with declining reimbursement have dominated the dialogue, there are more pressing changes to the health care funding mechanism as a whole that must be addressed. Plastic surgeons, involved in various practice models each with different relationships to hospitals, referring physicians, and payers, must understand these reimbursement changes to dictate adequate compensation in the future. In this article, the authors discuss bundle payments and accountable care organizations, and how plastic surgeons might best engage in these new system designs. In addition, the authors review the value of a focused and driven health-services research agenda in plastic surgery, and the importance of this research in supporting long-term financial stability for the specialty.

  12. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA . Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. ); Freeman, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  13. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  14. The tertiary structure of the four-way DNA junction affords protection against DNase I cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Murchie, A I; Carter, W A; Portugal, J; Lilley, D M

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of phosphodiester bonds in the DNA of four-way helical junctions has been probed with the nuclease DNase I. Regions of protection were observed on all four strands of the junctions, that tended to be longer on the strands that are exchanged between the coaxially stacked pairs of helices. The protected regions on the continuous strands of the stacked helices were not located exactly at the junction, but were displaced towards the 3' side of the strand. This is the region of backbone that becomes located in the major groove of the opposed helix in the non-crossed, right-handed structure for the junction, and might therefore be predicted to be protected against cleavage by an enzyme. However, the major grooves of the structure remain accessible to the much smaller probe dimethyl sulphate. Images PMID:2339051

  15. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; exchange and insurance market standards for 2015 and beyond. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-05-27

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to health insurance issuers, Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), Navigators, non-Navigator assistance personnel, and other entities under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, the rule establishes standards related to product discontinuation and renewal, quality reporting, non-discrimination standards, minimum certification standards and responsibilities of qualified health plan (QHP) issuers, the Small Business Health Options Program, and enforcement remedies in Federally-facilitated Exchanges. It also finalizes: A modification of HHS's allocation of reinsurance collections if those collections do not meet our projections; certain changes to allowable administrative expenses in the risk corridors calculation; modifications to the way we calculate the annual limit on cost sharing so that we round this parameter down to the nearest $50 increment; an approach to index the required contribution used to determine eligibility for an exemption from the shared responsibility payment under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code; grounds for imposing civil money penalties on persons who provide false or fraudulent information to the Exchange and on persons who improperly use or disclose information; updated standards for the consumer assistance programs; standards related to the opt-out provisions for self-funded, non-Federal governmental plans and related to the individual market provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 including excepted benefits; standards regarding how enrollees may request access to non-formulary drugs under exigent circumstances; amendments to Exchange appeals standards and coverage enrollment and termination standards; and time-limited adjustments to the standards relating to the medical loss ratio

  16. Env-Expressing Autologous T Lymphocytes Induce Neutralizing Antibody and Afford Marked Protection against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pistello, Mauro; Bonci, Francesca; Zabogli, Elisa; Conti, Francesca; Freer, Giulia; Maggi, Fabrizio; Stevenson, Mario; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The envelope (Env) glycoproteins of HIV and other lentiviruses possess neutralization and other protective epitopes, yet all attempts to induce protective immunity using Env as the only immunogen have either failed or afforded minimal levels of protection. In a novel prime-boost approach, specific-pathogen-free cats were primed with a plasmid expressing Env of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then boosted with their own T lymphocytes transduced ex vivo to produce the same Env and interleukin 15 (3 × 106 to 10 × 106 viable cells/cat). After the boost, the vaccinees developed elevated immune responses, including virus-neutralizing antibodies (NA). Challenge with an ex vivo preparation of FIV readily infected all eight control cats (four mock vaccinated and four naïve) and produced a marked decline in the proportion of peripheral CD4 T cells. In contrast, five of seven vaccinees showed little or no traces of infection, and the remaining two had reduced viral loads and underwent no changes in proportions of CD4 T cells. Interestingly, the viral loads of the vaccinees were inversely correlated to the titers of NA. The findings support the concept that Env is a valuable immunogen but needs to be administered in a way that permits the expression of its full protective potential. PMID:20130057

  17. High School Youth and Suicide Risk: Exploring Protection Afforded through Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…

  18. Contribution of antibody production against neuraminidase to the protection afforded by influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Glendie; Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Webby, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vaccines are instrumental in controlling the burden of influenza virus infection in humans and animals. Antibodies raised against both major viral surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), can contribute to protective immunity. Vaccine-induced HA antibodies have been characterized extensively, and they generally confer protection by blocking the attachment and fusion of a homologous virus onto host cells. Though not as well characterized, some functions of NA antibodies in influenza vaccine-mediated immunity have been recognized for many years. In this review we summarize the case for NA antibodies in influenza vaccine-mediated immunity. In the absence of well-matched HA antibodies, NA antibodies can provide varying degrees of protection against disease. NA proteins of seasonal influenza vaccines have been shown in some instances to elicit serum antibodies with cross-reactivity to avian- and swine-origin influenza strains, in addition to HA drift variants. NA-mediated immunity has been linked to [i] conserved NA epitopes amongst otherwise antigenically distinct strains, partly attributable to the segmented influenza viral genome; [ii] inhibition of NA enzymatic activity; and [iii] the NA content in vaccine formulations. There is potential to enhance the effectiveness of existing and future influenza vaccines by focusing greater attention on the antigenic characteristics and potency of the NA protein. PMID:22438243

  19. Carnosic Acid Affords Mitochondrial Protection in Chlorpyrifos-Treated Sh-Sy5y Cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Peres, Alessandra; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal

    2016-10-01

    Carnosic acid (CA; C20H28O4) is a phenolic diterpene found in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and exhibits protective properties, e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities. In this context, CA has been viewed as a neuroprotective agent due to its ability in rescuing neuronal cells from pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic challenges. In the present work, we found that CA pretreatment at 1 µM for 12 h suppressed the mitochondria-related pro-oxidant and mitochondria-dependent pro-apoptotic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. CA prevented mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in mitochondrial membranes obtained from cells exposed to CPF. CA also inhibited cytochrome c release and activation of the caspases-9 and -3, as well as decreased DNA fragmentation, in CPF-treated cells. CA upregulated the content of glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria by a mechanism involving the activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, since inhibition of PI3K/Akt or silencing of Nrf2 using siRNA strategy abolished the protection exerted by CA in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, CA protected mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 axis, causing upregulation of the mitochondrial GSH content and consequent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:27083155

  20. 77 FR 72581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Care Act; Establishment of the Multi- State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges... Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges AGENCY... Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges). Under the law, an MSPP issuer may phase in the States in which...

  1. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Parr, Allan T; Fellows, Bert; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA, for short) became law with President Obama's signature on March 23, 2010. It represents the most significant transformation of the American health care system since Medicare and Medicaid. It is argued that it will fundamentally change nearly every aspect of health care, from insurance to the final delivery of care. The length and complexity of the legislation and divisive and heated debates have led to massive confusion about the impact of ACA. It also became one of the centerpieces of 2010 congressional campaigns. Essentials of ACA include: 1) a mandate for individuals and businesses requiring as a matter of law that nearly every American have an approved level of health insurance or pay a penalty; 2) a system of federal subsidies to completely or partially pay for the now required health insurance for about 34 million Americans who are currently uninsured - subsidized through Medicaid and exchanges; 3) extensive new requirements on the health insurance industry; and 4) numerous regulations on the practice of medicine. The act is divided into 10 titles. It contains provisions that went into effect starting on June 21, 2010, with the majority of provisions going into effect in 2014 and later. The perceived major impact on practicing physicians in the ACA is related to growing regulatory authority with the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) and the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). In addition to these specifics is a growth of the regulatory regime in association with further discounts in physician reimbursement. With regards to cost controls and projections, many believe that the ACA does not fix the finances of our health care system - neither public nor private. It has been suggested that the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the administration have used creative accounting to arrive at an alleged deficit reduction; however, if everything is included appropriately and

  2. KCNMA1 Encoded Cardiac BK Channels Afford Protection against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Barthmes, Maria; Hattel, Helle; Thrush, A. Brianne; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Filip J.; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Losa-Reyna, Jose; Straubinger, Julia; Kniess, Angelina; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fenske, Stefanie; Biel, Martin; Ruth, Peter; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial potassium channels have been implicated in myocardial protection mediated through pre-/postconditioning. Compounds that open the Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium channel of big-conductance (BK) have a pre-conditioning-like effect on survival of cardiomyocytes after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, mitochondrial BK channels (mitoBKs) in cardiomyocytes were implicated as infarct-limiting factors that derive directly from the KCNMA1 gene encoding for canonical BKs usually present at the plasma membrane of cells. However, some studies challenged these cardio-protective roles of mitoBKs. Herein, we present electrophysiological evidence for paxilline- and NS11021-sensitive BK-mediated currents of 190 pS conductance in mitoplasts from wild-type but not BK−/− cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy of BK−/− ventricular muscles fibres showed normal ultra-structures and matrix dimension, but oxidative phosphorylation capacities at normoxia and upon re-oxygenation after anoxia were significantly attenuated in BK−/− permeabilized cardiomyocytes. In the absence of BK, post-anoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from cardiomyocyte mitochondria was elevated indicating that mitoBK fine-tune the oxidative state at hypoxia and re-oxygenation. Because ROS and the capacity of the myocardium for oxidative metabolism are important determinants of cellular survival, we tested BK−/− hearts for their response in an ex-vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infarct areas, coronary flow and heart rates were not different between wild-type and BK−/− hearts upon I/R injury in the absence of ischemic pre-conditioning (IP), but differed upon IP. While the area of infarction comprised 28±3% of the area at risk in wild-type, it was increased to 58±5% in BK−/− hearts suggesting that BK mediates the beneficial effects of IP. These findings suggest that cardiac BK channels are important for proper oxidative energy supply

  3. KCNMA1 encoded cardiac BK channels afford protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Barthmes, Maria; Hattel, Helle; Thrush, A Brianne; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Losa-Reyna, Jose; Straubinger, Julia; Kniess, Angelina; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fenske, Stefanie; Biel, Martin; Ruth, Peter; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial potassium channels have been implicated in myocardial protection mediated through pre-/postconditioning. Compounds that open the Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium channel of big-conductance (BK) have a pre-conditioning-like effect on survival of cardiomyocytes after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, mitochondrial BK channels (mitoBKs) in cardiomyocytes were implicated as infarct-limiting factors that derive directly from the KCNMA1 gene encoding for canonical BKs usually present at the plasma membrane of cells. However, some studies challenged these cardio-protective roles of mitoBKs. Herein, we present electrophysiological evidence for paxilline- and NS11021-sensitive BK-mediated currents of 190 pS conductance in mitoplasts from wild-type but not BK-/- cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy of BK-/- ventricular muscles fibres showed normal ultra-structures and matrix dimension, but oxidative phosphorylation capacities at normoxia and upon re-oxygenation after anoxia were significantly attenuated in BK-/- permeabilized cardiomyocytes. In the absence of BK, post-anoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from cardiomyocyte mitochondria was elevated indicating that mitoBK fine-tune the oxidative state at hypoxia and re-oxygenation. Because ROS and the capacity of the myocardium for oxidative metabolism are important determinants of cellular survival, we tested BK-/- hearts for their response in an ex-vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infarct areas, coronary flow and heart rates were not different between wild-type and BK-/- hearts upon I/R injury in the absence of ischemic pre-conditioning (IP), but differed upon IP. While the area of infarction comprised 28±3% of the area at risk in wild-type, it was increased to 58±5% in BK-/- hearts suggesting that BK mediates the beneficial effects of IP. These findings suggest that cardiac BK channels are important for proper oxidative energy supply of cardiomyocytes at

  4. Group health plans and health insurance issuers relating to coverage of preventive services under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2012-02-15

    These regulations finalize, without change, interim final regulations authorizing the exemption of group health plans and group health insurance coverage sponsored by certain religious employers from having to cover certain preventive health services under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  5. Health insurance coverage in the Houston-Galveston area under the patient protection and affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Begley, Charles; Deshmukh, Ashish; Eschbach, Karl; Fouladi, Negin; Liu, Qian June; Reynolds, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    This study projects the number of nonelderly people who could gain coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) for the period from 2014 through 2020 in the 13-county Houston-Galveston area region. The major PPACA provisions aimed at expanding coverage as well as the populations targeted by those provisions are described. Projections of the impact of PPACA on coverage in the area are based on estimates of growth in the size of targeted populations in each county and the anticipated responses of those populations to the major provisions of PPACA. The projections indicate that, if fully implemented, PPACA could cut the uninsurance rate in the region by half, from 26% in 2010 to 13% in 2020. This change translates into health insurance coverage for approximately 2 million additional people, from the current 4.2 million to a projected 5.9 million. The number of Medicaid enrollees could increase by an estimated 600,000 (a 79% increase), although private insurance coverage, which could increase by as much as 1 million enrollees (a 30% increase), will remain the primary source of coverage for most people. Coverage gains from PPACA will vary considerably by county, depending on the age-income-citizenship characteristics of the population, current uninsurance rates, and the rate of population growth.

  6. Distal protection for treatment of complete cervical internal carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, John P; Chaudry, Imran; Turner, Raymond; Turk, Aquilla S

    2012-01-01

    Distal protection devices (DPD) have been advocated for carotid artery stenting to reduce the risk of distal embolization. These devices were designed for deployment in the straight cervical segment of the internal carotid artery. We present a case of total cervical carotid occlusion recanalized with the aid of a distal protection device deployed 'distally' in the intracranial internal carotid artery.

  7. Keeping up with the Cadillacs: What Health Insurance Disparities, Moral Hazard, and the Cadillac Tax Mean to The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rebecca Adkins

    2016-03-01

    A major goal of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is to broaden health care access through the extension of insurance coverage. However, little attention has been given to growing disparities in access to health care among the insured, as trends to reduce benefits and increase cost sharing (deductibles, co-pays) reduce affordability and access. Through a political economic perspective that critiques moral hazard, this article draws from ethnographic research with the United Steelworkers (USW) at a steel mill and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) at a food-processing plant in urban Central Appalachia. In so doing, this article describes difficulties of health care affordability on the eve of reform for differentially insured working families with employer-sponsored health insurance. Additionally, this article argues that the proposed Cadillac tax on high-cost health plans will increase problems with appropriate health care access and medical financial burden for many families.

  8. Final Rules for Grandfathered Plans, Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual Limits, Rescissions, Dependent Coverage, Appeals, and Patient Protections Under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-11-18

    This document contains final regulations regarding grandfathered health plans, preexisting condition exclusions, lifetime and annual dollar limits on benefits, rescissions, coverage of dependent children to age 26, internal claims and appeal and external review processes, and patient protections under the Affordable Care Act. It finalizes changes to the proposed and interim final rules based on comments and incorporates subregulatory guidance issued since publication of the proposed and interim final rules.

  9. 77 FR 73117 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Premium Stabilization Rule (77 FR 17220), we laid out a regulatory framework for these three programs. In... and Affordable Care Act,'' (75 FR 74864) that established standards for the MLR program. Since then... proposed regulation was published in the Federal Register on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41930) to...

  10. 78 FR 15541 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Register, we expanded upon these standards, and stated that we are publishing this ] interim final rule... requirement in section 1312(c) of the Affordable Care Act, we are modifying our interpretation of the... the corresponding regulatory definition accordingly. We are also making certain conforming changes...

  11. Assessing Protection Afforded to the Microbiological Quality of Bedrock Groundwater from the Impacts of Septic Tank Effluent by Irish Glacial Till: A Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Alison; McCarthy, Valerie; Meehan, Robert; Flynn, Raymond

    2010-05-01

    The rural population of Ireland relies almost exclusively on on-site treatment systems for disposal of waste water. Septic tank systems, which discharge effluent to ground, constitute the dominant means of waste water disposal. Many of the areas that employ this technology rely on private or small group groundwater supplies, often located in close proximity of septic tanks. Since many of these water supplies provide raw groundwater to consumers, septic tank effluent (STE) can pose a significant hazard to the microbiological quality of drinking water. T-tests (infiltration testing) carried out prior to tank installation aim to assess the capacity of subsoils to receive STE. Tests completed across Ireland indicate that many existing septic tank systems are located in low permeability subsoils. These subsoils are assumed to afford significant protection to the microbiological quality of groundwater in the underlying bedrock units. A two year investigation in the Lough Muckno Catchment in Co. Monaghan, investigating the impact of STE on water quality, involved carrying out T-tests at three sites where effluent discharged to a dense, silty, ‘fractured' glacial till derived from the underlying bedrock and containing clasts of low grade metamorphic Ordovician and Silurian sandstone and shale. Analysis of groundwater samples collected from 28 piezometers straddling the water table within the till, down-gradient of septic tank systems at two sites, permitted faecal indicator microorganism (FIO) levels in near-surface groundwater to be established. Associated hydraulic conductivity tests (slug tests) at all three sites permitted an evaluation of the levels of horizontal hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity present in the till. Slug test results suggest that till median hydraulic conductivities range from 1.1x10-4 cm/s to 1.1x10-5 cm/s, with variability of up to 2 orders of magnitude across each site. On the other hand no significant differences in properties existed

  12. Office of River Protection (ORP) Mission Completion Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    WIEGMAN, S.A.

    2002-02-24

    DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) is readying itself to commence construction of a Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) that will start the process of turning Hanford tank waste into glass. The plant is state-of-the art and includes reasonable flexibility to improve operations as technology and operational understandings improve. During its 40 year design life the plant has the capability to treat half of the total volume of tank waste and reduce risk to the public by up to ninety percent. Looking beyond initial processing towards the project end state, however, it is apparent that ORP's baseline approach is part of the issue raised by the DOE Secretary when he said that $300 billion and 75 years is too costly and too long for DOE's environmental cleanups. ORP has reviewed its cost and schedule drivers and has started identifying areas where better technologies and risk-based strategies could substantially decrease its life cycle cost and schedule. Specific technologies under consideration will be discussed along with expected return on investment. ORP is totally committed to taking all steps necessary during cleanup to protect human health and the environment and to comply with appropriate regulations and commitments. But, ORP is also very conscious of the fact that the history of Hanford production and tank farm operations has resulted in very large tank-to-tank variabilities in the waste constituents. Not all tank wastes demand the same high level of rigor in treatment as provided by the WTP in order to protect people and the environment. Parallel treatment paths, keyed to the hazards and chemical challenges each tank presents, need to be developed. The WTP vitrification capabilities should be deployed for the higher risk wastes that require vitrification. By getting wastes in the proper paths for treatment based upon their chemical characteristics and inherent risks, ORP will be able to both accelerate the cleanup schedule and bring its life cycle and annual

  13. The live attenuated dengue vaccine TV003 elicits complete protection against dengue in a human challenge model.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pierce, Kristen K; Tibery, Cecilia M; Grier, Palmtama L; Hynes, Noreen A; Larsson, Catherine J; Sabundayo, Beulah P; Talaat, Kawsar R; Janiak, Anna; Carmolli, Marya P; Luke, Catherine J; Diehl, Sean A; Durbin, Anna P

    2016-03-16

    A dengue human challenge model can be an important tool to identify candidate dengue vaccines that should be further evaluated in large efficacy trials in endemic areas. Dengue is responsible for about 390 million infections annually. Protective efficacy results for the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate (CYD) were disappointing despite its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. TV003 is a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine currently in phase 2 evaluation. To better assess the protective efficacy of TV003, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which recipients of TV003 or placebo were challenged 6 months later with a DENV-2 strain, rDEN2Δ30, was conducted. The primary endpoint of the trial was protection against dengue infection, defined as rDEN2Δ30 viremia. Secondary endpoints were protection against rash and neutropenia. All 21 recipients of TV003 who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 were protected from infection with rDEN2Δ30. None developed viremia, rash, or neutropenia after challenge. In contrast, 100% of the 20 placebo recipients who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 developed viremia, 80% developed rash, and 20% developed neutropenia. TV003 induced complete protection against challenge with rDEN2Δ30 administered 6 months after vaccination. TV003 will be further evaluated in dengue-endemic areas. The controlled dengue human challenge model can accelerate vaccine development by evaluating the protection afforded by the vaccine, thereby eliminating poor candidates from further consideration before the initiation of large efficacy trials. PMID:27089205

  14. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  15. 75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Dependent Coverage; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure and Recordkeeping Requirement; Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act......

  16. Protective efficacy afforded by live Pasteurella multocida vaccines in chickens is independent of lipopolysaccharide outer core structure.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; John, Marietta; Edmunds, Mark; Wright, Amy; Ford, Mark; Turni, Conny; Blackall, P J; Cox, Andrew; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2016-03-29

    Pasteurella multocida is a major animal pathogen that causes a range of diseases including fowl cholera. P. multocida infections result in considerable losses to layer and breeder flocks in poultry industries worldwide. Both killed whole-cell and live-attenuated vaccines are available; these vaccines vary in their protective efficacy, particularly against heterologous strains. Moreover, until recently there was no knowledge of P. multocida LPS genetics and structure to determine precisely how LPS structure affects the protective capacity of these vaccines. In this study we show that defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants presented as killed whole-cell vaccines elicited solid protective immunity only against P. multocida challenge strains expressing highly similar or identical LPS structures. This finding indicates that vaccination of commercial flocks with P. multocida killed cell formulations will not protect against strains producing an LPS structure different to that produced by strains included in the vaccine formulation. Conversely, protective immunity conferred by vaccination with live P. multocida strains was found to be largely independent of LPS structure. Birds vaccinated with a range of live mutants belonging to the L1 and L3 LPS genotypes, each expressing a specific truncated LPS structure, were protected against challenge with the parent strain. Moreover, birds vaccinated with any of the five LPS mutants belonging to the L1 LPS genotype were also protected against challenge with an unrelated strain and two of the five groups vaccinated with live LPS mutants belonging to the L3 genotype were protected against challenge with an unrelated strain. In summary, vaccination with live P. multocida aroA mutants producing full-length L1 or L3 LPS or vaccination with live strains producing shortened L1 LPS elicited strong protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous challenge.

  17. Total Synthesis of the Complete Protective Antigen of Vibrio cholerae O139.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh E; Kováč, Pavol

    2016-10-01

    The first chemical synthesis of the complete protective O-antigen of a human-disease-causing pathogenic bacterium is described. The synthesis involved a protecting-group strategy that facilitated the regioselectivity of the key transformations, stereoselective glycosylation reactions, and enabled the one-step global deprotection of the completely assembled, fully protected, phosphorylated hexasaccharide by hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis. The final amino-group-functionalized, linker-equipped antigen was obtained in a form ready for conjugation to suitable carriers, for example, proteins, to yield immunogens. PMID:27623688

  18. Protection Afforded by Fluoroquinolones in Animal Models of Respiratory Infections with Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Johnny W; Moen, Scott T; Healy, Daniel; Pawlik, Jennifer E; Taormina, Joanna; Hardcastle, Jason; Thomas, John M; Lawrence, William S; Ponce, Cindy; Chatuev, Bagram M; Gnade, Bryan T; Foltz, Sheri M; Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Klimpel, Gary R; Kirtley, Michelle L; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia; Chopra, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.03 μg/ml); however, limited information is available regarding in vivo susceptibility of these infectious agents to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in small animal models. Mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models have been developed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antibiotic therapy against these life-threatening infections. Our results indicated that doses of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin required to protect mice against inhalation anthrax were approximately 18-fold higher than the doses of levofloxacin required to protect against pneumonic plague and tularemia. Further, the critical period following aerosol exposure of mice to either B. anthracis spores or Y. pestis was 24 h, while mice challenged with F. tularensis could be effectively protected when treatment was delayed for as long as 72 h postchallenge. In addition, it was apparent that prolonged antibiotic treatment was important in the effective treatment of inhalation anthrax in mice, but short-term treatment of mice with pneumonic plague or tularemia infections were usually successful. These results provide effective antibiotic dosages in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits and lay the foundation for the development and evaluation of combinational treatment modalities. PMID:21127743

  19. Protection Afforded by Fluoroquinolones in Animal Models of Respiratory Infections with Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Johnny W; Moen, Scott T; Healy, Daniel; Pawlik, Jennifer E; Taormina, Joanna; Hardcastle, Jason; Thomas, John M; Lawrence, William S; Ponce, Cindy; Chatuev, Bagram M; Gnade, Bryan T; Foltz, Sheri M; Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Klimpel, Gary R; Kirtley, Michelle L; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia; Chopra, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.03 μg/ml); however, limited information is available regarding in vivo susceptibility of these infectious agents to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in small animal models. Mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models have been developed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antibiotic therapy against these life-threatening infections. Our results indicated that doses of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin required to protect mice against inhalation anthrax were approximately 18-fold higher than the doses of levofloxacin required to protect against pneumonic plague and tularemia. Further, the critical period following aerosol exposure of mice to either B. anthracis spores or Y. pestis was 24 h, while mice challenged with F. tularensis could be effectively protected when treatment was delayed for as long as 72 h postchallenge. In addition, it was apparent that prolonged antibiotic treatment was important in the effective treatment of inhalation anthrax in mice, but short-term treatment of mice with pneumonic plague or tularemia infections were usually successful. These results provide effective antibiotic dosages in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits and lay the foundation for the development and evaluation of combinational treatment modalities. PMID:21127743

  20. Achieving public health goals through Medicaid expansion: opportunities in criminal justice, homelessness, and behavioral health with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Barbara; Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system--particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses--are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care.

  1. Achieving Public Health Goals Through Medicaid Expansion: Opportunities in Criminal Justice, Homelessness, and Behavioral Health With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system—particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses—are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  2. Achieving public health goals through Medicaid expansion: opportunities in criminal justice, homelessness, and behavioral health with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Barbara; Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system--particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses--are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  3. The Protective Effect against Extracellular Histones Afforded by Long-Pentraxin PTX3 as a Regulator of NETs

    PubMed Central

    Daigo, Kenji; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that plays critical roles in innate immunity. Its fundamental functions include recognition of microbes, activation of complement cascades, and opsonization. The findings that PTX3 is one of the component proteins in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and binds with other NET proteins imply the importance of PTX3 in the NET-mediated trapping and killing of bacteria. As NETs play certain critically important host-protective roles, aberrant NET production results in tissue damage. Extracellular histones, the main source of which is considered to be NETs, are mediators of septic death due to their cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells. PTX3 protects against extracellular histones-mediated cytotoxicity through coaggregation. In addition to the anti-bacterial roles performed in coordination with other NET proteins, PTX3 appears to mitigate the detrimental effect of over-activated NETs. A better understanding of the role of the PTX3 complexes in NETs would be expected to lead to new strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between the helpful bactericidal and undesirable detrimental activities of NETs.

  4. The Protective Effect against Extracellular Histones Afforded by Long-Pentraxin PTX3 as a Regulator of NETs.

    PubMed

    Daigo, Kenji; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that plays critical roles in innate immunity. Its fundamental functions include recognition of microbes, activation of complement cascades, and opsonization. The findings that PTX3 is one of the component proteins in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and binds with other NET proteins imply the importance of PTX3 in the NET-mediated trapping and killing of bacteria. As NETs play certain critically important host-protective roles, aberrant NET production results in tissue damage. Extracellular histones, the main source of which is considered to be NETs, are mediators of septic death due to their cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells. PTX3 protects against extracellular histones-mediated cytotoxicity through coaggregation. In addition to the anti-bacterial roles performed in coordination with other NET proteins, PTX3 appears to mitigate the detrimental effect of over-activated NETs. A better understanding of the role of the PTX3 complexes in NETs would be expected to lead to new strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between the helpful bactericidal and undesirable detrimental activities of NETs.

  5. The Protective Effect against Extracellular Histones Afforded by Long-Pentraxin PTX3 as a Regulator of NETs

    PubMed Central

    Daigo, Kenji; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that plays critical roles in innate immunity. Its fundamental functions include recognition of microbes, activation of complement cascades, and opsonization. The findings that PTX3 is one of the component proteins in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and binds with other NET proteins imply the importance of PTX3 in the NET-mediated trapping and killing of bacteria. As NETs play certain critically important host-protective roles, aberrant NET production results in tissue damage. Extracellular histones, the main source of which is considered to be NETs, are mediators of septic death due to their cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells. PTX3 protects against extracellular histones-mediated cytotoxicity through coaggregation. In addition to the anti-bacterial roles performed in coordination with other NET proteins, PTX3 appears to mitigate the detrimental effect of over-activated NETs. A better understanding of the role of the PTX3 complexes in NETs would be expected to lead to new strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between the helpful bactericidal and undesirable detrimental activities of NETs. PMID:27656184

  6. The Protective Effect against Extracellular Histones Afforded by Long-Pentraxin PTX3 as a Regulator of NETs.

    PubMed

    Daigo, Kenji; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that plays critical roles in innate immunity. Its fundamental functions include recognition of microbes, activation of complement cascades, and opsonization. The findings that PTX3 is one of the component proteins in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and binds with other NET proteins imply the importance of PTX3 in the NET-mediated trapping and killing of bacteria. As NETs play certain critically important host-protective roles, aberrant NET production results in tissue damage. Extracellular histones, the main source of which is considered to be NETs, are mediators of septic death due to their cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells. PTX3 protects against extracellular histones-mediated cytotoxicity through coaggregation. In addition to the anti-bacterial roles performed in coordination with other NET proteins, PTX3 appears to mitigate the detrimental effect of over-activated NETs. A better understanding of the role of the PTX3 complexes in NETs would be expected to lead to new strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between the helpful bactericidal and undesirable detrimental activities of NETs. PMID:27656184

  7. A role for lipid rafts in the protection afforded by docosahexaenoic acid against ethanol toxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Aliche-Djoudi, Fatiha; Podechard, Normand; Collin, Aurore; Chevanne, Martine; Provost, Emilie; Poul, Martine; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Sergent, Odile

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid enhanced ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes via an increase in membrane fluidity and lipid raft clustering. In this context, another n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was tested with a special emphasis on physical and chemical alteration of lipid rafts. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with DHA reduced significantly ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death. DHA protection could be related to an alteration of lipid rafts. Indeed, rafts exhibited a marked increase in membrane fluidity and packing defects leading to the exclusion of a raft protein marker, flotillin. Furthermore, DHA strongly inhibited disulfide bridge formation, even in control cells, thus suggesting a disruption of protein-protein interactions inside lipid rafts. This particular spatial organization of lipid rafts due to DHA subsequently prevented the ethanol-induced lipid raft clustering. Such a prevention was then responsible for the inhibition of phospholipase C-γ translocation into rafts, and consequently of both lysosome accumulation and elevation in cellular low-molecular-weight iron content, a prooxidant factor. In total, the present study suggests that DHA supplementation could represent a new preventive approach for patients with alcoholic liver disease based upon modulation of the membrane structures.

  8. Can Community Colleges Afford to Improve Completion? Measuring the Costs and Efficiency Effects of College Reforms. CCRC Working Paper No. 55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Crosta, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates and efficiency despite limited evidence of the economic consequences of different reform strategies. We introduce an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate baseline efficiency…

  9. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    PubMed

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  10. Immunotherapy with a posttranscriptionally modified DNA vaccine induces complete protection against metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pertl, Ursula; Wodrich, Harald; Ruehlmann, J Michael; Gillies, Stephen D; Lode, Holger N; Reisfeld, Ralph A

    2003-01-15

    The successful induction of a T-cell-mediated tumor-protective immunity against poorly immunogenic malignancies remains a major challenge for cancer immunotherapy. We achieved this by immunization with a tyrosine hydroxylase (mTH)-based DNA vaccine, enhanced with the posttranscriptional regulatory acting RNA element (WPRE), derived from woodchuck hepatitis virus in combination with an antibody-cytokine fusion protein (ch14.18-IL-2) that targets interleukin-2 (IL-2) to the tumor microenvironment. This DNA vaccine mTH-WPRE was carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and applied by oral gavage in a mouse model of neuroblastoma. Mice immunized with the mTH-WPRE vaccine, and which additionally received a boost with suboptimal doses of ch14.18-IL-2, were completely protected against hepatic neuroblastoma metastases. In contrast, all controls presented with disseminated metastases. Both T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell-dependent mechanisms were involved in the induction of a systemic tumor-protective immunity. Thus, up-regulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in CD8(+) T cells occurred only in those animals that received the mTH-WPRE vaccine plus the ch14.18-IL-2 boost. Up-regulation of this proinflammatory cytokine was not observed in mice immunized with mTH-WPRE vaccine alone. A role for NK cells was indicated by the complete abrogation of systemic tumor-protective immunity in all animals that were depleted of NK cells in vivo. Taken together, these data demonstrate that immunization with a posttranscriptionally enhanced DNA vaccine encoding the WPRE sequence, combined with a boost of the ch14.18-IL-2 fusion protein, completely protects against hepatic metastases in a murine model of neuroblastoma and therefore may lead to a new strategy for immunotherapy and prevention of metastatic neuroblastoma.

  11. 75 FR 81659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice--Prohibition on Lifetime Limits ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act)......

  12. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary...: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act... Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act). Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  13. Meeting the Tobacco Cessation Coverage Requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: State Smoking Cessation Quitlines and Cost Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Linda; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether various key stakeholders considered cost sharing with state telephone-based tobacco cessation quitlines, because including tobacco cessation services as part of the required essential health benefits is a new requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We analyzed qualitative data collected from interviews conducted in April and May of 2014 with representatives of state health departments, quitline service providers, health plans, and insurance brokers in 4 US states. Results. State health departments varied in the strategies they considered the role their state quitline would play in meeting the ACA requirements. Health plans and insurance brokers referred to state quitlines because they were perceived as effective and free, but in 3 of the 4 states, the private stakeholder groups did not consider cost sharing. Conclusions. If state health departments are going to initiate cost-sharing agreements with private insurance providers, then they will need to engage a broad array of stakeholders and will need to overcome the perception that state quitline services are free. PMID:26447918

  14. Essential role of PD-L1 in regulatory T cell-afforded protection against blood-brain barrier damage after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiying; Mao, Leilei; Liu, Xiangrong; Gan, Yu; Zheng, Jing; Thomson, Angus W.; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun; Hu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Our recent research revealed that adoptively-transferred regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduced acute ischemic brain injury by inhibiting neutrophil-derived MMP-9 and protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. The mechanisms underlying Treg interactions with neutrophils remain elusive. This study evaluates the contribution of program death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1) to Treg-mediated neutrophil inhibition and neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia. Methods In vitro experiments were carried out using a transwell system or a coculture system allowing cell-to-cell contact. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice for 60min. Tregs (2×106) isolated from donor animals (wild-type or PD-L1−/−) were intravenously injected into ischemic recipients 2 h post-MCAO. MMP-9 production, BBB permeability and brain infarct were assessed at 1 or 3 days post-MCAO. Results In vitro experiments reveal that Treg-mediated inhibition of neutrophil MMP-9 required direct cell-to-cell contact. The suppression of MMP-9 was abolished when Tregs were pretreated with PD-L1 neutralizing Abs or when neutrophils were pre-treated with PD-1 Abs. In vivo studies confirmed that intravenous administration of Tregs pre-treated with PD-L1 Abs or Tregs isolated from PD-L1-deficient mice failed to inhibit MMP-9 production by blood neutrophils 1 day after 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Furthermore, the BBB damage after MCAO was greatly ameliorated in PD-L1-competent Treg-treated mice, but not in PD-L1-compromised Treg-treated mice. Consequently, PD-L1 dysfunction abolished Treg-mediated brain protection and neurological improvements 3 days after MCAO. Conclusions PD-L1 plays an essential role in the neuroprotection afforded by Tregs against cerebral ischemia by mediating the suppressive effect of Tregs on neutrophil-derived MMP-9. PMID:24496394

  15. Antibodies Are Required for Complete Vaccine-Induced Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Halford, William P.; Geltz, Joshua; Messer, Ronald J.; Hasenkrug, Kim J.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) 0ΔNLS is a live HSV-2 ICP0- mutant vaccine strain that is profoundly attenuated in vivo due to its interferon-hypersensitivity. Recipients of the HSV-2 0ΔNLS vaccine are resistant to high-dose HSV-2 challenge as evidenced by profound reductions in challenge virus spread, shedding, disease and mortality. In the current study, we investigated the requirements for HSV-2 0ΔNLS vaccine-induced protection. Studies using (UV)-inactivated HSV-2 0ΔNLS revealed that self-limited replication of the attenuated virus was required for effective protection from vaginal or ocular HSV-2 challenge. Diminished antibody responses in recipients of the UV-killed HSV-2 vaccine suggested that antibodies might be playing a critical role in early protection. This hypothesis was investigated in B-cell-deficient μMT mice. Vaccination with live HSV-2 0ΔNLS induced equivalent CD8+ T cell responses in wild-type and μMT mice. Vaccinated μMT mice shed ~40-fold more infectious HSV-2 at 24 hours post-challenge relative to vaccinated wild-type (B-cell+) mice, and most vaccinated μMT mice eventually succumbed to a slowly progressing HSV-2 challenge. Importantly, passive transfer of HSV-2 antiserum restored full protection to HSV-2 0ΔNLS-vaccinated μMT mice. The results demonstrate that B cells are required for complete vaccine-induced protection against HSV-2, and indicate that virus-specific antibodies are the dominant mediators of early vaccine-induced protection against HSV-2. PMID:26670699

  16. The microbiome in early life: self-completion and microbiota protection as health priorities.

    PubMed

    Dietert, Rodney R

    2014-08-01

    This minireview considers the benefits of refocusing attention away from treating the patient as a mammalian human to managing the complete patient: a majority microbial superorganism. Under the "completed self" model for formation of the human-microbial superorganism, the single, most pivotal sign in distinguishing a life course of health versus that filled with disease is self-completion (i.e., seeding of the minority mammalian human by the majority microbial portion of the symbiont). From a disease prevention perspective, microbial seeding at birth and subsequent nurturing of the microbiota are significant steps to reduce the risk of both noncommunicable diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes) and certain infectious diseases. Management of the microbiome during pregnancy, birth, and shortly thereafter appears to be the most significant critical window for healthy superorganism formation. However, the bolus for microbiota seeding at birth and the nurturing process are subject to environmental influences and disruption, such as exposure to toxic chemicals and drugs, infections, and other physical and psychological stressors. Additionally, childhood and adult corrective measures, such as fecal transplantation and administration of prebiotics and probiotics, while potentially useful, may have limitations that are yet to be fully defined. This minireview considers (1) basic features of management of the microbiome to facilitate self-completion, (2) protection of the microbiota from environmental hazards, and (3) the benefits of using a superorganism focus for health management beginning with pregnancy and extending throughout childhood and adult life.

  17. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; program integrity: exchange, premium stabilization programs, and market standards; amendments to the HHS notice of benefit and payment parameters for 2014. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-10-30

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, this final rule outlines financial integrity and oversight standards with respect to Affordable Insurance Exchanges, qualified health plan (QHP) issuers in Federally-facilitated Exchanges (FFEs), and States with regard to the operation of risk adjustment and reinsurance programs. It also establishes additional standards for special enrollment periods, survey vendors that may conduct enrollee satisfaction surveys on behalf of QHP issuers, and issuer participation in an FFE, and makes certain amendments to definitions and standards related to the market reform rules. These standards, which include financial integrity provisions and protections against fraud and abuse, are consistent with Title I of the Affordable Care Act. This final rule also amends and adopts as final interim provisions set forth in the Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014 interim final rule, published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2013, related to risk corridors and cost-sharing reduction reconciliation.

  18. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  19. Protective potential of MMR vaccine against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Rehab S; Suddek, Ghada M; Gameil, Nariman M; El-Kashef, Hassan A

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MMR vaccine on inflammation which was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into the control, CFA, MMR and CFA + MMR groups. Inflammatory symptoms such as paw oedema was measured in CFA-injected rats' paw. Body weight changes and alterations in some haematological parameters and oxidative stress markers following CFA injection were checked. In CFA-inflammed rats, there was a significant increase in rat paw thickness and decrease in body weight increment. MMR exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory effect as manifested by reduction in paw thickness and normal gain in body weight when administered 1 week prior to induction of inflammation. The altered haematological parameters (TLC) and oxidative stress markers (MDA, GSH, SOD) in the inflammed rats were significantly brought back to near normal by MMR treatment. In conclusion, MMR vaccine showed a reduction in rat paw thickness and it could significantly normalize the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in CFA-induced inflammatory pain model in rats. Our data suggested that MMR could be a potential protective agent against certain types of inflammatory pain. Further histopathological and radiological studies are required to confirm the possibility of developing novel therapeutic vaccines against some forms of arthritis.

  20. Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed. PMID:18554382

  1. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Derbise, Anne; Hanada, Yuri; Khalifé, Manal; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably. Methodology/Principal Findings The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1—Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU) of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50) caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50). Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1-) Y. pestis. Significance VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative) Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection

  2. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  3. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  4. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  5. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMapp(TM) and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab')2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab')2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs.

  6. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice,'' to the Office of... Security Administration (EBSA). Title of Collection: Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice....

  7. Protection Afforded by a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-H5 Vaccine Against the 2014 European Highly Pathogenic H5N8 Avian Influenza Strain.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Rauw, F; van den Berg, Th; Marché, S; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, circulating in Asia (South Korea, Japan, and southern China) since the beginning of 2014, reached the European continent in November 2014. Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Hungary confirmed H5N8 infection of poultry farms of different species and of several wild bird species. Unlike the Asian highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, this HP H5N8 also went transatlantic and reached the American West Coast by the end of 2014, affecting wild birds as well as backyard and commercial poultry. This strain induces high mortality and morbidity in Galliformes, whereas wild birds seem only moderately affected. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT) vector vaccine expressing the H5 gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5) previously demonstrated a highly efficient clinical protection and reduced viral excretion against challenge with Asian HP H5N1 strains of various clades (2.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.1.1, 2.1.3, 2.1.3.2, and 2.3.2.1) and was made commercially available in various countries where the disease is endemic. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the rHVT-H5 vaccine against the first German H5N8 turkey isolate (H5N8 GE), a challenge experiment was set up in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the clinical and excretional protection was evaluated. SPF chickens were vaccinated subcutaneously at 1 day old and challenged oculonasally at 4 wk of age with two viral dosages, 10(5) and 10(6) 50% egg infective doses. Morbidity and mortality were monitored daily in unvaccinated and vaccinated groups, whereas viral shedding by oropharyngeal and cloacal routes was evaluated at 2, 5, 9, and 14 days postinoculation (dpi). Serologic monitoring after vaccination and challenge was also carried out. Despite its high antigenic divergence of the challenge H5N8 strain, a single rHVT-H5 vaccine administration at 1 day old resulted in a full clinical protection against challenge and a significant reduction

  8. Induction of endogenous glutathione by the chemoprotective agent, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells affords protection against peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhuoxiao; Hallur, Seema; Qiu, Harry Z; Peng, Xingxiang; Li, Yunbo

    2004-04-16

    Substantial evidence suggests that peroxynitrite generated from the bi-radical reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide is critically involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Reaction with sulfhydryl (SH)-containing molecules has been proposed to be a major detoxification pathway of peroxynitrite in biological systems. This study was undertaken to determine if chemically elevated intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), a major SH-containing biomolecule, affords protection against peroxynitrite-mediated toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. Incubation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with the unique chemoprotectant, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), led to a significant elevation of cellular GSH in a concentration-dependent fashion. To examine the protective effects of D3T-induced GSH on peroxynitrite-mediated toxicity, SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with D3T and then exposed to either the peroxynitrite generator, 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), or the authentic peroxynitrite. We observed that D3T-pretreated cells showed a markedly increased resistance to SIN-1- or authentic peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity, as assessed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium reduction assay. Conversely, depletion of cellular GSH by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) caused a marked potentiation of SIN-1- or authentic peroxynitrite-mediated cytotoxicity. To further demonstrate the causal role for GSH induction in D3T-mediated cytoprotection, SH-SY5Y cells were co-treated with BSO to abolish D3T-induced GSH elevation. Co-treatment of the cells with BSO was found to significantly reverse the protective effects of D3T on SIN-1- or authentic peroxynitrite-elicited cytotoxicity. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that D3T can induce GSH in cultured SH-SY5Y cells, and that the D3T-augmented cellular GSH defense affords a marked protection against peroxynitrite-induced toxicity in cultured human neuronal

  9. Characterization of Protection Afforded by a Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Diego, Ana Cristina; Athmaram, Thimmasandra N.; Stewart, Meredith; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Noad, Robert; Roy, Polly

    2011-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important, arthropod borne, emerging pathogen in Europe, causing disease mainly in sheep and cattle. Routine vaccination for bluetongue would require the ability to distinguish between vaccinated and infected individuals (DIVA). Current vaccines are effective but are not DIVA. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly immunogenic structural mimics of virus particles, that only contain a subset of the proteins present in a natural infection. VLPs therefore offer the potential for the development of DIVA compatible bluetongue vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings Merino sheep were vaccinated with either monovalent BTV-1 VLPs or a bivalent mixture of BTV-1 VLPs and BTV-4 VLPs, and challenged with virulent BTV-1 or BTV-4. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, antibody responses, and viral RNA. 19/20 animals vaccinated with BTV-1 VLPs either alone or in combination with BTV-4 VLPs developed neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1, and group specific antibodies to BTV VP7. The one animal that showed no detectable neutralizing antibodies, or group specific antibodies, had detectable viral RNA following challenge but did not display any clinical signs on challenge with virulent BTV-1. In contrast, all control animals' demonstrated classical clinical signs for bluetongue on challenge with the same virus. Six animals were vaccinated with bivalent vaccine and challenged with virulent BTV-4, two of these animals had detectable viral levels of viral RNA, and one of these showed clinical signs consistent with BTV infection and died. Conclusions There is good evidence that BTV-1 VLPs delivered as monovalent or bivalent immunogen protect from bluetongue disease on challenge with virulent BTV-1. However, it is possible that there is some interference in protective response for BTV-4 in the bivalent BTV-1 and BTV-4 VLP vaccine. This raises the question of whether all combinations of bivalent BTV vaccines are possible, or if

  10. Sensory Stimulation-Based Complete Protection from Ischemic Stroke Remains Stable at 4 Months Post-Occlusion of MCA.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Aneeka M; Lay, Christopher C; Davis, Melissa F; Frostig, Ron D

    2013-11-01

    Previous research from our lab has shown that when using a rodent model of ischemic stroke (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), mild sensory stimulation, when delivered within two hours of ischemic onset, completely protects the cortex from impending ischemic stroke damage when assessed 24 hours post-occlusion. However, the long-term stability of this protection remains unclear. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging for assessment of cortical function, laser speckle imaging for assessment of blood flow, a battery of behavioral tests and cresyl violet for histological assessment, the present study examined whether this protection was long-lasting. When assessed 4 months post-occlusion (this length of time being equivalent to 10-15 years in humans), rats receiving sensory stimulation treatment immediately after ischemic onset exhibit normal neuronal and vascular function, and they are behaviorally and histologically equivalent to healthy controls (surgical shams). Thus, the complete neuroprotection due to cortical activation via sensory stimulation remains stable with time. These findings add support to the translational potential of this sensory stimulation-based treatment.

  11. 75 FR 77002 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... for Public Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) that are discussed below. A copy of the... collection requests (ICRs) contained in the rule described below that relates to the Affordable Care......

  12. Assessment of protection from systemic infection or disease afforded by low to intermediate titers of passively acquired neutralizing antibody against bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves.

    PubMed

    Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1995-06-01

    Colostrum-deprived calves (n = 24) were fed various amounts of colostrum, colostrum substitute, or milk replacer to establish a range in titer of passively acquired viral neutralizing antibody in serum. The calves were then challenge exposed intranasally with a virulent, noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-890). After viral challenge exposure, calves were monitored for fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea. In addition, viral isolation and viral titration were performed on specimens of nasal secretions, buffy coat cells, and serum obtained from the calves. Fever and systemic spread of virus were detected in calves that had viral neutralizing titer of 256 or lower. Calves that had viral neutralizing titer lower than 16 developed severe clinical disease manifested by fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea. Severity and duration of signs of disease decreased as titers of passively acquired viral neutralizing antibody increased. These results indicate that low to intermediate titers of passively acquired viral neutralizing antibody were not sufficient to fully protect calves from virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  13. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  14. Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolani, Federico M.; Mandara, Alberto; Froncillo, Salvatore

    2008-07-08

    The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

  15. Ergonomics: Injury Protection You Can Afford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the physical health risks attributed to poor furniture and equipment ergonomics and looks at ways to help assure that furniture and equipment purchases and practices are ergonomically sound. Cautions to be wary wary of marketing hype that a company's furniture is ergonomically set, and acquire adjustable furniture and encourage students…

  16. Chimpanzee adenovirus vector-based avian influenza vaccine completely protects mice against lethal challenge of H5N1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Wang, Xiang; Song, Yufeng; Tang, Xinying; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hongbo; Jin, Xia; Zhou, Dongming

    2016-09-22

    Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses may give rise to the next influenza pandemic due to their reassortment and mutation of the genome. Vaccine against this virus is important for coping with its potential threat. Chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vectors are a novel type of vaccine vectors that share the advantages of human serotype Ad vectors but without being affected by pre-existing human neutralizing antibody to the vaccine vector. Based on a replication-deficient chimpanzee Ad vector, AdC7, we generated a novel H5N1 vaccine candidate AdC7-H5HA that expresses H5N1 Hemagglutinin(HA). When tested in mice, the vaccine significantly reduced the virus load and pathological lesions in the lung tissues, and conferred complete protection against lethal challenge by a homologous virus. Mechanistically, the AdC7-H5HA vaccine can induce both HA-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Also, sera transfer experiments demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies alone could provide protection. In conclusion, our results show that chimpanzee Ad vector expressing influenza virus HA may represent a promising vaccine candidate for H5N1 viruses and other influenza virus subtypes. PMID:27576071

  17. Complete protection against aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature and genotoxicity threshold

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Natalie M.; Egner, Patricia A.; Baxter, Victoria K.; Sporn, Michael B.; Wible, Ryan S.; Sutter, Thomas R.; Groopman, John D.; Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.

    2014-01-01

    In experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), a powerful activator of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling, protects against AFB1-induced toxicity and preneoplastic lesion formation (GST-P positive foci). This study assessed and mechanistically characterized the chemoprotective efficacy of CDDO-Im against AFB1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A lifetime cancer bioassay was undertaken in F344 rats dosed with AFB1 (200μg/kg rat/day) for 4 weeks and receiving either vehicle or CDDO-Im (three times weekly), one week prior to and throughout the exposure period. Weekly, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of AFB1 metabolites. In a subset of rats, livers were analyzed for GST-P foci. The comparative response of a toxicogenomic RNA expression signature for AFB1 was examined. CDDO-Im completely protected (0/20) against AFB1-induced liver cancer compared to a 96% incidence (22/23) observed in the AFB1 group. With CDDO-Im treatment, integrated level of urinary AFB1-N7-guanine was significantly reduced (66%) and aflatoxin-N-acetylcysteine, a detoxication product, was consistently elevated (300%) after the first AFB1 dose. In AFB1-treated rats, the hepatic burden of GST-P positive foci increased substantially (0% to 13.8%) over the 4 weeks, but was largely absent with CDDO-Im intervention. The toxicogenomic RNA expression signature characteristic of AFB1 was absent in the AFB1 + CDDO-Im treated rats. The remarkable efficacy of CDDO-Im as an anticarcinogen is established even in the face of a significant aflatoxin adduct burden. Consequently, the absence of cancer requires a concept of a threshold for DNA damage for cancer development. PMID:24662598

  18. A single immunization with recombinant rabies virus (ERAG3G) confers complete protection against rabies in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose New alternative bait rabies vaccines applicable to pet dogs and wild animals are needed to eradicate rabies in Korea. In this study, recombinant rabies virus, ERAG3G strain was constructed using reverse genetic system and the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of the ERAG3G strain was evaluated in mice and dogs. Materials and Methods Using the full-length genome mutated amino acid at position 333 of glycoprotein of rabies virus (RABV) and helper plasmids, the ERAG3G strain was rescued in BHK/T7-9 cells successfully. Mice were inoculated with the ERAG3G strain for safety and efficacy. Safety and immunogenicity of the dog inoculated with the ERAG3G strain (1 mL, 108.0 FAID50/mL) via intramuscular route was evaluated for 28 days after inoculation. Results The ERAG3G strain rescued by reverse genetic system was propagated well in the mouse neuroblastoma cells revealing titer of 108.5 FAID50/mL and was not pathogenic to 4- or 6-week-old mice that received by intramuscular or intracranical route. Immunization with the ERAG3G strain conferred complete protection from lethal RABV in mice. Dogs inoculated with the vaccine candidate via intramuscular route showed high neutralizing antibody titer ranging from 2.62 to 23.9 IU/mL at 28 days postinoculation. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the ERAG3G strain plays an important role in inducing protective efficacy in mice and causes to arise anti-rabies neutralizing antibody in dogs. PMID:25003091

  19. Complete protection against aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature, and genotoxicity threshold.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Natalie M; Egner, Patricia A; Baxter, Victoria K; Sporn, Michael B; Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Thomas R; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2014-07-01

    In experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), a powerful activator of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling, protects against AFB1-induced toxicity and preneoplastic lesion formation (GST-P-positive foci). This study assessed and mechanistically characterized the chemoprotective efficacy of CDDO-Im against AFB1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A lifetime cancer bioassay was undertaken in F344 rats dosed with AFB1 (200 μg/kg rat/day) for four weeks and receiving either vehicle or CDDO-Im (three times weekly), one week before and throughout the exposure period. Weekly, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of AFB1 metabolites. In a subset of rats, livers were analyzed for GST-P foci. The comparative response of a toxicogenomic RNA expression signature for AFB1 was examined. CDDO-Im completely protected (0/20) against AFB1-induced liver cancer compared with a 96% incidence (22/23) observed in the AFB1 group. With CDDO-Im treatment, integrated level of urinary AFB1-N(7)-guanine was significantly reduced (66%) and aflatoxin-N-acetylcysteine, a detoxication product, was consistently elevated (300%) after the first AFB1 dose. In AFB1-treated rats, the hepatic burden of GST-P-positive foci increased substantially (0%-13.8%) over the four weeks, but was largely absent with CDDO-Im intervention. The toxicogenomic RNA expression signature characteristic of AFB1 was absent in the AFB1 + CDDO-Im-treated rats. The remarkable efficacy of CDDO-Im as an anticarcinogen is established even in the face of a significant aflatoxin adduct burden. Consequently, the absence of cancer requires a concept of a threshold for DNA damage for cancer development. PMID:24662598

  20. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8-/- mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15635.001 PMID:27328324

  1. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  2. 77 FR 10781 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Comment; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public Law 111-148, (the Affordable Care Act) was enacted by President Obama on March 23, 2010. As part of the...

  3. 78 FR 71667 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...; Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure, Recordkeeping Requirement, and Change in Carrier..., ``Affordable Care Act Grandfathered Health Plan Disclosure, Recordkeeping Requirement, and Change in Carrier... Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), Public Law 111-148, section 1251 provides that certain plans...

  4. 75 FR 81662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Advance Notice of Rescission,'' to the..._PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  5. β-Amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli. Steric bulk, not the π-electrons of Phe, at position 474 has a key role in affording the correct folding of the substrate to complete the normal polycyclization cascade.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryousuke; Masukawa, Yukari; Nakada, Chika; Amari, Kanako; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2014-06-21

    β-Amyrin, a triterpene, is widely distributed in plants and its glycosides confer important biological activities. Mutagenesis studies on β-amyrin synthase are very limited as compared with those of squalene-hopene cyclase and lanosterol synthase. This study was conducted to elucidate the function of the F474 residue of Euphorbia tirucalli β-amyrin cyclase, which is highly conserved in the superfamily of oxidosqualene cyclases. Nine site-specific variants with Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Met, Tyr, Trp, His, and Thr were constructed. We isolated 9 products from these mutants in addition to β-amyrin and determined the chemical structures. The Gly and Ala mutants produced significantly larger amounts of the bicyclic products and a decreased amount of β-amyrin, indicating that the F474 residue was located near the B-ring formation site. Surprisingly, the Ala variant produced (9βH)-polypoda-7,13,17,21-tetraen-3β-ol and (9βH)-polypoda-8(26),13,17,21-tetraen-3β-ol, which are generated from a chair-boat folding conformation. This is the first report describing the conformational change from the chair-chair into the chair-boat folding conformation among the reported mutagenesis studies of oxidosqualene cyclases. Substitution with aliphatic amino acids lacking π-electrons such as Val, Leu, and Met led to a significantly decreased production of bicyclic compounds, and in turn exhibited a higher production of β-amyrin. Furthermore, the Leu and Met variants exhibited high enzymatic activities: ca. 74% for Leu and ca. 91% for Met variants as compared to the wild-type. These facts unambiguously demonstrate that the major role of Phe474 is not to stabilize the transient cation via cation-π interaction, but is to confer the appropriate steric bulk near the B-ring formation site, leading to the completion of the normal polycyclization pathway without accumulation of abortive cyclization products.

  6. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in a patient with complete TLR3 deficiency: TLR3 is otherwise redundant in protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiqi; Audry, Magali; Ciancanelli, Michael; Alsina, Laia; Azevedo, Joana; Herman, Melina; Anguiano, Esperanza; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Pauwels, Elodie; Philippe, Paul Bastard; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Cardon, Annabelle; Vogt, Guillaume; Picard, Capucine; Andrianirina, Zafitsara Zo; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Tardieu, Marc; Valérie Doireau; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Chaussabel, Damien; Geissmann, Frederic; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Zhang, Shen-Ying

    2011-09-26

    Autosomal dominant TLR3 deficiency has been identified as a genetic etiology of childhood herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). This defect is partial, as it results in impaired, but not abolished induction of IFN-β and -λ in fibroblasts in response to TLR3 stimulation. The apparently normal resistance of these patients to other infections, viral illnesses in particular, may thus result from residual TLR3 responses. We report here an autosomal recessive form of complete TLR3 deficiency in a young man who developed HSE in childhood but remained normally resistant to other infections. This patient is compound heterozygous for two loss-of-function TLR3 alleles, resulting in an absence of response to TLR3 activation by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and related agonists in his fibroblasts. Moreover, upon infection of the patient's fibroblasts with HSV-1, the impairment of IFN-β and -λ production resulted in high levels of viral replication and cell death. In contrast, the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells responded normally to poly(I:C) and to all viruses tested, including HSV-1. Consistently, various TLR3-deficient leukocytes from the patient, including CD14(+) and/or CD16(+) monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and in vitro derived monocyte-derived macrophages, responded normally to both poly(I:C) and HSV-1, with the induction of antiviral IFN production. These findings identify a new genetic etiology for childhood HSE, indicating that TLR3-mediated immunity is essential for protective immunity to HSV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) during primary infection in childhood, in at least some patients. They also indicate that human TLR3 is largely redundant for responses to double-stranded RNA and HSV-1 in various leukocytes, probably accounting for the redundancy of TLR3 for host defense against viruses, including HSV-1, outside the CNS. PMID:21911422

  7. Why the affordable care act needs a better name: 'Americare'.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2010-08-01

    The culmination of a century's effort to enact universal coverage in the United States is a law with an uninspiring title, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and an even more awkward acronym, PPACA. The Obama administration has decided to call the legislation the Affordable Care Act, but the expansion of health coverage that the law sets in motion has no name, and therefore no identity. It badly needs one.

  8. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. PMID:26598303

  9. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding.

  10. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception.

  11. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  12. 76 FR 52663 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act Funding, DP-09-001

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Care Act Funding, DP-09-001 AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Centers (U48).'' It is the intent of CDC to fund the applications with Patient Protection Affordable Care... 4002 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148.). DATES: The effective...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence and Complete Plasmid Sequence of Acinetobacter lwoffii F78, an Isolate with Strong Allergy-Protective Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Hain, Torsten; Kesper, Dörthe A.; Harb, Hani; Renz, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis states that the tremendous increase in atopic diseases correlates significantly with less contact to microbes in childhood. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acinetobacter lwoffii F78, a rural cowshed isolate with strong allergy-protective properties that contains an 8,579-bp plasmid. PMID:27445377

  14. Constitutively active IRF7/IRF3 fusion protein completely protects swine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...

  15. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies.

  16. The ethics of the affordability of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Daniels, Norman

    2011-10-01

    In this essay we argue that the concept of affordable health insurance is rooted in a social obligation to protect fair equality of opportunity. Specifically, health insurance plays a limited but significant role in protecting opportunity in two ways: it helps keep people functioning normally and it protects their financial security. Together these benefits enable household members to exercise reasonable choices about their plans of life. To achieve truly affordable coverage, society must be able to contain the overall cost of health care, and health insurance must be progressively financed, meaning that those who are best able to pay for coverage should pay the largest share. While the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) falls short on both of these counts, we argue that it makes important contributions toward household affordability through the use of subsidies and regulations. The main shortcoming of the ACA is an insufficient protection against burdensome cost sharing, which we illustrate using several hypothetical scenarios. We conclude with recommendations about how to make opportunity-enhancing expansions to the current coverage subsidies. PMID:22065686

  17. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  18. Enhanced immunogenicity for CD8+ T cell induction and complete protective efficacy of malaria DNA vaccination by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Gilbert, S C; Blanchard, T J; Hanke, T; Robson, K J; Hannan, C M; Becker, M; Sinden, R; Smith, G L; Hill, A V

    1998-04-01

    Immunization with irradiated sporozoites can protect against malaria infection and intensive efforts are aimed at reproducing this effect with subunit vaccines. A particular sequence of subunit immunization with pre-erythrocytic antigens of Plasmodium berghei, consisting of single dose priming with plasmid DNA followed by a single boost with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the same antigen, induced unprecedented complete protection against P. berghei sporozoite challenge in two strains of mice. Protection was associated with very high levels of splenic peptide-specific interferon-gamma-secreting CD8+ T cells and was abrogated when the order of immunization was reversed. DNA priming followed by MVA boosting may provide a general immunization regime for induction of high levels of CD8+ T cells.

  19. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange functions: standards for Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel; consumer assistance tools and programs of an Exchange and certified application counselors. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-07-17

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel in Federally-facilitated Exchanges, including State Partnership Exchanges, and to non-Navigator assistance personnel in State Exchanges that are funded through federal Exchange Establishment grants. It finalizes the requirement that Exchanges must have a certified application counselor program. It creates conflict-of-interest, training and certification, and meaningful access standards; clarifies that any licensing, certification, or other standards prescribed by a state or Exchange must not prevent application of the provisions of title I of the Affordable Care Act; adds entities with relationships to issuers of stop loss insurance to the list of entities that are ineligible to become Navigators; and clarifies that the same ineligibility criteria that apply to Navigators apply to certain non-Navigator assistance personnel. The final rule also directs that each Exchange designate organizations which will then certify their staff members and volunteers to be application counselors that assist consumers and facilitate enrollment in qualified health plans and insurance affordability programs, and provides standards for that designation.

  20. IMPIPS: The Immune Protection-Inducing Protein Structure Concept in the Search for Steric-Electron and Topochemical Principles for Complete Fully-Protective Chemically Synthesised Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Bermúdez, Adriana; Alba, Martha Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Poloche, Luis Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Determining immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) involves defining the stereo-electron and topochemical characteristics which are essential in MHC-p-TCR complex formation. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABP) were thus synthesised to produce a large panel of IMPIPS measuring 26.5 ±3.5Å between the farthest atoms fitting into Pockets 1 to 9 of HLA-DRβ1* structures. They displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL) structure with their backbone O and N atoms orientated to establish H-bonds with specific residues from HLA-DRβ1*-peptide binding regions (PBR). Residues having specific charge and gauche+ orientation regarding p3χ1, p5χ2, and p7χ1 angles determined appropriate rotamer orientation for perfectly fitting into the TCR to induce an appropriate immune response. Immunological assays in Aotus monkeys involving IMPIPS mixtures led to promising results; taken together with the aforementioned physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically-synthesised peptides can be designed against diseases scourging humankind. PMID:25879751

  1. IMPIPS: the immune protection-inducing protein structure concept in the search for steric-electron and topochemical principles for complete fully-protective chemically synthesised vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Bermúdez, Adriana; Alba, Martha Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Poloche, Luis Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Determining immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) involves defining the stereo-electron and topochemical characteristics which are essential in MHC-p-TCR complex formation. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABP) were thus synthesised to produce a large panel of IMPIPS measuring 26.5 ±3.5Å between the farthest atoms fitting into Pockets 1 to 9 of HLA-DRβ1* structures. They displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL) structure with their backbone O and N atoms orientated to establish H-bonds with specific residues from HLA-DRβ1*-peptide binding regions (PBR). Residues having specific charge and gauche+ orientation regarding p3χ1, p5χ2, and p7χ1 angles determined appropriate rotamer orientation for perfectly fitting into the TCR to induce an appropriate immune response. Immunological assays in Aotus monkeys involving IMPIPS mixtures led to promising results; taken together with the aforementioned physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically-synthesised peptides can be designed against diseases scourging humankind. PMID:25879751

  2. Federal Home Visiting under the Affordable Care Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Kathleen; Counts, Jacqueline; Filene, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program is part of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and provides $1.5 billion over 5 years to states, territories, and tribes with the goal of delivering evidence-based home visiting services as part of a high-quality, comprehensive early childhood system that promotes…

  3. Making personalized medicine more affordable.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Precision medicine holds promise to solve the conundrums of clinical care. Foremost is the well-known but vexing problem of heterogeneity and the tyranny of the mean. Who will respond to a treatment? How can patients avoid the harms of treatments that will not work for them? And if we know who to treat, will that make care more efficient and less costly? But the converse can also be true: treatments become more expensive as the costs of development must be distributed across smaller populations. Next-generation sequencing is making genetic testing radically cheaper. But the costs of medical tests also include false-positive results, incidental findings, and the cascade of follow-up. The affordability of precision medicine is intertwined with the broader issue of affordability of our healthcare system, and will require all stakeholders to assume stewardship for access and sustainability. PMID:25728478

  4. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  5. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  6. A comparison between complete immobilisation and protected active mobilisation in sensory nerve recovery following isolated digital nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Henry, F P; Farkhad, R I; Butt, F S; O'Shaughnessy, M; O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-06-01

    Post-operative immobilisation following isolated digital nerve repair remains a controversial issue amongst the microsurgical community. Protocols differ from unit to unit and even, as evidenced in our unit, may differ from consultant to consultant. We undertook a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent isolated digital nerve repair over a 6-month period. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months. Twenty-four were managed with protected active mobilisation over a 4-week period while 22 were immobilised over the same period. Outcomes such as return to work, cold intolerance, two-point discrimination and temperature differentiation were used as indicators of clinical recovery. Our results showed that there was no significant difference noted in either clinical assessment of recovery or return to work following either post-operative protocol, suggesting that either regime may be adopted, tailored to the patient's needs and resources of the unit.

  7. Complete Protection against Influenza Virus H1N1 Strain A/PR/8/34 Challenge in Mice Immunized with Non-Adjuvanted Novirhabdovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Ronan N.; Mérour, Emilie; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Novirhabdoviruses like Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) are fish-infecting Rhabdoviruses belonging to the Mononegavirales order. By reverse genetics, we previously showed that a recombinant VHSV expressing the West Nile Virus (WNV) E glycoprotein could serve as a vaccine platform against WNV. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of the Novirhabdovirus platform as a vaccine against influenza virus. Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses, rVHSV-HA and rIHNV-HA, expressing at the viral surface the hemagglutinin HA ectodomain were generated and used to immunized mice. We showed that mice immunized with either, rVHSV-HA or rIHNV-HA, elicited a strong neutralizing antibody response against influenza virus. A complete protection was conferred to the immunized mice when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza H1N1 A/PR/8/34 virus. Furthermore we showed that although acting as inert antigen in mice, since naturally inactivated over 20°C, mice immunized with rVHSV-HA or rIHNV-HA in the absence of adjuvant were also completely protected from a lethal challenge. Novirhabdoviruses platform are of particular interest as vaccines for mammals since they are cost effective to produce, relatively easy to generate and very effective to protect immunized animals. PMID:27711176

  8. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  9. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  12. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR −/−) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

  13. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge.

    PubMed

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-06-17

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field.

  14. Piglets with maternally derived antibodies from sows immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 were completely protected against lethal CSFV challenge.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shui-Li; Du, Mingliang; Lei, Jian-Lin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yimin; Ji, Shengwei; Xiang, Guang-Tao; Li, Lian-Feng; Cong, Xin; Luo, Yuzi; Shao, Lina; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Sun, Yuan

    2016-07-15

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important infectious disease of pigs caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV). To facilitate the eradication of CSF in endemic areas, a marker vaccine enabling differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is urgently needed. Previously, we have demonstrated that the DIVA vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-vectored Semliki Forest virus replicon expressing the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, induces complete protection from lethal CSFV challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) from sows immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 can effectively protect piglets against lethal CSFV challenge. Three groups of five-week-old piglets (n=4), with or without MDAs, were challenged with the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. Clinical signs, CSFV-specific antibodies, viremia and pathological and histopathological changes were monitored. The results showed that the piglets with MDAs from the sow immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 were protected clinically, virologically and pathologically, while the piglets with undetectable MDAs from the rAdV-SFV-E2-immunized sow were partially protected (2/4 survival), in contrast with the piglets from the non-vaccinated sow, which displayed CSF-typical clinical signs, viremia, deaths (4/4) and pathological/histopathological lesions. These results indicate that MDAs from the sow immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 are able to confer full passive immunity to newborn piglets. PMID:27283854

  15. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  16. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  17. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  18. The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is important to recognize the political and policy accomplishments of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), anticipate its limitations, and use the levers it provides strategically to address the problems it does not resolve. Passage of the ACA broke the political logjam that long stymied national progress toward equitable, quality, universal, affordable health care. It extends coverage for the uninsured who are disproportionately low income and people of color, curbs health insurance abuses, and initiates improvements in the quality of care. However, challenges to affordability and cost control persist. Public health advocates should mobilize for coverage for abortion care and for immigrants, encourage public-sector involvement in negotiating health care prices, and counter disinformation by opponents on the right. PMID:23409911

  19. A duck enteritis virus-vectored bivalent live vaccine provides fast and complete protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-11-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 10(6) PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks.

  20. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change.

  1. The Affordable Care Act: a primer for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny T; Israel, Jacqueline S; Poore, Samuel O; Rao, Venkat K

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, sometimes referred to as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010. It represents the most extensive overhaul of the country's health care system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The Affordable Care Act has two goals. The first goal is to reduce the uninsured population in the United States. Key elements to covering the uninsured include the following: (1) expanding Medicaid coverage for low-income individuals and (2) establishing health insurance marketplaces for moderate-income individuals with subsidies and tax cuts in an effort to make health insurance more affordable. The second goal of the Affordable Care Act is to address concerns about quality and the overall cost of U.S. health care. It is imperative that plastic surgeons thoroughly understand the impact that the Affordable Care Act will undoubtedly have on the country, on our patients, and on our clinical practices. Plastic surgery will see many changes in the future. This will include an overall increase in the number of insured patients, a push toward joining accountable care organizations, and a shift in payment systems to bundled reimbursement for episodes of care. In this article, the authors describe how these changes are likely to occur and what plastic surgeons must do to be part of the change. PMID:25347659

  2. Induction of cellular glutathione-linked enzymes and catalase by the unique chemoprotective agent, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione in rat cardiomyocytes affords protection against oxidative cell injury.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingxiang; Li, Yunbo

    2002-06-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Consistent with this notion, administration of exogenous antioxidative compounds has been shown to provide protection against oxidative cardiac injury. However, whether induction of endogenous cellular antioxidants by chemicals (drugs) also offers protection against oxidative cardiac injury has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, with rat cardiomyocyte H9C2 cells as an in vitro model, we have investigated the induction of cellular antioxidants by the unique chemoprotective agent, 3 H -1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) and the protective effects of the D3T-induced cellular antioxidants against ROS-mediated injury in cardiac cells. Incubation of H9C2 cells with micromolar concentrations of D3T for 24 h resulted in a significant induction of a battery of cellular antioxidants, including reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, GSSG reductase, GSH S-transferase and catalase. To further examine the protective effects of the induced endogenous antioxidants against oxidative cell injury, H9C2 cells were pre-treated with D3T and then incubated with xanthine oxidase (XO) plus xanthine, a system that generates ROS. We observed that D3T pre-treatment of H9C2 cells led to significant protection against XO/xanthine-induced cytotoxicity as determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and morphological changes. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that a number of endogenous antioxidants in cardiomyocytes can be induced by exposure to D3T, and that this chemical (drug) induction of cellular antioxidants is accompanied by markedly increased resistance to ROS-mediated cardiac cell injury.

  3. Complete protection against P. berghei malaria upon heterologous prime/boost immunization against circumsporozoite protein employing Salmonella type III secretion system and Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid.

    PubMed

    Tartz, Susanne; Rüssmann, Holger; Kamanova, Jana; Sebo, Peter; Sturm, Angelika; Heussler, Volker; Fleischer, Bernhard; Jacobs, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Sterile immunity against malaria can be achieved by the induction of IFNgamma-producing CD8(+) T cells that target infected hepatocytes presenting epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). In the present study we evaluate the protective efficacy of a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol based on the delivery of the CD8(+) epitope of Plasmodium berghei CSP into the MHC class I presentation pathway, by either a type III secretion system of live recombinant Salmonella and/or by direct translocation of a recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid fusion (ACT-CSP) into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A single intraperitoneal application of the recombinant ACT-CSP toxoid, as well as a single oral immunization with the Salmonella vaccine, induced a specific CD8(+) T cell response, which however conferred only a partial protection on mice against a subsequent sporozoite challenge. In contrast, a heterologous prime/boost vaccination with the live Salmonella followed by ACT-CSP led to a significant enhancement of the CSP-specific T cell response and induced complete protection in all vaccinated mice.

  4. Gauche(+) side-chain orientation as a key factor in the search for an immunogenic peptide mixture leading to a complete fully protective vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Adriana; Calderon, Dayana; Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Almonacid, Hannia; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Poloche, Andrés; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2014-04-11

    Topological and stereo-electron characteristics are essential in major histocompability class II-peptide-T-cell receptor (MHC-p-TCR) complex formation for inducing an appropriate immune response. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABPs) were synthesised for complete full protection antimalarial vaccine development producing a large panel of individually fully protection-inducing protein structures (FPIPS) and very high long-lasting antibody-inducing (VHLLAI) mHABPs. Most of those which did not interfere, compete, inhibit or suppress their individual VHLLAI or FPIPS activity contained or displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL) structure when mixed. Here we show that amino acid side-chains located in peptide binding region (PBR) positions p3 and p7 displayed specific electron charges and side-chain gauche(+) orientation for interacting with the TCR. Based on the above, and previously described physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, full protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically synthesised mHABP mixtures can be designed for developing vaccines against diseases scourging humankind, malaria being one of them. PMID:24582630

  5. Predictors of Smoke-Free Policies in Affordable Multiunit Housing, North Carolina, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Suttie, Janet; Baker, Laura; Agans, Robert; Xue, Wei; Bowling, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoke-free policies can effectively protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in multiunit housing. We surveyed all affordable multiunit housing properties in North Carolina to determine the statewide prevalence of smoke-free policies and to identify predictors of smoke-free policies. Methods Representatives of affordable housing properties in North Carolina completed a mailed or online survey during June through October 2013. The primary outcome measure was presence of a smoke-free policy, defined as prohibiting smoking in all residential units. We used χ2 analysis and multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of smoke-free policies. Results Of 1,865 eligible properties, responses were received for 1,063 (57%). A total of 16.5% of properties had policies that prohibited smoking in all residential units, while 69.6% prohibited smoking in indoor common areas. In multivariate analysis, an increase in the number of children per unit was associated with a decrease in the odds of having a smoke-free policy at most properties. Newer properties across all company sizes were more likely to have smoke-free policies. Accessing units from interior hallways predicted smoke-free policies among medium-sized companies. Conclusion More smoke-free policies in affordable multiunit housing are needed to protect vulnerable populations, particularly children, from SHS exposure. Public health professionals should continue to educate housing operators about SHS and the benefits of smoke-free policies at all properties, including older ones and ones where units are accessed from outside rather than from an interior hallway. PMID:25974143

  6. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  7. Small businesses and the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Nicholson, Jennifer L; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several short- and long-term provisions designed to help small businesses pay for and maintain health insurance for their workers, and to allow workers without employer coverage to gain access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance. Provisions include a small business tax credit to offset premium costs for firms that offer coverage starting this taxable year, establishment of state-based insurance exchanges that promise to lower administrative costs and pool risk more broadly, and creation of new market rules and an essential benefit standard to protect small firms and their workers. Analysis shows that up to 16.6 million workers are in firms that would be eligible for the tax credit in 2010 to 2013. Over the next 10 years, small businesses and organizations could receive an estimated $40 billion in federal support through the premium credit program. PMID:20812427

  8. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  10. Can consumers make affordable care affordable? The value of choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric J; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a "smart" default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  11. Can Consumers Make Affordable Care Affordable? The Value of Choice Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T.; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a “smart” default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  12. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn't appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  13. Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn`t appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

  14. College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

  15. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  16. Methyltransferase-Defective Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines Provide Complete Protection against Challenge with the Homologous Colorado Strain and the Heterologous Minnesota Strain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Rauf, Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shilo, Konstantin; Yu, Qingzhong; Saif, Y. M.; Lu, Xingmeng; Yu, Lian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. Since its discovery in the 1970s, aMPV has been recognized as an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2′-O positions. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant aMPV (raMPV) Colorado strains carrying mutations in the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding site in the CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2′-O, but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) young turkeys. Importantly, turkeys vaccinated with these MTase-defective raMPVs triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody and were completely protected from challenge with homologous aMPV Colorado strain and heterologous aMPV Minnesota strain. Collectively, our results indicate (i) that aMPV lacking 2′-O methylation is highly attenuated in vitro and in vivo and (ii) that inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for aMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE Paramyxoviruses include many economically and agriculturally important viruses such as avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human parainfluenza virus type 3, and measles virus, and highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus. For many of them, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral drug. These viruses share common

  17. Broken affordances, broken objects: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Giovanni; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Rodà, Francesca; Riggio, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that specific components of motor programs are automatically activated when they are afforded by object related pragmatic features. Among these features the handle appears to be particularly salient for interacting with an object. The aim of this study was to test the modulation of the motor system when object features, particularly relevant for the action, like the object's handle, are violated. In order to address this issue a TMS paradigm was used in which familiar objects with a whole or broken handle, positioned to the right or to the left, were centrally presented. A control condition was also included in which a symbol ('#' character) was shown in the right or in the left visual field. Participants had to watch stimuli carefully. The left hemisphere hand motor area was magnetically stimulated 200 ms after stimulus presentation. Results showed that MEP areas were larger when the handle was located to the right side consistent with the visuomotor role of this feature, but only when the handle was complete. The present data (1) suggest a more active role of the dorsal stream in building up object knowledge and (2) allow one to rule out the role of any asymmetrical aspect of an object in motor coding. PMID:19615389

  18. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  19. Affordable Care Organizations and Bundled Pricing: A New Philosophy of Care.

    PubMed

    Barinaga, Gonzalo; Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Siegrist, Richard B; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Innovation was chartered to develop new models of health care delivery. The changes meant a drastic need to restructure the health care system. To minimize costs and optimize quality, new laws encourage continuity in health care delivery within an integrated system. Affordable care organizations provided a model of high-quality care while reducing costs. Bundled payments can have a substantial effect on the national expenditures. This article examines new developments in bundle payments, affordable care organizations, and gainsharing agreements as they pertain to arthroplasty. PMID:27637657

  20. Affordable Care Organizations and Bundled Pricing: A New Philosophy of Care.

    PubMed

    Barinaga, Gonzalo; Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Siegrist, Richard B; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Innovation was chartered to develop new models of health care delivery. The changes meant a drastic need to restructure the health care system. To minimize costs and optimize quality, new laws encourage continuity in health care delivery within an integrated system. Affordable care organizations provided a model of high-quality care while reducing costs. Bundled payments can have a substantial effect on the national expenditures. This article examines new developments in bundle payments, affordable care organizations, and gainsharing agreements as they pertain to arthroplasty.

  1. Navigating the Affordable Care Act and the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kim L; Arora, Shifali

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) is a critically important yet complex piece of legislation with far reaching impacts on patient care especially for those with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The tenets of the Affordable Care Act affect not only those purchasing new plans through the marketplaces but also Americans across the country as it sets baseline standards for many aspects of coverage. This review will address the fundamental goals that drove the inception of the legislation, the impact of the Affordable Care Act on day-to-day patient care, and the key components of the marketplace plans and potential subsidies.

  2. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  3. To repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. King, Steve [R-IA-5

    2010-03-25

    06/16/2010 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. King (IA). Petition No: 111-11. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 6/16/2010, a motion was filed to discharge the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Ways and Means, Education and Labor, the Judiciary, Natural Resources, Rules, House Administration, and Appropriations from consideration of H.R.4972. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for... Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  5. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  6. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford.

  7. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  8. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  9. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  10. Limb apraxia and the "affordance competition hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects "afford", based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the "affordance competition hypothesis" (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that "affordance competition" may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way of

  11. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  12. Learning to grasp and extract affordances: the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model.

    PubMed

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The activity of certain parietal neurons has been interpreted as encoding affordances (directly perceivable opportunities) for grasping. Separate computational models have been developed for infant grasp learning and affordance learning, but no single model has yet combined these processes in a neurobiologically plausible way. We present the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model that simultaneously learns grasp affordances from visual object features and motor parameters for planning grasps using trial-and-error reinforcement learning. As in the Infant Learning to Grasp Model, we model a stage of infant development prior to the onset of sophisticated visual processing of hand-object relations, but we assume that certain premotor neurons activate neural populations in primary motor cortex that synergistically control different combinations of fingers. The ILGA model is able to extract affordance representations from visual object features, learn motor parameters for generating stable grasps, and generalize its learned representations to novel objects.

  13. The Affordable Care Act, remedy, and litigation reform.

    PubMed

    Maher, Brendan S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) rewrote the law of private health insurance. How the ACA rewrote the law of civil remedies, however, is a question largely unexamined by scholars. Courts everywhere, including the U.S. Supreme Court, will soon confront this important issue. This Article offers a foundational treatment of the ACA on remedy. It predicts a series of flashpoints over which litigation reform battles will be fought. It identifies several themes that will animate those conflicts and trigger others. It explains how judicial construction of the statute's functional predecessor, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), converted a protective statute into a uniquely effective piece of federal litigation reform. Ultimately, it considers whether the ACA--which incorporates, modifies, and rejects ERISA in several notable ways--will experience a similar fate.

  14. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  15. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What is affordable housing? Eligible affordable housing is defined in section 4(2) of NAHASDA and is described...

  17. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  18. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  19. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  20. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the additional monthly costs of utilities and other monthly housing costs, such as condominium and... at reasonable terms, energy conservation, and improvements that will entail low-cost maintenance. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Affordability standards....

  1. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  2. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  3. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  4. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  5. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-07-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  6. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  7. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to "afford" an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by "breaking" the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.

  8. Science Supporting Numeric Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: A Synopsis of Research Completed for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of numeric nutri...

  9. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis: A Summary of Completed Studies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-11-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream.

  10. A Replication-Defective Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trivalent Vaccine Confers Complete Protection against Plague in Mice and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Klages, Curtis; Erova, Tatiana E; Telepnev, Maxim; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Baze, Wallace B; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K; Lawrence, William S; Patrikeev, Igor; Peel, Jennifer E; Andersson, Jourdan A; Kozlova, Elena V; Tiner, Bethany L; Peterson, Johnny W; McWilliams, David; Patel, Snehal; Rothe, Eric; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV). Immunization of mice with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by either the intramuscular (i.m.) or the intranasal (i.n.) route provided protection superior to that with the monovalent rAd5-LcrV vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague when animals were challenged with Y. pestis CO92. Preexisting adenoviral immunity did not diminish the protective response, and the protection was always higher when mice were administered one i.n. dose of the trivalent vaccine (priming) followed by a single i.m. booster dose of the purified YFV antigen. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by the prime-boost strategy provided 100% protection against a stringent aerosol challenge dose of CO92 to animals that had preexisting adenoviral immunity. The vaccinated and challenged macaques had no signs of disease, and the invading pathogen rapidly cleared with no histopathological lesions. This is the first report showing the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored trivalent vaccine against pneumonic plague in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. PMID:27170642

  11. A Replication-Defective Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trivalent Vaccine Confers Complete Protection against Plague in Mice and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Klages, Curtis; Erova, Tatiana E; Telepnev, Maxim; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Baze, Wallace B; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K; Lawrence, William S; Patrikeev, Igor; Peel, Jennifer E; Andersson, Jourdan A; Kozlova, Elena V; Tiner, Bethany L; Peterson, Johnny W; McWilliams, David; Patel, Snehal; Rothe, Eric; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV). Immunization of mice with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by either the intramuscular (i.m.) or the intranasal (i.n.) route provided protection superior to that with the monovalent rAd5-LcrV vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague when animals were challenged with Y. pestis CO92. Preexisting adenoviral immunity did not diminish the protective response, and the protection was always higher when mice were administered one i.n. dose of the trivalent vaccine (priming) followed by a single i.m. booster dose of the purified YFV antigen. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by the prime-boost strategy provided 100% protection against a stringent aerosol challenge dose of CO92 to animals that had preexisting adenoviral immunity. The vaccinated and challenged macaques had no signs of disease, and the invading pathogen rapidly cleared with no histopathological lesions. This is the first report showing the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored trivalent vaccine against pneumonic plague in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models.

  12. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria... meeting. SUMMARY: EPA is holding an initial meeting of the Arsenic Small Systems Working Group to provide... Appropriations Act of 2012 directs the Environmental Protection Agency to convene an Arsenic Small...

  13. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  14. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  15. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  16. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  18. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to “afford” an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by “breaking” the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool. PMID:26441612

  19. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA.

  20. Affordable health benefits for workers without employer coverage.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L; Jones, S B

    1998-02-01

    With 42 million individuals lacking health insurance in 1996, an increase of 1.1 million uninsured from the previous year, new initiatives to deal with health insurance problems merit a high priority among domestic policy initiatives. This paper examines the opportunities for assisting full-time workers (and their families) who do not receive employer-paid health insurance-a group that now includes 49 million individuals-by using three policy tools that Congress and President Clinton have already agreed to use in recent healthcare legislation: (a) equitable tax assistance; (b) market reforms; and (c) competition among health plans that offer economical benefits. Estimates for a model plan illustrate that such strategies could make decent private health insurance more affordable and more accessible for workers and their families who want to purchase it; family insurance protection, with guaranteed issue of insurance and large-group-rated premiums, could be offered at potential savings of 42% (or more). Premiums for worker's coverage, after tax assistance, would be below $1,200 per year, i.e., less than 60 cents per hour. These market-oriented reforms can be accomplished with a limited government role, and, after start-up costs, ongoing federal expenses would be modest, predictable, and controllable. When combined with the new $24 billion child health initiative to assist low-income families, the proposed plan would provide considerable progress toward universal access to affordable insurance coverage.

  1. Affordances of instrumentation in general chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate measuring tool for general chemistry labs. They see the probeware as easy to use, portable, and able to interact with computers. Students find that the PASCO(TM) probeware system is useful in their general chemistry labs, more advanced chemistry labs, and in other science classes, and can be used in a variety of labs done in general chemistry. Students learn the affordances of the probeware through the lab manual, the laboratory teaching assistant, by trial and error, and from each other. The use of probeware systems provides lab instructors the opportunity to focus on the concepts illustrated by experiments and the opportunity to spend time discussing the results. In order to teach effectively, the instructor must know the correct name of the components involved, how to assemble and disassemble it correctly, how to troubleshoot the software, and must be able to replace broken or missing components quickly. The use of podcasts or Web-based videos should increase student understanding of affordances of the probeware.

  2. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO2-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important ``affordability'' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  3. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-21

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO{sub 2}-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

  4. Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandyke, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

  5. Complete protection from repeated vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus exposures in macaques by a topical gel containing tenofovir alone or with emtricitabine.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Urvi M; Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Cong, Mian-er; Jia, Hongwei; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Guenthner, Patricia; Smith, James; Kersh, Ellen; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Novembre, Francis J; Otten, Ron; Folks, Thomas; Heneine, Walid

    2009-10-01

    New-generation gels that deliver potent antiretroviral drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have renewed hopes for topical prophylaxis as a prevention strategy. Previous preclinical research with monkey models suggested that high concentrations and drug combinations are needed for high efficacy. We evaluated two long-acting reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC), by using a twice-weekly repeat challenge macaque model and showed that a preexposure vaginal application of gel with 1% TFV alone or in combination with 5% FTC fully protected macaques from a total of 20 exposures to simian-human immunodeficiency virus SF162p3. FTC and TFV were detected in plasma 30 min after vaginal application, suggesting rapid absorption. FTC was detected more frequently than TFV and showed higher levels, reflecting the fivefold-higher concentration of this drug than of TFV. Two of 12 repeatedly exposed but protected macaques showed limited T-cell priming, which did not induce resistance to infection when macaques were rechallenged. Thus, single drugs with durable antiviral activity can provide highly effective topical prophylaxis and overcome the need for noncoital use or for drug combinations which are more complex and costly to formulate and approve.

  6. Vaccination with a modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1a vaccine completely protected calves against challenge with BVDV type 1b strains.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Umbaugh, Jerry; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-12-10

    Vaccination plays a significant role in the control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection and spread. Recent studies revealed that type 1b is the predominant BVDV type 1 subgenotype, representing more than 75% of field isolates of BVDV-1. However, nearly all current, commercially available BVDV type 1 vaccines contain BVDV-1a strains. Previous studies have indicated that anti-BVDV sera, induced by BVDV-1a viruses, show less neutralization activity to BVDV-1b isolates than type 1a. Therefore, it is critically important to evaluate BVDV-1a vaccines in their ability to prevent BVDV-1b infection in calves. In current studies, calves were vaccinated subcutaneously, intradermally or intranasally with a single dose of a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing a BVDV-1a strain, and were challenged with differing BVDV-1b strains to determine the efficacy and duration of immunity of the vaccine against these heterologous virus strains. Vaccinated calves, in all administration routes, were protected from respiratory disease caused by the BVDV-1b viruses, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding and greater white blood cell counts than non-vaccinated control animals. The BVDV-1a vaccine elicited efficacious protection in calves against each BVDV-1b challenge strain, with a duration of immunity of at least 6 months.

  7. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  8. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  9. Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J.

    1996-11-01

    The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

  10. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  11. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  12. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  13. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  14. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  18. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-07-01

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. PMID:27110709

  19. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  20. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job. PMID:23599987

  1. Affordable proteomics: the two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Marc

    2003-06-01

    Numerous proteomic methodologies exist, but most require a heavy investment in expertise and technology. This puts these approaches out of reach for many laboratories and small companies, rarely allowing proteomics to be used as a pilot approach for biomarker or target identification. Two proteomic approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and the two-hybrid systems, are currently available to most researchers. The two-hybrid systems, though accommodating to large-scale experiments, were originally designed as practical screens, that by comparison to current proteomics tools were small-scale, affordable and technically feasible. The screens rapidly generated data, identifying protein interactions that were previously uncharacterized. The foundation for a two-hybrid proteomic investigation can be purchased as separate kits from a number of companies. The true power of the technique lies not in its affordability, but rather in its portability. The two-hybrid system puts proteomics back into laboratories where the output of the screens can be evaluated by researchers with experience in the particular fields of basic research, cancer biology, toxicology or drug development.

  2. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27668424

  3. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  5. Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welbeck, Rashida; Diamond, John; Mayer, Alexander; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2014-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen sharply over the last 40 years. Although more credit and grant aid have been made available to students, there are still major gaps between aid and the cost of attendance for many students in the United States, all of whom are left to figure out whether they can afford the remaining costs associated with…

  6. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  7. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid–fluid and fluid–substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  8. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  9. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  10. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  11. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population.

  12. Employer Reactions to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Muller, Leslie A; Isely, Paul; Levin, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Although the implementation of parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was delayed until 2015, many firms had already made changes to their health insurance plans and their business practices. This article reports results from a survey administered to western Michigan firms in October 2013 requesting information on any changes they made in response to ACA. The authors found that although 89% of employers planned to offer health insurance in 2014, that number dropped to 66% in 2015. The main ways organizations were controlling health costs were by changing prescription coverage, passing on the costs to employees through higher copays and premiums and offering more high-deductible health plans with health savings accounts. Employers also were altering business practices by decreasing future hiring and decreasing the hours of part-time workers. The authors find that many of these changes were due to the uncertainty firms were facing during the ACA implementation process. PMID:26540944

  13. Defense-in-depth by mucosally administered anti-HIV dimeric IgA2 and systemic IgG1 mAbs: complete protection of rhesus monkeys from mucosal SHIV challenge.

    PubMed

    Sholukh, Anton M; Watkins, Jennifer D; Vyas, Hemant K; Gupta, Sandeep; Lakhashe, Samir K; Thorat, Swati; Zhou, Mingkui; Hemashettar, Girish; Bachler, Barbara C; Forthal, Donald N; Villinger, Francois; Sattentau, Quentin J; Weiss, Robin A; Agatic, Gloria; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Heeney, Jonathan L; Ruprecht, Ruth M

    2015-04-21

    Although IgA is the most abundantly produced immunoglobulin in humans, its role in preventing HIV-1 acquisition, which occurs mostly via mucosal routes, remains unclear. In our passive mucosal immunizations of rhesus macaques (RMs), the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb) HGN194, given either as dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) or dIgA2 intrarectally (i.r.), protected 83% or 17% of the RMs against i.r. simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge, respectively. Data from the RV144 trial implied that vaccine-induced plasma IgA counteracted the protective effector mechanisms of IgG1 with the same epitope specificity. We thus hypothesized that mucosal dIgA2 might diminish the protection provided by IgG1 mAbs targeting the same epitope. To test our hypothesis, we administered HGN194 IgG1 intravenously (i.v.) either alone or combined with i.r. HGN194 dIgA2. We enrolled SHIV-exposed, persistently aviremic RMs protected by previously administered nmAbs; RM anti-human IgG responses were undetectable. However, low-level SIV Gag-specific proliferative T-cell responses were found. These animals resemble HIV-exposed, uninfected humans, in which local and systemic cellular immune responses have been observed. HGN194 IgG1 and dIgA2 used alone and the combination of the two neutralized the challenge virus equally well in vitro. All RMs given only i.v. HGN194 IgG1 became infected. In contrast, all RMs given HGN194 IgG1+dIgA2 were completely protected against high-dose i.r. SHIV-1157ipEL-p challenge. These data imply that combining suboptimal defenses at the mucosal and systemic levels can completely prevent virus acquisition. Consequently, active vaccination should focus on defense-in-depth, a strategy that seeks to build up defensive fall-back positions well behind the fortified frontline.

  14. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act: a Status Update.

    PubMed

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Vickers, Jasmine; Elam, Angela; Wilson, M Roy

    2015-12-01

    Persistent racial and ethnic health disparities exist in the USA, despite decades of research and public health initiatives. Several factors contribute to health disparities, including (but not limited to) implicit provider bias, access to health care, social determinants, and biological factors. Disparities in health by race/ethnicity are unacceptable and correctable. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive legislation that is focused on improving health care access, quality, and cost control. This health care reform includes specific provisions which focus on preventive care, the standardized collection of data on race, ethnicity, primary language and disability status, and health information technology. Although some provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have not been implemented, such as funding for the U.S. Public Health Sciences track, which would have addressed the shortage of medical professionals in the USA who are trained to use patient-centered, interdisciplinary, and care coordination approaches, this legislation is still poised to make great strides toward eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the unprecedented opportunities that exist for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health in the USA. PMID:26668787

  15. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act: a Status Update.

    PubMed

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Vickers, Jasmine; Elam, Angela; Wilson, M Roy

    2015-12-01

    Persistent racial and ethnic health disparities exist in the USA, despite decades of research and public health initiatives. Several factors contribute to health disparities, including (but not limited to) implicit provider bias, access to health care, social determinants, and biological factors. Disparities in health by race/ethnicity are unacceptable and correctable. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive legislation that is focused on improving health care access, quality, and cost control. This health care reform includes specific provisions which focus on preventive care, the standardized collection of data on race, ethnicity, primary language and disability status, and health information technology. Although some provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have not been implemented, such as funding for the U.S. Public Health Sciences track, which would have addressed the shortage of medical professionals in the USA who are trained to use patient-centered, interdisciplinary, and care coordination approaches, this legislation is still poised to make great strides toward eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the unprecedented opportunities that exist for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health in the USA.

  16. A general protocol to afford enantioenriched linear homoprenylic amines.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Irene; Foubelo, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gomez, Jose C

    2013-11-21

    The reaction of a readily obtained chiral branched homoprenylamonium salt with a range of aldehydes, including aliphatic substrates, affords the corresponding linear isomers in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  17. 47 CFR 27.1221 - Interference protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference protection. 27.1221 Section 27... Technical Standards § 27.1221 Interference protection. (a) Interference protection will be afforded to BRS... height benchmark (hbm). (c) Protection for receiving antennas not exceeding the height benchmark....

  18. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (<138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL], 138–250 percent FPL, 250–400 percent FPL, and >400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  19. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  20. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  1. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  2. Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Pérez-Blanco, C. D.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme events are becoming more frequent and intense, inflating the economic damages and social hardship set-off by natural catastrophes. Amidst budgetary cuts, there is a growing concern on societies' ability to design solvent disaster recovery strategies, while addressing equity and affordability concerns. The participation of private sector along with public one through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) has gained on importance as a means to address these seemingly conflicting objectives through the provision of (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance. This is the case of many OECD countries, notably some EU Member States such as the United Kingdom and Spain. The EU legislator has adapted to this new scenario and recently produced major reforms in the legislation and regulation that govern the framework in which PPPs for (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance develop. This paper has a dual objective: (1) review the complex legal background that rules the provision of insurance against natural catastrophes in the EU after these major reforms, (2) assess the implications of the reforms and offer concise Policy Guiding Principles.

  3. Scaling affordances for human reach actions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeg Joo; Mark, Leonard S

    2004-12-01

    A methodology developed by Cesari and Newell [Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (1999). The scaling of human grip configuration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25, 927-935; Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (2000). The body-scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years. Developmental Psychobiology 36, 301-310] was used to delineate the roles of an object's weight (W) and distance (D) as well as the actor's strength (S) in determining the macroscopic action used to reach for the object. Participants reached for objects of five different weights placed at 10 distances. The findings of a single discriminant analysis revealed that when object weight is scaled in terms of each individual's strength and reach distance is scaled in terms of each individual's maximum-seated reach distance, a single discriminant analysis was able to predict 90% of the reach modes used by both men and women. The result of the discriminant analysis was used to construct a body-scaled equation, K=lnD+ln(W/S)/36, similar in form to the one derived by Cesari and Newell, accurately predicted the reach action used. Our findings indicate that Cesari and Newell's method can identify a complex relationship between geometric and dynamic constraints that determine the affordances for different reach actions. PMID:15664673

  4. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    PubMed

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

  5. The U.S. health insurance marketplace: are premiums truly affordable?

    PubMed

    Graetz, Ilana; Kaplan, Cameron M; Kaplan, Erin K; Bailey, James E; Waters, Teresa M

    2014-10-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires that individuals have health insurance or pay a penalty. Individuals are exempt from paying this penalty if the after-subsidy cost of the least-expensive plan available to them is greater than 8% of their income. For this study, premium data for all health plans offered on the state and federal health insurance marketplaces were collected; the after-subsidy cost of premiums for the least-expensive bronze plan for every county in the United States was calculated; and variations in premium affordability by age, income, and geographic area were assessed. Results indicated that-although marketplace subsidies ensure affordable health insurance for most persons in the United States-many individuals with incomes just above the subsidy threshold will lack affordable coverage and will be exempt from the mandate. Furthermore, young individuals with low incomes often pay as much as or more than older individuals for bronze plans. If substantial numbers of younger, healthier adults choose to remain uninsured because of cost, health insurance premiums across all ages may increase over time. PMID:25199512

  6. An H1-H3 chimeric influenza virosome confers complete protection against lethal challenge with PR8 (H1N1) and X47 (H3N2) viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Asghar; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Tavassoti Kheiri, Masoumeh; Jamali, Abbas; Mazaheri, Vahideh; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad

    2014-12-01

    Annual health threats and economic damages caused by influenza virus are still a main concern of the World Health Organization and other health departments all over the world. An influenza virosome is a highly efficient immunomodulating carrier mimicking the natural antigen presentation pathway and has shown an excellent tolerability profile due to its biocompatibility and purity. The major purpose of this study was to construct a new chimeric virosome influenza vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins derived from the A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) and A/X/47 (H3N2) (X47) viruses, and to evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine candidate in mice. A single intramuscular vaccination with the chimeric virosomes provided complete protection against lethal challenge with the PR8 and X47 viruses. The chimeric virosomes induced high IgG antibody responses as well as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. HAI titers following the chimeric virosome vaccination were at the same level as the whole inactivated influenza vaccine. Mice immunized with the chimeric virosomes displayed considerably less weight loss and exhibited significantly reduced viral load in their lungs compared with the controls. The chimeric virosomes can be used as an innovative vaccine formulation to confer protection against a broad range of influenza viruses. PMID:25066138

  7. An H1-H3 chimeric influenza virosome confers complete protection against lethal challenge with PR8 (H1N1) and X47 (H3N2) viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Asghar; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Tavassoti Kheiri, Masoumeh; Jamali, Abbas; Mazaheri, Vahideh; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad

    2014-12-01

    Annual health threats and economic damages caused by influenza virus are still a main concern of the World Health Organization and other health departments all over the world. An influenza virosome is a highly efficient immunomodulating carrier mimicking the natural antigen presentation pathway and has shown an excellent tolerability profile due to its biocompatibility and purity. The major purpose of this study was to construct a new chimeric virosome influenza vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins derived from the A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) and A/X/47 (H3N2) (X47) viruses, and to evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine candidate in mice. A single intramuscular vaccination with the chimeric virosomes provided complete protection against lethal challenge with the PR8 and X47 viruses. The chimeric virosomes induced high IgG antibody responses as well as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. HAI titers following the chimeric virosome vaccination were at the same level as the whole inactivated influenza vaccine. Mice immunized with the chimeric virosomes displayed considerably less weight loss and exhibited significantly reduced viral load in their lungs compared with the controls. The chimeric virosomes can be used as an innovative vaccine formulation to confer protection against a broad range of influenza viruses.

  8. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  9. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  10. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  11. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable.

  12. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable. PMID:27355570

  13. Affordance Analysis--Matching Learning Tasks with Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of "affordances" is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology…

  14. One Hand, Two Objects: Emergence of Affordance in Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on affordances typically focus on single objects. We investigated whether affordances are modulated by the context, defined by the relation between two objects and a hand. Participants were presented with pictures displaying two manipulable objects linked by a functional (knife-butter), a spatial (knife-coffee mug), or by no relation. They…

  15. The Influence of Affordability in Strategic Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    In state houses around the country, one of the common higher education themes is affordability. As tuition costs have increased at rates exceeding that of inflation, students and families have pressed their legislative representatives to examine these increases. Affordability is a term used by various constituent groups, and its definition varies…

  16. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  17. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.101 What...

  19. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  20. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  1. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  2. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  3. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  4. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  5. Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings.

  6. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick. PMID:25265646

  7. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call to transform the organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture.

  8. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide.

  9. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call to transform the organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture. PMID:25068882

  10. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call for value-based leadership to transform quality.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals in America face a daunting and historical challenge starting in 2013 as leadership navigates their organizations toward a new port of call-the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law in March 2010 and held in abeyance waiting on 2 pivotal points-the Supreme Court's June 2012 ruling upholding the constitutionality of the ACA and the 2012 presidential election of Barack Obama bringing to reality to health care organizations that leadership now must implement the mandates of health care delivery under the ACA. This article addresses the need for value-based leadership to transform the culture of health care organizations in order to be successful in navigating uncharted waters under the unprecedented challenges for change in the delivery of quality health care. PMID:23903938

  11. Ninety-day waiting period limitation and technical amendments to certain health coverage requirements under the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-02-24

    These final regulations implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. These regulations also finalize amendments to existing regulations to conform to Affordable Care Act provisions. Specifically, these rules amend regulations implementing existing provisions such as some of the portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) because those provisions of the HIPAA regulations have become superseded or require amendment as a result of the market reform protections added by the Affordable Care Act.

  12. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  13. Procedures for the Handling of Retaliation Complaints Under Section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-10-13

    This document provides the final text of regulations governing employee protection (retaliation or whistleblower) claims under section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act, which added section 18C to the Fair Labor Standards Act to provide protections to employees who may have been subject to retaliation for seeking assistance under certain affordability assistance provisions (for example, health insurance premium tax credits) or for reporting potential violations of the Affordable Care Act's consumer protections (for example, the prohibition on rescissions). An interim final rule (IFR) governing these provisions and request for comments was published in the Federal Register on February 27, 2013. Thirteen comments were received; eleven were responsive to the IFR. This rule responds to those comments and establishes the final procedures and time frames for the handling of retaliation complaints under section 18C, including procedures and time frames for employee complaints to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), investigations by OSHA, appeals of OSHA determinations to an administrative law judge (ALJ) for a hearing de novo, hearings by ALJs, review of ALJ decisions by the Administrative Review Board (ARB) (acting on behalf of the Secretary of Labor), and judicial review of the Secretary of Labor's (Secretary's) final decision. It also sets forth the Secretary's interpretations of the Affordable Care Act whistleblower provision on certain matters.

  14. Object Affordances Potentiate Responses but Do Not Guide Attentional Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Ariga, Atsunori; Yamada, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Handled objects automatically activate afforded responses. The current experiment examined whether objects that afford a response are also prioritized for attentional processing in visual search. Targets were pictures of coffee cups with handles oriented either to the right or the left. Subjects searched for a target, a right-handled vs. left-handled coffee cup, among a varying number of distractor cups oriented in the opposite direction. Responses were faster when the direction of target handle and the key press were spatially matched than mismatched (stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect), but object affordance did not moderate slopes of the search functions, indicating the absence of attentional prioritization effect. These findings imply that handled objects prime afforded responses without influencing attentional prioritization. PMID:26793077

  15. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  16. Relationship between the ability of sunscreens containing 2-ethylhexyl-4'-methoxycinnamate to protect against UVR-induced inflammation, depletion of epidermal Langerhans (Ia+) cells and suppression of alloactivating capacity of murine skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Walker, S L; Morris, J; Chu, A C; Young, A R

    1994-01-01

    The UVB sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl-4'-methoxycinnamate was evaluated in hairless albino mouse skin for its ability to inhibit UVR-induced (i) oedema, (ii) epidermal Langerhans cell (Ia+) depletion and (iii) suppression of the alloactivating capacity of epidermal cells (mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction, MECLR). The sunscreen, prepared at 9% in ethanol or a cosmetic lotion, was applied prior to UVB/UVA irradiation. In some experiments there was a second application halfway through the irradiation. Single applications in both vehicles gave varying degrees of protection from oedema and Langerhans cell depletion but afforded no protection from suppression of MECLR. When the sunscreens were applied twice there was improved protection from oedema and Langerhans cell depletion and complete protection was afforded from suppression of MECLR. There was a clear linear relationship between Langerhans cell numbers and oedema with and without sunscreen application. The relationship between Langerhans cell numbers and MECLR was more complex. These data confirm published discrepancies between protection from oedema (a model for human erythema) and endpoints with immunological significance, but show that 2-ethylhexyl-4'-methoxycinnamate can afford complete immunoprotection, although protection is dependent on the application rate and vehicle.

  17. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behavior goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects. PMID:26150778

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  19. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. Joseph; Cooke, Doug; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing opinion that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget scenarios, with sustained international participation, and --- especially --- without requiring those first missions to achieve a burdensome number of goals. In response to this view, a group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December 2013. Participants reviewed scenarios for proposed affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" or "transition" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and usable definitions of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop. In the context of affordable early missions to Mars, we also discuss the recent report of the National Research Council on human space flight and a pair of recent scenarios that appear to promise reduced costs.

  20. Scientific experimentation afforded by the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Asteroid Mission (IAM) affords scientists the opportunity to perform interesting and important experimentations. This opportunity is not sufficient in its own right to mandate inclusion of science into the mission. Certain scientific experimentations are essential to the success of the mission, and are the driving force behind the inclusion of science. Instrument designs incorporate the need for direct contribution to the success of the mining mission. Examples of these applications include the search for additional candidate asteroids, especially at the Earth-Sun Trojan points, with an infrared telescope facility; a gamma ray burst detector provides the crew with real-time notification of potentially harmful solar-flare activity; and a materials processing laboratory provides information on the porosity, composition, and crystalline structure of samples to optimize the mining operations in addition to yielding great insight into the history and formation of the solar-system. Instrument designs have emphasized the use of off-the-shelf hardware, demonstrated technologies. Their scientific value is derived from the location on an interplanetary platform, not necessarily advancements in technology or detection methods. Instrumentation will be delivered to the IAM project after completion of a thorough certification program. The program will include qualification, acceptance, performance, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, vibration, electromagnetic susceptibility and compatibility, and calibration testing. After delivery to the assembly-site in low-Earth orbit, an additional series of functional and compatibility tests will be required prior to initiation of the mission. The scientific instrumentation proposed for the IAM consists of experiments using a Gamma Ray Burst Detector, a Infrared Observatory, a Materials Processing Facility, Long-Wavelength Radar, Seismic Measurement Devices, Cosmic Ray Detectors, Interplanetary Plasma Measurements, a Solar

  1. Elected Officials Travel in Parallel Universes Regarding the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative appraisal of the much debated U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often referred to as Obamacare, describes the controversy, support, and opposition from federal and state governments during the first 5.5 years since the law was passed. Its history, the impact on individual and community health status, the limitations of health reform, its accomplishments and deficiencies, and the impact of societal determinants on program implementation are presented in a refreshing, candid, objective, and knowledgeable manner. PMID:26543040

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Results on Sikorsky Aircraft Survivable Affordable Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The Survivable, Affordable, Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) will develop/produce new structural design concepts with lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity and development time, increased readiness, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts will require advanced field capable inspection technologies to help meet the SARAP structural objectives. In the area of repair, damage assessment using nondestructive inspection (NDI) is critical to identify repair location and size. The purpose of this work is to conduct an assessment of new and emerging NDI methods that can potentially satisfy the SARAP program goals.

  3. 76 FR 4377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Extension of Dependent Coverage ACTION: Notice... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Enrollment... Collection: Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice Relating to Extension of Dependent......

  4. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

  5. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability.

  6. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  7. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  8. Why do so many Americans oppose the Affordable Care Act?

    PubMed

    Dalen, James E; Waterbrook, Keith; Alpert, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed by a Democratic Congress and signed into law by a Democratic president in 2010. Republican congressmen, governors, and Republican candidates have consistently opposed the ACA and have vowed to repeal it. Polls have consistently shown that it is supported by <50% of Americans. The most important goal of the ACA is to improve the health of Americans by increasing the number covered by health insurance. In the first year of its implementation, more than 10 million citizens gained health insurance. The percentage of Americans without health insurance decreased from 18% in July 2013 to 13.4% in June 2014. In addition, the ACA has eliminated many of the negative features of private insurance such as the denial of coverage for those with "prior conditions." The benefits of Medicare have been enhanced to decrease the cost of prescription drugs and to eliminate co-pays for preventive services. Despite these positive changes, a near majority of Americans still oppose the ACA, even though they approve of most of its features. They oppose the mandate that all Americans must have health insurance (the individual mandate), and they oppose a government role in health care. Yet Medicare, a mandatory insurance for seniors administered by the federal government since 1965, is overwhelmingly approved by the American public. The opposition to a government role in health care is based on the fact that that the vast majority of our citizens do not trust their government. Republicans are much less trusting of the federal government and much less supportive of a government role in health care than Democrats. The overwhelmingly negative TV ads against the ACA by the Republican candidates in the elections of 2012 and 2014 have had a major impact on Americans' views of the ACA. More than 60% of Americans have stated that most of what they know about the ACA came from watching TV. Opposition to a government role in health care

  9. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  10. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition.

  11. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  12. Essential kinematic information, athletic experience, and affordance perception for others.

    PubMed

    Weast, Julie A; Walton, Ashley; Chandler, Braylen C; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the role of different types of movement in affordance perception, as well as the influence of sports experience. Perception of another actor's maximum vertical jumping height and horizontal long-jumping distance was evaluated for basketball players, soccer players, and nonplayer controls after viewing point-light representations of the actors' movements. Perceptual reports were more accurate after jumping-related movements (walking and squatting) were viewed than after nonrelated movements (standing and twisting). Vertical jump reports were more accurate than horizontal jump reports. Basketball and soccer players demonstrated higher accuracy than did controls. This research establishes that point-light displays contain essential kinematic information sufficient to support accurate affordance perception, and athletes appear better attuned to kinematic information specifying affordances for others as a result of their sports experience.

  13. Can Low-Income Americans Afford a Healthy Diet?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra

    2010-11-01

    Many nutritional professionals believe that all Americans, regardless of income, have access to a nutritious diet of whole grains, lean meats, and fresh vegetables and fruit. In reality, food prices pose a significant barrier for many consumers who are trying to balance good nutrition with affordability. The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), commonly cited as a model of a healthy low-cost diet, achieves cost goals by relaxing some nutrition constraints and by disregarding the usual eating habits of the American population. Diet optimization techniques, when sensitive to cost and social norms, can help identify affordable, good tasting, nutrient-rich foods that are part of the mainstream American diet.

  14. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  15. 76 FR 20354 - Notice of Intent To Award Supplemental Affordable Care Act Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Affordable Care Act Funding Notice of Intent to award supplemental Affordable Care Act funding to support...: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to use Affordable Care Act (ACA....'' Funding is appropriated under the Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148), Title IV, Section...

  16. Inside the Virtual Classroom: Student Perspectives on Affordances and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates learners studying at a distance can experience perceptions of isolation and lack of "belonging" and support, which can adversely affect their learning experience and performance. Recently, the advent of affordable, accessible and reliable high-speed broadband has meant that a whole new array of digital tools to support…

  17. Learning to Identify and Actualize Affordances in a New Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Keeping abreast of new technologies and the opportunities they offer is a challenge for inservice teachers (Blake, 2008; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hanson-Smith, 2006; Hubbard, 2007; Robb, 2006). An important aspect of teacher learning about the use of technology is the ability to identify the affordances of new tools and how they can…

  18. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (b) Use or commitment of funds. Approval of applications for AHP subsidies... year-end are deemed to be used or committed if, in combination with AHP subsidies that have been... highest scoring AHP application in the Bank's final funding period of the year for its...

  19. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  20. Can Canadian Seniors on Public Pensions Afford a Nutritious Diet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Johnson, C. Shanthi; Blum, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether Canada's public pensions (Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan) provided adequate income for seniors living in Nova Scotia in 2005 to afford a basic nutritious diet. Monthly incomes were compared to essential monthly expenses for four household scenarios: (a) married couple, 80 years and 78 years, in urban Nova…

  1. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  2. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  3. Disengaged Students and Dialogic Learning: The Role of CSCL Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakmon, Benzi; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have dealt with the challenge of bridging the linguistic gap between the dialogic realm and the talk of disengaged students. Bridging this gap is particularly relevant to the CSCL community since one of its utmost aims is to promote the dialogic. This study aims to articulate how to harness the CSCL design and affordances to…

  4. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  5. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  7. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201...

  8. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  9. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  10. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fannie Mae and $4.60 billion for Freddie Mac. In addition, as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 14 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by that Enterprise's mortgage purchases shall be home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas which count toward...

  11. 24 CFR 954.307 - Homeownership: qualification as affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... whose family qualifies as a low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.307... (1- to 4-family residence, condominium unit, cooperative unit, combination manufactured home and...

  12. Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From its conception, Richardsville Elementary was designed to be an affordable net zero facility. The design team explored numerous energy saving strategies to dramatically reduce energy consumption. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing…

  13. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  14. Reinventing Financial Aid: Charting a New Course to College Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    In this provocative volume, two experts with very different points of view address the growing concern that student loan programs are not a sustainable solution to the problem of mounting college costs. They argue that the time has come to reform the financial aid system so that it is more effective in promoting college affordability, access, and…

  15. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  16. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  17. Conceptual and Physical Object Qualities Contribute Differently to Motor Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingerhoets, G.; Vandamme, K.; Vercammen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Priming studies have demonstrated that an object's intrinsic and extrinsic qualities (size, orientation) influence subsequent motor behavior thus suggesting that these object qualities "afford" actions that are congruent with the prime. We present four experiments that aim to evaluate the relative effect of conceptual and physical object qualities…

  18. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  19. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  20. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  1. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  2. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for affordable housing activities. 1006.20 Section 1006.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  4. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-03-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  5. Voters and the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M

    2014-11-13

    In this analysis of data from 27 public opinion polls, the authors examine the role of the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 congressional elections. The outcome of the elections is likely to influence implementation of the ACA and future U.S. health care policy. PMID:25353968

  6. Access and Affordability: Strategic Financial Perspectives for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, H. Peter

    The challenge to independent schools is maintaining excellent facilities and instruction while providing access to students from the widest range of financial backgrounds possible. This is difficult when many independent schools struggle to balance their budgets. There is growing evidence that independent schools are becoming less affordable and…

  7. A Few Reflections on Accountability, Affordability, and Access Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Considering accountability, affordability, and access through the experiences in Chile, East Asia, Australia, Croatia, and the United States offers a clear reminder that trends and issues in higher education are often more similar across national contexts than they are distinct. Across higher education, institutions and systems are responding to…

  8. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  9. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  10. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  11. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  12. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  13. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  14. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  15. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  16. Abduction and Affordance: A Semiotic View of Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Donald J.

    The shortcomings of the dominant information processing models of cognition are outlined, and two alterative models derived from semiotics are presented. In addition, the possibility of incorporating J. J. Gibson's ecological theory of affordance within the semiotic models is explored as a means of addressing some criticism of the latter models.…

  17. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  18. The Affordability Challenge in California Higher Education: Options for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    California's Master Plan for Higher Education represented a promise, of an affordable college education, to every person who could benefit. For decades, California's lawmakers honored that promise. Rapidly increasing college fees, coupled with higher costs for room and board, books, transportation, and healthcare are pricing students out of higher…

  19. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  20. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  1. Early Visual Perception Potentiated by Object Affordances: Evidence From a Temporal Order Judgment Task

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Yamani, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Perceived objects automatically potentiate afforded action. Object affordances also facilitate perception of such objects, and this occurrence is known as the affordance effect. This study examined whether object affordances facilitate the initial visual processing stage, or perceptual entry processes, using the temporal order judgment task. The onset of the graspable (right-handled) coffee cup was perceived earlier than that of the less graspable (left-handled) cup for right-handed participants. The affordance effect was eliminated when the coffee cups were inverted, which presumably conveyed less affordance information. These results suggest that objects preattentively potentiate the perceptual entry processes in response to their affordances.

  2. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  3. DIVA defense: Broad protection for salmonella suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine was developed to confer broad protection against multiple Salmonella serovars to prevent disease and reduce pathogen colonization and shedding. Two vaccine trials were performed in swine to determine the protection afforded by the va...

  4. University Tuition, Consumer Choice and College Affordability: Strategies for Addressing a Higher Education Affordability Challenge. A NASULGC Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Peter; Shulenburger, David

    2008-01-01

    With passage of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, the Higher Education Act (HEA) is now reauthorized. What effect will it have on U.S. higher education? Students receiving Pell grants will find that college is more affordable while those who feared that the government would exert control over learning outcomes have breathed a…

  5. A Small Peptide (CEL-1000) Derived from the β-Chain of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule Induces Complete Protection against Malaria in an Antigen-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Charoenvit, Yupin; Brice, Gary T.; Bacon, David; Majam, Victoria; Williams, Jackie; Abot, Esteban; Ganeshan, Harini; Sedegah, Martha; Doolan, Denise L.; Carucci, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    CEL-1000 (DGQEEKAGVVSTGLIGGG) is a novel potential preventative and therapeutic agent. We report that CEL-1000 confers a high degree of protection against Plasmodium sporozoite challenge in a murine model of malaria, as shown by the total absence of blood stage infection following challenge with 100 sporozoites (100% protection) and by a substantial reduction (400-fold) of liver stage parasite RNA following challenge with 50,000 sporozoites. CEL-1000 protection was demonstrated in A/J (H-2a) and C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice but not in BALB/c (H-2d) or CAF1 (A/J × BALB/c F1 hybrid) mice. In CEL-1000-treated and protected mice, high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in serum and elevated frequencies of hepatic and splenic CD4+ IFN-γ-positive T cells were detected 24 h after administration of an additional dose of CEL-1000. Treatment of A/J mice that received CEL-1000 with antibodies against IFN-γ just prior to challenge abolished the protection, and a similar treatment with antibodies against CD4+ T cells partially reduced the level of protection, while treatment with control antibodies or antibodies specific for interleukin-12 (IL-12), CD8+ T cells, or NK cells had no effect. Our data establish that the protection induced by CEL-1000 is dependent on IFN-γ and is partially dependent on CD4+ T cells but is independent of CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and IL-12 at the effector phase and does not induce a detectable antibody response. PMID:15215094

  6. Fresh Waters and Fish Diversity: Distribution, Protection and Disturbance in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.; Pearson, Richard G.; Puschendorf, Robert; Rayner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the globally poor protection of fresh waters for their intrinsic ecological values, assessments are needed to determine how well fresh waters and supported fish species are incidentally protected within existing terrestrial protected-area networks, and to identify their vulnerability to human-induced disturbances. To date, gaps in data have severely constrained any attempt to explore the representation of fresh waters in tropical regions. Methodology and Results We determined the distribution of fresh waters and fish diversity in the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia. We then used distribution data of fresh waters, fish species, human-induced disturbances, and the terrestrial protected-area network to assess the effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas for fresh waters and fish species. We also identified human-induced disturbances likely to influence the effectiveness of freshwater protection and evaluated the vulnerability of fresh waters to these disturbances within and outside protected areas. The representation of fresh waters and fish species in the protected areas of the Wet Tropics is poor: 83% of stream types defined by order, 75% of wetland types, and 89% of fish species have less than 20% of their total Wet Tropics length, area or distribution completely within IUCN category II protected areas. Numerous disturbances affect fresh waters both within and outside of protected areas despite the high level of protection afforded to terrestrial areas in the Wet Tropics (>60% of the region). High-order streams and associated wetlands are influenced by the greatest number of human-induced disturbances and are also the least protected. Thirty-two percent of stream length upstream of protected areas has at least one human-induced disturbance present. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate the need for greater consideration of explicit protection and off-reserve management for fresh waters and supported biodiversity by showing that, even in

  7. Nesting in perception of affordances for stepping and leaping.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Bai, Jiuyang; Smith, Peter J K

    2016-08-01

    Perception of affordances for a given behavior typically reflects the task-specific action capabilities of the perceiver. However, many experiments have shown a discrepancy between the perceptual and behavioral boundaries for a given behavior. One possibility for such a discrepancy is that the context of many experimental tasks transformed what is typically a dynamic perception-action task into an analytical or reflective judgment. We investigated this hypothesis with respect to perception of maximum stepping and leaping distance. For both behaviors, perception of these affordances more closely reflected action capabilities when the perceptual task was nested within a superordinate task than when it was not (regardless of whether the behavior itself was performed). Additionally, verbal reports of perception of maximum leaping distance more closely reflected action capabilities when there was an explicit time limit on such reports. The results are discussed in the context of the ecological principle of nesting and in attentional focus during motor control tasks. PMID:27220935

  8. Motivational Affordance and Risk-Taking Across Decision Domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Scholer, Abigail A

    2016-03-01

    We propose a motivational affordance account to explain both stability and variability in risk-taking propensity in major decision domains. We draw on regulatory focus theory to differentiate two types of motivation (prevention, promotion) that play a key role in predicting risk-taking. Study 1 demonstrated that prevention motivation is negatively associated with risk-taking across six key decision domains, including health/safety, ethics, recreation, gambling, investment, and social. In contrast, promotion motivation is positively associated with risk-taking in the social and investment domains. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and provided direct evidence that promotion motivation is a strong predictor of risk-taking only in domains where there is true potential for gains. Study 3 manipulated promotion (vs. prevention) motivation experimentally to demonstrate that motivational affordance is a critical mechanism for understanding risk-taking behaviors. PMID:26802189

  9. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities. PMID:26501969

  10. Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

  11. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness. PMID:23237245

  12. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  13. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities.

  14. Availability and affordability of new medicines in Latin American countries where pivotal clinical trials were conducted

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n = 18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609

  15. The Affordable Care Act and the Medicare program: the engines of true health reform.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Eleanor D

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and its amendments by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 constitute landmark legislation known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA has made many changes in the Medicare program as part of comprehensive health reform for the U.S. health care sector. Title III of the ACA pertains to improving the efficiency and quality of health care. Title VI calls for greater program integrity for all federally funded health insurance programs. Collectively, the changes in Medicare in these two titles address the three major problems that the Medicare program has faced since its inception: cost and volume inflation, quality assurance, and fraud and abuse. These changes, if successfully implemented, will have a dramatic impact on the reform of the American health care sector. The policy-making process in the Medicare program is exemplary of the process of "muddling through," as described by the Yale economist Charles E. Lindblom. Nevertheless, these changes may also prepare the Medicare program to be transformed, through several incremental changes in upcoming years, into a single payer system.

  16. Coverage of certain preventive services under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    This document contains final regulations regarding coverage of certain preventive services under section 2713 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act), added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. Section 2713 of the PHS Act requires coverage without cost sharing of certain preventive health services by non-grandfathered group health plans and health insurance coverage. Among these services are women's preventive health services, as specified in guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). As authorized by the current regulations, and consistent with the HRSA guidelines, group health plans established or maintained by certain religious employers (and group health insurance coverage provided in connection with such plans) are exempt from the otherwise applicable requirement to cover certain contraceptive services. These final regulations simplify and clarify the religious employer exemption. These final regulations also establish accommodations with respect to the contraceptive coverage requirement for group health plans established or maintained by eligible organizations (and group health insurance coverage provided in connection with such plans), as well as student health insurance coverage arranged by eligible organizations that are institutions of higher education. These regulations also finalize related amendments to regulations concerning Affordable Insurance Exchanges.

  17. The Politics of Native American Health Care and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article examines an important but largely overlooked dimension of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely, its significance for Native American health care. The author maintains that reading the ACA against the politics of Native American health care policy shows that, depending on their regional needs and particular contexts, many Native Americans are well-placed to benefit from recent Obama-era reforms. At the same time, the kinds of options made available by the ACA constitute a departure from the service-based (as opposed to insurance-based) Indian Health Service (IHS). Accordingly, the author argues that ACA reforms--private marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and accommodations for Native Americans--are best read as potential "supplements" to an underfunded IHS. Whether or not Native Americans opt to explore options under the ACA will depend in the long run on the quality of the IHS in the post-ACA era. Beyond understanding the ACA in relation to IHS funding, the author explores how Native American politics interacts with the key tenets of Obama-era health care reform--especially "affordability"--which is critical for understanding what is required from and appropriate to future Native American health care policy making.

  18. The Politics of Native American Health Care and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article examines an important but largely overlooked dimension of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely, its significance for Native American health care. The author maintains that reading the ACA against the politics of Native American health care policy shows that, depending on their regional needs and particular contexts, many Native Americans are well-placed to benefit from recent Obama-era reforms. At the same time, the kinds of options made available by the ACA constitute a departure from the service-based (as opposed to insurance-based) Indian Health Service (IHS). Accordingly, the author argues that ACA reforms--private marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and accommodations for Native Americans--are best read as potential "supplements" to an underfunded IHS. Whether or not Native Americans opt to explore options under the ACA will depend in the long run on the quality of the IHS in the post-ACA era. Beyond understanding the ACA in relation to IHS funding, the author explores how Native American politics interacts with the key tenets of Obama-era health care reform--especially "affordability"--which is critical for understanding what is required from and appropriate to future Native American health care policy making. PMID:26567380

  19. Radiation Shielding Options for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2009-03-16

    The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) is a proposed power source for an outpost capable of housing six humans for up to six weeks on the lunar surface and emphasizes the design principles of low risk and affordability over high performance. The radiation shield is the most massive component of the reactor system and its effect on launch mass greatly affects the affordability of the AFSPS. Potential shielding materials include lithium hydride, enriched boron-10 carbide, water, borated water, beryllium, boron-doped beryllium and zirconium hydride. Zirconium hydride is the most effective neutron attenuator and also significantly attenuates gamma radiation, but at a significant mass penalty. The other neutron attenuating materials all require the addition of a tungsten layer to provide significant gamma attenuation. Based on neutron radiation alone, lithium hydride is the lightest of the potential attenuators, followed by water and borated water. When gamma radiation is also considered, the lithium hydride/tungsten shield is shown to be the lightest composite shield with a combined mass of 3246 kg, followed by the borated water/tungsten shield (3479 kg). The boron carbide/tungsten shield has a total mass of 4129 kg, but represents significantly less development risk.

  20. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  1. 40 CFR 35.935-9 - Project initiation and completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project initiation and completion. 35.935-9 Section 35.935-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-9 Project initiation and completion....

  2. The visual encoding of tool-object affordances.

    PubMed

    Natraj, N; Pella, Y M; Borghi, A M; Wheaton, L A

    2015-12-01

    The perception of tool-object pairs involves understanding their action-relationships (affordances). Here, we sought to evaluate how an observer visually encodes tool-object affordances. Eye-movements were recorded as right-handed participants freely viewed static, right-handed, egocentric tool-object images across three contexts: correct (e.g. hammer-nail), incorrect (e.g. hammer-paper), spatial/ambiguous (e.g. hammer-wood), and three grasp-types: no hand, functional grasp-posture (grasp hammer-handle), non-functional/manipulative grasp-posture (grasp hammer-head). There were three areas of interests (AOI): the object (nail), the operant tool-end (hammer-head), the graspable tool-end (hammer-handle). Participants passively evaluated whether tool-object pairs were functionally correct/incorrect. Clustering of gaze scanpaths and AOI weightings grouped conditions into three distinct grasp-specific clusters, especially across correct and spatial tool-object contexts and to a lesser extent within the incorrect tool-object context. The grasp-specific gaze scanpath clusters were reasonably robust to the temporal order of gaze scanpaths. Gaze was therefore automatically primed to grasp-affordances though the task required evaluating tool-object context. Participants also primarily focused on the object and the operant tool-end and sparsely attended to the graspable tool-end, even in images with functional grasp-postures. In fact, in the absence of a grasp, the object was foveally weighted the most, indicative of a possible object-oriented action priming effect wherein the observer may be evaluating how the tool engages on the object. Unlike the functional grasp-posture, the manipulative grasp-posture caused the greatest disruption in the object-oriented priming effect, ostensibly as it does not afford tool-object action due to its non-functional interaction with the operant tool-end that actually engages with the object (e.g., hammer-head to nail). The enhanced attention

  3. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults.

  4. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults. PMID:26445739

  5. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Large Employers: A Retrospective.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Randall K

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has created a new environment for employer health benefit plan management that is influencing costs, benefit design, delivery, administration, financing and compliance as well as the positioning of health care within the benefits portfolio and the broader total rewards strategy. This article will examine the key pragmatic effects of health reform for larger employers to date, quantifying its direct costs and discussing the new dimensions of management that reform has introduced. The discussion will focus on nongrandfathered self-funded plans and will address only major influences. It is not intended to be all-encompassing and is, of necessity, general in nature. Each employer will have somewhat differing experiences and results but should find the discussion to be helpful both in understanding what has evolved as well as what is to come. PMID:26540937

  6. Risk adjustment under the Affordable Care Act: a guide for federal and state regulators.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    To achieve the aims of the Affordable Care Act, state and federal regulators must construct an effective system of risk adjustment, one that protects health insurers that attract a disproportionate share of patients with poor health risks. This brief, which summarizes a Commonwealth Fund–supported conference of leading risk adjustment experts, explores the challenges regulators will face, considers the consequences of the law's risk adjustment provisions, and analyzes the merits of different risk adjustment strategies. Among other recommendations, the brief suggests that regulators use diagnostic rather than only demographic risk measures, that they allow states some but limited flexibility to tailor risk adjustment methods to local circumstances, and that they phase in the use of risk transfer payments to give insurers more time to predict and understand the full effects of risk adjustment.

  7. The State of Diabetes Prevention Policy in the USA Following the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Konchak, Juleigh Nowinski; Moran, Margaret R; O'Brien, Matthew J; Kandula, Namratha R; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in the USA, affecting over 12 % of American adults and imposing considerable health and economic burden on individuals and society. There is a strong evidence base demonstrating that lifestyle behavioral changes and some medications can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in high risk adults, and several policy and healthcare system changes motivated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have the potential to accelerate diabetes prevention. In this narrative review, we (1) offer a conceptual framework for organizing how the ACA may influence diabetes prevention efforts at the level of individuals, healthcare providers, and health systems; (2) highlight ACA provisions at each of these levels that could accelerate type 2 diabetes prevention nationwide; and (3) explore possible policy gaps and opportunity areas for future research and action. PMID:27145778

  8. Coverage of Certain Preventive Services Under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-07-14

    This document contains final regulations regarding coverage of certain preventive services under section 2713 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act), added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. Section 2713 of the PHS Act requires coverage without cost sharing of certain preventive health services by non-grandfathered group health plans and health insurance coverage. These regulations finalize provisions from three rulemaking actions: Interim final regulations issued in July 2010 related to coverage of preventive services, interim final regulations issued in August 2014 related to the process an eligible organization uses to provide notice of its religious objection to the coverage of contraceptive services, and proposed regulations issued in August 2014 related to the definition of "eligible organization,'' which would expand the set of entities that may avail themselves of an accommodation with respect to the coverage of contraceptive services.

  9. Current and (Potential) Future Effects of the Affordable Care Act on HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Viall, Abigail H; McCray, Eugene; Mermin, Jonathan; Wortley, Pascale

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in science, program, and policy could better position the nation to achieve its vision of the USA as a place where new HIV infections are rare. Among these developments, passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 may prove particularly important, as the health system transformations it has launched offer a supportive foundation for realizing the potential of other advances, both within and beyond the clinical arena. This article summarizes opportunities to expand access to high-impact HIV prevention interventions under the ACA, examines whether available evidence indicates that these opportunities are being realized, and considers potential challenges to further gains for HIV prevention in an era of health reform. This article also highlights the new roles that HIV prevention programs and providers may assume in a health system no longer defined by fragmentation among public health, medical care, and community service providers.

  10. The State of Diabetes Prevention Policy in the USA Following the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Konchak, Juleigh Nowinski; Moran, Margaret R; O'Brien, Matthew J; Kandula, Namratha R; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in the USA, affecting over 12 % of American adults and imposing considerable health and economic burden on individuals and society. There is a strong evidence base demonstrating that lifestyle behavioral changes and some medications can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in high risk adults, and several policy and healthcare system changes motivated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have the potential to accelerate diabetes prevention. In this narrative review, we (1) offer a conceptual framework for organizing how the ACA may influence diabetes prevention efforts at the level of individuals, healthcare providers, and health systems; (2) highlight ACA provisions at each of these levels that could accelerate type 2 diabetes prevention nationwide; and (3) explore possible policy gaps and opportunity areas for future research and action.

  11. Implications of the Affordable Care Act for occupational therapy practitioners providing services to Medicare recipients.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gail; Friesema, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA; Pub. L. 111-148) represents the largest expansion in government funding of health care since Medicare and Medicaid were established in 1965 (Curfman, Abel, & Landers, 2012). Although the health insurance mandate and Medicaid expansion have received the most attention as a result of legal challenges and the July 2012 Supreme Court ruling on the legality of the ACA (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012), other ACA initiatives may have even greater implications for occupational therapy. The ACA includes sections on improving quality and health systems performance for Medicare recipients, with some sections also applying to Medicaid recipients. Insurance companies commonly follow Medicare rules; therefore, the Medicare reforms are likely to spread across all payers, health care settings, and care recipients. PMID:23968787

  12. Achieving a deeper understanding of the implemented provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang Qin; Polite, Blase N

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Since that time, numerous regulations have been promulgated, legal battles continue to be fought and the major provisions of the law are being implemented. In the following article, we outline components of the ACA that are relevant to cancer health care, review current implementation of the new health care reform law, and identify challenges that may lie ahead in the post-ACA era. Specifically, among the things we explore are Medicaid expansion, health insurance exchanges, essential health benefits and preventive services, subsidies, access to clinical trials, the Medicare Part D donut hole, and physician quality payment reform. PMID:24857142

  13. Analyzing the Affordable Care Act: Essential Health Benefits and Implications for Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Valerie A.; Samuels, Marc B.; Lively, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have lasting effects on oncology coverage and, perhaps, on oncology practice as well. The ACA ushers in a new class of insured individuals; approximately 25 million will purchase insurance through the exchanges, and Medicaid will expand by 12 million beneficiaries over the next 10 years. Essential health benefits (EHBs), which are required in all qualified health plans (QHPs) sold in the exchanges, will define the coverage available to the newly insured population and could lead to the development of new definitions and standards for medical necessity. This article will discuss effects of the ACA EHB requirements on oncology coverage, as well as the state and federal options and responsibilities as they relate to coverage of and access to oncology services within the QHPs in the exchanges. PMID:23814512

  14. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT AND MEDICAL LOSS RATIOS: NO IMPACT IN FIRST THREE YEARS.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin; Himmelstein, David U; Broder, Michael; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) set limits on insurers' overhead, mandating a medical loss ratio (MLR) of at least 80 percent in the individual and small-group markets and 85 percent in the large-group market starting in 2011. In implementing the law, the Obama administration introduced new rules that changed (and inflated) how insurers calculate MLRs, distorting time trends. We used insurers' filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to calculate the largest insurers' MLRs before and after the ACA regulations took effect, using a constant definition of MLR. MLRs averaged 83.04 percent in the three years before reform and 83.05 percent in the three years after reform. We conclude that the ACA had no impact on insurance industry overhead spending. PMID:26460451

  15. 78 FR 33233 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR... Payment Parameters for 2014, 78 FR 15410 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 153, 155, 156... Health Plans; Small Business Health Options Program, 77 FR 15553 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at...

  16. 77 FR 70643 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Printing Office. This database can be accessed via the internet at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/ . Table of....pdf.PDF . \\5\\ 77 FR 42658 (July 20, 2012). HHS also published a bulletin \\6\\ outlining an intended... FR 42658), which established the first phase of an intended two-phase approach to...

  17. 76 FR 51201 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions in the Individual Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... same purchasing clout as big businesses. The Departments of Health and Human Services, Labor and the... on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45584). Second, Initial Guidance to States on Exchanges was issued on... for State innovation was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553)....

  18. 76 FR 77392 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... innovation was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). On July 15, 2011, two... FR 5774) seeking public comment on the rules that will govern the CO-OP program. The public comments... Federal Register on July 20, 2011 with a comment period that ended on September 16, 2011 (76 ] FR...

  19. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... February 27, 2013 Federal Register (78 FR 13406), the coverage effective dates established in Sec. 155.410... System Codes,'' effective March 26, 2012, U.S. Small Business Administration, available at http://www.sba... effective coverage date of January 1, 2014. This rule generally allows consumers to select a QHP...

  20. 75 FR 37187 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... 147.108) generally apply for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, except that in the case... the case of enrollees who are under 19 years of age, these interim final regulations under PHS Act... name, address, or other contact information) or confidential business information that you do not...

  1. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... define a new term, ``issuer customer service representative'' to mean an employee, contractor, or agent....415 below, we will use the term ``issuer application assisters'' in place of ``issuer customer service... ``issuer customer service representatives'' to more clearly articulate the role of such individuals and...

  2. 78 FR 39493 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    .... HHS Audit Authority (Sec. 156.606) III. Provisions of the Final Regulation IV. Collection of...; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers'' (77 FR 18309). The... Exemptions; Miscellaneous Minimum Essential Coverage Provisions'' (78 FR 7348) that are, similarly...

  3. 76 FR 60788 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41866 and 76 FR 41930, respectively), is extended from 5 p.m. Eastern Standard... Register (76 FR 41866 through 41927 and 76 FR 41930 through 41956, respectively). The first rule would... (76 FR 51148, 76 FR 51202, and 76 FR 50931, respectively), about eligibility determinations by...

  4. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... the United States, 2007: Results of a National Study, The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 122, No... standards for health insurance issuers and states regarding reporting, utilization, and collection of data under section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). It also revises the timeline for...

  5. 76 FR 41865 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Systems CHIP Children's Health Insurance Program CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services DOL U.S... relating to Exchanges, published in the Federal Register on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45584). Second, ] Initial... March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). Fourth, two proposed regulations, including this one, are published...

  6. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ..., Final Rule, 77 FR 42658-42672 (July 20, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR part 156). HHS also published a... CFR 156.275, as published on July 20, 2012 (77 FR 42658), which established the first phase of an... Assurance (NCQA) and URAC as published in the Federal Register notice on November 23, 2012 (77 FR...

  7. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In Federal Register Doc. 2012-6594 of March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17220- 17252), there... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive this... the finding and the reasons therefore in the notice. Section 553(d) of the APA ordinarily requires...

  8. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Request for Comment (the RFC) on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45584) inviting the public to provide input... preamble of the Exchange establishment proposed rule, at 76 FR 41870-41871, for a detailed discussion...

  9. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2013-25326 of October 30, 2013 (78 FR 65046), final rule entitled..., and Market Standards; Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014 (78...

  10. 78 FR 4093 - Extension of Comment Period for the Rulemaking Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations, 77 FR 67866... Piccoli, Deputy Director, 646-746-9834, kpiccoli@cftc.gov , 140 Broadway, 19th Floor, New York, NY...

  11. 76 FR 76573 - Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... group markets. DATES: Effective date. This rule is effective on January 3, 2012. Comment date. We will... individual markets. A request for information relating to the medical loss ratio (MLR) provisions of PHS Act section 2718 was published in the Federal Register on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19297). On December 1,...

  12. 77 FR 17219 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    .... Introduction II. Provisions of the Proposed Regulations and Analysis of and Responses to Public Comments A... Final Regulations IV. Collection of Information Requirements V. Summary of Regulatory Impact Analysis VI... individuals and small businesses the same purchasing power as big businesses. The Departments of Health...

  13. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available for persons wishing to retain a... for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (Mar. 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 155, 156, & 157). In the... Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 41866 (July...

  14. Tonsillar application of AT-2 SIV affords partial protection against rectal challenge with SIVmac239

    PubMed Central

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Williams, Vennansha G.; Piatak, Michael; Bess, Julian W.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Blanchard, James L.; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    While mucosal responses are important for preventing infections with HIV, the optimal strategies for inducing them remain unclear. To evaluate vaccine strategies targeting the oral mucosal lymphoid tissue inductive sites as an approach to provide immunity at distal sites, we vaccinated healthy macaques via the palatine/lingual tonsils with aldrithiol 2 (AT-2) inactivated SIVmac239, combined with CpG-C immunostimulatory oligonucleotide (CpG-C ISS-ODN , C274) as the adjuvant. Macaques received 5 doses of C274 or control ODN C661 and AT-2 SIV on the tonsillar tissues every 6 weeks before being challenged rectally with SIVmac239, 8 weeks after the last immunization. Although no T or B cell responses were detected in the blood prior to challenge, Ab responses were detected in the rectum . Immunization with AT-2 SIV significantly reduced the frequency of infection compared to non-immunized controls, irrespective of adjuvant. In the vaccinated animals that became infected, peak viremias were somewhat reduced. SIV-specific responses were detected in the blood once animals became infected with no detectable differences between the differently immunized groups and the controls. This work provides evidence that vaccine immunogens applied to the oral mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues can provide benefit against rectal challenge, a finding with important implications for mucosal vaccination strategies. PMID:19779309

  15. 77 FR 42658 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... that state's small group market. We proposed that enrollment data submitted to www.HealthCare.gov would... in 2014, all non-grandfathered health plans in the individual and small group market, and other plans... reporting standards for health plans that represent potential State-specific benchmark plans....

  16. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review'' (77 FR 70584). These standards apply to health... health insurance coverage in the group or individual market in a state to accept every employer and... small group markets, and in the large group market if a state, beginning in 2017, allows...

  17. 76 FR 43237 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... businesses will be able to purchase private health insurance through State-based competitive marketplaces... State innovation was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13553). Fourth, on July..., Health Insurance Markets, and CO-OP Plans C. Anticipated Costs D. Anticipated Benefits E....

  18. 77 FR 33133 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... insurance products in the State's small group market, (2) any of the largest three State employee health... reported to State regulators in an insurance filing. We propose that ``small group market'' has the meaning... small group market, Medicaid benchmark and benchmark- equivalent plans, and Basic Health Programs,...

  19. 78 FR 68505 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... 2. New Cleared Swaps Segregation Schedules 3. Amendments to Form 1-FR-FCM 4. FCM Certified Annual.... Paperwork Reduction Act Appendix 1--Table of Comment Letters Appendix 2--CFTC Form 1-FR-FCM I. Background A... Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the Commodity Broker Bankruptcy Provisions, 77 FR...

  20. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the Commodity Broker Bankruptcy Provisions, 77 FR 6336... conducting ongoing financial surveillance of an FCM under a joint audit agreement submitted to and approved... sometimes referred to as ``audits,'' but they are not full-scale audits as accountants commonly use...

  1. 78 FR 69418 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (Mar. 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 155... Quality for Exchanges: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-27/pdf/2012-28473.pdf . Importance: the... Rule 78 FR 12834 (Feb. 25, 2013) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 147, 155 and 156). The draft...

  2. Amodal Completion in Bonobos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasaka, Yasuo; Brooks, Daniel I.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    We trained two bonobos to discriminate among occluded, complete, and incomplete stimuli. The occluded stimulus comprised a pair of colored shapes, one of which appeared to occlude the other. The complete and incomplete stimuli involved the single shape that appeared to have been partially covered in the occluded stimulus; the complete stimulus…

  3. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  4. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  5. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  6. Making Spaceflight Practical and Affordable: Spacecraft Designs and Their Degree of Operability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    As we push toward new and diverse space transportation capabilities, reduction in operations cost will become increasingly important. Achieving affordable and safe human spaceflight capabilities will be the mark of success for new programs and new providers. This paper reviews NASA s history in developing and operating human rated spacecraft, reviewing the key aspects of spacecraft design and their resultant impacts on operations phase complexity and cost. Specific examples from current and past programs are provided to tie together early program requirements, design implementation and resulting real-time operations experience into a complete "story" of design decisions and operational results. Based on these experiences, recommended techniques are outlined to enable earlier and more effective assessment of operations concerns during the design process.

  7. Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

    2010-08-27

    In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

  8. Three Words and the Future of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    As an essential part of its effort to achieve near universal coverage, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) extends sizable tax credits to most people who buy insurance on the newly established health care exchanges. Yet several lawsuits have been filed challenging the availability of those tax credits in the thirty-four states that refused to set up their own exchanges. The lawsuits are premised on a strained interpretation of the ACA that, if accepted, would make a hash of other provisions of the statute and undermine its effort to extend coverage to the uninsured. The courts should reject this latest effort to dismantle a critical feature of the ACA.

  9. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  10. The Affordable Care Act versus Medicare for All.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Laurence

    2015-08-01

    Many problems facing the Affordable Care Act would disappear if the nation were instead implementing Medicare for All - the extension of Medicare to every age group. Every American would be automatically covered for life. Premiums would be replaced with a set of Medicare taxes. There would be no patient cost sharing. Individuals would have free choice of doctors. Medicare's single-payer bargaining power would slow price increases and reduce medical cost as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Taxes as a percentage of GDP would rise from below average to average for economically advanced nations. Medicare for All would be phased in by age.

  11. Affordable Manufacturing Technologies Being Developed for Actively Cooled Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to improve the performance of modern gas turbine engines have imposed increasing service temperature demands on structural materials. Through active cooling, the useful temperature range of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines has been extended, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, high processing costs have proven to be a major obstacle to their widespread application. Advanced rapid prototyping technology, which is developing rapidly, offers the possibility of an affordable manufacturing approach.

  12. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  13. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  14. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... 2590-AA04 Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority... Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010, to use Affordable Housing Program (AHP) homeownership..., 2798. B. The Banks' Affordable Housing Program Section 10(j) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act...

  15. 76 FR 59702 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act (ACA) Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Notice of Intent to Award Affordable Care Act (ACA...: This notice provides public announcement of CDC's intent to award Affordable Care Act...

  16. 76 FR 11283 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal... Affordable Care Act added Public Health Service Act section 2719, which provides rules relating to......

  17. 77 FR 26046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Affordable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...; Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-Grandfathered Plans... Administration (EBSA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Affordable Care Act Internal...: Affordable Care Act Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review Procedures for Non-grandfathered...

  18. Learning Outcomes Afforded by Self-Assessed, Segmented Video-Print Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumi, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video-print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational…

  19. Intraepithelial DNA immunisation with a plasmid encoding a codon optimised COPV E1 gene sequence, but not the wild-type gene sequence completely protects against mucosal challenge with infectious COPV in beagles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard A; Santos, Elmer B; Nicholls, Philip K; White, Kate L; Anderson, Davina M; Lloyd, Andrew; Topley, Peter; Romanos, Michael; Thomsen, Lindy; Parmar, Vanita; Walcott, Sarah; Gough, Gerald W; Stanley, Margaret A

    2002-12-20

    DNA plasmids encoding the open reading frames of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) nonstructural early genes E1, E2, or E7 protein were delivered into both oral mucosal and cutaneous epithelial sites in beagle dogs using particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery (PMID) technology. Control dogs were vaccinated with plasmid encoding either hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBVs) or COPV L1. Using a prophylactic immunisation protocol, a priming dose of plasmid DNA was followed by a booster dose 6 weeks later. Four weeks after boost, all dogs were challenged with infectious COPV particles. Following viral challenge, as shown previously (M. A. Stanley et al., 2001, Vaccine 19, 2783-2792), mucosal papillomas developed in the negative-control HBVs vaccinated dogs, but all animals in the COPV L1 group were fully protected from disease development. In the early gene-vaccinated groups five of six in the E1-vaccinated dogs, two of six in E2-vaccinated dogs, and three of six in the E7-vaccinated beagles developed oral papillomas. Compared to the HBVs negative-control group the oral papillomas that did develop in the early-gene vaccinated beagles were significantly smaller, shorter in duration, and fewer in number. Taken together the disease burden was markedly reduced and this was statistically significant. In a second experiment one group of animals was vaccinated with plasmid encoding the wild-type COPV E1 gene, and a separate group was vaccinated with plasmid encoding a synthetic codon-optimised COPV E1 gene sequence. None of the codon-optimised E1-vaccinated animals developed papillomas at any challenge site. However, all animals vaccinated with wild-type E1 had papillomas. These data suggest that immunisation by PMID with papillomavirus early genes can significantly impact upon subsequent disease development and that full protection can be achieved using improved vectors encoding codon-optimised gene sequences perhaps emphasizing the importance of antigen load in the

  20. Interaction between affordance and handedness recognition: a chronometric study

    PubMed Central

    Lameira, A.P.; Pereira, A.; Conde, E.; Gawryszewski, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of tools and manipulable objects activates motor-related areas in the cortex, facilitating possible actions toward them. This pattern of activity may underlie the phenomenon of object affordance. Some cortical motor neurons are also covertly activated during the recognition of body parts such as hands. One hypothesis is that different subpopulations of motor neurons in the frontal cortex are activated in each motor program; for example, canonical neurons in the premotor cortex are responsible for the affordance of visual objects, while mirror neurons support motor imagery triggered during handedness recognition. However, the question remains whether these subpopulations work independently. This hypothesis can be tested with a manual reaction time (MRT) task with a priming paradigm to evaluate whether the view of a manipulable object interferes with the motor imagery of the subject's hand. The MRT provides a measure of the course of information processing in the brain and allows indirect evaluation of cognitive processes. Our results suggest that canonical and mirror neurons work together to create a motor plan involving hand movements to facilitate successful object manipulation. PMID:25714894

  1. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  2. Affordance-controlled bifurcations of action patterns in martial arts.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Robert; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte

    2006-10-01

    Effects of participant-target distance and perceived handstriking efficiency on emergent behavior in the martial art of boxing were investigated, revealing affordance-controlled nonlinear dynamical effects (i.e. bifurcations) within the participant--target system. Results established the existence of critical values of scaled distances for emergence of first time excitations and annihilations of a diverse range of boxing actions i.e. on the appearance and dissolution of jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the action diversity were twofold: (a) topological discontinuous changes (bifurcations) in the number of possible handstrikes, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; (b) fine modification of probabilities of emergence of striking patterns. Exploitation of a 'strikeability' affordance available in scaled distance-to-target information by boxers led to a diversity of emergent actions through a cascade of bifurcations in the task perceptual-motor work space. Data suggested that perceived efficiency (E) of an action changed as a function of scaled distance (D) and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of action patterns (P), exhibiting the following dependence P = P(E(D)). The implication is that probability of occurrence (P) depends on efficiency (E), which in turn depends on scaled distance (D) to the target. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems a viable candidate for a contextual (control) parameter to describe the nonlinear dynamics of striking actions in boxing.

  3. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  4. Balancing adoption and affordability of medical devices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Bäumler, Michael; Busse, Reinhard

    2009-10-01

    Dramatic increases in health expenditures have led to a substantial number of regulatory interventions in the markets for devices over the last years. However, little attention has been paid thus far to the regulation of medical devices and its effects. This article explores the policies pursued by European countries to find the right balance between improving access to new medical devices and restricting market forces to contain costs and ensure affordability. We outline the medical device policies of the four European countries with the largest expenditures on devices: Germany, France, Italy, and the UK. Subsequently, we discuss how these policies attempt to balance technological adoption and affordability by illustrating two case studies from Italy and Germany. We find that reference prices, if defined as maximum reimbursement levels, can help to achieve balance, because they are supposed to contain costs effectively, but do not necessarily act as a hurdle for the adoption of innovations. We also find that policy tools that encourage technological adoption should be used carefully since the benefits of a new technology are often difficult to predict. Finally, we draw a number of policy implications based on our observations.

  5. Anti-Glycoprotein G Antibodies of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Contribute to Complete Protection after Vaccination in Mice and Induce Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Complement-Mediated Cytolysis

    PubMed Central

    Görander, Staffan; Ekblad, Maria; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of antibodies against the mature portion of glycoprotein G (mgG-2) of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) in protective immunity after vaccination. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with mgG-2 and oligodeoxynucleotides containing two CpG motifs plus alum as adjuvant. All C57BL/6 mice survived and presented no genital or systemic disease. High levels of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) and IgG2 antibodies were detected and re-stimulated splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced IFN-γ. None of the sera from immunized mice exhibited neutralization, while all sera exerted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated cytolysis (ACMC) activity. Passive transfer of anti-mgG-2 monoclonal antibodies, or immune serum, to naive C57BL/6 mice did not limit disease progression. Immunized B‑cell KO mice presented lower survival rate and higher vaginal viral titers, as compared with vaccinated B-cell KO mice after passive transfer of immune serum and vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Sera from mice that were vaccinated subcutaneously and intranasally with mgG-2 presented significantly lower titers of IgG antibodies and lower ADCC and ACMC activity. We conclude that anti-mgG-2 antibodies were of importance to limit genital HSV‑2 infection. ADCC and ACMC activity are potentially important mechanisms in protective immunity, and could tentatively be evaluated in future animal vaccine studies and in clinical trials. PMID:25398047

  6. Tuberculosis Elimination Efforts in the United States in the Era of Insurance Expansion and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Victor; Marks, Suzanne M; Etkind, Sue C; Katz, Dolly J; Higashi, Julie; Flood, Jennifer; Cronin, Ann; Ho, Christine S; Khan, Awal; Chorba, Terence

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act can enhance ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) in the United States by bringing millions of currently uninsured Americans into the health-care system. However, much of the legislative and financial framework that provides essential public health services necessary for effective TB control is outside the scope of the law. We identified three key issues that will still need to be addressed after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act: (1) essential TB-related public health functions will still be needed and will remain the responsibility of federal, state, and local health departments; (2) testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) is not covered explicitly as a recommended preventive service without cost sharing or copayment; and (3) remaining uninsured populations will disproportionately include groups at high risk for TB. To improve and continue TB control efforts, it is important that all populations at risk be tested and treated for LTBI and TB; that testing and treatment services be accessible and affordable; that essential federal, state, and local public health functions be maintained; that private-sector medical/public health linkages for diagnosis and treatment be developed; and that health-care providers be trained in conducting appropriate LTBI and TB clinical care.

  7. Rural Affordable Care Act outreach and enrollment: what we learned during the first marketplace open enrollment period.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Linda

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) of 2010, 2 new opportunities for health care coverage were established for many uninsured individuals beginning on January 1, 2014. The first opportunity was through Medicaid expansion where states had the opportunity to expand Medicaid coverage to individuals with household incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level. The second opportunity was through the establishment of Health Insurance Marketplaces where individuals could purchase private health plans and potentially qualify for financial assistance in paying for their plans. The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) provided supplemental grant awards to help stimulate Affordable Care Act outreach and education efforts in rural communities that were being served by the Rural Health Care Services Outreach (Outreach) Grant Program. As a result, Outreach grantees enrolled 9,300 rural Americans during the initial Open Enrollment period. Valuable outreach and enrollment lessons were learned from rural communities based on discussions with the Outreach grantees who received the supplemental funding. These lessons will help rural communities prepare for the next Open Enrollment period.

  8. Tuberculosis Elimination Efforts in the United States in the Era of Insurance Expansion and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Victor; Marks, Suzanne M.; Etkind, Sue C.; Katz, Dolly J.; Higashi, Julie; Flood, Jennifer; Cronin, Ann; Ho, Christine S.; Khan, Awal

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act can enhance ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) in the United States by bringing millions of currently uninsured Americans into the health-care system. However, much of the legislative and financial framework that provides essential public health services necessary for effective TB control is outside the scope of the law. We identified three key issues that will still need to be addressed after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act: (1) essential TB-related public health functions will still be needed and will remain the responsibility of federal, state, and local health departments; (2) testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) is not covered explicitly as a recommended preventive service without cost sharing or copayment; and (3) remaining uninsured populations will disproportionately include groups at high risk for TB. To improve and continue TB control efforts, it is important that all populations at risk be tested and treated for LTBI and TB; that testing and treatment services be accessible and affordable; that essential federal, state, and local public health functions be maintained; that private-sector medical/public health linkages for diagnosis and treatment be developed; and that health-care providers be trained in conducting appropriate LTBI and TB clinical care. PMID:26345625

  9. The Affordable Care Act and Implications for Health Care Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Raven E.; Garfield, Lauren D.; Brown, Derek S.; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations report poor physical and mental health outcomes while tribal health providers and the Indian Health Service (IHS) operate in a climate of significant under funding. Understanding how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects Native American tribes and the IHS is critical to addressing the improvement of the overall access, quality, and cost of health care within AI/AN communities. This paper summarizes the ACA provisions that directly and/or indirectly affect the service delivery of health care provided by tribes and the IHS. PMID:26548665

  10. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ – the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities. PMID:27390552

  11. Latino College Completion: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  12. Latino College Completion: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Latino College Completion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino College Completion: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Latino College Completion: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network: doing good by making high-quality vaccines affordable for all.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Leite, Luciana C C; Datla, Mahima; Makhoana, Morena; Gao, Yongzhong; Suhardono, Mahendra; Jadhav, Suresh; Harshavardhan, Gutla V J A; Homma, Akira

    2013-04-18

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) is a unique model of a public and private international alliance. It assembles governmental and private organizations to work toward a common goal of manufacturing and supplying high-quality vaccines at affordable prices to protect people around the world from known and emerging infectious diseases. Together, this group of manufacturers has decades of experience in manufacturing vaccines, with technologies, know-how, and capacity to produce more than 40 vaccines types. These manufacturers have already contributed more than 30 vaccines in various presentations that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization for use by global immunization programmes. Furthermore, more than 45 vaccines are in the pipeline. Recent areas of focus include vaccines to protect against rotavirus, human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis E, poliovirus, influenza, and pertussis, as well as combined pentavalent vaccines for children. The network has a growing number of manufacturers that produce a growing number of products to supply the growing demand for vaccines in developing countries.

  19. How Insurers Competed in the Affordable Care Act's First Year.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Katherine; Hall, Mark A; Jost, Timothy S

    2015-06-01

    Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), most states' individual health insurance markets were dominated by one or two insurance carriers that had little incentive to compete by providing efficient services. Instead, they competed mainly by screening and selecting people based on their risk of incurring high medical costs. One of the ACA's goals is to encourage carriers to participate in the health insurance marketplaces and to shift the focus from competing based on risk selection to processes that increase consumer value, like improving efficiency of services and quality of care. Focusing on six states--Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Maryland, Montana, and Texas--this brief looks at how carriers are competing in the new marketplaces, namely through cost-sharing and composition of provider networks. PMID:26159009

  20. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  1. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoinT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based ceramic and composite components in a number of demanding and high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. An affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT) for joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technique. These joints maintain their mechanical strength up to 1350 C in air. This technology is suitable for the joining of large and complex shaped ceramic and composite components and with certain modifications, can be applied to repair ceramic components damaged in service.

  2. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  3. Health Care Affordability: How to Make It a Reality.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a big business. US health care expenditures reached $2.9 trillion in 2013. Patient spending accounted for 28% of the total, which means patients spent approximately $810 billion in 2013 for insurance premiums, deductibles, copays, coinsurance, and noncovered health care services. How are patients expected to pay almost a trillion dollars in health care expenses? There is a need to find a health care financing methodology that will make health care affordable for all patients and families. An alternative method for funding health care is discussed that includes creating a government-funded annuity during the first decade of one's life. When this annuity matures later in life, many individuals will have amassed a large pot of money with which to pay for their (and their family's) health care treatment and products.

  4. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  5. Medical loss ratio regulation under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    The minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) regulations in the Affordable Care Act guarantee that a specific percentage of health insurance premiums is spent on medical care and specified activities to improve health care quality. This paper analyzes the regulations' potential unintended consequences and incentive effects, including: higher medical costs and premiums for some insurers; less innovation to align consumer, provider, and health plan incentives, less consumer choice and increased market concentration; and the risk that insurers will pay rebates if claim costs are lower than projected when premiums are established, despite the regulations' permitted "credibility adjustments." The paper discusses modifications and alternatives to the MLR regulations to help achieve their stated goals with less potential for adverse effects. PMID:23720876

  6. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  7. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work.

  8. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  9. International examples of undocumented immigration and the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Matthew; Baig, Arshiya

    2014-08-01

    As it stands there is no viable health care option for undocumented immigrants of low socioeconomic status. Even more worrisome is that Affordable Care Act simply does not address this issue with any direct plan. The US is in a very influential time period in terms of undocumented immigration and its relationship with health care. The purpose of this paper is to examine international examples of undocumented immigrant health care and their implications for the United States' undocumented immigrant health care. This study found that physicians in the US must work to prevent the initiation of policies which exclude undocumented immigrants from accessing health care. Exclusionary policies implemented in European nations have had disastrous effects on physicians and patients. This paper examines the implications which similar policies would have if implemented in the US.

  10. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  11. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the Illinois Residential Affordable Payment Program (IRAPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.B.; Griffin, B.S.; Lieberman, B.; Baker, D.

    1988-03-01

    The Illinois Residential Affordable Payment Program (IRAPP) was authorized by the Illinois Energy Assistance Act of 1985. IRAPP is an energy-assistance program for low-income households that have incomes of less than 125% of poverty level and receive utility services from a public utility. In return for percent of income payments, low-income households are guaranteed continuous natural gas and/or electricity utility service. The program was placed in operation in December 1985. The study reported here is an evaluation of this program. Program-eligible households were compared to determine: (1) what household characteristics lead to program participation; (2) what effects the program has on consumption of natural gas and electricity, utility-service disconnections, and low-income households' utility costs; and (3) how much the program cost per participant household.

  13. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT: A HIDDEN JOBS KILLER?

    PubMed

    Baker, Dean; Jorgensen, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Many opponents of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) predicted the law would hurt employment. A common complaint was that the requirement that firms employing more than 50 employees either provide insurance for employees working more than 30 hours a week or pay a penalty would lead many firms to cut back workers' hours to just below the 30-hour cutoff. This article uses the Current Population Survey to compare the share of workers employed between 25-29 hours in the first four months of 2013 with the same months of 2012. While the Obama administration subsequently delayed the application of this portion of the ACA, at the time larger employers would have expected to be subject to the insurance requirement. The analysis found the share of employment in this hour band was slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012. PMID:26460453

  14. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  15. Respective capabilities of affordable Coronagraphs and Interferometers searching for Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Alain M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an analytic model to estimate the capabilities of space missions dedicated to the search for biosignatures in the atmosphere of rocky planets located in the Habitable Zone of nearby stars. Relations between performance and parameters such as mirror diameter, distance to target, stellar properties, are obtained.Two types of instruments are considered: Coronagraphs observing in the visible, and Nulling Interferometers observing in the thermal infrared. Missions considered as affordable are single-pupil coronagraphs with a 2.4 m primary mirror, and formation flying interferometers with 4 x 0.75 m collecting mirrors with baselines ranging from a few decameters to a few hectometers.The numbers of accessible planets are calculated as a function of ηearth, the mean number of Earth analogues and super-Earths in stellar Habitable Zones.Based on current estimates, ηearth=10% around FGK stars and 20% around M stars, the built-in coronagraph and starshade could study only ~2.0 relevant planets, and the interferometer ~14. These numbers are obtained under the major assumption that the exozodiacal light around the target stars is not an issue for any of these instruments.For the coronagraphs, our estimates are in agreement with the values recently published by Stark et al. (2014), but these authors did not consider the case of interferometers.For the long-term future, building both types of spectroscopic instruments, and using them on the same targets, will be the optimal solution because they provide complementary information. But as a first affordable space mission, the interferometer looks the more promising in term of biosignature harvest.

  16. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  17. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  18. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning. PMID:26427363

  19. Co-expression of Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus completely protects pigs against virulent challenge with classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongke; Yang, Yuai; Zheng, Huanli; Xi, Dongmei; Lin, Mingxing; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yang, Linfu; Yan, Yulin; Chu, Xiaohui; Bi, Baoliang

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant adenovirus for future CSFV vaccines used in the pig industry for the reduction of losses involved in CSF outbreaks. The Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which encode the two main protective glycoproteins from the "Shimen" strain of CSFV, were combined and inserted into the replication-defective human adenovirus type-5 and named the rAd-Erns-E2. Nine pigs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (three pigs in each group) including the rAd-Erns-E2, hAd-CMV control and DMEM control. Intramuscular vaccination with 2×10(6) TCID(50) of the rAd-Erns-E2 was administered two times with an interval of 21 days. At 42 days post inoculation, pigs in all groups were challenged with a lethal dose of 1×10(3) TCID(50) CSFV "Shimen" strain. Observation of clinical signs was made and the existence of CSFV RNA was detected. Animals in the hAd-CMV and DMEM groups showed severe clinical CSF symptoms and were euthanized from 7 to 10 days after the challenge. However, no adverse clinical CSF signs were observed in vaccinated pigs after the administration of rAd-Erns-E2 and even after CSFV challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues of interest of the above vaccinated pigs. These results implied that the recombination adenovirus carrying the Erns-E2 genes could be used to prevent swine from classical swine fever.

  20. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  1. 78 FR 52832 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... the Federal Register at 76 FR 50929-50931. The public was afforded 60 days to submit written comments... Insurance Handbook (for example, Frost Protection Option, Silage Sorghum Endorsement and Yield...

  2. Bumper-protected laminated spacecraft mainwalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinslow, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the meteoroid impact resistance of bumper-protected mainwalls of both solid aluminum and polycarbonate-aluminum laminates. Semi-empirical models of the debris cloud and stress waves were formulated. Results indicated that a laminated mainwall affords greater impact resistance than a solid aluminum mainwall of the same weight.

  3. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  4. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A.; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  5. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  6. Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways.

    PubMed

    Sakreida, Katrin; Effnert, Isabel; Thill, Serge; Menz, Mareike M; Jirak, Doreen; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Ziemke, Tom; Eickhoff, Simon B; Borghi, Anna M; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    The concept of affordances indicates "action possibilities" as characterized by object properties the environment provides to interacting organisms. Affordances relate to both perception and action and refer to sensory-motor processes emerging from goal-directed object interaction. In contrast to stable properties, affordances may vary with environmental context. A sub-classification into stable and variable affordances was proposed in the framework of the ROSSI project (Borghi et al., 2010; Borghi and Riggio, 2015, 2009). Here, we present a coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional imaging studies on object interaction targeting consistent anatomical correlates of these different types of affordances. Our review revealed the existence of two parallel (but to some extent overlapping) functional pathways. The network for stable affordances consists of predominantly left inferior parietal and frontal cortices in the ventro-dorsal stream, whereas the network for variable affordances is localized preferentially in the dorso-dorsal stream. This is in line with the proposal of differentiated affordances: stable affordances are characterized by the knowledge of invariant object features, whereas variable affordances underlie adaptation to changing object properties. PMID:27484872

  7. Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways.

    PubMed

    Sakreida, Katrin; Effnert, Isabel; Thill, Serge; Menz, Mareike M; Jirak, Doreen; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Ziemke, Tom; Eickhoff, Simon B; Borghi, Anna M; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    The concept of affordances indicates "action possibilities" as characterized by object properties the environment provides to interacting organisms. Affordances relate to both perception and action and refer to sensory-motor processes emerging from goal-directed object interaction. In contrast to stable properties, affordances may vary with environmental context. A sub-classification into stable and variable affordances was proposed in the framework of the ROSSI project (Borghi et al., 2010; Borghi and Riggio, 2015, 2009). Here, we present a coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional imaging studies on object interaction targeting consistent anatomical correlates of these different types of affordances. Our review revealed the existence of two parallel (but to some extent overlapping) functional pathways. The network for stable affordances consists of predominantly left inferior parietal and frontal cortices in the ventro-dorsal stream, whereas the network for variable affordances is localized preferentially in the dorso-dorsal stream. This is in line with the proposal of differentiated affordances: stable affordances are characterized by the knowledge of invariant object features, whereas variable affordances underlie adaptation to changing object properties.

  8. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with a Live-Attenuated Triple Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 Induces Robust Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity To Completely Protect Animals against Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Tiner, Bethany L.; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B.; Fitts, Eric C.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Erova, Tatiana E.

    2015-01-01

    Earlier, we showed that the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 with deleted genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp), an acyltransferase (MsbB), and the attachment invasion locus (Ail), respectively, was avirulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. In this study, we further evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant and its derivative by different routes of vaccination. Mice were immunized via the subcutaneous (s.c.) or the intramuscular (i.m.) route with two doses (2 × 106 CFU/dose) of the above-mentioned triple mutant with 100% survivability of the animals. Upon subsequent pneumonic challenge with 70 to 92 50% lethal doses (LD50) of wild-type (WT) strain CO92, all of the mice survived when immunization occurred by the i.m. route. Since Ail has virulence and immunogenic potential, a mutated version of Ail devoid of its virulence properties was created, and the genetically modified ail replaced the native ail gene on the chromosome of the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant, creating a Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 vaccine strain. This newly generated mutant was attenuated similarly to the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant when administered by the i.m. route and provided 100% protection to animals against subsequent pneumonic challenge. Not only were the two above-mentioned mutants cleared rapidly from the initial i.m. site of injection in animals with no histopathological lesions, the immunized mice did not exhibit any disease symptoms during immunization or after subsequent exposure to WT CO92. These two mutants triggered balanced Th1- and Th2-based antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity. A substantial increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) from the T cells of vaccinated mice, a cytokine of the Th17 cells, further augmented their vaccine potential. Thus, the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail and Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 mutants represent excellent vaccine candidates for plague, with the latter mutant still retaining Ail immunogenicity but with

  9. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with a Live-Attenuated Triple Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 Induces Robust Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity To Completely Protect Animals against Pneumonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B; Fitts, Eric C; Popov, Vsevolod L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-12-01

    Earlier, we showed that the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 with deleted genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp), an acyltransferase (MsbB), and the attachment invasion locus (Ail), respectively, was avirulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. In this study, we further evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant and its derivative by different routes of vaccination. Mice were immunized via the subcutaneous (s.c.) or the intramuscular (i.m.) route with two doses (2 × 10(6) CFU/dose) of the above-mentioned triple mutant with 100% survivability of the animals. Upon subsequent pneumonic challenge with 70 to 92 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of wild-type (WT) strain CO92, all of the mice survived when immunization occurred by the i.m. route. Since Ail has virulence and immunogenic potential, a mutated version of Ail devoid of its virulence properties was created, and the genetically modified ail replaced the native ail gene on the chromosome of the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant, creating a Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 vaccine strain. This newly generated mutant was attenuated similarly to the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant when administered by the i.m. route and provided 100% protection to animals against subsequent pneumonic challenge. Not only were the two above-mentioned mutants cleared rapidly from the initial i.m. site of injection in animals with no histopathological lesions, the immunized mice did not exhibit any disease symptoms during immunization or after subsequent exposure to WT CO92. These two mutants triggered balanced Th1- and Th2-based antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity. A substantial increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) from the T cells of vaccinated mice, a cytokine of the Th17 cells, further augmented their vaccine potential. Thus, the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail and Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 mutants represent excellent vaccine candidates for plague, with the latter mutant still retaining Ail immunogenicity but

  10. Complete binasal hemianopia

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Howard D.; Smith, Kyle H.

    2014-01-01

    Binasal hemianopia is a rarely encountered visual field defect. We examined two asymptomatic female patients, aged 17 and 83, with complete binasal hemianopia. Both patients had unremarkable eye exams except for the visual field deficits and minimally reduced visual acuity and color vision. Both patients had normal neuroimaging. These are the first reported cases of complete binasal visual field defects without an identifiable ocular or neurologic cause. PMID:25484511

  11. How the affordable care act and mental health parity and addiction equity act greatly expand coverage of behavioral health care.

    PubMed

    Beronio, Kirsten; Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will expand coverage of mental health and substance use disorder benefits and federal parity protections to over 60 million Americans. The key to this expansion is the essential health benefit provision in the ACA that requires coverage of mental health and substance use disorder services at parity with general medical benefits. Other ACA provisions that should improve access to treatment include requirements on network adequacy, dependent coverage up to age 26, preventive services, and prohibitions on annual and lifetime limits and preexisting exclusions. The ACA offers states flexibility in expanding Medicaid (primarily to childless adults, not generally eligible previously) to cover supportive services needed by those with significant behavioral health conditions in addition to basic benefits at parity. Through these various new requirements, the ACA in conjunction with Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) will expand coverage of behavioral health care by historic proportions.

  12. Federal Restrictions on Educational Research: Privacy Protection Study Commission Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John; Weinberg, JoAnn

    1977-01-01

    The Privacy Protection Study Commission (PPSC) held public hearings on personal data record-keeping policies and practices in educational institutions in Los Angeles in October and in Washington, D.C. in November, 1976. Under consideration were the protections afforded parents and students by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.…

  13. Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Emergent Themes From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media’s effects. Objective This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. Methods In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. Results We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision

  14. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complete manifest. 122.75 Section 122.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  15. Investigating cigarette affordability in 60 cities using the cigarette price‐daily income ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Ming‐yue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate cigarette affordability in 60 cities. Methods Affordability of cigarettes is defined as the ratio of the price of one pack of cigarettes to daily income (cigarette price‐daily income ratio: CPDIR). Daily income data were calculated using the mean of the seven occupations with the lowest daily wage, as listed in the 2006 Union Bank of Switzerland survey; cigarette prices in 2006 were sourced from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Results Cigarette affordability in most of the surveyed cities remains high. There is a tendency for cities with high income economies to have a high level of cigarette affordability. Most of the cities in Western Europe and South and North America have high cigarette affordability, whereas 66.7% of their counterparts in Eastern Europe have medium cigarette affordability. In Asia, all cities with high cigarette affordability belong to the group of upper middle to high income economies, except for the Philippines. In Africa, Johannesburg and Nairobi have high and medium levels of cigarette affordability, respectively. Conclusion Cigarette affordability for most of the sampled cities, especially those in high income economies, is high. There is room for increasing cigarette prices via tax increases. There is a risk that the increase in cigarette prices in newly emerging economies lags behind the high speed of economic growth being experiencing. Tax increases should be given high priority. PMID:18048622

  16. Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.

    PubMed

    Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

    2010-01-01

    Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority.

  17. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  18. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  19. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise (<50e-), high dynamic range (100 dB), high-frame rates (> 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (< 1 W) in a compact system. This camera paves the way towards mass market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  20. Delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care in India.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, C S; Badwe, Rajendra A; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Chandra, Madhu; Raj, Elluswami Hemanth; Kannan, T; Kalwar, Ashok; Kapoor, Sanjay; Malhotra, Hemant; Nayak, Sukdev; Rath, Goura K; Sagar, T G; Sebastian, Paul; Sarin, Rajiv; Shanta, V; Sharma, Suresh C; Shukla, Shilin; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Vijaykumar, D K; Aggarwal, Ajay; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care is one of India's greatest public health challenges. Public expenditure on cancer in India remains below US$10 per person (compared with more than US$100 per person in high-income countries), and overall public expenditure on health care is still only slightly above 1% of gross domestic product. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for more than three-quarters of cancer expenditures in India, are one of the greatest threats to patients and families, and a cancer diagnosis is increasingly responsible for catastrophic expenditures that negatively affect not only the patient but also the welfare and education of several generations of their family. We explore the complex nature of cancer care systems across India, from state to government levels, and address the crucial issues of infrastructure, manpower shortages, and the pressing need to develop cross-state solutions to prevention and early detection of cancer, in addition to governance of the largely unregulated private sector and the cost of new technologies and drugs. We discuss the role of public insurance schemes, the need to develop new political mandates and authority to set priorities, the necessity to greatly improve the quality of care, and the drive to understand and deliver cost-effective cancer care programmes.