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Sample records for afforested colliery spoil

  1. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag - Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghataora, Gurmel S.; Ghazireh, Nizar; Hall, Nigel

    2015-06-01

    One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  2. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  3. A cluster of cases of lymphoma in an underground colliery.

    PubMed

    Corbett, S; O'Neill, B J

    1988-08-15

    An apparent occupational outbreak of cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among the employees of an underground colliery on the NSW south coast has been investigated. The employment register of the mine recorded that 1004 men had worked at the colliery from its opening in 1946 until December 31, 1986. In this period, this cohort of men had amassed 18,818 person-years. A person-years analysis of the mortality and morbidity of cancer showed a standardized incidence ratio for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of 3.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-6.74) and for Hodgkin's disease of 7.27 (95% CI, 1.98-18.59). All of the cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were diagnosed after 1978. An excess of cases of cancer of the salivary gland also was present (standardized incidence ratio, 10.00; 95% CI, 1.21-36.10). The method of coal extraction, the geology and chemistry of the coal-seams that were mined and the general characteristics of the work-force at the colliery are similar to those at other collieries in the region. Furthermore, an exhaustive work-place environmental study at the colliery has failed to identify any plausible carcinogenic agent to which the findings of this study can be attributed. Coal-miners previously have not been shown to be at a greater risk of developing lymphoma or related malignancies, and the region in which the mine is located has lower prevalence rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease than does New South Wales as a whole.

  4. Hydrological response of afforestation in a Mediterranean mountain area: the Araguás Afforestation catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lana-Renault, Noemi; Regüés, David

    2015-04-01

    The fraction of forest cover in the Mediterranean region is increasing due to afforestation programs conducted by national forest services and also due to natural revegetation processes. Literature review suggests that afforestation might threaten water resources because it (i) reduces the number of floods and many rainfall events produce no notable flow; (ii) decreases annual water yield and low flows; (iii) delays peak flows but increases the duration of floods; and (iv) increases rainfall interception, reducing the water reaching the soil. Also, afforestation typically reduces erosion risk and the volume of sediment reaching the streams, but not during the first years after plantation due to high geomorphic activity when invasive techniques are used. Although the great amount of literature on these topics, there is still considerable scientific uncertainty about the impact of afforestation on extreme events and groundwater dynamics. The MED-AFFOREST project studies the effects of afforestation on the hydrological response of a small catchment (Araguás afforestation catchment) monitored in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. In this study, we present the first results , as an example of the likely effects of afforestation in Mediterranean mountain areas. The results show that the hydrological response in the afforestation area is variable and complex, because the discharge was generated by a combination of different runoff generation processes. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).

  5. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  6. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.

    1981-09-01

    Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of Southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of Eastern red cedar on alkaline shale spoil; and, greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and, the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass. (JGB)

  7. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  8. The effect of colliery waste on the feeding of the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Brian T.; Davies, Mark S.

    1999-09-01

    Sandy shores in northeast England that are heavily contaminated by colliery waste (essentially coal particles) have lower species richnesses and diversities than less contaminated shores. Analyses of the sediment utilised putatively as food, the gut contents, and the faecal casts of lugworms Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta) from a heavily contaminated site (Newbiggin) and a site lightly contaminated (Seahouses) were performed to determine the effect of colliery waste on the feeding of this deposit-feeder, which has been reported to decline in abundance at contaminated sites. Colliery-waste content of sediment was 10 to 18 times greater at Newbiggin than at Seahouses. At Newbiggin the sediment contained significantly higher levels of colliery waste than did the gut contents or faeces, which were not significantly different from each other. At Seahouses the colliery-waste contents of sediment, gut, and faeces were not significantly different. Particle-size distributions in sediment, gut, and faeces from lugworms at Seahouses were similar, while at Newbiggin the sediment contained a greater proportion of larger particles (>250 μm) than did the gut contents or the faeces. These results suggest that lugworms at heavily contaminated sites are selective feeders, rejecting coal particles perhaps on the basis of particle size. We did not detect selectivity in animals at the less contaminated site. Lugworms from Seahouses, however, avoided burrowing into sediment containing colliery waste both when the waste was on the surface and buried. Lugworms from Newbiggin avoided burrowing into colliery waste only when it was buried. These data suggest a chemosensory response to colliery waste.

  9. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  10. Hexagonal gradient scheme with RF spoiling improves spoiling performance for high‐flip‐angle fast gradient echo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a framework in which time‐varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. Methods A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. Results Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. Conclusions A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called “hexagonal spoiling,” has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231–1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27037941

  11. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  12. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  13. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer.

  14. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  16. An investigation into the cytotoxicity of respirable dusts from British collieries.

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, I. P.; Collings, P.; Davis, J. M.; Ottery, J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of respirable dusts from British collieries was collected and analysed for mineral content and physical characteristics. Where possible 2 samples of dust were collected from the same site at 8-month intervals. All dusts were tested for their cytotoxic potential using a permanent line of macrophage-like cells (P388D1). In addition, for some dusts, a haemolytic technique was used. With both techniques a positive overall correlation was found between cytotoxicity and the total ash content of the dusts. When the results from collieries producing high- and low-rank coals were considered separately, however, it was found that the ash content of high-rank dusts (r=0.75) showed a much closer correlation with cytotoxicity than low-rank dusts (r=0.40). With the cell test system the ash components, kaolin and mica (r=0.58) and to a lesser extent quartz (r=0.48) showed significant positive correlations with cytotoxicity for high-rank coal dusts but not for low. Using the haemolytic system, however, only the quartz content of the high-rank dusts showed a significant relationship (r=0.69) to levels of haemoglobin release. Both the results of mineralogical analysis of dust samples and cytotoxicity tests showed that the mineral content and cytotoxic potential of dusts collected from the same colliery, and even from the same underground site, at different times, varied considerably. A poor correlation was found between cytotoxicity and various measurements of pneumoconiosis risk but this may well be partly due to this great variation of dust composition with time. In general, the overall results of this study were in good agreement with those of previous work on coal dust toxicity in that both the rank and composition of colliery dusts were found to be of importance, whereas the role of quartz remained enigmatic. PMID:518822

  17. Project Of Investigation About Growth Of Afforestation Mangrove In Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, R.

    2007-12-01

    At the mangrove which was played back artificially by intended afforestation it designates that related characteristic of growth circumstance and growth environment of the mangrove plant which is grown is evaluated as purpose of this study. Revival of the mangrove in Thailand with afforestation makes the ecosystem revive which consists simultaneously with the mangrove, makes the fishing industry profit at neighborhood possible, makes the life of the people of the locale rich. In addition, the mangrove carries out the role of the anti wave forest, the case of the Sumatra open sea earthquake makes the damage decrease by the tidal wave. The people of the locale re-have recognized concerning the inevitability of the mangrove. Difference has occurred in the amount of mangrove growth depending upon the growth place, the fact that these causes are investigated is something which urges the growth of the efficient mangrove at the time of future afforestation being active. In addition, also comparison of growth circumstance of the mangrove due to natural growth and the mangrove due to afforestation becomes the important research resource. Concretely, it measures growth circumstance (height of tree and diameter etc.) and also, growth environment (the amount of solar radiation, salinity density in substrate and tidal change etc.) and evaluate both correlations. As for evaluation of growth environment of the afforestation mangrove we should evaluate with central value. Because of that, there is a necessity which executes amount of growth measurement with statistical technique. Therefore, with the amount of growth measurement with lumbering, it is unsuitable to the measurement on this study. Regarding this subject of study, growth investigation of the group of trees is executed making use of non destructive physical amount (height of tree and diameter etc.) measurement. It measures at several dozen threes in plural afforestation area, evaluates the growth environment of each

  18. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z X; Myneni, Ranga B; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-25

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects.

  19. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects. PMID:24516135

  20. Biophysical and Biogeochemical Tradeoffs of Extratropical Afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykleby, P.; Snyder, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Afforestation is a viable and widely practiced method of sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, recent studies have projected inadvertent consequences of planting forests over previously non-forested land. Because of a change in surface albedo from more reflective grasslands, crops, and tundra, the relatively darker forest canopy can cause an increase in net radiation at the surface, resulting in localized warming. This effect is further enhanced in far northern latitudes where the prevalence of snow cover exacerbates the albedo difference during the winter months. Using a dynamic vegetation model with model enhancements to accurately simulate the growth cycle of conifer vegetation, simulations were run over the northern latitudes of the US and Canada, with additional analysis focusing on Minnesota. The goal of this study is to examine the competing effects of enhanced carbon sequestration versus localized surface warming. This analysis can assist in determining where forests may be a benefit to the global climate (i.e., where carbon sequestration exceeds increased net radiation and surface warming). Using the State of Minnesota as an example, this approach is used to assess the efficacy of carbon sequestration to offset the projected increase in statewide greenhouse gas emissions, which are mandated to be reduced by 80% of 2005 levels by 2050. Our analysis suggests that over an 80-year time span, the average annual net ecosystem exchange of carbon would only offset 15% of 2005 emissions as a result of planting conifer forests over the entire state of Minnesota and lead to significant regional warming because of a lower surface albedo. Additionally, results show that the optimal time frame in which carbon sequestration exceeds the detrimental biophysical effects is on the order of 45-55 years, thus suggesting that large-scale land management (i.e., planting and harvesting) would be required every century to maintain a climate benefit. These

  1. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  2. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  3. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  4. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  5. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  6. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  7. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  8. Carbon: nitrogen stoichiometry following afforestation: a global synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xia; Li, Dejun; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ruan, Honghua; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-01-01

    Though carbon (C): nitrogen (N) stoichiometry has been widely studied in terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about its variation following afforestation. By synthesizing the results of 53 studies, we examined temporal and spatial variation in C: N ratios and in N-C scaling relationships of both the organic and the mineral soil horizons. Results showed that C: N ratios remained constant in the mineral horizon but significantly decreased in the organic horizon over the age sequence following afforestation. Among different climate zones, C: N ratios of the organic and the mineral horizons increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT) (decreasing latitude). Pasture exhibited higher C: N ratios than cropland in the organic horizon while C: N of the mineral horizon did not change much among different land use types. For both the organic and the mineral horizons, hardwoods exhibited lower C: N ratios than pine and softwoods. Additionally, N and C in general scaled isometrically in both the organic and the mineral horizons over the age sequence and among different climate zones, land use types, and plantation species following afforestation. Our results suggest that C and N may remain coupled following afforestation. PMID:26743490

  9. The impact of afforestation on soil organic carbon sequestration on the Qinghai Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-wei; Han, Peng-fei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Fan; Ma, Cheng-lin

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested land into forest, is widespread in China. However, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) after afforestation are not well understood, especially in plateau climate zones. For a total of 48 shrub- and/or tree-dominated afforestation sites on the Qinghai Plateau, Northwestern China, post-afforestation changes in SOC, total nitrogen (TN), the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and soil bulk density (BD) were investigated to a soil depth of 60 cm using the paired-plots method. SOC and TN accumulated at rates of 138.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 4.6 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in shrub-dominated afforestation sites and at rates of 113.3 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 6.7 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. Soil BD was slightly reduced in all layers in the shrub-dominated afforestation plots, and significantly reduced in soil layers from 0-40cm in the tree-dominated afforestation plots. The C/N ratio was higher in afforested sites relative to the reference sites. SOC accumulation was closely related to TN accumulation following afforestation, and the inclusion of N-fixing species in tree-dominated afforestation sites additionally increased the soil accumulation capacity for SOC (p < 0.05). Multiple regression models including the age of an afforestation plot and total number of plant species explained 75% of the variation in relative SOC content change at depth of 0-20 cm, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. We conclude that afforestation on the Qinghai Plateau is associated with great capability of SOC and TN sequestration. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC and TN accumulation in a plateau climate, and provides evidence on the C sequestration potentials associated with forestry projects in China.

  10. The Impact of Afforestation on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration on the Qinghai Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sheng-wei; Han, Peng-fei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Fan; Ma, Cheng-lin

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested land into forest, is widespread in China. However, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) after afforestation are not well understood, especially in plateau climate zones. For a total of 48 shrub- and/or tree-dominated afforestation sites on the Qinghai Plateau, Northwestern China, post-afforestation changes in SOC, total nitrogen (TN), the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and soil bulk density (BD) were investigated to a soil depth of 60 cm using the paired-plots method. SOC and TN accumulated at rates of 138.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and 4.6 g N m-2 yr-1, respectively, in shrub-dominated afforestation sites and at rates of 113.3 g C m-2 yr--1 and 6.7 g N m-2yr-1, respectively, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. Soil BD was slightly reduced in all layers in the shrub-dominated afforestation plots, and significantly reduced in soil layers from 0–40cm in the tree-dominated afforestation plots. The C/N ratio was higher in afforested sites relative to the reference sites. SOC accumulation was closely related to TN accumulation following afforestation, and the inclusion of N-fixing species in tree-dominated afforestation sites additionally increased the soil accumulation capacity for SOC (p < 0.05). Multiple regression models including the age of an afforestation plot and total number of plant species explained 75% of the variation in relative SOC content change at depth of 0–20 cm, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. We conclude that afforestation on the Qinghai Plateau is associated with great capability of SOC and TN sequestration. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC and TN accumulation in a plateau climate, and provides evidence on the C sequestration potentials associated with forestry projects in China. PMID:25706724

  11. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  12. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Swann, Abigail L S; Fung, Inez Y; Chiang, John C H

    2012-01-17

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO(2), but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation.

  13. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Abigail L. S.; Fung, Inez Y.; Chiang, John C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO2, but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation. PMID:22190490

  14. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  15. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  16. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  17. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  18. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  19. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  20. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  1. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  2. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  3. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  4. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  5. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... excess spoil in a perennial or intermittent stream, the analysis must include an evaluation of impacts on... possible, taking into consideration applicable regulations concerning restoration of the...

  6. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... excess spoil in a perennial or intermittent stream, the analysis must include an evaluation of impacts on... possible, taking into consideration applicable regulations concerning restoration of the...

  7. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... the water into the spoil material. The underdrain system shall be protected by an adequate filter and.... Where there is insufficient material on the lower bench to construct a safety berm, only that amount...

  8. Control Room operations: an investigation of the task of the operator in a Colliery Control Room. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.C.; Best, C.F.; Ferguson, C.A.; Graveling, R.A.; Nicholl, A.G.M.

    1982-09-01

    A detailed study of the ergonomics aspects of four representative Colliery Control Rooms was carried out. Numerous ergonomics limitations, many common to each of the control rooms studied, were identified particularly in relation to workspace dimensions, console layout and lighting. In order to overcome these limitations in future designs, a report detailing the Ergonomics Principles of Colliery Control Room design and Layout was prepared on the basis of the information obtained. Task analysis carried out during the studies revealed that control room operators could have a direct effect on production and that ergonomics aspects were involved in these situations. Indications of potential ergonomics problems in the wider sphere of job design were also identified particularly in relation to information handling.

  9. Operating parameters of water-only cyclone at washing of steam coal from the Cigel Colliery in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Hredzak, S.; Lovas, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Mockovciakova, A.; Lesko, M.

    1999-07-01

    The contribution gives attention to the determination of water-only (WO) cyclone operating parameters. The samples of steam coal and fines from the Cigel colliery have been washed in the laboratory type of WO cyclone. The products of washing were subjected to sink-float analyses. From the results of sink-float analyses the basic separation characteristics of the WO cyclone have been computed.

  10. Role of arthropods in developing soils on mine spoils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, W.G.; Elkins, N.Z.; Parker, L.W.

    1981-06-01

    In laboratory microcosms of coal mine spoil amended with bark and wood chips, the activity of termites increased organic matter and increased total nitrogen. Termite survival was reduced in microcosms with spoil and paper or straw amendments. Field studies evaluating the efficacy of organic amendments in developing a soil biota showed that decomposition rates of wood chip-bark amended spoil were the same as unmined soil and that decomposition rates were lower than all other mulch-spoil combinations. Wood and bark amended-spoil had the highest density and diversity of soil fauna. Top dressing spoils with borrow soil did not improve any of the soil biological parameters measured. Based on these data it was recommended that reclamation procedures be changed to eliminate borrow soil top-dressing and that wood removed from mined areas be returned to the contoured spoil as wood chip amendment in addition to straw mulch.

  11. Carbon sources and dynamics in afforested and cultivated US corn belt soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Afforestation in degraded cropland can sequester atmospheric carbon (C), but soil organic C (SOC) sources in such ecosystems are not well-characterized. This study assessed SOC dynamics and sources in two 35-yr-old, coniferous afforestation sites (i.e., a forest plantation and a shelterbelt situated...

  12. Carbon sources and dynamics in afforested and cultivated corn belt soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Afforestation of degraded cropland can sequester atmospheric carbon (C), but soil organic C (SOC) sources in such ecosystems are not well-characterized. This study assessed SOC dynamics and sources in two 35-yr-old, coniferous afforestation sites [i.e., a forest plantation and a shelterbelt situated...

  13. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  14. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  15. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  16. The Effect of Afforestation on Soil Moisture Content in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yitong; Wang, Xuhui; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Liu, Yongwen; Peng, Shushi; Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Widespread afforestation programs sequester carbon from the atmosphere and mitigate the rising of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Meanwhile, afforestation carbon sequestration may cost soil water. However, changes in soil moisture content (SMC) after large-scale afforestation or reforestation have rarely been quantified. In this study, we measured changes in SMC following afforestation using a paired plots method with data from 757 plots in Northeastern China. We found a marginally significant decline in soil moisture content of the top 1-m soil (SMC0-1m) after afforestation (P = 0.08) at the regional scale. The SMC responses to afforestation also vary across species. For example, significant SMC decrease are found for Populus spp. plantations (P < 0.05) and plantations of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (P < 0.05). Splitting the first meter of the soil profile into different depth intervals revealed that SMC declined significantly in shallow layers (0–30 cm) for Populus spp. and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We also found that when SMC in the control exceeded a specific threshold, SMC for all five tree species considered tended to decrease, suggesting that the effects of afforestation on soil hydrology vary across different regions. PMID:27513001

  17. The accumulation of organic carbon in mineral soils by afforestation of abandoned farmland.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaorong; Qiu, Liping; Shao, Mingan; Zhang, Xingchang; Gale, William J

    2012-01-01

    The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC). However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural (13)C abundance of soil organic matter was also analyzed to distinguish between crop- and forest-derived C in the afforested soils. We observed a nonlinear accumulation of total OC in the 0-80 cm depth of the mineral soil across time. Total soil OC accumulated more rapidly under forest stands aged 18 to 48 yr than under forest stands aged 100 or 200 yrs. The rate of OC accumulation was also greater in the 0-10 cm depth than in the 10-80 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforested soils also accumulated nonlinearly across time, with the greatest increase in the 0-20 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforest soils accounted for 52-86% of the total OC in the 0-10 cm depth, 36-61% of the total OC in the 10-20 cm depth, and 11-50% of the total OC in the 20-80 cm depth. Crop-derived OC concentrations in the 0-20 cm depth decreased slightly after afforestation, but there was no change in crop-derived OC concentrations in the 20-80 cm depth. The results of our study support the claim that afforestation of farmland can sequester atmospheric CO(2) by increasing soil OC stocks. Changes in the OC stocks of mineral soils after afforestation appear to be influenced mainly by the input of forest-derived C rather than by the loss of original OC.

  18. Organizational change and marine environmental protection: The dredge spoil siting record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, R. H.

    1991-07-01

    Dredge spoil siting activities are reviewed over a decade to determine whether organizational changes within the Corps of Engineers produced changes in the environmental performance of the agency. Over the period neither the total amount of marine and estuarine dredging nor the incidence of siting spoil inside the baseline declined. Therefore, internal organizational changes do not appear to have affected the above measures of agency performance concerning protection of the marine environment. Furthermore, at least 3% of the spoil is estimated to be highly contaminated. In recent years this magnitude of contaminated spoils has been equivalent to ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

  19. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    PubMed

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-11-26

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation.

  20. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands

    PubMed Central

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  1. Global patterns of the dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following afforestation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejun; Niu, Shuli; Luo, Yiqi

    2012-07-01

    Afforestation has been proposed as an effective method of carbon (C) sequestration; however, the magnitude and direction of soil carbon accumulation following afforestation and its regulation by soil nitrogen (N) dynamics are still not well understood. • We synthesized the results from 292 sites and carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the dynamics of soil C and N stocks following afforestation. • Changes in soil C and N stocks were significantly correlated and had a similar temporal pattern. Significant C and N stock increases were found 30 and 50 yr after afforestation, respectively. Before these time points, C and N stocks were either depleted or unchanged. Carbon stock increased following afforestation on cropland and pasture, and in tropical, subtropical and boreal zones. The soil N stock increased in the subtropical zone. The soil C stock increased after afforestation with hardwoods such as Eucalyptus, but did not change after afforestation with softwoods such as pine. Soil N stocks increased and decreased, respectively, after afforestation with hardwoods (excluding Eucalyptus) and pine. • These results indicate that soil C and N stocks both increase with time after afforestation, and that C sequestration through afforestation depends on prior land use, climate and the tree species planted.

  2. Predicting ground-water movement in large mine spoil areas in the Appalachian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern Kentucky reveals important factors that control the storage and movement of water. Ground-water recharge occurs along the periphery of the spoil body where surface-water drainage is blocked, as well as from infiltration along the spoil-bedrock contact, recharge from adjacent bedrock, and to a minor extent, through macropores at the spoil's surface. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m for all spoil wells, and assuming an estimated porosity of 20%, approximately 5.2 x 106 m3 of water is stored within the existing 4.1 km2 of reclaimed spoil. A conceptual model of ground-water flow, based on data from monitoring wells, dye-tracing data, discharge from springs and ponds, hydraulic gradients, chemical data, field reconnaissance, and aerial photographs indicate that three distinct but interconnected saturated zones have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and others in the valley fills that surround the main spoil body at lower elevations. Ground-water movement is sluggish in the spoil's interior, but moves quickly through the valley fills. The conceptual model shows that a prediction of ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality can be made for active or abandoned spoil areas if all or some of the following data are available: structural contour of the base of the lowest coal seam being mined, pre-mining topography, documentation of mining methods employed throughout the mine, overburden characteristics, and aerial photographs of mine progression.Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern

  3. Soil Phosphorus Gains and Losses with Afforestation: A Meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, D.; Deng, Q.; Xiang, Y.; Yu, C. L.; Hui, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Afforestation, the planting of trees on previously non-forested land, is commonly practiced around the world to provide wood, reduce erosion, and restore degraded agricultural land. Although afforestation has the potential to meet these objectives while increasing carbon uptake, its net impact on the soil depends on environmental conditions and land-use history. Availability of vital plant nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), may be altered by afforestation, but prior work has largely focused on soil carbon, and changes in soil P had not been quantitatively reviewed. We conducted a literature meta-analysis of changes in total and plant-available soil P with afforestation, compiling 49 studies representing 186 independent forest stands on five continents. Over the full dataset, mean concentration of plant-available phosphorus (mg kg-1 soil) increased by 22.7% with afforestation (bootstrapped 95% confidence interval = [15.1%, 30.7%]), while mean concentration of total phosphorus decreased by 13.5% (95% CI = [-18.4%, -8.6%]). These data reflect trends in upper mineral soil horizons, with sampling depths clustered around 20 cm and few studies reporting data below 50 cm. Differences in prior land use partially explain the substantial variation in effect size, with larger increases in available P and smaller decreases in total P when trees were planted on degraded soils. Trends in both available and total P were also enhanced with increasing time since afforestation, suggesting that changes in soil P concentrations are driven by cumulative processes rather than site preparation and planting. Our meta-analysis suggests that 1. afforestation can transform phosphorus into more plant-accessible forms, while potentially depleting total soil stocks of P, and 2. land-use history, more than climate or species planted, determines the effects of afforestation on soils' ability to meet the nutrient needs of vegetation.

  4. Effects of topsoil treatments on afforestation in a dry Mediterranean climate (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, Paloma; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Afforestation programs in semiarid areas are associated with a high level of sapling mortality. Therefore, the development of alternative low-cost and low-environmental-impact afforestation methods that ensure the survival of seedlings is crucial for improving the efficiency of Mediterranean forest management. This study assessed the effects of five types of soil amendments on the afforestation success (e.g., plant growth and survival) of a Mediterranean semiarid area. The amendments tested were (i) straw mulch; (ii) mulch containing chipped branches of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis L.); (iii) sheep manure compost; (iv) sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; and (v) TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer. We hypothesized that in the context of dry Mediterranean climatic conditions, the use of organic amendments would enhance plant establishment and ensure successful afforestation. The results showed that afforestation success varied among the various soil amendment treatments in the experimental plots. The amendments had no effect on soil organic carbon, pH, or salinity, but the results indicated that the addition of mulch or hydroabsorbent polymer can reduce transplant stress by increasing the soil water available for plant growth throughout the hydrological year, and potentially improve the success of afforestation by reducing plant mortality.

  5. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii. The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. PMID:27795248

  6. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  7. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  8. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  9. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  10. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  11. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in... Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. The calculations required by this subchapter for each self-propelled hopper dredge must include— (a) The free surface effect...

  12. Mycobacteria in water used for personal hygiene in heavy industry and collieries: a potential risk for employees.

    PubMed

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-03-04

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people.

  13. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report for research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.W.; Mitchell, G.A.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1981-10-28

    Research on revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils and related topics was conducted at three mine locations in 1980 and 1981. One of the locations was at an active commercial mine, another at an abandoned mine, and the third at a test pit in a coal field that appears on the verge of development. The research included a number of plantings to test the adaptability of plant materials at various sites, time-of-planting and planting method trials, tests to determine fertilizer needs and plant responses to specific elements, numerous soil samplings to characterize minesoil materials and relate soil conditions to apparent performance of reclamation plantings that have been conducted at one mine over a period of nine years, base studies assessing faunal populations and their representation on replanted mine spoils, and studies of nutrient quality of native vegetation and reclamation plantings. This report will be presented in three sections. The first section will deal with the fertility and minesoil characterization studies, the second with the plant material studies, and the third with the faunal and plant quality studies.

  14. A geostatistical and sampling analysis of regraded spoil materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.C.; Brown, T.H.

    1990-12-31

    Characterization of the pH and acid-base account levels in regraded spoil materials from mining operations is a difficult task due to mixing and the directional nature of product extraction. Geostatistical analysis of regraded spoil materials is currently being studied as the eventual methodology for determining sample grid size and sub-sample number for minesoil monitoring programs in the State of Texas. It is anticipated that geostatistics will soon be utilized for similar reasons at mine sites in other regions. In view of this, it is necessary to develop a position on geostatistics as a method for determining sample intensity necessary to statistically characterize Acid Forming Material (AFM) conditions existing in post-mined soils. A group of six Texas lignite mines has been analyzed using geostatistical methods. Acid-base account and pH values were mapped at four levels in each site. Determinations as to the confidence of the sampling programs were performed for all sites. Recommendations and strategies were developed for future sampling programs. Additional techniques to minimize sub-sample spacing were also developed.

  15. Neural Correlates of the Perception of Spoiled Food Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christoph A.; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T.

    2016-01-01

    The elicitation of disgust by the view of spoiled and rotten foods is considered as an adaptation preventing the ingestion of harmful microorganisms and pathogens. To provide an effective behavioral defense, inedible food items need to be detected automatically, i.e., in the absence of explicit processing goals, early in the processing stream, and triggering an alarm response, i.e., increased attentional capture. To examine these hypotheses, a set of stimulus material consisting of images of perishable foods (i.e., dairies, meats, fruits, and vegetables) at various stages of natural decay ranging from appetitive to disgusting was developed. In separate sessions, functional imaging and dense sensor event related potential (ERP) data were collected while participants (N = 24) viewed the stimulus materials. Functional imaging data indicated larger activations in the extrastriate visual cortex during the processing of inedible as compared to edible food items. Furthermore, ERP recordings indicated that the processing of inedible food stimuli was associated with a relative positivity over inferior occipital sensor sites already at early stages of processing (<200 ms), and subsequently, an increased late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital sensor regions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the brain’s sensitivity to visual cues of foods that are spoiled or rotten. PMID:27445746

  16. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  17. Gully evolution and geomorphic adjustments of badlands to recent afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Francisco Martín-Duque, Jose; Corona, Christophe; Lucia, Ana; María Bodoque, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Badlands and gullied areas are among the geomorphic environments with the highest erosion rates worldwide, however records on their evolution are very scarce and often limited to presumed initial conditions and the known present state. In this communication, we present a unique and very dense and annual record and outstanding example of erosion processes in a Mediterranean environment in Central Spain, where badland and gullying processes on sandy slopes of a set of mesas have been presumably triggered by quarrying activities since Medieval times. The gully channel evolution here analyzed provides an exceptional example of a larger setting of geomorphic. Besides the analysis of geomorphic adjustments to historical land-use changes induced by historical quarrying and gullying dynamics, we also quantified the impact of current geomorphic adjustments to 20th century afforestation by combining multiproxy such as aerial photography, historical archives, and large dataset of exposed roots to date, quantify, and reconstruct the morphology of a rapidly evolving channel in a gullied catchment. In this analysis, more than 150 exposed roots were analyzed to quantify and report channel incision; widening and gully retreatment rates during the last decades, as well as to quantify sheet erosion on different soil units. Our results suggest that, rather than stabilizing gully evolution, the afforestation carried out during 1960s has played an important role in water-sediment balance and connectivity and would have triggered the initiation of channel incision processes in the 1980s. Therefore, we observe that the channel incision match with a significant increase of the vegetation cover, which leads a significant decrease in sheet erosion rates. Based on our long-term annual gully reconstruction, we observed that sediment delivery does not correlate with the estimated intensity of precipitation (Fourier index). Instead, we observe abrupt morphological changes in the gully are

  18. Preliminary study of the refaunation of alkaline shale coal surface mine spoil by soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Wilman, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Soil sampling stations were laid out on (largely) untopsoiled shale surface mine spoil in 1979. Stations were located on spoil graded in 1978-1979, in ungraded spoil cast in 1972 and aerially seeded in 1973, and in adjacent off-mine woods and an old field. Additional stations were added in 1982 on spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling. Stations were located to include important variables typical of the mine. Of 17 classes-orders of arthropods recovered from all sites, only Acari (78-99% of total individuals) and Collembola (2-12%) were consistently widespread and numerous, and only Acari were important in the youngest spoils. A total of 69 mite families - superfamilies - were identified during the course of the study. Low-moderate mite populations were found in bare shale spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling, these distributed among 4 families. Samples from 1978-79 spoil contained 13 families 3-7 months after grading and 2 years later were comparable to off-mine sites both in numbers of individuals and number of families. Spoil from 1973 was comparable to off-mine sites in these 2 respects when first sampled. Earliest pioneer species were 3 (presumably) microherbivores, these remaining dominant for several years. Predatory mites appeared early and were well established less than a year after grading. Saprovores were absent or relatively scarce in the 2 youngest spoils, but well established in the 1973 spoil at first sampling.

  19. Soil C and N changes with afforestation of grasslands across gradients of precipitation and plantation age.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Piñeiro, Gervasio; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of unforested lands to forests, is a tool for sequestering anthropogenic carbon dioxide into plant biomass. However, in addition to altering biomass, afforestation can have substantial effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) pools, some of which have much longer turnover times than plant biomass. An increasing body of evidence suggests that the effect of afforestation on SOC may depend on mean annual precipitation (MAP). The goal of this study was to test how labile and bulk pools of SOC and total soil nitrogen (TN) change with afforestation across a rainfall gradient of 600-1500 mm in the Rio de la Plata grasslands of Argentina and Uruguay. The sites were all former grasslands planted with Eucalyptus spp. Overall, we found that afforestation increased (up to 1012 kg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) or decreased (as much as 1294 kg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) SOC pools in this region and that these changes were significantly related to MAP. Drier sites gained, and wetter sites lost, SOC and TN (r2 = 0.59, P = 0.003; and r2 = 0.57, P = 0.004, respectively). Labile C and N in microbial biomass and extractable soil pools followed similar patterns to bulk SOC and TN. Interestingly, drier sites gained more SOC and TN as plantations aged, while losses reversed as plantations aged in wet sites, suggesting that plantation age in addition to precipitation is a critical driver of changes in soil organic matter with afforestation. This new evidence implies that longer intervals between harvests for plantations could improve SOC storage, ameliorating the negative trends found in humid sites. Our results suggest that the value of afforestation as a carbon sequestration tool should be considered in the context of precipitation and age of the forest stand.

  20. Assessing the impact of afforestation on soil organic C sequestration by means of sequential density fractionation.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weiwei; Ren, Tusheng; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation is a prevalent practice carried out for soil recovery and carbon sequestration. Improved understanding of the effects of afforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and dynamics is necessary to identify the particular processes of soil organic matter (SOM) formation and/or decomposition that result from afforestation. To elucidate these mechanisms, we have used a sequential density fractionation technique to identify the transfer mechanisms of forest derived C to soil fractions and investigate the impact of afforestation on SOC sequestration. Surface soil samples from continuous maize crop land (C4) and forest land (C3), which had been established 5, 12 and 25 yr, respectively, on the Northeast China Plain were separated into five density fractions. SOC, nitrogen (N) concentration and δ13C data from the three forests and adjacent cropland were compared. Afforestation decreased SOC concentration in the < 2.5 g cm-3 fractions from 5 yr forest sites, but increased SOC content in the < 2.0 g cm-3 fractions from 25 yr forest sites. Afforestation did not affect soil mass distribution, SOC and N proportional weight distributions across the density fractions. The < 1.8 g cm-3 fractions from 12 and 25 yr forests showed higher C/N and lower δ13C as compared to other fractions. Incorporation of forest litter-derived C occurred from low density (< 1.8 g cm-3) fractions to aggregates of higher density (1.8-2.5 g cm-3) through aggregate recombination and C transport in the pore system of the aggregates. Some forest litter-derived C could transfer from the light fractions or directly diffuse and adsorb onto mineral particles. Results from this study indicate that microaggregate protection and association between organic material and minerals provide major contribution to the SOC sequestration in the afforested soil system.

  1. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses.

  2. Contribution of Afforestation Practices to Changing Hydrology in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Meng, S.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are generally susceptible to land degeneration due to limited precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration (ET). Afforestation has been assumed to be a feasible strategy to conserve water and to improve ecological environment. For example, the Northern China, as a typical arid and semi-arid region has experienced large-scale and long-term afforestation practices since the early 1980s. The land cover has been altered to some degree as tree planting with increasing greenness. However, the effectiveness of afforestation might not be as expected due to the interference of climate change. In this study, we attempted to quantify the contribution of afforestation practices to the hydrological system in the Northern China. A macro-scale hydrological model, i.e., the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), was employed to simulate ET, soil moisture and runoff for the period 1959 - 2009. Fractional simulation scenarios were designed regarding different conditions of land cover and climate changes. The results indicate that the land cover has minor impact on the variability of hydrological variables at regional scale, comparing with the climate change. Particularly, the decreasing precipitation plays a dominant role in shaping the trends of ET, soil moisture and runoff. The findings have significant implications for the implementation of the afforestation practices and for the management of water resources in arid and semi-arid regions.

  3. Runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingbin; Zhang, Lu; Gallichand, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    Afforestation has been suggested as a means of improving soil and water conservation in north-western China, especially on the Loess Plateau. Understanding of the hydrological responses to afforestation will help us develop sustainable watershed management strategies. A study was conducted during the period of 1956 to 1980 to evaluate runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed on the Loess Plateau with an area of 1·15 km2, using a paired watershed approach. Deciduous trees, including locust (locusta L.), apricot (praecox L.) and elm (ulmus L.), were planted on about 80% of a treated watershed, while a natural grassland watershed remained unchanged. It was estimated that cumulative runoff yield in the treated watershed was reduced by 32% as a result of afforestation. A significant trend was also observed that shows annual runoff reduction increases with the age of the trees planted. Reduction in monthly runoff occurred mainly from June to September, which was ascribed to greater rainfall and utilization by trees during this period. Afforestation also resulted in reduction in the volume and peak flow of storm runoff events in the treated watershed with greater reduction in peak flow. Copyright

  4. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  5. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  6. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils' temporal leaching behavior.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Zipper, Carl E; Eick, Matt; Beck, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Appalachian surface coal mine overburden affects water quality as drainage percolates through spoil disposal fills. This study evaluated leaching potentials of 15 spoils from south-central Appalachia. Most bulk samples were non acid-forming, all were low in total-S, (≤0.34%), and initial saturated paste specific conductance (SC) ranged from 264 to 3560 μS cm(-1). Samples were leached unsaturated (40 cycles) and leachates analyzed for pH, SC, and ion composition. Overall, leachates from unweathered spoils were higher in pH and SC than leachates from weathered spoils. Fine-textured spoils generally produced higher SCs than more coarsely textured spoils. Mean SC for all spoils decreased rapidly from an initial peak of 1468 μS cm(-1) (±150) to 247 μS cm(-1) (±23). Release patterns for most major ions reflected declining SC. Bicarbonate typically increased with successive leaches, replacing sulfate as the dominant anion. Column SC values were comparable to relevant published field data.

  7. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E.

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  8. Fundamental Study of Three-dimensional Fast Spin-echo Imaging with Spoiled Equilibrium Pulse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masashi; Kaji, Naoto; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) imaging with variable refocusing flip angle has been recently applied to pre- or post-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. To reduce the acquisition time, this sequence requires higher echo train length (ETL), which potentially causes decreased T1 contrast. Spoiled equilibrium (SpE) pulse consists of a resonant +90° radiofrequency (RF) pulse and is applied at the end of the echo train. This +90° RF pulse brings residual transverse magnetization to the negative longitudinal axis, which makes it possible to increase T1 contrast. The purpose of our present study was to examine factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse and the relationship between T1 contrast improvement and imaging parameters and to understand the characteristics of spoiled equilibrium pulse. Phantom studies were conducted using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom made of polyvinyl alcohol gel. To evaluate the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse with changes in repetition time (TR), ETL, and refocusing flip angle, we measured the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse was evaluated by calculating the enhancement rate of CNR. The factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse are TR, ETL, and relaxation time of tissues. Spoiled equilibrium pulse is effective with increasing TR and decreasing ETL. The shorter the T1 value, the better the spoiled equilibrium pulse functions. However, for tissues in which the T1 value is long (>600 ms), at a TR of 600 ms, improvement in T1 contrast by applying spoiled equilibrium pulse cannot be expected.

  9. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  10. Interactions between properties of amended strip mine spoils and microbial activities

    SciTech Connect

    Utsalo, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of strip mine spoils before and after amendment with varying levels of carbon and nitrogen sources are characterized and compared with properties of similarly amended garden soil samples. Changes in spoils as reflected in the stimulation of microbial populations, rate of nitrate formation, the turnover of microbial biomass and the growth yields of white clover and rye grass are evaluated. Limed spoils and garden soils were fertilized and incubated at 25/sup 0/C following amendments with organic substrates. Changes in parameters related to soil fertility status were analyzed on a weekly basis. The possible identity and the toxic effects on white clover and a Rhizobium of acidity factors present in strip mine spoils were evaluated using soil experiments and pure culture studies in artificial culture media. The results indicate that acid spoils contain low numbers of viable microorganisms which readily respond to soil amendment with substrates. No nitrification occurs in acid spoils but liming and inoculation with compost infusion stimulate active nitrification. Aluminum, manganese and acidity appear to be important factors which inhibit the survival of plants and microbes in spoils. Adequate liming improves rhizobial survival and growth and nodulation of white clover in spoils. Acidity factors have greater impact on Rhizobium than on the white clover host under nutritionally independent conditions. Increase in inoculum size enhances nodulation and growth of clover at low aluminum levels. Reducing the time of exposure of rhizobia to acidity factors outside the symbiotic host does not appear to enhance the growth yield of clover under symbiotic conditions. Molds appear to contribute more to the increased aggregate stability observed in amended soils than bacteria and actinomycetes.

  11. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  12. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry.

  13. Water quality characteristics of discharge from reforested loose-dumped mine spoil in eastern Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Agouridis, Carmen T; Angel, Patrick N; Taylor, Timothy J; Barton, Christopher D; Warner, Richard C; Yu, Xia; Wood, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Surface mining is a common method for extracting coal in the coal fields of eastern Kentucky. Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), which emphasizes the use of minimally compacted or loose-dumped spoil as a growth medium for trees, reclamation practitioners are successfully reestablishing forests. Yet, questions remain regarding the effects FRA has on the quality of waters discharged to receiving streams. To examine the effect of FRA on water quality, this study compared waters that were discharged from three types of spoils: predominantly brown, weathered sandstone (BROWN); predominantly gray, unweathered sandstone (GRAY); and an equal mixture of both aforementioned sandstones and shale (MIXED). The water quality parameters pH, EC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, NO-N, NH-N, SO, Cl, TC, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), settleable solids (SS), and turbidity were monitored over a 2-yr period on six 0.4-ha plots (two replications per spoil type). Generally, levels of Cl, SO, Ca, NO-N, NH-N, SS, SSC, and turbidity decreased over time. The pH for all spoils increased from about 7.5 to 8.5. The EC remained relatively level in the BROWN spoil, whereas the GRAY and MIXED spoils had downward trajectories that were approaching 500 μS cm. The value of 500 μS cm has been reported as the apparent threshold at which certain taxa such as Ephemeroptera (e.g., Mayfly) recolonize disturbed headwater streams of eastern Kentucky and adjacent coal-producing Appalachian states.

  14. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach.

  15. Carbon pools in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semiarid regions comprise 41% of the continental area of Chile, but no estimates of carbon (C) pools have been reported for these areas. This study quantified the C pools of biomass, litter, and soil for natural compared to afforested (two-year-old Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L. Wendl.) sit...

  16. [Effects of different afforestation types on soil faunal diversity in Horqin Sand Land].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong

    2012-04-01

    In order to deeply understand the effects of afforestation on the soil faunal diversity in mobile sand land, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of soil animals in the mobile sand land and its adjacent about 30 years old forest land and shrub land in Hrqin Sand Land. Afforestation on the mobile sand land had remarkable effects on the soil properties, especially the soil environment in shrub land, in which, the soil water content, pH, and nutrient contents were improved. In the three lands investigated, a total of 485 individuals belonging to 11 soil animal groups were collected, among which, Acarina and Collembola were the dominant groups, Corrodentia was the common group, and the others were of rare groups. From the mobile sand land to shrub land to forest land, the soil faunal density decreased, group richness and Shannon index increased, and evenness declined, but no significant differences were observed in these indices among these three lands. It was suggested that afforestation on mobile sand land could improve the soil environment and enhance soil faunal diversity, but there was a limitation to take 30 years old plantations as test objects to investigate the effects of afforestation on soil faunal diversity in mobile sand land.

  17. Runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Zhang, L.; Gallichand, J.

    2003-04-01

    Afforestation has been suggested as a means of imroving soil and water conservation in Northwestern China, especially in the Loess Plateau. Understanding of the hydrological responses to afforestation will help us develop sustainable watershed management strategies. A study was conducted during the period of 1956 to 1995 to evaluated runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed in the Loess Plateau, using a paired watershed approach. Deciduoud tress, including locust, apricot and elm, were planted on about 80% of a treated watershed, while a natural grassland watershed remained unchanged. It was estimated that cumulative runoff yield in the treated watershed was reduced by 32% as a result of afforestation. Asignificant trend was also observed that shows annual runoff reduction increases with the age of the trees planted. Reduction in monthly runoff occurred mainly from June to September, which was ascribed to greater rainfall and utilization by trees during this period. Afforeststion also resulted in reduction in the volume and peak flow of storm runoff events in treated watershed with greater reduction in peak flow.

  18. Guiding U.S. Afforestation Policy through Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykleby, P.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Afforestation has been proposed as a practical and viable solution for curtailing the ever-increasing levels of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. Individual states and multi-region cooperatives have established initiatives to offset carbon emissions using a variety of strategies, afforestation being one of them. While afforestation provides a positive benefit of increased carbon sequestration, this land cover change also produces a lower surface albedo, which can lead to local warming. Given these competing effects, carbon balance and surface energy budget analyses were performed for the northern United States and southern Canada, to determine where and for how long forest plantations should be planted to provide a positive benefit to the climate system. We use a dynamic vegetation model to analyze the competing effects of increased carbon sequestration versus increased net radiation at the surface from afforestation. In addition to determining where carbon sequestration (biogeochemical) would outweigh albedo (biophysical) effects, we calculate the amount of emissions offset for a variety of land use scenarios. As an example, in the state of Minnesota state officials have mandated that carbon emissions be reduced 80% from 2005 to 2050. While only taking into consideration land that is currently forested by mature forests and grasslands, the state would only offset about 11% of 2005 emissions annually by reforesting this land with younger, more productive forests. This example suggests that a significant amount of agricultural land would need to be converted into forest to make any sizeable offset to statewide greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J. H. Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR. PMID:26771509

  20. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  1. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock.

  2. Mine spoil acts as a sink of carbon dioxide in Indian dry tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Nathanail, C Paul

    2014-01-15

    Economically important mining operations have adverse environmental impacts: top soil, subsoil and overburden are relocated; resulting mine spoils constitute an unaesthetic landscape and biologically sterile or compromised habitat, and act as source of pollutants with respect to air dust, heavy metal contamination to soil and water bodies. Where such spoils are revegetated, however, they can act as a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through combined plant succession and soil formation. Revegetation, drainage, reprofiling and proper long term management practices help recapture carbon, improve soil quality and restore the soil organic matter content. A survey along an age gradient of revegetated mine spoils of 19 years in Singrauli, India by the authors showed an accumulation of total C in total plant biomass, mine soil and soil microbial biomass by 44.5, 22.9 and 1.8 t/ha, respectively. There was an increase in total sequestered C by 712% in revegetated mine spoils after 19 years, which can be translated into annual C sequestration potential of 3.64 t Cha(-1) yr(-1). Carbon sequestered in revegetated mine spoil is equivalent to 253.96 tonnes/ha capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This indicates that mine spoil can act as a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Annual C budget indicated 8.40 t Cha(-1) yr(-1) accumulation in which 2.14 t/ha was allocated to above ground biomass, 0.31 t/ha in belowground biomass, 2.88 t/ha in litter mass and 1.35 t/ha in mine soil. This shows that litter mass allocation is much important in the revegetated site. Decomposition of root and litter mass contributes C storage in the mine soil. Therefore, revegetation of mine soils is an important management option for mitigation of the negative impacts of mining and enhancing carbon sequestration in mine spoils.

  3. Characterization of Clostridium spp. isolated from spoiled processed cheese products.

    PubMed

    Lycken, Lena; Borch, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Of 42 spoiled cheese spread products, 35 were found to harbor Clostridium spp. Typical signs of spoilage were gas production and off-odor. The identity was determined for about half of the isolates (n = 124) by Analytab Products (API), Biolog, the RiboPrinter System, 16S rDNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, or some combination of these. The majority of isolates were identified as Clostridium sporogenes (in 33% of products), but Clostridium cochlearium (in 12% of products) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum (in 2% of products) were also retrieved. Similarity analysis of the riboprint patterns for 21 isolates resulted in the identification of 10 ribogroups. A high degree of relatedness was observed between isolates of C. sporogenes originating from products produced 3 years apart, indicating a common and, over time, persistent source of infection. The spoilage potential of 11 well-characterized isolates and two culture collection strains was analyzed by inoculating shrimp cheese spread with single cultures and then storing them at 37 degrees C. Tubes inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum did not show any visible signs of growth (e.g., coagulation, discoloration, gas formation) in the cheese spread. After 2 weeks of incubation, tubes inoculated with C. cochlearium or C. sporogenes showed gas-holes, syneresis with separation of coagulated casein and liquid, and a change in color of the cheese. The amount of CO2 produced by C. cochlearium strains was approximately one-third that produced by the majority of C. sporogenes strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and identify C. cochlearium as a spoilage organism in cheese spread.

  4. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%).

  5. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  6. Response of soil microbial community composition to afforestation with pure and mixed tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Godbold, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Jones, Davey

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation of agricultural land affects soil ecosystem functions by inducing carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration and promoting shifts in microbial community structure. Soil C and N stocks undergo progressive changes over several decades after forest establishment, particularly in successional forests. In contrast, microbial community structure can be shifted already in the first decade and thus, direct effect of tree species can be revealed. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how soil microbial community composition is altered by afforestation with either one, two or three species mixtures of trees, which possess strongly contrasting functional traits. The study was conducted at the BangorDIVERSE temperate forest experiment established in 2004 on a former arable soil. Soil samples were collected under single, two and three species mixtures of alder, birch, beech and oak, while contiguous field was chosen as a control. Soil samples were analysed for key quality indicators (total C and N, pH, nitrate and ammonium), and microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. Ten years after afforestation, total soil C, N and C/N ratios were not strongly affected, with the highest positive changes (up to 20%) for the birch, alder+oak and birch+beech plots. Decrease of C and N contents were observed for the pure beech plot. pH decreased by 1-1.2 units for all forest plots compare to the control soil. Total PLFAs content (370-630 nmol g-1 soil) increased in comparison to the control (315 nmol g-1 soil), resulting in the changes in total PLFAs content from 20 to 100%. Thus, changes of chemical properties (C, N) occur slower than changes of microbial biomarkers at the early stage of afforestation. Bacterial PLFA content was shifted by 20-120%, whereas fungal PLFAs were changed by 50-300%, reflecting stronger impact of afforestation on the recovery of fungal communities than on bacterial. Principal component analysis of

  7. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  8. Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions from soils following afforestation in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    The effects of afforestation are of great importance for terrestrial carbon sequestration. However, the consequences of afforestation for greenhouse gas (GHG, CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes remain poorly quantified. We investigate the temporal variations in CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in afforested soils (implementing woodland and shrubland) and the adjacent uncultivated area in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of central China. We examined the effects of soil factors [e.g. soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic nitrogen (SON)], litter exclusion and vegetation types on GHG fluxes. Our results revealed that afforestation lead to a higher average CO2 flux from soils by 63.96% and a higher N2O flux by 54.53% in the observed year. The peak CO2 and CH4 fluxes from afforested soils occurred in summer, while the peak N2O flux occurred in winter. Afforestation also enhanced CH4 flux from soil with the largest increase by 247.94% in woodland and by 188.18% in shrubland in spring compared with the open area. On average, surface litter exclusion reduced soil CO2 fluxes by 18.84% and N2O fluxes by 27.93% in the woodland. The surface litter exclusion did not significantly affect CH4 flux from the afforested soils. The CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soils were strongly influenced by soil temperature, moisture and SOC content across seasons. The N2O flux was also strongly affected by SON content in our experimental field. Our results suggested that afforestation enhanced GHG fluxes from soils; however, the magnitude of the GHG fluxes should also be considered from various environmental conditions and vegetation types.

  9. Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.

    PubMed

    Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2003-02-26

    The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine.

  10. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design biochars for site improvement to promote stabilizing plant growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. ...

  11. TEMPORAL COHERENCE AND FREQUENCY VS TIME CHARACTERISTICS OF A Q-SPOILED RUBY LASER,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of change of the laser frequency during the Q-spoiled emission pulse is approximately twenty times the rate of change during a single spike of an...linear in the change in the number of excited states in the laser. Since the rate of change of population inversion during Q-spoiled emission is much...larger than for normal lasing it was expected, prior to this work, that a greater rate of change of frequency should be observed. This has now been confirmed. (Author)

  12. Functional Traits Reveal Processes Driving Natural Afforestation at Large Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Norman W. H.; Wiser, Susan K.; Richardson, Sarah J.; Thorsen, Michael J.; Holdaway, Robert J.; Dray, Stéphane; Thomson, Fiona J.; Carswell, Fiona E.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the processes governing natural afforestation over large spatial scales is vital for enhancing forest carbon sequestration. Models of tree species occurrence probability in non-forest vegetation could potentially identify the primary variables determining natural afforestation. However, inferring processes governing afforestation using tree species occurrence is potentially problematic, since it is impossible to know whether observed occurrences are due to recruitment or persistence of existing trees following disturbance. Plant functional traits have the potential to reveal the processes by which key environmental and land cover variables influence afforestation. We used 10,061 survey plots to identify the primary environmental and land cover variables influencing tree occurrence probability in non-forest vegetation in New Zealand. We also examined how these variables influenced diversity of functional traits linked to plant ecological strategy and dispersal ability. Mean annual temperature was the most important environmental predictor of tree occurrence. Local woody cover and distance to forest were the most important land cover variables. Relationships between these variables and ecological strategy traits revealed a trade-off between ability to compete for light and colonize sites that were marginal for tree occurrence. Biotically dispersed species occurred less frequently with declining temperature and local woody cover, suggesting that abiotic stress limited their establishment and that biotic dispersal did not increase ability to colonize non-woody vegetation. Functional diversity for ecological strategy traits declined with declining temperature and woody cover and increasing distance to forest. Functional diversity for dispersal traits showed the opposite trend. This suggests that low temperatures and woody cover and high distance to forest may limit tree species establishment through filtering on ecological strategy traits, but not on

  13. Functional traits reveal processes driving natural afforestation at large spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Mason, Norman W H; Wiser, Susan K; Richardson, Sarah J; Thorsen, Michael J; Holdaway, Robert J; Dray, Stéphane; Thomson, Fiona J; Carswell, Fiona E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the processes governing natural afforestation over large spatial scales is vital for enhancing forest carbon sequestration. Models of tree species occurrence probability in non-forest vegetation could potentially identify the primary variables determining natural afforestation. However, inferring processes governing afforestation using tree species occurrence is potentially problematic, since it is impossible to know whether observed occurrences are due to recruitment or persistence of existing trees following disturbance. Plant functional traits have the potential to reveal the processes by which key environmental and land cover variables influence afforestation. We used 10,061 survey plots to identify the primary environmental and land cover variables influencing tree occurrence probability in non-forest vegetation in New Zealand. We also examined how these variables influenced diversity of functional traits linked to plant ecological strategy and dispersal ability. Mean annual temperature was the most important environmental predictor of tree occurrence. Local woody cover and distance to forest were the most important land cover variables. Relationships between these variables and ecological strategy traits revealed a trade-off between ability to compete for light and colonize sites that were marginal for tree occurrence. Biotically dispersed species occurred less frequently with declining temperature and local woody cover, suggesting that abiotic stress limited their establishment and that biotic dispersal did not increase ability to colonize non-woody vegetation. Functional diversity for ecological strategy traits declined with declining temperature and woody cover and increasing distance to forest. Functional diversity for dispersal traits showed the opposite trend. This suggests that low temperatures and woody cover and high distance to forest may limit tree species establishment through filtering on ecological strategy traits, but not on

  14. Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Outcalt, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

  15. Spectroscopic Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Afforestation Forest Soil of Miyun District, Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Shi, Zong-Hai; Zhong, Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Li, Jun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, soil samples collected from different plain afforestation time (1 year, 4 years, 10 years, 15 years, and 20 years) in Miyun were characterized, including total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available K (K+), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The DOM in the soil samples with different afforestation time was further characterized via DOC, UV-Visible spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results suggested that the texture of soil sample was sandy. The extracted DOM from soil consisted mainly of aliphatic chains and only a minor aromatic component. It can be included that afforestation can improve the soil quality to some extent, which can be partly reflected from the indexes like TOC, TN, TP, K+, MBC, and DOC. And the characterization of DOM implied that UV humic-like substances were the major fluorophores components in the DOM of the soil samples, which consisted of aliphatic chains and aromatic components with carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups. PMID:27433371

  16. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  17. Low effect of young afforestations on bird communities inhabiting heterogeneous Mediterranean cropland

    PubMed Central

    Rey Benayas, José M.; Carrascal, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agricultural Policy have spread tree plantations on former cropland. These afforestations attract generalist forest and ubiquitous species but may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated the effects of young (<20 yr) tree plantations dominated by pine P. halepensis on bird communities inhabiting the adjacent open farmland habitat in central Spain. We hypothesize that pine plantations located at shorter distances from open fields and with larger surface would affect species richness and conservation value of bird communities. Regression models controlling for the influence of land use types around plantations revealed positive effects of higher distance to pine plantation edge on community species richness in winter, and negative effects on an index of conservation concern (SPEC) during the breeding season. However, plantation area did not have any effect on species richness or community conservation value. Our results indicate that the effects of pine afforestation on bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean cropland are diluted by heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. PMID:26664801

  18. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  19. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks.

  20. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil banks].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren-Xin; Guo, Wei; Fu, Rui-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Guo, Jiang-Yuan; Bi, Na; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus etunicatum (GE) and Glomus versiforme (GV) on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals by maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoil banks. The aim was to provide a technical basis for the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks in grassland ecosystem. The results indicated that the symbiotic associations were successfully established between two isolates and maize grown in the three substrates, with an average mycorrhizal colonization rate ranging from 36% to 54%. The colonization of two AM fungi significantly increased the dry weight of maize grown in recent discharged and weathered coal mine spoils and GE increased those grown in weathered coal mine spoil. Inoculation with AM fungi promoted the uptake of N, P and K by maize to varying degrees. In addition, inoculation with GE and GV also decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis, and had significantly differences on concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in shoots and roots of maize. The results indicated that GE and GV had different mycorrhizal effects on maize in the three types of substrates. GV was more suitable for the revegetation of recent discharged coal mine spoil and weathered coal mine spoil, while GE was more suitable for the revegetation of spontaneous combusted coal mine spoil. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for maize to enhance the ability to adapt the composite adversity of different types of coal mine spoil and play a positive role in the revegetation of different coal mine spoil banks. Further field experiments should be conducted to evaluate the practical effects of AM fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil under field conditions.

  1. Plant species influence on soil C after afforestation of Mediterranean degraded soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; García-Vargas, Carlos; Madejón, Engracia; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-04-01

    Increasing C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems is one of the main current environmental challenges to mitigate climate change. Afforestation of degraded and contaminated lands is one of the key strategies to achieve an increase in C sequestration in ecosystems. Plant species differ in their mechanisms of C-fixation, C allocation into different plant organs, and interaction with soil microorganisms, all these factors influencing the dynamics of soil C following the afforestation of degraded soils. In this work we examine the influence of different woody plant species on soil C dynamics in degraded and afforested Mediterranean soils. The soils were former agricultural lands that were polluted by a mining accident and later afforested with different native plant species. We analysed the effect of four of these species (Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot., Populus alba L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss.) on different soil C fractions, soil nutrient availability, microbial activity (soil enzyme activities) and soil CO2 fluxes 15 years after the establishment of the plantations. Results suggest that the influence of the planted trees and shrubs is still limited, being more pronounced in the more acidic and nutrient-poor soils. Litter accumulation varied among species, with the highest C accumulated in the litter under the deciduous species (Populus alba L.). No differences were observed in the amount of total soil organic C among the studied species, or in the concentrations of phenols and sugars in the dissolved organic C (DOC), which might have indicated differences in the biodegradability of the DOC. Microbial biomass and activity was highly influenced by soil pH, and plant species had a significant influence on soil pH in the more acidic site. Soil CO2 fluxes were more influenced by the plant species than total soil C content. Our results suggest that changes in total soil C stocks after the afforestation of degraded Mediterranean

  2. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. 170.300 Section 170.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface §...

  3. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  4. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  5. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  6. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  7. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  8. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  9. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  10. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  11. Vegetation and soil condition development on spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmachova, B.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses both soil and vegetation development on mine spoil heaps of different age, as well as some environmental factors that are involved. The course of natural plant succession fired and unfired mine spoil heaps and the dominant species of several developmental stages (plant communities) are examined. Mainly, the exposure of slopes and the surface temperature are considered in studying the vegetation of spoil heaps. Anemochoral terophytes and hemicryptophytes dominate on south to west slopes in the first stages of development; development of vegetation on north and east slopes is different. Anemochoral phanerophytes dominate in the first developmental stages. Later, the plant cover includes high herbs and grasses, and the tree layer exhibits zoochoral tree species. The final stage on the spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is probably the Betulo-Quercetum Tx. 1937 community with complete stratification. The study area, an underground mining area in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, lies in the south part of the Silesian Basin. From a phytogeographical point of view, this area is identified as the Ostrava basin--the 83rd district of the Mesophyticum capraticum--phytogeographical province, with the flora of the upper hill country belt (gradus supracollinus).

  12. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  13. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-12-03

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria.

  14. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  15. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated into the design and construction of the fill as follows. (1) The fill shall have, along the... spoil fill and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock... maintained at the head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and...

  16. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  17. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  18. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  19. Hardwood seedling growth on different mine spoil types with and without topsoil amendment.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Julia M; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of many owners of reclaimed mined land in the Appalachian region is to restore the diverse native hardwood forest for environmental, economic, and cultural reasons. However, native hardwoods often grow poorly on mined sites because they are planted in unsuitable spoils devoid of native topsoil. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the suitability of four growth media available for use on many mined sites in the central Appalachians-forest topsoil (FT), weathered sandstone (WS), unweathered sandstone (US), and unweathered shale (UH)-as well as the effects of topsoil amendment (none vs. amended) on the growth of three native hardwood species: Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Liriodendron tulipifera. A 4 x 2 x 3 factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with planted 1-yr-old seedlings. Tree growth, foliar nutrients, and soil properties were measured and characterized. The WS was the spoil most conducive to growth for F. americana and Q. rubra. Liriodendron tulipifera did not respond to any treatments. Tree growth was highly correlated with mineralizable soil nitrogen and extractable soil phosphorus. Topsoil amendment significantly increased growth on the UH but not on the US or WS. Topsoil amendment increased the number of native herbaceous plants growing in the pots and improved foliar nutrient content in F. americana and L. tulipifera. Many properties of the WS, such as pH, microbial activity, and water availability, more closely approximated the control soil than the US or UH. This study showed that trees are sensitive to spoil type and that certain spoil types that are conducive to good growth of native trees should be used during the reclamation process, particularly if forest topsoil is not applied. Forest topsoil amendment improved tree growth on some spoil materials, improved tree nutrition, and helped restore the native soil organisms and plants that were present before mining.

  20. Ecosystem water imbalances created during ecological restoration by afforestation in China, and lessons for other developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shixiong; Zhang, Junze; Chen, Li; Zhao, Tingyang

    2016-12-01

    Land degradation is a global environmental problem that jeopardizes human safety and socioeconomic development. To alleviate severe soil erosion and desertification due to deforestation and overgrazing, China has implemented historically unprecedented large-scale afforestation. However, few studies have accounted for the resulting imbalance between water supply (primarily precipitation) and water consumption (evapotranspiration), which will affect ecosystem health and socioeconomic development. We compared the water balance results between restoration by means of afforestation and restoration using the potential natural vegetation to guide future ecological restoration planning and environmental policy development. Based on estimates of water consumption from seven evapotranspiration models, we discuss the consequences for water security using data obtained since 1952 under China's large-scale afforestation program. The models estimated that afforestation will increase water consumption by 559-2354 m(3)/ha annually compared with natural vegetation. Although afforestation is a potentially important approach for environmental restoration, China's current policy has not been tailored to local precipitation conditions, and will have therefore exacerbated water shortages and decrease the ability to achieve environmental policy goals. Our analysis shows how, both in China and around the world, future ecological restoration planning must account for the water balance to ensure effective and sustainable environmental restoration policy.

  1. Soil microbial community and its interaction with soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics following afforestation in central China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qi; Cheng, Xiaoli; Hui, Dafeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Ming; Zhang, Quanfa

    2016-01-15

    Afforestation may alter soil microbial community structure and function, and further affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Here we investigated soil microbial carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN) and microbial community [e.g. bacteria (B), fungi (F)] derived from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis in afforested (implementing woodland and shrubland plantations) and adjacent croplands in central China. Relationships of microbial properties with biotic factors [litter, fine root, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and inorganic N], abiotic factors (soil temperature, moisture and pH), and major biological processes [basal microbial respiration, microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2), net N mineralization and nitrification] were developed. Afforested soils had higher mean MBC, MBN and MBN:TN ratios than the croplands due to an increase in litter input, but had lower MBC:SOC ratio resulting from low-quality (higher C:N ratio) litter. Afforested soils also had higher F:B ratio, which was probably attributed to higher C:N ratios in litter and soil, and shifts of soil inorganic N forms, water, pH and disturbance. Alterations in soil microbial biomass and community structure following afforestation were associated with declines in basal microbial respiration, qCO2, net N mineralization and nitrification, which likely maintained higher soil carbon and nitrogen storage and stability.

  2. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  3. Afforestation contribution to Carbon and Nitrogen budgets of forest in a natural park in south Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Forests are important ecosystems because they provide wood products to society as well as many services (recreation, habitat functions, the regulation of water, erosion, and air quality). However, the society has recently focused its attention on forests for two reasons; sequestration of carbon, on the one hand, and provision of biomass for bioenergy, on the other, also illustrates the possible trade-off even within the theme of climate change mitigation. Due to this fact, the forest surface has increased in Spain, as well in Europe in the last decades. The area covered by forest represents 34% in Europe and 35.6% in Spain compared to the total surface. A powerful afforestation policy was carried out in Spain from the 40's decade in forward. The main objective was to increase the forest surface with trees. Two main actions were developed under these repopulations, the transformation of pasture land in forest, on the one hand, and the introduction of fast-growing tree species, on the second hand. Therefore, currently, there are a lot of forest areas in Spain in which the introduced species coexist with native. In addition, the spatial variation of soil properties is significantly influenced by some environmental factors such as topographic aspect that induced microclimate differences, topographic (landscape) positions, parent materials, and vegetation communities. Topographic aspect induces local variation in temperature and precipitation solar radiation and relative humidity, which along with chemical and physical composition of the substrate, are the main regulators of decomposition rates of organic matter. The aim of this study were, i) to evaluate the effect of afforestation policies on carbon and nitrogen budgets in a natural park in Spain and ii) to study the topographic aspect effect on the capacity of SOC and N storage. Our results show how the afforestated areas (in which there are simultaneously both, natural species and introduced species) had higher soil

  4. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, M. U. F.; Whitehead, D.; Dean, S. M.; Beets, P. N.; Shepherd, J. D.; Ausseil, A.-G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, afforestation also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes. We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew. We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of -104 GJ tC-1 yr-1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha-1 yr-1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha-1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole length of the rotation, the changes in albedo negated the benefits from increased carbon storage by 17-24 %.

  5. Regionalisation of climate change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas.

    PubMed

    Witt, Anke; Fürst, Christine; Frank, Susanne; Koschke, Lars; Makeschin, Franz

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes how to use sectoral planning information from forestry to predict and up-scale information on Climate Change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas. The method was developed and applied in the frame of the project RegioPower with focus on the case study region 'Oberes Elbtal-Osterzgebirge'. The data for our study was taken from forest management planning at level of the Federal State of Saxony, Germany. Here, a silvicultural system is implemented, which describes best practices to develop our actual forests into Climate Change adapted forest development types. That includes the selection of drought resistant tree species, a broad range of tree species mixtures per eligible forest development type and the tending, harvesting and regeneration strategies to be applied. This information however, exists only for forest areas and not for areas which could be potentially afforested. The eligibility of the forest development types within the actual forest areas depends on site information, such as nutrient potential, exposition and hydrological soil parameters. The regionalisation of the forest development types to landscape scale had to be based on topographical parameters from the digital elevation model and hydrological soil parameters from soil mapping. In result, we could provide maps for regional planning and decision making with spatially explicit information on the eligible forest development types based on forest management planning information. These maps form a valuable input for testing and optimising afforestation areas with regard to improving the ability of our case study region to mitigate Climate Change effects such as water erosion or drought.

  6. The short and long term effects of conifer afforestation on a sensitive freshwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Nadeem; Nisbet, Thomas; Broadmeadow, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Our study was driven by concerns that afforesting the headwater catchments of the Upper Halladale River in the Scottish Highlands would affect water quality and the local salmon fishery. The main uncertainty, on the sensitivity of the catchment to acid deposition, led to a preliminary study in 1993 by a consortium of research organisations; they concluded that the site was not significantly acidified and not at risk of acidification from the planned afforestation. The planting, therefore, went ahead and presented us with an opportunity to look at the short, medium and long-term effects of afforestation on the chemistry and biology of a sensitive freshwater system, to review the conclusions of the preliminary report and assess the efficacy of good management practices employed. Water samples were taken from six sites in the Upper Halladale Catchment and analysed for a wide range of chemical parameters to monitor changes in water quality due to cultivation (ploughing, drainage, road building and planting), fertiliser application and forest growth. The results demonstrate that water quality remained high during site preparation with little or no adverse chemical or biological impacts in the short-term (4 years) after planting. We do find significant changes in hydrochemistry in the long-term data (15+ years); some of these were expected, a decrease in non-marine sulphate and a general increasing trend for dissolved organic carbon, for example, but there are fluctuations within the long-term data for these and other parameters that warrant further explanation and discussion. We found that the most significant changes in hydrochemistry occur after marked meteorological events and that the effects are not always short-lived, sometimes lasting for years; the results indicate that climate, not land use, exerts the greatest control on chemistry within the Upper Halladale catchment.

  7. Preliminary results on the effects of afforestation of maize soils with Populus alba L., on carbon metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Campos, Elena; Zorita, Félix; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Transformation of a natural soil to agricultural land is generally assumed to be accompanied by increased mineralization of the organic matter and increased CO2emissions; in contrast, afforestation of agricultural soil is thought to lead to sequestration of carbon and incorporation of atmospheric CO2 into the organic matter. In other words the type of management and land use determine whether soils act as carbon sinks or sources, so that transformation of agricultural land to forest land is generally considered to be accompanied by an increase in edaphic carbon, although it is not clear whether this effect is always produced or if it depends on the agricultural history of the land being afforested. In light of the recognised importance of forest land in sequestering C, and therefore in regulating climate change, in 1992 the EU established Regulation 2080 to promote the afforestation of marginal agricultural land. This had strong repercussions in regions such as Galicia (NW Spain) as the afforestation was mainly applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. Although, as a result, large areas of agricultural land have been afforested in Galicia, the associated effects on edaphic carbon have not been widely investigated. The present study involves analysis of large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia (NW Spain), with the aim of investigating the effects on carbon metabolism in agricultural soils transformed for forestry use. Here we report the preliminary results concerning the observed effects on carbon metabolism in six soils afforested with poplar, Populus alba L., of age between 4 and 8 years. In addition to the six soils planted with poplars, adjacent agricultural soils (x6) were analyzed. In each case the adjacent soil was the same as the original soil prior to afforestation, and all were maize soils. Samples of the soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting

  8. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  9. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  10. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  11. Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.

  12. Local habitat and landscape influence predation of bird nests on afforested Mediterranean cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Oliver, J. S.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Carrascal, L. M.

    2014-07-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agrarian Policy have contributed to spread tree plantations on former cropland. Nevertheless these afforestations may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated predation of artificial bird nests at young tree plantations and at the open farmland habitat adjacent to the tree plantations in central Spain. Predation rates were very high at both tree plantations (95.6%) and open farmland habitat (94.2%) after two and three week exposure. Plantation edge/area ratio and development of the tree canopy decreased predation rates and plantation area and magpie (Pica pica) abundance increased predation rates within tree plantations, which were also affected by land use types around plantations. The area of nearby tree plantations (positive effect), distance to the tree plantation edge (negative effect), and habitat type (mainly attributable to the location of nests in vineyards) explained predation rates at open farmland habitat. We conclude that predation rates on artificial nests were particularly high and rapid at or nearby large plantations, with high numbers of magpies and low tree development, and located in homogenous landscapes dominated by herbaceous crops and pastures with no remnants of semi-natural woody vegetation. Landscape planning should not favour tree plantations as the ones studied here in Mediterranean agricultural areas that are highly valuable for ground-nesting bird species.

  13. Nitrogen related constraints of carbon sequestration by afforestation under management and climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Land use change and land management contribute to the exchange of greenhouse gases and are an important factor for man-made climate change. However, land use and land management can also be used to counteract climate change, which is analysed in this study. Large-scale afforestation is expected to increase terrestrial CO2 uptake due to expansion of forested areas and due to higher biomass production under CO2 fertilization. Management of those areas, particularly harvesting biomass, is an important factor influencing the CO2 sequestration potential. However, productivity of forests can be limited by N availability. Especially under higher harvest, nutrients are continuously removed from the ecosystem which is then prone to nutrient limitation. In this study, the interference of N availability with the C-sequestration potential of afforestation and land management under climate change conditions is quantified by conducting scenario simulations with the land component of the MPI Earth System Model. Especially the efficiency of applying N fertilizer to counteract N limitation under moderate and high harvest, and potential offsets due to higher N2O emissions, are shown.

  14. Inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, L

    1993-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of 209 Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled iced fish and newly caught fish were assessed by screening target organisms in agar diffusion assays. One-third (67 strains) inhibited the growth of one or several of six target organisms (Escherichia coli, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas sobria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), of which S. aureus and A. sobria were the most sensitive. The inhibitory action was most pronounced among the strains producing siderophores, and the presence of iron eliminated the antibacterial effect of two-thirds of the inhibitory strains. Siderophore-mediated competition for iron may explain the inhibitory activity of these strains. All but nine of the inhibiting strains were found to inhibit the growth of 38 psychrotrophic S. putrefaciens strains isolated from spoiling fish and fish products. Siderophore-containing Pseudomonas culture supernatants inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens, as did the addition of iron chelators (ethylenediamine dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [EDDHA]). In particular, Pseudomonas strains isolated from newly caught and spoiled Nile perch (Lates niloticus) inhibited S. putrefaciens. This suggests that microbial interaction (e.g., competition or antagonism) may influence the selection of a microflora for some chilled food products. PMID:8357253

  15. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  16. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g-1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha-1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g-1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha-1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g-1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were only

  17. Responsiveness of soil nitrogen fractions and bacterial communities to afforestation in the Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chengjie; Sun, Pingsheng; Kang, Di; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3‑-N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau.

  18. Responsiveness of soil nitrogen fractions and bacterial communities to afforestation in the Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chengjie; Sun, Pingsheng; Kang, Di; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27334692

  19. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (<0.1 microg g(-1)) or roots (3.11 microg g(-1)), while treatment 5 resulted in the highest Cd concentration (2.13 microg g(-1)) in shoots. Treatments did not influence significantly the Cu accumulation in shoots. The Pb accumulation of roots (44.7 microg g(-1)) was most effectively inhibited by combined treatment, while the highest value (136 microg g(-1)) was found in the culture treated with potassium phosphate. Pb concentration in shoots was below the detection limit, except for treatments 5 and 6. Peat application resulted in higher

  20. Effect of afforestation on urate oxidase activity in two kinds of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysner, Teresa; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Researches were carried out in soils under a 125-m-long the afforestation located in the Kościan Plain in Turew, which is a part of West Poland Lowland. Soil samples were taken from four chosen sites marked as Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 near wells. One part of this afforestation was allocated on mineral, whereas the second part was on mineral-organic soil. Times of sampling were from March to November in 2009 from the layer at 0-20 cm depth after removing leaf litter. Urate oxidase activity in soils was determined colorimetrically by measuring the absorbance at λ=293 nm. Urate oxidase is a homotetrameric enzyme containing four identical active sites situated at the interfaces between its four subunits. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid, a final product of purine catabolism to 5-hydroxyisourate, which is non-enzymatically transformed into allantoin, carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. Uricase is also an essential enzyme in the ureide pathway, where nitrogen fixation occurs in the root nodules of legumes. Nitrogen heterocyclic compounds such as allantoin may serve as nitrogen sources or nitrogen transport compounds in plants that are not able to fix nitrogen. It has been estimated that heterocyclic nitrogen compounds represent about 30% of the reduced nitrogen in soils. These studies indicated that the flow of ground water was accompanied by an increase of uricase activity from 16 to 71% (from point 1 to point 2) in all periods of sampling in mineral soils. Similar trend was shown in mineral-organic soils. There was an increase of uricase activity from the point 3 to 4 and ranged from 13 to 37% similar to the direction of the flow of ground water. However, no significant differences of urate oxidase activity between two kinds of soils were observed. This study showed that the uricase activity ranged from 1.99 to 7.16 μmol×h-1×g-1 in the mineral soils and from 1.79 to 8.36 μmol×h-1×g-1. The study indicated an impact of the afforestation located on

  1. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F. -J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  2. A new climatic classification of afforestation in Three-North regions of China with multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Afforestation and reforestation activities achieve high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, the largest ecological afforestation program worldwide, was launched in 1978 and will last until 2050 in the Three-North regions (accounting for 42.4 % of China's territory). Shelter forests of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program have exhibited severe decline after planting in 1978 due to lack of detailed climatic classification. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of climate adaptation for the current shelter forests was lacking. In this study, the aridity index determined by precipitation and reference evapotranspiration was employed to classify climatic zones for the afforestation program. The precipitation and reference evapotranspiration with 1-km resolution were estimated based on data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, respectively. Then, the detailed climatic classification for the afforestation program was obtained based on the relationship between the different vegetation types and the aridity index. The shelter forests in 2008 were derived from Landsat TM in the Three-North regions. In addition, climatic zones and shelter forests were corrected by comparing with natural vegetation map and field surveys. By overlaying the shelter forests on the climatic zones, we found that 16.30 % coniferous forests, 8.21 % broadleaved forests, 2.03 % mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, and 10.86 % shrubs were not in strict accordance with the climate conditions. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sensing techniques for afforestation management.

  3. Potential and Actual impacts of deforestation and afforestation on land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Maosheng; Mildrexler, David J.; Motesharrei, Safa; Mu, Qiaozhen; Kalnay, Eugenia; Zhao, Fang; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-12-01

    Forests are undergoing significant changes throughout the globe. These changes can modify water, energy, and carbon balance of the land surface, which can ultimately affect climate. We utilize satellite data to quantify the potential and actual impacts of forest change on land surface temperature (LST) from 2003 to 2013. The potential effect of forest change on temperature is calculated by the LST difference between forest and nearby nonforest land, whereas the actual impact on temperature is quantified by the LST trend difference between deforested (afforested) and nearby unchanged forest (nonforest land) over several years. The good agreement found between potential and actual impacts both at annual and seasonal levels indicates that forest change can have detectable impacts on surface temperature trends. That impact, however, is different for maximum and minimum temperatures. Overall, deforestation caused a significant warming up to 0.28 K/decade on average temperature trends in tropical regions, a cooling up to -0.55 K/decade in boreal regions, a weak impact in the northern temperate regions, and strong warming (up to 0.32 K/decade) in the southern temperate regions. Afforestation induced an opposite impact on temperature trends. The magnitude of the estimated temperature impacts depends on both the threshold and the data set (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat) by which forest cover change is defined. Such a latitudinal pattern in temperature impact is mainly caused by the competing effects of albedo and evapotranspiration on temperature. The methodology developed here can be used to evaluate the temperature change induced by forest cover change around the globe.

  4. Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 13 years.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Gundersen, Per; Vesterdal, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Chronosequences are commonly used to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration after land-use change, but SOC dynamics predicted by this space-for-time substitution approach have rarely been validated by resampling. We conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) afforested with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) over the past 40 years. The aims of this study were (i) to compare present and previous chronosequence trends in forest floor and top mineral soil (0-25 cm) C stocks; (ii) to compare chronosequence estimates with current rates of C stock change based on resampling at the stand level; (iii) to estimate SOC changes in the subsoil (25-50 cm); and (iv) to assess the influence of two tree species on SOC dynamics. The two chronosequence trajectories for forest floor C stocks revealed consistently higher rates of C sequestration in spruce than oak. The chronosequence trajectory was validated by resampling and current rates of forest floor C sequestration decreased with stand age. Chronosequence trends in topsoil SOC in 2011 did not differ significantly from those reported in 1998, however, there was a shift from a negative rate (1998: -0.3 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ) to no change in 2011. In contrast SOC stocks in the subsoil increased with stand age, however, not significantly (P = 0.1), suggesting different C dynamics in and below the former plough layer. Current rates of C change estimated by repeated sampling decreased with stand age in forest floors but increased in the topsoil. The contrasting temporal change in forest floor and mineral soil C sequestration rates indicate a shift in C source-sink strength after approximately 40 years. We conclude that afforestation of former cropland within the temperate region may induce soil C loss during the first decades followed by a recovery phase of yet unknown duration.

  5. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  6. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist.

  7. Spoil banks: Effects on a coastal marsh water-level regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Erick M.; Turner, R. E.

    1987-05-01

    Above- and below-ground water-level fluctuations were measured in the marshes south of New Orleans, Louisiana, between November 1982 and December 1983. The purpose of the program was to define the basic marsh water-level regime and to investigate how canal spoil banks may influence the water-level regime. Two study areas were used: (1) a control area, defined as a section of marsh with unrestricted hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou; and, (2) a partially-impounded area, defined as an area with limited hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou due to the presence of dredged canal spoil banks. Data sources included marsh water levels from gages deployed at three sites within the study areas and water levels from the adjacent bayous obtained from the tide gages of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Data from all marsh gage sites showed a similar pattern with a distinct surface and subsurface diurnal tidal signal superimposed upon other, larger scale events. These larger scale events correspond to the passage of weather fronts. The data also indicated that a significant amount of water-level fluctuation in the marshes occurs below ground. A comparison of the control area and the partially-impounded site indicated that the spoil banks changed the response of the marsh water levels to the forcing from the bayou, with the result that the partially-impounded area: (1) was flooded 141 hours more per month than the control area; (2) had fewer, but longer flooding events; (3) had fewer but longer drying events; and (4) reduced water exchange, both above and below ground.

  8. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  9. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  10. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-11-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across integrated assessment and earth system models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario

  11. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Calvin, Kate; Jones, Andrew; Collins, William; Edmonds, Jae; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter; Thomson, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario-based earth system simulations.

  12. Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

    2012-11-01

    Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  13. Sewage sludge as an amendment for calcareous bauxite mine spoils reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Brofas, G.; Michopoulos, P.; Alifragis, D.

    2000-06-01

    Dried aerobically digested sewage sludge applied at seven rates (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) in a field experiment on calcareous bauxite mine spoils significantly increased the available water capacity, concentrations of organic matter, total N, extractable P (Olsen), exchangeable Mg{sup 2+}, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb of mine spoils. Total N and extractable P concentrations decreased with time after sludge application. The DTPA-extractable Cu concentration was high 4 yr after application at sludge rates of 80 and 120 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1}. Extractable Cu and Zn concentrations correlated significantly and positively with Cu and Zn concentrations in burnet (Sanguisorba minor subsp. minor) and fiddleneck (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth) tissue. Sludge application depressed plant Mn uptake. Plant biomass, plant density, and foliar cover significantly increased with treatment rates in the first and fourth growing seasons but decreased with time. Fiddleneck and burnet were the species favored by the high rate of sludge application.

  14. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  15. Comparing regeneration techniques for afforesting previously farmed bottomland hardwood sites in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockhart, B.R.; Keeland, B.; McCoy, J.; Dean, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    A study was implemented to test site preparation methods and artificial regeneration of three oak (Quercus spp.) species on four agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in Louisiana, USA. Six years after establishment, few consistent differences were found in oak density between sowing acorn methods (seed drill versus broadcast seeding), autumn sowing versus spring sowing, and sowing acorns versus planting oak seedlings. Results indicated that some degree of site preparation is needed to establish oak seedlings but few differences were found between site preparation treatments. These results indicate that no one prescription for oak regeneration fits all potential afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Successful bottomland hardwood afforestation projects will require plans that include specific objectives, site evaluation, and a regeneration prescription prior to sowing the first seed or planting the first seedling.

  16. Contradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Ribolzi, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Pierret, Alain; Latsachak, Keoudone; Silvera, Norbert; Pham Dinh, Rinh; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Robain, Henri; Taccoen, Adrien; Sengphaathith, Phouthamaly; Mouche, Emmanuel; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Tran Duc, Toan; Valentin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernisation of agriculture involving rapid and mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability which controls habitats, water resources, and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydrometeorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical southeast Asia since 2000. The GR2M water balance model, repeatedly calibrated over successive 1-year periods and used in simulation mode with the same year of rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses, and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal streamflow to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow led to intricate streamflow patterns: pluri-annual streamflow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual streamflow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantations. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas combined with patches of mix-trees plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration vs. planting) led to opposite changes in streamflow regime. Given that

  17. [Effects of degraded sandy grassland afforestation on soil quality in semi-arid area of northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ya-lin; Zeng, De-hui; Fan, Zhi-ping; Ai, Gui-yan

    2007-11-01

    By the methods of field survey and incubation test, this paper studied the effects of degraded sandy grassland afforestation with Mongolian pine on the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in 0-10 cm layer on Keerqin sandy land. The results showed that after 32 years afforestation, soil organic C, total N and total P decreased by 21%, 42% and 45%, respectively. In May and November, soil NH4+ -N content was significantly higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland (P = 0.001; P = 0.019), but in May, August and November, soil NO3- -N content was in adverse (P < 0.001; P = 0.048; P = 0.031). In May, August and November, soil C mineralization rate was higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland, but the difference in N mineralization rate was not significant (P > 0.05). In May and August, soil microbial biomass C under Mongolian pine plantation and grassland had little difference, but in November, it was significantly higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland. Soil nutrients- and moisture contents were the important factors affecting soil microbial biomass C. Soil urease and invertase activities decreased but catalase activity increased under Mongolian pine plantation, compared with those under grassland. It was suggested that 32 years afforestation of degraded sandy grassland with Mongolian pine on Keerqin sandy land led to a definite degradation of soil quality. Owing to the changes of vegetation, the test indicators of soil quality had different seasonal dynamic characteristics under Mongolian pine plantation and grassland. As a means of degraded ecosystem restoration in semi-arid area of Northern China, afforestation had its definite limitations.

  18. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, M. U. F.; Whitehead, D.; Dean, S. M.; Beets, P. N.; Shepherd, J. D.; Ausseil, A.-G. E.

    2011-08-01

    Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, land-use change also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes. We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew. We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of -104 GJ tC-1 yr-1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha-1 yr-1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha-1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole length of the rotation, the changes in albedo negated the benefits from increased carbon storage by 17-24 %.

  19. Soil moisture decline due to afforestation across the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhu, Yuanjun; Luo, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The Loess Plateau of China is a region with one of the most severe cases of soil erosion in the world. Since the 1950s, there has been afforestation measure to control soil erosion and improve ecosystem services on the plateau. However, the introduction of exotic tree species (e.g., R. pseudoacacia, P. tabulaeformis and C. korshinskii) and high-density planting has had a negative effect on soil moisture content (SMC) in the region. Any decrease in SMC could worsen soil water shortage in both the top and deep soil layers, further endangering the sustainability of the fragile ecosystem. This study analyzed the variations in SMC following the conversion of croplands into forests in the Loess Plateau. SMC data within the 5-m soil profile were collected at 50 sites in the plateau region via field survey, long-term in-situ observations and documented literature. The study showed that for the 50 sites, the depth-averaged SMC was much lower under forest than under cropland. Based on in-situ measurements of SMC in agricultural plots and C. korshinskii plots in 2004-2014, SMC in the 0-4 m soil profile in both plots declined significantly (p < 0.01) during the growing season. The rate of decline in SMC in various soil layers under C. korshinskii plots (-0.008 to -0.016 cm3 cm-3 yr-1) was much higher than those under agricultural plots (-0.004 to -0.005 cm3 cm-3 yr-1). This suggested that planting C. korshinskii intensified soil moisture decline in China's Loess Plateau. In the first 20-25 yr of growth, the depth-averaged SMC gradually decreased with stand age in R. pseudoacacia plantation, but SMC somehow recovered with increasing tree age over the 25-year period. Irrespectively, artificial forests consumed more deep soil moisture than cultivated crops in the study area, inducing soil desiccation and dry soil layer formation. Thus future afforestation should consider those species that use less water and require less thinning for sustainable soil conservation without

  20. Impacts of afforestation on water and sediment connectivity in NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodríguez-Blanco, Mariluz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Ermitas Rial-Rivas, María; Keesstra, Saskia; Keizer, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The northwestern Iberian peninsula has experienced strong afforestation in the XXth century. Plantation forests have mostly replaced a traditional agricultural landscape consisting of irrigation terraces, which probably imposed strong limitations on water and sediment connectivity. The new forests have their own impacts on connectivity, including occasional enhancements due to landscape disturbances caused by wildfires, clearcutting and soil management operations. However, both the ancient and new landscapes have been poorly studied; in consequence, the impacts of afforestation on hydrological and sediment processes in this region are not well understood, posing a challenge for watershed managers to understand the hydrological and sediment processes in their systems and how to make them comply with the Water Framework Directive. This work analyses these issues using observations from an agricultural and forested catchment in northwestern Portugal. The valley is still occupied by traditional terraced agriculture, while the slopes are planted with eucalypt and maritime pines. Observations include 2 years of hydrological and sediment data from a representative terrace, and 4 years of erosion features mapping and hydrological and sediment data at the catchment scale. During this time, a wildfire burned part of the catchment, which experienced important post-fire management operations (plowing and replanting), allowing a comparison of the hydrological and sediment connectivity impacts of terraces and forests in their normal and disturbed conditions. Preliminary results indicate a strong impact of terraces in delaying lateral flow, creating saturated zones behind them and promoting surface runoff. Possibly this leads to slower hydrograph recession when compared with forested catchments. Terraces also limit sediment export; in contrast, the burnt forest slopes experienced strong erosion and sediment export, particularly after soil management operations. Preliminary

  1. Quantitative Assessment of the Potential of Afforestation for Carbon Dioxide Removal: Evaluating carbon sequestration and biogeophysical impacts in a dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littleton, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a new method for representing permanent afforestation in Earth System models. Afforestation has attracted interest as an option to help to slow or reverse the growth of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the next century. However, its potential is poorly constrained with regard to land availability, rates of tree growth and carbon accumulation, and potential side effects. This study aims to provide quantitative assessment of the carbon removal potential and side effects of 21st century afforestation using a dynamic global vegetation model, in contrast to the majority of previous estimates which have used bookkeeping methods. The land surface model JULES was used to simulate needleleaf afforestation on abandoned agricultural land during the 21st century under two future pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). These results are compared to a control scenario in which natural succession is allowed to act on the same area of land. This study finds considerable spatial variation in the final carbon sequestration potential of afforestation sites. In addition to dieback and marginal growth in many regions, many sites showed minimal additionality of forest areas compared to natural succession. The most suitable sites were in Eastern Europe, central China and central North America. There was no major difference in the general spatial pattern of suitability between RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 by 2100. Overall, this study produced a significantly smaller estimate of the CDR potential of permanent afforestation than previous studies have. The additional carbon stored in suitable sites by 2100 was only 19 Pg C (RCP4.5) and 2.1 Pg C (RCP8.5), a mean of 68 tC/ha. This research also explored the biogeophysical impacts of afforestation on surface energy balance and hydrological cycles. The decrease in albedo caused by afforestation significantly offset the radiative forcing benefits of the carbon removal, although this effect was very sensitive to input assumptions. Flooding results

  2. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  3. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part III. Sub-Study 2. Nature, Source, and Cause of Shoal. Appendix A,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    Delaware River ..................................... ....... 3 3 Location of bottom sediment samples in Delaware estuary and vicinity ........... 5 4 ...oil and grease, phosphate , and arsenic in bottom sediments. Delaware River .............. 20 3 Average texture and composition of historic spoil...D- 3 Chromatograph- Organic Methods .................................... D- 4 Oil and Grease:- and C.O.D. Methods ............................. D

  4. Natural Regeneration of Trees in Three Types of Afforested Stands in the Taihang Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

  5. Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration.

  6. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to

  7. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-11-27

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Model’s (GCAM’s) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM’s afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM’s pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

  8. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  9. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  10. Predicting total dissolved solids release from central Appalachian coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Daniels, W L; Zipper, C E; Orndorff, Z W; Skousen, J; Barton, C D; McDonald, L M; Beck, M A

    2016-09-01

    Appalachian USA surface coal mines face public and regulatory pressure to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) in discharge waters, primarily due to effects on sensitive macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance (SC) is an accurate surrogate for TDS and relatively low levels of SC (300-500 μS cm(-1)) have been proposed as regulatory benchmarks for instream water quality. Discharge levels of TDS from regional coal mines are frequently >1000 μS cm(-1). The primary objectives of this study were to (a) determine the effect of rock type and weathering status on SC leaching potentials for a wide range of regional mine spoils; (b) to relate leachate SC from laboratory columns to actual measured discharge SC from field sites; and (c) determine effective rapid lab analyses for SC prediction of overburden materials. We correlated laboratory unsaturated column leaching results for 39 overburden materials with a range of static lab parameters such as total-S, saturated paste SC, and neutralization potential. We also compared column data with available field leaching and valley fill discharge SC data. Leachate SC is strongly related to rock type and pre-disturbance weathering. Fine-textured and non-weathered strata generally produced higher SC and pose greater TDS risk. High-S black shales produced the highest leachate SC. Lab columns generated similar range and overall SC decay response to field observations within 5-10 leaching cycles, while actual reduction in SC in the field occurs over years to decades. Initial peak SC can be reliably predicted (R(2) > 0.850; p < 0.001) by simple lab saturated paste or 1:2 spoil:water SC procedures, but predictions of longer-term SC levels are less reliable and deserve further study. Overall TDS release risk can be accurately predicted by a combination of rock type + S content, weathering extent, and simple rapid SC lab measurements.

  11. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  12. The effects of land abandonment and long-term afforestation practices on the organic carbon and lignin content of a Mediteranean soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijsiger, Romy; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Campo, Julian; Cammeraat, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation is an important strategy that can decrease atmospheric carbon in sequestering it in biomass and soils (Pérez-Crusado et al., 2014). In Spain an active afforestation program was adopted in the 1950s, when after wide spread land abandonment the soils were severely eroded (FAO, 2015). In this research the organic carbon and lignin content of the soils in the Araguás catchment area in the Spanish Pyrenees were examined. This research is part of a larger research examining the effect of afforestation over time (Med Afforest Project, PIEF-GA-2013-624974). The research area was afforested with both the P. sylvestris (Scotts Pine) and the P.nigra (Black Pine). Both sites were compared to bare soil (representing severely eroded soil), natural secondary succession (re-vegetation) and meadows. The method used to assess the lignin content is Curie-point pyrolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The results showed a reducing trend for the soil organic carbon (SOC) content with depth. The highest SOC and lignin contents in the topsoil were found under P.nigra and secondary succession. This decline in lignin content corresponds with a high degradation rate (Ad/Al) in the top soil and lower degradation rates in depths of >20 cm. Meadows showed an increased SOC content in deeper horizons, which corresponds to high lignin content as well. In which the meadows showed an increase in lignin content for the soil depths of >20 cm that was unusual and could not be explained by the S/G and P/G ratios and the degradation ratio (Ad/Al). According to the results, P. nigra was the best afforestation practice for increasing the SOC and lignin contents in the soil. The P. sylvestris was considered but proved to be less successful than natural secondary succession. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974). JC also acknowledges the VALi+d postdoctoral contract (APOSTD/2014

  13. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Schadt, Christopher W; Piñeiro, Gervasio; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-10-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH(4)(+) in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  14. Progressive Mid-latitude Afforestation: Impacts on Clouds, Circulation, and the Global Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, M.; Swann, A. L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation influences the atmosphere in complex and non-linear ways. Large-scale changes in vegetation can drive changes in climate on both local and global scales. Interactions between the land and atmosphere are controlled by shifts between terms controlling the surface energy budget. Depending on the magnitude and location of land surface changes, imbalances in energy at large spatial scales can be introduced which shift atmospheric circulation on a global scale. Various studies have explored the impacts of large area changes in vegetation, but how the climate response scales with the area of vegetation change has not been demonstrated. Here, we systematically evaluate the response of climate to linearly increasing the area of forest cover over the northern mid-latitudes. We show that global circulation changes the atmospheric cross-equatorial energy transport in a linear fashion with respect to the area of afforestation (a relationship which has not previously been demonstrated). We also identify how vegetation-induced changes in cloud cover further feedback on changes in the global energy balance - a concept that has been largely ignored in most large-scale vegetation manipulation experiments. The changes in atmospheric energy transport induced by vegetation changes result in remote shifts in precipitation; the relationship between the change in energy transport and the shift in tropical precipitation is shown to be model dependent. Our results highlight the importance of considering both local and remote effects of large-scale vegetation change, and explore how the effects of vegetation change on climate scale with the area of land surface changed. We demonstrate how vegetation changes can modify the surface energy budget both directly and through impacts on cloud cover through land-atmosphere interactions.

  15. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Berthrong, Sean T; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Pineiro, Gervasio; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  16. Evaluating Carbon Sequestration and Solar Forcing Feedbacks Resulting from North American Afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykleby, P.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    The planting of trees and forests has long been accepted as a practical and efficient method to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Assertive measures are now needed to ensure that atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) do not continue to rise and cause additional planetary warming. However, recent studies have detected inadvertent biophysical feedbacks associated with land cover changes, especially in higher northern latitudes. The changes in surface reflectivity that occur when converting a lighter, more reflective surface, such as a grassland or bare soil, into a darker conifer forest, can result in surface warming due to the forest absorbing more shortwave radiation. This warming counteracts the cooling effect resulting from a reduction in atmospheric CO2 with increased vegetation productivity. This effect is further intensified in the higher northern latitudes where snow cover is prevalent during the long winter; the planting of trees can significantly decrease the reflectivity compared with white snow. The goal of this study is to determine whether the amount of carbon sequestered exceeds the carbon equivalent of the radiative forcing due to the change in surface reflectivity. This study uses the IBIS dynamic vegetation model with modified carbon dynamics for conifer forests validated with numerous Ameriflux and Fluxnet Canada field sites with varying stand ages and species compositions. We present results of model performance based on validation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net radiation observations. Results from this study will be used to assess not only the net effect of conifer forest establishment on the long term carbon storage, but also the duration of time that a given location would remain a carbon sink during the lifetime of the forest. Only then, can policymakers begin to discuss the efficacy of afforestation as a sound climate mitigation strategy.

  17. [Dynamic changes of surface soil organic carbon and light-fraction organic carbon after mobile dune afforestation with Mongolian pine in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Shang, Wen; Li, Yu-qiang; Wang, Shao-kun; Feng, Jing; Su, Na

    2011-08-01

    This paper studied the dynamic changes of surface (0-15 cm) soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in 25- and 35-year-old sand-fixing Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations in Horqin Sandy Land, with a mobile dune as a comparison site. After the afforestation on mobile dune, the content of coarse sand in soil decreased, while that of fine sand and clay-silt increased significantly. The SOC and LFOC contents also increased significantly, but tended to decrease with increasing soil depth. Afforestation increased the storages of SOC and LFOC in surface soil, and the increment increased with plantation age. In the two plantations, the increment of surface soil LFOC storage was much higher than that of SOC storage, suggesting that mobile dune afforestation had a larger effect on surface soil LFOC than on SOC.

  18. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as some ESMs might

  19. From Land Use to Land Cover: Restoring the Afforestation Signal in a Coupled Integrated Assessment - Earth System Model and the Implications for CMIP5 RCP Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K. V.; Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P. E.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the CESM land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between IAM and ESM models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as

  20. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y. Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.; Behrens, C.; Helml, W.

    2015-11-09

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  1. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3- fertiliser.

  2. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3− fertiliser. PMID:27112514

  3. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    X.C. Qiao; P. Si; J.G. Yu

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminium from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900{degree}C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminium extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800{degree}C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO{sub 2} phase was able to be formed at 500{degree}C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600{degree}C, and the SiO{sub 2} rejoined the reaction at 800{degree}C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600{degree}C was optimal for both CS and MKC. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Spoilage potential characterization of Shewanella and Pseudomonas isolated from spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Zhu, J; Ye, X; Yang, Y

    2017-01-01

    Ten strains were isolated from a spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). All of them were able to grow aerobically from 4 to 30°C, and reduce trimethylamine-N-oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) and produce H2 S except SB01, PF05 and PF07. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that eight H2 S-producing isolates were closely related to Shewanella baltica, and two isolates PF05 and PF07 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas fragi respectively. However, of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with S. baltica and one with Shewanella glacialipiscicola based on the analysis of the gyrB gene. Shewanella baltica also had the ability to produce biogenic amines, while two Pseudomonas had high activities of proteinase and lipase, and failed to produce TMA and biogenic amines. In spoilage potential evaluation, the TVB-N value of S. baltica was significantly higher than that of Pseudomonas in sterile fish juice, although its growth was slower than Pseudomonas. Therefore, this work demonstrated that S. baltica was able to cause rapid and strong spoilage and was therefore identified as a specific spoilage organism in refrigerated P. crocea.

  5. Identification of novel horA-harbouring bacteria capable of spoiling beer.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, Monique; Ziola, Barry

    2008-04-01

    An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multi-drug resistance (MDR) gene was found in 4 Gram-positive bacterial isolates of environmental origin and found capable of spoiling beer. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus humicus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis; all of which were previously unappreciated as beer-spoilage bacteria. The MDR gene found in these bacteria has less than 37% similarity to known ABC MDR proteins described for Bacillus and Staphylococcus, and this is the first finding of an ABC MDR gene in the genus Paenibacillus. The sequenced region of the gene was translated and compared phylogenetically with the closest GenBank matches of the respective species and the closest GenBank matches overall. The ABC MDR proteins from these isolates were found to cluster among known sequences of HorA, sharing 99.5% identity within the sequenced region. In the beer-spoilage-associated genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, the presence of the MDR gene horA correlates with the ability to grow in beer. As the unique horA-harbouring isolates described here are capable of growing in beer, it is likely that the presence of the horA gene likewise confers hop resistance to these organisms.

  6. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from Metalliferous Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants. PMID:23667449

  7. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  8. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  9. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P < 0.01). From the numerical modelling it was analyzed that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety of 1.7 and 2.1 after 6 and 12 years of plantation on dump slope, respectively, while it was 1.2 before revegetation. Thus, long term revegetation was found to have direct impact on dump stability and indirect impact on soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  10. Available water modifications by topsoil treatments under mediterranean semiarid conditions: afforestation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    During dry periods in the Mediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil. These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil vegetation recovery which creates a positive feedback process that can lead to desertification. Restoration of native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health, and control runoff and sediment yield. In Mediterranean areas, after a forestry proposal, it is highly common to register a significant number of losses for the saplings that have been introduced due to the lack of rainfall. When no vegetation is established, organic amendments can be used to rapidly protect the soil surface against the erosive forces of rain and runoff. In this study we investigated the hydrological effects of five soil treatments in relation to the temporal variability of the available water for plants. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. In control plots, during June, July, August and September, soils were registered below the wilting point, and therefore, in the area of water unusable by plants. These months were coinciding with the summer mediterranean drought. This fact justifies the high mortality found on plants after the seeding plan. Similarly, soils have never exceeded the field capacity value measured for control plots. Conversely, in the straw and pinus mulch, soils were above the wilting point during a longer time than in control plots. Thus, the soil moisture only has stayed below the 4.2 pF suction in July, July and August. Regarding the amount of water available was also higher, especially in the months of December, January and February. However, the field capacity

  11. Copper-Adapted Suillus luteus, a Symbiotic Solution for Pines Colonizing Cu Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Adriaensen, K.; Vrålstad, T.; Noben, J.-P.; Vangronsveld, J.; Colpaert, J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites. PMID:16269769

  12. Copper-adapted Suillus luteus, a symbiotic solution for pines colonizing Cu mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Adriaensen, K; Vrålstad, T; Noben, J-P; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2005-11-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites.

  13. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  14. The use of compost in afforestation of Mediterranean areas: Effects on soil properties and young tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Larchevêque, Marie; Ballini, Christine; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Montès, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    In Mediterranean frequently burnt areas, fire and erosion result in the decrease of soil fertility, so afforestation is a major concern. We carried out an in situ experiment of compost amendment to improve survival and growth of planted tree seedlings. One-year-tree seedlings of native species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea) were planted on a frequently burnt calcareous site. Three rates of fresh co-composted sewage sludge and greenwastes (control without compost, 20 and 40 kg m(-2) of compost) were incorporated into the soil at each seedling stem. Changes of soil properties and tree development were studied during 3 years (2001-2003) and 2 years (2002-2003) respectively. The compost improved survival of Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea seedlings in severe drought conditions, but had no effect on Pinus halepensis. For all species seedling length and radial growth and NPK nutrition were increased for both rates of amendment. Amendment improved soil fertility, but available P concentration increased 13 fold in the neighbouring soil of seedlings amended at the maximal rate compared to control. However, amendment did not significantly increase concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils or tree seedlings. It increased Cu and Zn total and available concentrations in soils, while foliar Cu and Zn concentrations in the seedlings remained similar in all plots. Compost can efficiently help afforestation of dry soils with low organic matter content. However, sewage sludge concentrations in P, and to a lesser extent in Cu and Zn, limit rates of application that can be applied without environmental hazard.

  15. Aleppo pine afforestation in the Massis del Caroig, Eastern Spain. The impact on soil water repellency and infiltration rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Jordán, Antonio; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Paloma Hueso and co-workers (2014; 2015) researched the impact of soil treatment on soil erosion and organic matter recovery in Mediterranean types ecosystems and they demonstrated that the surface wash and the soil quality is determined by the soil management. Afforestation and proper management with fertilizers, mulches and vegetation recovery, are common strategies to flight against soil erosion in Mediterranean type ecosystems García Orenes et al., 2010; Barbera et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2012; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Jiménez et al., 2015; Tengberg et al., 2015; Tesfaye et al., 2015). However, Hueso et al., (2014; 2015) did not paid attention to the impact that water repellency can trigger in the runoff generation and water repellency when soils increase the organic matter. In Eastern Spain, afforestation with Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) was very popular during the XX century, although little is know about his impact on soil hydrology. Many of the impacts of afforestation were found positive (García et al., 2000; Maestre et al., 2003; Bellot et al., 2004; Maestre and Cortina, 2004; Chirino et al., 2006; Querejeta et al., 2008; ). This research shows the impact of Pinus halepensis Mill. on soil water repellency, in comparison to the natural scrubland and the cover of Quercus ilex. Within the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station five types of vegetation covers were selected: Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex, Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Brachypodium retusum. The Water Drop Penetration Time method (Cerda and Doerr; 2007; 2008) was applied. A hundred drops were applied at the soil surface, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth 5 times along the year 2013 under different soil moisture content. The results show that the water repllency of the soils is: Pinus Pinus halepensis > Quercus coccifera > Rosmarinus officinalis > Quercus ilex > Thymus vulgaris > Brachypodium retusum. This is related to the higher

  16. Preliminary study on the relationships between aboveground storage and remotely sensed data at Pingdong plain afforestation land in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Chen, J. M.; Yu, J.; Cheng, C.; Lai, Y.; Chiang, P.; Hong, C.; Chang, C.; Wey, T.; Tsai, M.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research aims on the relationships between LAI and five vegetation index (BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI) from remotely sensed images, in situ measurements and aboveground storage for 10-11yr old plain afforestation (14 species) located at Wanlong farm of subtropical-tropical region at the southern part of Taiwan which originally governed by Taiwan Sugar Corporation. The preliminary results show the aboveground storage is 14.19×9.19 m3 ha-1 and the correlation coefficient between aboveground storage and BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI is 0.331 (p=0.211), 0.317 (p=0.232), 0.310 (p=0.244), 0.714 (p=0.002) and 0.706 (p=0.002) while NDVI performs the best correlation. LAI value using Fisheye or Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) is 0.76×0.37 and 3.89×2.81, respectively. Besides, CI measured by TRAC is 0.83×0.09 and the correlation coefficient with LAI is 0.868 (p<0.001). It shows feasible to estimate aboveground storage using ground investigation incorporating remotely sensed data for young plain afforestation stand. Due to the mixed-plantation and difference between growing and non-growing season at the sample site, the relationship between aboveground storage, LAI and VI is yet to be developed for independent species and may need to modify due to seasonally and inter-annually variation.

  17. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications.

    PubMed

    Céspedes-Payret, Carlos; Piñeiro, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, Ofelia; Panario, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A(11) and A(12) subhorizons (~20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10Å spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p<0.01) to highly significant ones under eucalyptus, particularly in these subhorizons, where on average soil organic matter decreased by 43%; K(+) by 34%; Ca(2+) by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible.

  18. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

  19. Molecular Detection and Identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in Spoiled Wines

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Zironi, Roberto; Comi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a PCR protocol to specifically detect Brettanomyces bruxellensis and B. anomalus. Primers DB90F and DB394R, targeting the D1-D2 loop of the 26S rRNA gene, were able to produce amplicons only when the DNA from these two species were used. No amplification product was obtained when DNA from other Brettanomyces spp. or wine yeasts were used as the templates. The 305-bp product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis with DdeI to differentiate between B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus, and each species could be identified on the basis of the different restriction profiles. After optimization of the method by using strains from international collections, wine isolates were tested with the method proposed. Total agreement between traditional identification and molecular identification was observed. The protocol developed was also used for direct detection of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus in wines suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces spp. Application of culture-based and molecular methods led us to the conclusion that 8 of 12 samples were spoiled by B. bruxellensis. Results based on the application of molecular methods suggested that two of the eight positive samples had been infected more recently, since specific signals were obtained at both the DNA and RNA levels. PMID:15006752

  20. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker.

  1. Succession on subalpine placer mine spoil: Effects of revegetation with Alnus viridis, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Alnus viridis seedlings were planted on placer mine spoil in an Alaskan subalpine watershed to bypass a seedling establishment bottleneck for A. viridis, and to evaluate the interaction between A. viridis and the dominant riparian woody plants, Salix alaxensis and Populus balsamifera. The study area was divided into 11 replicate blocks, each on a homogeneous recontoured spoil pile. Blocks were divided into two 0.01 ha plots, and treatments without (control) and with 84 planted A. viridis seedlings were randomly assigned to plots. After 10 years, the Alnus treatment had a dense stand of A. viridis 1–2 m tall, while the control had fewer, smaller seedlings. Compared to the control, planted A. viridis had a neutral effect on S. alaxensis and inhibited P. balsamifera at the seedling establishment stage, but facilitated the growth of established plants of both species, with many plants overtopping the A. viridis canopy. Compared to the control, S. alaxensis plants in the Alnus treatment had higher levels of foliar N and δ15N values closer to those of A. viridis, indicating the importance of N fixation by A. viridis. Planting A. viridis accelerated the rate of succession by stimulating growth of woody dominants.

  2. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (<150 amino acids). Therefore, for the first time, we herein present data from a proteomic study of lmw proteins for two Lactobacillus (L.) brevis strains exposed to acid stress or, respectively, two different qualities of hop induced stress. We used MALDI-TOF MS as analytical tool for the detection of lmw stress response proteins due to its high sensitivity and low throughput times. Comparing a hop-sensitive and a hop-tolerant strain, detection of the fatty acid biosynthesis-associated acyl carrier protein varied between different stress conditions and incubation times. The findings coincide with previous studies of our group regarding the fatty acid cell membrane composition of beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome.

  3. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  4. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life.

  5. Afforestation by natural regeneration or by tree planting: examples of opposite hydrological impacts evidenced by long-term field monitoring in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, G.; Ribolzi, O.; de Rouw, A.; Pierret, A.; Latsachak, K.; Silvera, N.; Pham Dinh, R.; Orange, D.; Janeau, J.-L.; Soulileuth, B.; Robain, H.; Taccoen, A.; Sengphaathith, P.; Mouche, E.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Tran Duc, T.; Valentin, C.

    2015-12-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernization of agriculture involving rapid and highly-mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability controlling habitats, water resources and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydro-meteorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical Southeast Asia since 2001. The GR2M water balance model repeatedly calibrated over successive 1 year periods, and used in simulation mode with specific rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal flows to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow, led to intricate flow patterns: pluri-annual flow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual flow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantation. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas mixed with patches of tree plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration or planting) led to opposite changes in flow regime. Given that commercial tree plantations will continue to

  6. Time-series analysis of the long-term hydrologic impacts of afforestation in the Águeda watershed of North-Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawtree, D.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.; Jacinto, R.; Santos, J.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Boulet, A.-K.; Tavares-Wahren, F.; Feger, K.-H.

    2014-11-01

    The north-central region of Portugal has undergone significant afforestation of the species Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus since the early 1900s; however, the long-term hydrologic impacts of this land cover change are not fully understood. To contribute to a better understanding of the potential hydrologic impacts of this land cover change, this study examines the temporal trends in 7 years of data from the Águeda watershed (part of the Vouga Basin) over the period of 1936 to 2010. Meteorological and hydrological records were analysed using a combined Thiel-Sen/Mann-Kendall trend testing approach, to assess the magnitude and significance of patterns in the observed data. These trend tests indicated that there had been no significant reduction in streamflow yield over either the entire test period, or during sub-record periods, despite the large-scale afforestation which had taken place. This lack of change is attributed to both the characteristics of the watershed and the nature of the land cover change. By contrast, a number of significant trends were found for baseflow index, which showed positive trends in the early data record (primarily during Pinus pinaster afforestation), followed by a reversal to negative trends later in the data record (primarily during Eucalyptus globulus afforestation). These changes are attributed to vegetation impacts on streamflow generating processes, both due to the species differences and to alterations in soil properties (i.e. promoting water repellency of the topsoil). These results highlight the importance of considering both vegetation types/dynamics and watershed characteristic when assessing hydrologic impacts, in particular with respect to soil properties.

  7. Changes in soil water balance following afforestation of former arable soils in Denmark as evaluated using the DAISY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Osvaldo; Hansen, Søren; Abrahamsen, Per; Hansen, Karin; Gundersen, Per

    2013-03-01

    SummaryLand use change alters water and element cycles, but the changes in these cycles after conversion, for example, from cropland to forest are not fully described in hydrological and nutrient transport models, which usually describe either cropland or forest stands. In the European Union future afforestation is likely to occur on abandoned cropland, and evaluation of the future impacts of this land use change will require projections with models that include combined cropland-forest modules. This study used the agro-based DAISY model (Version 4.93) to investigate changes in the soil water balance over four decades following afforestation of a homogeneous area of former arable land on a sandy loam in Denmark. Hydrological data collected during nine hydrological years (April 2001-March 2010) were used to test the DAISY model. Monthly data on soil water content at 0-90 cm used for calibration were available from April 2001 to December 2002 for six monoculture stands of oak (age 8, 22 and 31 years) and Norway spruce (age 4, 13 and 32 years). Model performance was evaluated by considering uncertainties in model inputs using the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) procedure. The GLUE estimates obtained (uncertainty bands 5% and 95%) agreed satisfactorily with measured monthly soil water content during the calibration period (April 2001-December 2002). Similarly, in the oldest oak stand, long-term monitoring observations and predictions of monthly water content were in satisfactory agreement during the period January 2003-March 2010). Sensitivity analysis showed that the DAISY model was most sensitive to the potential evapotranspiration factor and soil hydraulic parameters included in the Campbell model. Simulation results during nine hydrological years showed that 16-25% of incoming precipitation led to water recharge in the spruce stands, while the corresponding range for oak stands was 25-27%. A 35-year DAISY simulation revealed that Norway spruce

  8. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Defensin-Like and Ultrashort Peptides against Food-Spoiling Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kraszewska, Joanna; Beckett, Michael C.; James, Tharappel C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial peptides offer potential as novel therapeutics to combat food spoilage and poisoning caused by pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies identified the peptide human beta-defensin 3 (HBD3) as a potent antimicrobial agent against a wide range of beer-spoiling bacteria. Thus, HBD3 is an excellent candidate for development as an additive to prevent food and beverage spoilage. To expand the repertoire of peptides with antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with food spoilage and/or food poisoning, we carried out an in silico discovery pipeline to identify peptides with structure and activity similar to those of HBD3, focusing on peptides of plant origin. Using a standardized assay, we compared the antimicrobial activities of nine defensin-like plant peptides to the activity of HBD3. Only two of the peptides, fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2, displayed antimicrobial activity; however, the peptides differed from HBD3 in being sensitive to salt and were thermostable. We also compared the activities of several ultrashort peptides to that of HBD3. One of the peptides, the synthetic tetrapeptide O3TR, displayed biphasic antimicrobial activity but had a narrower host range than HBD3. Finally, to determine if the peptides might act in concert to improve antimicrobial activity, we compared the activities of the peptides in pairwise combinations. The plant defensin-like peptides fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2 displayed a synergistic effect with HBD3, while O3TR was antagonistic. Thus, some plant defensin-like peptides are effective antimicrobials and may act in concert with HBD3 to control bacteria associated with food spoilage and food poisoning. IMPORTANCE Food spoilage and food poisoning caused by bacteria can have major health and economic implications for human society. With the rise in resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is a need to identify new antimicrobials to combat these outbreaks in our food supply. Here we

  10. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    PubMed

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  11. Influence of restoration on arbuscular mycorrhiza of Biscutella laevigata L. (Brassicaceae) and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) from calamine spoil mounds.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, E; Zubek, Sz; Jurkiewicz, A; Szarek- Łukaszewska, G; Turnau, K

    2002-06-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of two plant species, Biscutella laevigata L. and Plantago lanceolata L., was investigated on calamine spoil mounds in Bolesław (southern Poland). Although B. laevigata is a member of the Brassicaceae, a family generally accepted as non-mycorrhizal, this species formed AM symbioses on both heavy metal-contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Besides vesicles and coils, arbuscules were also observed, especially in roots collected prior to seed maturity. Relative mycorrhizal root length and relative arbuscular richness were usually much higher in P. lanceolata than in B. laevigata but not absolute arbuscule richness. Roots of P. lanceolata showed higher colonisation than B. laevigata. Although roots were collected from plants in close proximity, no correlation in mycorrhizal parameters was found between the two species.

  12. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M.

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  13. The effects of large-scale afforestation and climate change on water allocation in the Macquarie River catchment, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Herron, Natasha; Davis, Richard; Jones, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Widespread afforestation has been proposed as one means of addressing the increasing dryland and stream salinity problem in Australia. However, modelling results presented here suggest that large-scale tree planting will substantially reduce river flows and impose costs on downstream water users if planted in areas of high runoff yield. Streamflow reductions in the Macquarie River, NSW, Australia are estimated for a number of tree planting scenarios and global warming forecasts. The modelling framework includes the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model and IQQM, a streamflow routing tool, as well as various global climate model outputs from which daily rainfall and potential evaporation data files have been generated in OzClim, a climate scenario generator. For a 10% increase in tree cover in the headwaters of the Macquarie, we estimate a 17% reduction in inflows to Burrendong Dam. The drying trend for a mid-range scenario of regional rainfall and potential evaporation caused by a global warming of 0.5 degree C may cause an additional 5% reduction in 2030. These flow reductions will decrease the frequency of bird-breeding events in Macquarie Marshes (a RAMSAR protected wetland) and reduce the security of supply to irrigation areas downstream. Inter-decadal climate variability is predicted to have a very significant influence on catchment hydrologic behaviour. A further 20% reduction in flows from the long-term historical mean is possible, should we move into an extended period of below average rainfall years, such as occurred in eastern Australia between 1890 and 1948. Because current consumptive water use is largely adapted to the wetter conditions of post 1949, a return to prolonged dry periods would cause significant environmental stress given the agricultural and domestic water developments that have been instituted.

  14. Changes in Ecosystem Carbon Following Afforestation of Post-Mining Sites- A Case Study from Raniganj Coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Maiti, S. K.; Chaudhuri, S.; Ghosh, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of changes in ecosystem dynamics of carbon (C) as a function of soil and vegetation developments at post-mining sites is of interest because of its prospective function in mitigating increasing global C-cycle. Forestry reclamation approaches (FRA) for post-mining sites can significantly enhance C storage in minesoils and established species; however the mechanism that not widely assessed to predict changes in ecosystem functions. A chronosequence post-mining sites (2-years, 5-years, 9-years, 15-years and 21-years old reclaimed afforested minesoils at Raniganj Coalfield, India) were investigated to: (i) quantify the amount of soil C accumulating in developing ecosystem; (ii) examine several physiochemical properties and biological processes that govern the rate of C-sequestration; (iii) identify the relationships between C-sequestration and soil properties, and (iv) develop a soil quality index by principal component analysis (PCA). From changes in ecosystem C perspective, although soil organic carbon (Corg) was less in newly developed ecosystem in comparisons to older one (21-years). However, rate of soil C-accumulation was greater (2.6 Mg C ha-1yr-1) in newly formed minesoil ecosystem. The overall microbial indices, dehydrogenase activities (DHA-15.7 µg-1TPF g-1 24 hrs-1); microbial biomass carbon (MBC-368 mg C kg-1); and rates of soil CO2 flux (15 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) were found highest in older minesoils in comparisons to younger minesoils. PCA showed that three PCs with eigenvalues > 1 explained 74.5% of the total variance in the soil properties. The first PC is mostly characterized by soil nutritional and biological properties; second PC by physical properties and showed a positive correlation with soil C-accumulation and changes in plant species diversity. The present study showed that changes in ecosystem C and nutrients are direct function of enhanced and established forest land use managements.

  15. Time series analysis of the long-term hydrologic impacts of afforestation in the Águeda watershed of north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawtree, D.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.; Jacinto, R.; Santos, J.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Boulet, A.-K.; Tavares-Wahren, F.; Feger, K.-H.

    2015-07-01

    The north-central region of Portugal has undergone significant land cover change since the early 1900s, with large-scale replacement of natural vegetation types with plantation forests. This transition consisted of an initial conversion primarily to Pinus pinaster, followed by a secondary transition to Eucalyptus globulus. This land cover change is likely to have altered the hydrologic functioning of this region; however, these potential impacts are not fully understood. To contribute to a better understanding of the potential hydrologic impacts of this land cover change, this study examines the temporal trends in 75 years of data from the Águeda watershed (part of the Vouga Basin) over the period of 1936-2010. A number of hydrometeorological variables were analyzed using a combined Thiel-Sen/Mann-Kendall trend-testing approach, to assess the magnitude and significance of patterns in the observed data. These trend tests indicated that there have been no significant reductions in streamflow over either the entire test period, or during sub-record periods, despite the large-scale afforestation which has occurred. This lack of change in streamflow is attributed to the specific characteristics of the watershed and land cover change. By contrast, a number of significant trends were found for baseflow index, with positive trends in the early data record (primarily during Pinus pinaster afforestation), followed by negative trends later in the data record (primarily during Eucalyptus globulus afforestation). These trends are attributed to land use and vegetation impacts on streamflow generating processes, both due to species differences and to alterations in soil properties (i.e., infiltration capacity, soil water repellency). These results highlight the importance of considering both vegetation types/dynamics and watershed characteristic when assessing hydrologic impacts, in particular with respect to soil properties.

  16. The effects of dredge-spoil dumping on a shallow water soft-sediment community in the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D; Rule, M J

    2001-11-01

    In December 1999, 28,000 m3 of sediment was dredged from two sites within the harbour at Coffs Harbour, NSW. Dredging was carried out using a trailing suction hopper-dredge which transported the spoil to a shallow (6 m) site within the adjacent Solitary Islands Marine Park for disposal. Evaluation of the effects of the dredge-spoil dumping at the receiving site was conducted by taking replicated van Veen grab samples at the disposal site and at two control sites, before, immediately after, and three months after dumping. The results indicated that dredge-spoil dumping had no detectable effect on either the structure of the invertebrate community or the physical characteristics of sediment at the receiving site. Although there were some significant faunistic differences between samples from the disposal site and the control sites immediately following dumping, these were related to pre-existing differences between sites rather than to the effects of dredge-spoil disposal. Four principal factors are likely to have contributed to the lack of impact: (i) dredged material had similar sedimentary characteristics to those at the receiving site; (ii) dredged material was free from contaminants; (iii) the disposal method systematically distributed a number of shallow layers of sediment over the disposal site and thus motile macrofauna had the opportunity to migrate upwards between passes of the barge; and (iv) the disposal site was in a high energy environment where the resident biota are likely to be adapted to dynamic sedimentary conditions. The lack of detectable effects suggests that the disposal strategy was one which minimized impacts within an area which has high conservation value and should thus be adopted as a model for future works within the region.

  17. Results of experiments related to contact of mine-spoils water with coal, West Decker and Big Sky Mines, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.; Dodge, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments using spoils water and coal from the West Decker and Big Sky Mines were conducted to determine possible chemical changes in water moving from coal-mine spoils through a coal aquifer. The spoils water was combined with air-dried and oven-dried chunks of coal and air-dried and oven-dried crushed coal at a 1:1 weight ratio, mixed for 2 hr, and separated after a total contact time of 24 hr. The dissolved-solids concentration in water used in the experiments decreased an average 210 mg/liter (5-10%). Other chemical changes included general decreases in the concentrations of magnesium, potassium, and bicarbonate, and general increases in the concentrations of barium and boron. The magnitude of the changes increased as the surface area of the coal increased. The quantity of extractable cations and exchangeable cations on the post-mixing coal was larger than on the pre-mixing coal. Equilibrium and mass-transfer relations indicate that adsorption reactions or ion-exchange and precipitation reactions, or both, probably are the major reactions responsible for the chemical changes observed in the experiments. (Authors ' abstract)

  18. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  19. Potential of woody plants from a Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil(1).

    PubMed

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2016-03-25

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed the soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg, respectively, belonged to severe contamination. 14 species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated, except for Ligutrums lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed enrichment index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrums lucidum, Viburnum awabuk, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrums lucidum, Firminan simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacial are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  20. Growth of halotolerant food spoiling yeast Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 under the influence of pH and salt.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sawan; Lal, Pradeep; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2008-12-01

    Debaryomyces nepalensis, a halotolerant food-spoiling yeast could grow in complex (YEPD) medium at different pHs ranging between 3.0 and 11.0 in the absence of salt and at pH 3.0-9.0 in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl and KCl. The specific growth rate of D. nepalensis was not affected by the initial pH of the medium in the absence of salts, whereas it was affected in the presence of salts. At 2 M NaCl and KCl, the organism exhibited a synergistic effect on pH and salt stress, which was unique in the Debaryomyces species. Irrespective of the initial pH and salt, the intracellular pH of D. nepalensis was approximately 7.0. Significant organic acid was produced at neutral and alkaline pH and organic acid production increased with the increase in pH and salt. Very specific organic acids are produced in the presence of NaCl and KCl. Our observation would contribute to a better understanding of the physiological phenomenon of halotolerance in D. nepalensis.

  1. CCR7 expressing mesenchymal stem cells potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease by spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Sun, Yan-Feng; Li, Ping; Dang, Rui-Jie; Ning, Hong-Mei; Li, Yu-Hang; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Xi-Min; Wen, Ning; Han, Yan; Mao, Ning; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.

  2. Assessing the influence of artificially constructed channels in the growth of afforested black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) within an arid coastal region.

    PubMed

    Flores-Verdugo, F; Zebadua-Penagos, F; Flores-de-Santiago, F

    2015-09-01

    Hypersaline conditions are common in sub-tropical latitudes where freshwater availability is seasonal. Hence, hydroperiod plays a crucial role in providing a suitable area for the establishment of new mangrove seedlings. The purpose of this study was to assess the function of hydrological change and irradiance in the growth of afforested black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) along the upper saltpan area by creating six channels of 1 m wide by 0.3 deep and 30 m length. All channels were constructed perpendicular to the main coastline of the Urias lagoon, Pacific coast of Mexico. Seedlings of black mangrove were planted along four of the channels. After ten months, the pore-water salinity concentration within the six channels was reduced by half. Results indicate that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in mangrove survival among the channels. However, the optimal growth of black mangroves was near the channels edge. The growth of mangrove seedlings planted under 50% of solar attenuation was 10 times higher as compared to mangroves under direct sunlight. This study shows the feasibility of using channels to enhance tidal flow and decrease hypersaline conditions for future afforestation endeavors in arid coastlines.

  3. Afforestation areas defined by GIS in Gölbaşi specially protected area Ankara/Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dilek, E Figen; Sahin, Sükran; Yilmazer, Ilyas

    2008-09-01

    This paper concentrates on determining the areas for afforestation and the development of conservation strategies and actions in the case where there is high demand for the conservation of a particular land area. The analysis of hydrological landscape structure and of erodibility was prerequisite in the methodological design considering the site-specific natural landscape characteristics of the study area. The Gölbaşi Specially Protected Area (SPA) being the case area has many local environmental disturbances, especially with respect to its hydrological system, and the area is beset by increasing demands for its use by the burgeoning human population. It is obviously clear that the present intensive demand for recreational use will be forecasted further increase in the future. The count of rural residences is estimated to increase by 50% over the next decade. This intensive demand shall further strain the carrying capacity of the ecological milieu, which has already suffered to a significant degree because of the present urban and rural activities. The Gölbaşi district is located only 20 km from the city center of Ankara, and its surroundings were legally designated to be a Specially Protected Area primarily for the existence of lacustral and fluvial systems where two interconnected lakes exist: Mogan and Eğmir Lakes. Essentially, the continuity of the lacustral and fluvial system of Lakes Mogan and Eğmir depends on the preservation and improvement of the water sources. However, interconnected surface water bodies of these lakes are actually quite contaminated, and a decline in the water flow from Mogan to Eğmir has been observed. For the elaboration of the present method, required conventional maps (at 1/25,000 scale) of topography (for slope analysis) and geology (for erodibility and permeability analysis) were transferred to computer media using AutoCAD R.14 software. The rectification of the transferred data was done using ERDAS Imagine 8.3. All data

  4. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg−1·year−1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:K, and −3.23 mg·cm−3·year−1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: −4.10 mg·kg−1·year−1; pH: −0.0061 unit·year−1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g−1·year−1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g−1 year−1; N:K: −0.242 mg·g−1·year−1; EC: 0.169 μS·cm−1·year−1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

  5. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-04-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg(-1)·year(-1) for SOM, 438.9 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:P, 5.3 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:K, and -3.23 mg·cm(-3)·year(-1) for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0-80-cm soil profile (P: -4.10 mg·kg(-1)·year(-1); pH: -0.0061 unit·year(-1); C:N: 167.1 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); K:P: 371.5 mg·g(-1) year(-1); N:K: -0.242 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); EC: 0.169 μS·cm(-1)·year(-1)), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance.

  6. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  7. Absolute Quantification of Human Liver Phosphorus-Containing Metabolites In Vivo Using an Inhomogeneous Spoiling Magnetic Field Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549

  8. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence.

  9. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  10. Impacts of afforestation and silviculture on the soil C balance of tropical tree plantations: belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Koutika, L.; Mareschal, L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest plantations will provide a large part of the global wood supply which is anticipated to increase sharply in the next decades, becoming a valuable source of income in many countries, where they also contribute to land use changes that impact the global carbon (C) cycle. Tropical forest plantations established on previous grasslands are potential C sinks offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When they are managed on short rotations, the aboveground biomass is frequently removed and transformed into wood products with short lifetimes. The soil is thus the only compartment for durable C sequestration. The soil C budget results from the inputs of C from litterfall, root turnover and residues left at logging stage, balanced by C losses through heterotrophic respiration and leaching of organic C with water flow. Intensive researches have been conducted these last ten years in eucalypt plantations in the Congo on the effects of management options on soil fertility improvement and C sequestration. Our aim is to review important results regarding belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion in relation to management options. We will specifically address (i) the soil C dynamics after afforestation of a tropical savannah, (ii) the impact of post-harvest residue management, and (iii) the beneficial effect of introducing nitrogen fixing species for C sequestration. Our results on afforestation of previous savannah showed that mechanical soil disturbance for site preparation had no effect on soil CO2 efflux and soil C balance. Soil C increased after afforestation despite a rapid disappearance of the labile savannah-derived C because a large fraction of savannah-derived C is stable and the aboveground litter layer is as the major source of CO2 contributing to soil CO2 efflux. We further demonstrated that the C stock in and on the soil slightly increased after each rotation when large amounts of residues are left at logging stage and that most of

  11. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  12. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles<63 μm or>4 Φ) content of 50% compared to<5% before dumping operations. Videos obtained from a LVB200 Seabotix ROV, highlighted the heterogeneity of the sea floor around the dumping areas

  13. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Man; Zhu, Yao-Lei; Wang, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Feng; Qu, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Hao, Hong-Shun

    2017-04-05

    This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS) activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL), and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h) and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL) to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05) by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05) by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM) and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  14. Environmental assessment of physical/chemical impacts related to the dredging and disposal of spoil from the proposed trench tube crossing of the Anacostia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, F. W.; Yost, J. C.; Saul, S. W.; Wood, S. G.

    1981-03-01

    Environmental sampling and testing was conducted to identify specified chemical pollutants in river-bottom material to be dredged during construction of the Metro subway tube tunnel crossing of the Anacostia River. Constituent concentrations is sediments, elutriates, and surface waters at the site and defined and compared with federal, state, and District of Columbia criteria and guidelines to identify potential problem areas and to evaluate potential chemical and physical impacts of dredging and spoil disposal. The results indicate sediment-bound concentrations of chlordane, DDT and PCBs which fail to meet federal criteria. High surface water concentrations of iron and mercury were identified which would prevent regulatory compliances of dredging operations for these constituents. It was concluded that the dredging would be minimal. Potential impacts upon groundwater were identified, bur further analyses of hydrogeology at the proposed disposal sites would be needed to define the potential for problems.

  15. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  16. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczykowski, Tomasz; Tiukało, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  17. Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal-mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1982-09-01

    In this study, nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After 3 years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus were superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after 2 years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species. Sweet birch and European alder were grown under high, intermediate, and low fertility regimes in sand culture containing a mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius for 5 months and then transplanted to coal mine spoil containing an identical Pisolithus inoculum. Control seedlings of each species were similarly grown except that no inoculum was incorporated into the potting media. The nutrient treatments initiated in the sand culture were continued throughout the study. Examinations of the roots of the sweet birch seedlings revealed that high fertility significantly reduced the development of Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae, but Pisolithus formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on the roots of sweet birch grown under the intermediate and low fertility regimes and these seedlings were significantly larger than comparable control seedlings.

  18. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques

    2014-06-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., "other Gamma-Proteobacteria" [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8 °C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The major spoilage bacterial isolate groups were C. maltaromaticum and S. baltica. In order to characterize their spoilage potential further and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these two specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and one mixed-culture, C. maltaromaticum/S. baltica, were tested using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical, and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture-inoculated samples, both species groups imposed their spoilage characteristics.

  19. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  20. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  1. Evaluation of dioxin mobility and spoils leaching in a surface coal mine reclaimed with bleached kraft pulp and paper mill biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.P.; Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C.; Proctor, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    A surface coal mine in southeastern Ohio has been reclaimed with approximately 15 to 25 cm thickness of biosolids from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant. Soil, vegetation, rodents, earthworms, insects, fish, frogs, sediment, and algae samples were collected and analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Water samples from lakes receiving drainage from unreclaimed and biosolids reclaimed areas were collected and analyzed for various parameters, including pH and metals. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in the pulp and paper mill biosolids did not bioaccumulate in rodents, insects, or earthworms or translocate into plants living in the reclaimed area. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in biosolids did not sufficiently migrate to a drainage lake to result in significant concentrations in fish, frogs, algae, or vegetation. The biosolids reclamation resulted in dramatic decreases in spoils leaching of acid, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. This work supports the thesis that surface mine reclamation with pulp and paper mill biosolids is safe and effective. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product.

  3. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  4. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  5. Some soil properties on coal mine spoils reclaimed with black locust (Robinia pceudoacacia L.) and umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tahir; Makineci, Ender

    2009-12-01

    This study performed on randomly selected seven sample plots in leguminous black locust (Robinia pceudoacacia L.) plantations and five sample plots in umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) plantations on coal mine soil/spoils. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil depths (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples, bulk density, fine soil fraction (Ø < 2 mm), sand, silt and clay rates, soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)), and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated. Also, some forest floor properties (unit mass, organic matter, and total nitrogen) were determined, and results were compared statistically between umbrella pine and black locust. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 6,107 kg ha(-1) under black locust compared to 13,700 kg ha(-1) under umbrella pine. The more rapid transformation of leguminous black locust forest floor creates organic carbon that migrates further into the mineral profile, and rapid accumulation of C and N in the soil profile was registered. Slower transformation processes of forest floor under umbrella pine result in lower soil N ratio and greater quantity of forest floor. Higher soil pH under leguminous black locust was determined significantly than umbrella pine. In conclusion, the composition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of black locust appears to be a possible factor favoring carbon and nitrogen accumulation and, consequently, soil development. Clearly, both tree species have favorable impacts on initial soil formation. The umbrella pine generates the more forest floor layer; in contrast, black locust forest floor incorporates into the soil more rapidly and significantly increases soil nitrogen in upper soil layers.

  6. Geohydrology and water chemistry of abandoned uranium mines and radiochemistry of spoil-material leachate, Monument Valley and Cameron areas, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longsworth, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium mines in the Monument Valley area were established predominately in channel-fill deposits within the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation. The Shinarump Member yields ground water to wells and may yield water to the Moonlight and Radium Hill mines. In the study area near Cameron, uranium was mined from channel-fill deposits within the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Units of the Petrified Forest Member do not yield ground water to wells in the area, but fractures in the lower part of the Petrified Forest Member are probable pathways for upward flow of water from the Shinarump Member. Most of the mines receive water from surface inflow of rainfall runoff, but ground water also may be transmitted to open pits and drill holes in the subsurface through fractures or along faults in the Petrified Forest Member. Uranium-238 activities in shallow ground water from mines ranged from 150 to 14,000 picocuries per liter. Radionuclide activities in well and spring water were less than in shallow ground water near mines; however, in some samples, radionuclide activities in wells and springs were greater than activities in pit water. Uranium concentrations in leachate samples ranged from 20 to 7,700 micrograms per liter. Batch tests were done with material that was 2.00 millimeters and smaller. The radiochemistry of leachate from coarser material was not determined, and the specific rate and magnitude of radionuclide leaching depends on site-specific conditions that include the amounts of oxygen and organic material present, temperature, spoil mineralogy, and local ground-water composition.

  7. Soil processes evolved by the establishment of tree plantations on croplands/grasslands - evaluation of afforestation effect on the Great Plain (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Tóth, Tibor

    2016-04-01

    In Hungary, there was a great increase in the acreage of forested areas during the last century (1.1 to 1.8 million ha). Most of the plantations were established on non-profitable grasslands/croplands (National Forest Strategy, 2009). The forests affect hydrologic and climatic elements of the physical habitat and induce alterations in the soil properties, as well. Soil and groundwater of 70 plantations (Poplar, Common oak and Black locust) and nearby control plots (grassland/cropland) - representing former land use - were investigated over the Great Hungarian Plain. Sampling sites were located by a gradient of climatic water balance, initial water table depth and salinity, soil layering, tree species and plantation age. Short- and long-term effects in groundwater levels (GWL) were found under the woody vegetation. GWL depression evolved beneath forests (poplar and oak provably) compared to control, in 78.8% of the cases. GWL depression was the most significant in the growing season, then the difference between GWLs decreased. Since evapotranspiration (ET) is the main driving force for water consumption of trees, and the ET of trees can be three times higher than that of the grassy control in the growing season, greater (ground)water uptake could be measured, giving rise to higher GWL depression. Short-term effect of the plantation was the daily fluctuation of GWL in the woods that can be twice as much as that of the control. Water uptake is influenced by the type of the groundwater zone (recharge/discharge), where the sample area is located, and by tree species (diverse water demands). Afforestation raised the salt content of the groundwater slightly. In 52.9 % of the cases, salt content of groundwater was higher under the forest, than under the control. Below the forests, salts concentrated in the soil profile and formed a salt accumulation zone surrounding the root zone. In 52.9 % of the cases, salts accumulated in the profile: in the subsoil under the trees (3

  8. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a ‘bad apple’ problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a ‘spoiled barrel’ problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Design, setting and participants Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181 010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26 539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Outcome measure Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. Results A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. Conclusions There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing

  9. An analysis of the uncertainty and bias in DCE-MRI measurements using the spoiled gradient-recalled echo pulse sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Subashi, Ergys; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been used in more than 100 phase I trials and investigator led studies. A comparison of the absolute values of these quantities requires an estimation of their respective probability distribution function (PDF). The statistical variation of the DCE-MRI measurement is analyzed by considering the fundamental sources of error in the MR signal intensity acquired with the spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence. Methods: The variance in the SPGR signal intensity arises from quadrature detection and excitation flip angle inconsistency. The noise power was measured in 11 phantoms of contrast agent concentration in the range [0–1] mM (in steps of 0.1 mM) and in onein vivo acquisition of a tumor-bearing mouse. The distribution of the flip angle was determined in a uniform 10 mM CuSO{sub 4} phantom using the spin echo double angle method. The PDF of a wide range of T1 values measured with the varying flip angle (VFA) technique was estimated through numerical simulations of the SPGR equation. The resultant uncertainty in contrast agent concentration was incorporated in the most common model of tracer exchange kinetics and the PDF of the derived pharmacokinetic parameters was studied numerically. Results: The VFA method is an unbiased technique for measuringT1 only in the absence of bias in excitation flip angle. The time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent measured in vivo is within the theoretically predicted uncertainty. The uncertainty in measuring K{sup trans} with SPGR pulse sequences is of the same order, but always higher than, the uncertainty in measuring the pre-injection longitudinal relaxation time (T1{sub 0}). The lowest achievable bias/uncertainty in estimating this parameter is approximately 20%–70% higher than the bias/uncertainty in the measurement of the pre-injection T1 map. The fractional volume parameters derived from the extended Tofts model

  10. Effective use of flow-spoiled FBI and time-SLIP methods in the diagnostic study of an aberrant vessel of the head and neck: "left jugular venous steal by the right jugular vein".

    PubMed

    Kogure, Taroh; Kogure, Kyuya; Iizuka, Mitsumasa; Ino, Azusa; Ishii, Masako

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) is now commonly used in routine magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies of the head and neck. However, there are limits to its diagnostic abilities in the clinical field and, in some instances, a more invasive supplementary examination may be required. We incidentally discovered a patient with an aberrant vessel of the head and neck that ran alongside the left carotid artery and contained a constant, slowly pulsating efferent blood flow. 3D-TOF and carotid ultrasonography could not determine the nature and origin of this vessel. Additional studies using flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (flow-spoiled FBI) and time spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) methods were effective in determining that the vessel was the left jugular vein, and that the continuous venous reflux was a result of a venous steal by the right jugular vein. We show that by combining different MRA techniques we can effectively achieve diagnosis without resorting to more invasive examinations.

  11. To the Critics, the Spoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rick

    1995-01-01

    In a partnership between several tool companies and vocational high schools, students in construction technology classes give new products a fair and rigorous workout at a fraction of the cost of focus groups. The process allows companies to expose their products to students who, in turn, provide critical evaluation of the tools. (JOW)

  12. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (aw) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of aw varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5(th) percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and aw lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: Topt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the aw effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest aw (awmin estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag time

  13. Effects of controlled overburden placement on mine-spoil properties, revegetation, and the growth of Pitch X loblolly pine hybrid seedlings as demonstrated on an abandoned strip bench. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.L.; Burger, J.; Roberts, J.; Moss, S.

    1986-08-15

    Surface coal-mine reclamation efforts depend on a knowledge of soil development and nutrient cycling. Gaining an understanding of soil genesis in various parent materials and in different cultural amendments will aid the success of revegetation and reclamation. Studies in soil genesis are needed to determine if rock-mine spoils are suitable as a topsoil substitute. A knowledge of mechanisms of nutrient cycling in these materials will aid the development of management strategies for successful reclamation. The report summarizes findings from Phase II of the Controlled Overburden Placement Experiment, funded by OSM. The data reported pertain primarily to the second and third growing seasons, 1983 and 1984. The experiment is composed of two parts, a rock-mix experiment and a surface-treatment experiment. Second-year results confirm topsoil substitutes can outperform topsoiled plots in these particular mine soils.

  14. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  15. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (< 20mm) colliery spoil, to which 25%v/v bracken compost (with/without composted manure) was added as a source of organic matter. This application rate of compost (equivalent to 250m3ha-1) was based on a successful coal-tip remediation trial at Ffos-y-Frân (Jarvis & Walton, WRAP Report, 2011). Varying application rates of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 10% or 20%v/v) were employed. Additional benefits of adding mycorrhizal inoculant or Trifolium repens (white clover) seed were also tested. Six-fold replication was used, with appropriate controls. The performance of each treatment was assessed from its maximum sward height and final above

  16. Director, OWCP v. Greenwich collieries: The end of the true doubt rule

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Because coal miners are exposed to coal dust over long periods of time, hundreds of thousands of miners have contracted pneumoconiosis (black lung), a serious, progressive and crippling illness. In response to the horrible effects of black lung disease, Congress enacted the Federal Black Lung Program through several statutory enactments, which are commonly referred to as the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA). The purpose of the BLBA is to compensate coal miners who have contracted black lung disease. It is a humanitarian, remedial statute. Although the BLBA scheme seems quite complicated, a benefits claimant need only prove that: {open_quotes}(a) he or she it totally disabled, (b) the disability was caused, at least in part, by pneumoconiosis, and (c) the disability arose out of coal mine employment. Also, several statutory presumptions aid the BLBA claimant is establishing his or her entitlement to BLBA benefits. The implementation of the BLBA is discussed.

  17. Modeling of afforestation possibilities on one part of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozsik, Éva; Riczu, Péter; Tamás, János; Burriel, Charles; Helilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricultural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real - ecological - problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production. In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system

  18. Afforestation for Reduction of NOx Concentration in Lanzhou China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Lanzhou is one of the major industrial cities in northwest China, the capital of Gansu Province, and located at a northwest-to...project entitled Air Pollution and Control in Lanzhou (APCL), supported jointly by Gansu Province and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and carried out from...APCL, supported jointly by Gansu Province and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and carried out from 1999 to 2001. From the APCL project, the air

  19. Spare the rods and spoil the retina: revisited.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, S; Arden, G

    2016-02-01

    Visual function improves with oxygen inhalation in people with diabetes even in the absence of visible retinopathy. Rods consume the most oxygen in the retina due to the high metabolic activity required to maintain the dark current. Therefore, Arden hypothesized that in diabetes where oxygen supply may also be affected due to the changes in retinal vasculature, prevention of dark adaptation may be a viable option to prevent or decrease the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy. Animal experiments have proven that the absence of rods decreases the development of retinal neovascularisation. The same principle applies to panretinal photocoagulation, an established treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a few clinical studies have also shown that preventing dark adaptation by suppressing rods with 500-nm light source at night decreases the rate of progression of early diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in the short-term. We await the results of a large two-year multi-centre trial (CLEOPATRA trial) to evaluate the long-term effects of decreasing dark adaptation by applying a 500nm light source as a mask over eyes with non-central diabetic macular oedema.

  20. Bad apples spoil the barrel: Addressing unprofessional behaviour.

    PubMed

    van Mook, Walther N K A; Gorter, Simone L; De Grave, Willem S; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Wass, Valerie; Zwaveling, Jan Harm; Schuwirth, Lambert W; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2010-01-01

    Given the changes in society we are experiencing, the increasing focus on patient-centred care and acknowledgement that medical education including professionalism issues needs to continue not only in the residency programmes but also throughout the doctors career, is not surprising. Although most of the literature on professionalism pertains to learning and teaching professionalism issues, addressing unprofessional behaviour and related patient safety issues forms an alternative or perhaps complementary approach. This article describes the possibility of selecting applicants for a medical school based on personality characteristics, the attention to professional lapses in contemporary undergraduate training, as well as the magnitude, aetiology, surveillance and methods of dealing with reports of unprofessional behaviour in postgraduate education and CME.

  1. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... the operator and approved by the regulatory authority to minimize hazards to health and safety and to... registered professional engineer experienced in the design and construction of earth and rockfill...

  2. Spontaneous combustion of shale spoils at a sanitary landfill.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    Shale deposits excavated from the Upper Cretaceous, Eagle Ford Formation for a sanitary landfill near Dallas, Texas spontaneously combusted. The shale is dark gray in color, with 3-4% fractional organic carbon, and no lignite seams. Gradual sifting and segregation of fine particles, having high surface area per unit volume, along with moisture trapped in the pile as it accumulated led to spontaneous combustion. Hot summer temperatures compounded the problem by heating the pile and preventing heat from efficiently venting to the atmosphere. Maximum temperatures exceeded 960 degrees F (516 degrees C) at several hot spots located approximately 4 m beneath the pile surface. The ongoing combustion problem, which has lasted for approximately 1 year, eventually will be extinguished by spreading the deposits in thin layers, and compacting them to reduce air circulation and segregation of fines.

  3. Beam spoiling a reflector antenna with conducting shim.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-12-01

    A horn-fed dish reflector antenna has characteristics including beam pattern that are a function of its mechanical form. The beam pattern can be altered by changing the mechanical configuration of the antenna. One way to do this is with a reflecting insert or shim added to the face of the original dish.

  4. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area and the topsoil shall be removed, segregated, and stored or replaced under § 715.16. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material... additional stability and prevents mass movement, fill materials suitable for disposal shall be placed upon...

  5. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area and the topsoil shall be removed, segregated, and stored or replaced under § 715.16. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material... additional stability and prevents mass movement, fill materials suitable for disposal shall be placed upon...

  6. Don't Let Germs Spoil Your Holiday Getaway

    MedlinePlus

    ... and wheezing as they pass by. Clean shared surfaces. Use a disinfectant wipe to clean seat trays ... germs linger up to three days on plastic surfaces. Check your hotel room. When you arrive, make ...

  7. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, to determine... result of past and future mining operations. (iv) A technical description of the rock materials to be... drainage blanket. (v) A stability analysis including, but not limited to, strength parameters,...

  8. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, to determine... result of past and future mining operations. (iv) A technical description of the rock materials to be... drainage blanket. (v) A stability analysis including, but not limited to, strength parameters,...

  9. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  11. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  12. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  13. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.

  14. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... technology. The fact that one alternative may cost somewhat more than a different alternative does...

  15. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... technology. The fact that one alternative may cost somewhat more than a different alternative does...

  16. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vegetation, or increase the moisture retention of the soil. (4) Slope protection shall be provided to... consisting of durable rock shall be constructed from the wet areas in a manner that prevents infiltration...

  17. Landscape monitoring of post-industrial areas using LiDAR and GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, Piotr; Szostak, Marta; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Pająk, Marek; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szwed, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Ratajczak, Michał

    2015-06-01

    The quarrying industry is changing the local landscape, forming deep open pits and spoil heaps in close proximity to them, especially lignite mines. The impact can include toxic soil material (low pH, heavy metals, oxidations etc.) which is the basis for further reclamation and afforestation. Forests that stand on spoil heaps have very different growth conditions because of the relief (slope, aspect, wind and rainfall shadows, supply of solar energy, etc.) and type of soil that is deposited. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology deliver point clouds (XYZ) and derivatives as raster height models (DTM, DSM, nDSM=CHM) which allow the reception of selected 2D and 3D forest parameters (e.g. height, base of the crown, cover, density, volume, biomass, etc). The automation of ALS point cloud processing and integrating the results into GIS helps forest managers to take appropriate decisions on silvicultural treatments in areas with failed plantations (toxic soil, droughts on south-facing slopes; landslides, etc.) or as regular maintenance. The ISOK country-wide project ongoing in Poland will soon deliver ALS point cloud data which can be successfully used for the monitoring and management of many thousands of hectares of destroyed post-industrial areas which according to the law, have to be afforested and transferred back to the State Forest.

  18. Recent afforestation in the Iowa River and Vorskla River Basins: a comparative trends analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal changes in forest cover were analyzed using high resolution aerial photographs for Southeast Iowa, USA – a section of the Iowa River basin north of Iowa City. An increase in overall forested area was shown over a 41-year period (1972-2013). The anthropogenic and natural reasons for this pro...

  19. Ecosystem Controls on C & N Sequestration Following Afforestation of Agricultural Lands

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Paul, S.J. Morris, R.T. Conant

    2013-03-05

    In our project, we proposed to continue analysis of our available soil samples and data, and to develop new studies to answer the following objectives: Objective 1) Broaden field based studies of ecosystem C and N compartments to enhance current understanding of C and N sequestration and dynamics. Objective 2) Improve our understanding of mechanism controlling C and N stabilization and dynamics. Objective 3) Investigate the interrelated role of soil temperature and organism type and activity as controlling mechanism in SOC dynamics and sequestration.

  20. Effects of reforestation, deforestation, and afforestation on carbon storage in soils.

    PubMed

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Mund, Martina; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Wirth, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This study reviews the effects of changes in land use and land management on SOC pools in forest soils. In the 1990s, deforestation remained the most important land-use change in tropical regions (-142 x 10(6) ha per year). In non-tropical regions the forested area increased in developed countries as a result of natural reforestation (+26 x 10(6) ha per year). Deforestation also continued in under-developed countries in temperate regions. Without intensive site preparation, harvest followed by natural regeneration or reforestation has little impact on SOC pools in the mineral topsoil (0-0.3 m). Intensive site preparation results in losses of 6-13% of the initial SOC from the topsoil in the first decades. On average, deforestation followed by conversion to cropland results in SOC losses of 42% (or 0.1-1500 g (C) m(-2)) from the mineral topsoil, whereas conversion to pasture results in gains of 8%. The largest changes in SOC storage occur within the first two decades. After reforestation, SOC accumulation depends on the kind of managed forest established. Under productive deciduous reforestation (excluding eucalypts), SOC in the mineral topsoil accumulates at a rate of 20-50 g (C) m(-2) per year, and SOC pools could recover from cultivation-induced losses within 40 years. Under coniferous reforestation, the rate of accumulation of carbon is highest (95 g (C) m(-2) per year) in the organic layer, which is very susceptible to site preparation practices. In the mineral topsoil, the rate of accumulation is much lower (4 g (C) m(-2) per year), and recovery of the initial SOC pools might take several hundred years. The resulting land-use 'memory effect' has introduced large variation of the SOC pools in contemporary carbon budget studies. Thus, there seems to be a large temporal asymmetry between the period of time over which depletion of SOC occurs and the time needed for recovery of the SOC pools in the mineral soil. This should be taken into account when considering land-use and land-management activities to decrease atmospheric CO2 concentrations over this century.

  1. Ecosystem water use efficiency in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUEe) in natural and managed ecosystems is important to address uncertainties related to the effects of global change and alterations in land-use. This is especially important in arid ecosystems, where the impact of these changes is expected to be hi...

  2. Trace gas and energy exchange above a pine afforestation: past, present and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaniak, Marek; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Danielewska, Alina; Baran, Marcin; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Merbold, Lutz; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    Forests are among the most important elements of the Earth's biosphere, providing In the context of global climate change forest plays an important role as a sink of CO2, besides providing other ecological advantages such as favourable habitat for plant and animal species. Changes in the global environment are likely to severely affect the functioning of forest ecosystems. The direction and intensity of these changes can be assessed by the analysis of mass and energy fluxes exchanged between the forest canopy and the atmosphere. Water vapour (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) method in order to obtain long-term data series. Measurements started in January 2008 and continue until today. The EC tower was established within a 56 year and 24 m tall scots pine (pinus sylvestris L.), located nearby the town of Tuczno (North-West Poland). This forest is representative for the large areas that are under the management of one national company (State Forests National Forest Holding). It has been hypothesized that this type of forest (same stand age and structure) are responsible for the major net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in Poland. Annual sequestration during the first two years of measurements was shown to be as high as (702 g C·m-2 in 2008 and 747 g C·m-2 in 2009. However, less carbon was sequestered during the years 2010 and 2011, 546gC·m-2 and 592 gC·m-2, respectively. During the upcoming years we aim at answering the following question: which variables, meteorological or air quality, determine the annual variance of net ecosystem productivity (NEP)? Therefore the existing EC tower was additionally instrumented with devices measuring basic meteorological parameters (solar radiation, air and soil temperature, precipitation). Research will further be extended by studying the hydrology, nutrient cycling and soil properties in order to derive a combined knowledge on forest ecosystem functioning in Poland.

  3. Northern Latitude Afforestation: Quantifying Trade Offs Between Carbon Sequestration and Solar Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykleby, P.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    The planting of trees and forests has long been accepted as a practical and efficient method to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Drastic measures are now needed to ensure that atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) do not continue to rise and cause further planetary warming. However, recent studies have identified unintended biophysical feedbacks associated with land cover changes, especially in higher northern latitudes. The changes in surface reflectivity that occur when converting a lighter, more reflective surface, such as a grassland or bare soil, into a darker conifer forest, can result in surface warming due to the forest absorbing more shortwave radiation. This warming counteracts the cooling effect resulting from a reduction in atmospheric CO2 with increased vegetation productivity. This effect is further exacerbated in the higher northern latitudes where snow cover is prevalent during the long winter; the planting of trees can significantly decrease the reflectivity compared with white snow. The goal of this study is to determine whether the amount of carbon sequestered exceeds the carbon equivalent of the radiative forcing due to the change in surface reflectivity. Factors determining the net effect of these two competing forces are the local climate, the age of the forest, the amount of fractional cover and tree spacing within the forest, and the species of the forest. Previous modeling studies have attempted to determine the magnitude of these effects, but these studies have used coarse resolution climate models and unrealistic forest structure and dynamics. This study attempts to resolve these previous inaccuracies by incorporating a higher resolution model and more accurate representation of carbon dynamics in northern latitude forests. Here we present simulation results from the IBIS model, a dynamic global vegetation model, used to simulate the potential planting of large-area tree plantations in the northern United States and Canada. We determine the spatial distribution of relative carbon sources and sinks, and evaluate how forest age and fraction cover influence the effectiveness of forest plantations for sequestering carbon as compared to the warming that would occur from the subsequent land cover change. This study offers a more complete analysis concerning the location and management of future carbon sequestration projects.

  4. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter.

  5. Q spoiling in deformed optical microdisks due to resonance-assisted tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A recent experiment by Kwak et al. [Sci. Rep. 5, 9010 (2015), 10.1038/srep09010] demonstrated the relevance of resonance-assisted tunneling for optical microcavities where resonance chains emerge in phase space due to boundary deformations. In this paper we adapt the perturbative description of resonance-assisted tunneling to calculate optical modes and the imaginary part of their complex wavenumber which determines the lifetime of the mode. We demonstrate our method at three example cavity shapes and compare our results to numerical data and perturbation theory for weakly deformed microdisk cavities.

  6. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 7th Grade - Spoil Island Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary students in grade seven prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  7. 'To the victor go the spoils': Infants expect resources to align with dominance structures.

    PubMed

    Enright, Elizabeth A; Gweon, Hyowon; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2017-03-24

    Previous research has found that within the first year of life infants possess rich knowledge about social structures (i.e., that some individuals are dominant over other individuals) as well as expectations about resource distributions (i.e., that resources are typically distributed equally to recipients). We investigated whether infants' expectations about resource distribution can be modulated by information about the dominance structure between the recipients. We first replicated the finding that infants attribute a stable dominance hierarchy to a pair of individuals when their goals conflicted and one individual yielded to the other (Expt. 1), and that this sensitivity is not driven by lower-level perceptual factors (Expt. 2). In Experiments 3-5, we tested our main hypothesis that infants' attention to equal and unequal distributions varies as a function of prior social dominance information. We first replicated and extended prior work by establishing that infants looked significantly longer to unequal than equal resource distributions when no prior information about dominance was provided about recipients (Expt. 3). Critically, following social dominance information, infants looked significantly longer to an equal distribution of resources than a distribution that favored the dominant individual (Expt. 4), and looked significantly longer when the submissive individual received more resources compared to when the dominant individual received more resources (Expts. 4 and 5). Together, these findings suggest that infants expect resources to align with social dominance structures.

  8. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part I. General Data for the Delaware River,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    Horseshoe Range (west side) 40 400-500 Allegheny Ave., Phila. - W. Horseshoe Range (east side) 37 500-600 W. Horseshoe Range - Bombay Hook Pt. 40 800 Bombay...Authorized Anchorage 13,650 2,300 8 Thompson Point Tinicumlsland E side of Channel 3,400 700-1300 betw Crab Pt & Monds Island 9 Mantua Creek Mifflin Bar...Authorized Anchorage 11,500 2,300 10 Naval Base W Horseshoe W side of Channel 2,600 12-1500 (League Island) 11 Gloucester E Horseshoe Authorized

  9. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 817.43 and to safely pass the runoff from a 100-year,...

  10. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 816.43 and, in addition, to safely pass the runoff from a...

  11. Spoiling and sustainability: technology, water insecurity, and visibility in Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    One third of households in Alaska Native villages lack running water and sewer services. Historically, this public health need drove policies to improve access to treated water and sanitation. However, despite public health being a stated priority of water infrastructure development, current policies require demonstrated economic sustainability in ways that render suffering from water insecurity invisible. In this article, I situate the introduction of water treatment technologies within the history of domination coproduced with vulnerability. These processes are reflected in local narratives describing the relationships between technology, tradition, and suffering. By drawing attention to the role of the state in creating vulnerability, village leaders are trying to historicize and insert their health concerns into the sustainability conversation using narratives that both fit within and challenge the ideology of sustainability. These narratives are thus central to Iñupiat struggles for visibility.

  12. Spoiled Group Identities and Backstage Work: A Theory of Stigma Management Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    How do persons with a stigmatized identity learn potential responses to discrimination and harassment? Drawing on three and a half years of ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates how members of a group of Muslim American youth are socialized in locally dominant stigma management strategies through stigma management rehearsals. Stigma…

  13. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be.... Terraces on the fill shall be graded with a 3 to 5 percent grade toward the fill and a 1 percent...

  14. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... fill shall be graded with a 3 to 5 percent grade toward the fill and a 1 percent slope toward the...

  15. Development of bacterial community during spontaneous succession on spoil heaps after brown coal mining.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Michaela; Kopecký, Jan; Valášková, Vendula; Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Elhottová, Dana; Kyselková, Martina; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Changes in the abundance of bacteria and fungi and in the composition of bacterial communities during primary succession were investigated in a brown coal mine deposit area near Sokolov, the Czech Republic, using phospholipid fatty acids analysis, microarray and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study considered a chronosequence of sites undergoing spontaneous succession: 6-, 12-, 21- and 45-year-old and a 21-year-old site revegetated with Alnus glutinosa. During succession, organic carbon and the total nitrogen content increased while the pH and the C/N ratio decreased. Microbial biomass and bacterial diversity increased until 21 years and decreased later; bacteria dominated over fungi in the initial and late phases of succession. Bacterial community composition of the 6-year-old site with no vegetation cover largely differed from the older sites, especially by a higher content of Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and some Alphaproteobacteria. Bacteria belonging to the genera Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus and related taxa, the CO(2) and N(2) fixers, dominated the community at this site. In the later phases, bacterial community development seemed to reflect more the changes in soil nutrient content and pH than vegetation with a decrease of Actinobacteria and an increase of Acidobacteria. The site revegetated with A. glutinosa resembled the 45-year-old primary succession site and exhibited an even lower pH and C/N ratio, indicating that recultivation is able to accelerate soil development.

  16. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  17. The Electronic "Scarlet Letter": Criminal Backgrounding and a Perpetual Spoiled Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel S.; Fuleihan, Brian; Richards, Stephen C.; Jones, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Crimes are multifaceted events that are not adequately explained with basic descriptors, yet a considerable amount of significance is afforded to relatively few simplistic labels that make up the contemporary "scarlet letter." Today's criminal records create a lifetime of stigmatization for a person. These public records employ a limited range of…

  18. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  19. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  20. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  1. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  2. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  3. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  4. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  5. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium estertheticum DSM 8809, a Microbe Identified in Spoiled Vacuum Packed Beef

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Brennan, Evan; Reid, Rachael; Wall, Patrick G.; Gaora, Peadar Ó.; Hurley, Daniel; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk. In this study the complete genome of C. estertheticum DSM 8809 was determined by SMRT® sequencing. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 4.7 Mbp along with a single plasmid carrying a potential tellurite resistance gene tehB and a Tn3-like resolvase-encoding gene tnpR. The genome sequence was searched for central metabolic pathways that would support its biochemical profile and several enzymes contributing to this phenotype were identified. Several putative antibiotic/biocide/metal resistance-encoding genes and virulence factors were also identified in the genome, a feature that requires further research. The availability of the genome sequence will provide a basic blueprint from which to develop valuable biomarkers that could support and improve the detection and control of this bacterium along the beef production chain. PMID:27891116

  7. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall...

  9. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall...

  11. Relocation of on-site spoils pile materials at the Linde Fusrap Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schwippert, M.T.; Boyle, J.D.; Bousquet, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    During the 1940's, the Linde Division of Union Carbide used portions of their property in Tonawanda, New York for processing uranium ores under Federal Manhattan Engineering District (MED) contracts. These activities resulted in radiological contamination on portions of the property. The radionuclides of concern at the site are Radium, Thorium, and Uranium. The site is currently owned and operated by Praxair Inc., an industrial gas company. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued a Record of Decision to remediate the radiologically-contaminated materials associated with MED activities in March 2000 under the authority of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The selected remedy is fully protective of human health and the environment and complies with Federal and State requirements that are legally applicable or relevant and appropriate and meets community commitments. The USACE - Buffalo District has been executing remedial activities at the site and has successfully addressed many challenges in a safe and cost effective manner through effective coordination, project management, and partnering with stakeholders. These efforts supported the successful relocation of approximately 29,000 cubic yards of stockpiled material (soils, concrete, steel, asphalt and miscellaneous non-soil) that had been generated by the property owner as a result of ongoing development of the facility. Relocation of the material was necessary to allow safe access to the surface and subsurface soils beneath the pile for sampling and analysis. During relocation operations, materials were evaluated for the presence of radiological contamination. The vast majority of material was relocated onsite and remained the property owner's responsibility. A small portion of the material required off-site disposal at a permitted disposal facility due to radiological contamination that exceeded site criteria. This paper presents details associated with the successful resolution of responsibility concerns associated with a large stockpile of materials accumulated over many years by the property owner. A cost effective approach and partnership was developed to allow for real time radiological characterization and material dispositions by the government and satisfying chemical concerns presented by State regulators. These actions resulted in onsite relocation and responsible transfer of the materials to the property owner for beneficial reuse resulting in significant project cost savings. (authors)

  12. Will nonlinear peculiar velocity and inhomogeneous reionization spoil 21 cm cosmology from the epoch of reionization?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun

    2013-04-12

    The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).

  13. How to spoil a good basis set for Rayleigh-Ritz calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pupyshev, Vladimir I.; Montgomery, H. E. Jr.

    2013-08-15

    For model quantum mechanical systems such as the harmonic oscillator and a particle in an impenetrable box, we consider the set of exact discrete spectrum functions and define the modified basis set by subtraction of the ground state wavefunction from all the other wavefunctions with some real weights. It is demonstrated that the modified set of functions is complete in the space of square integrable functions if and only if the series of the squared weights diverges. A similar, but nonequivalent criterion is derived for convergence of Rayleigh-Ritz ground state energy calculations to the exact ground state energy value with the basis set extension. Some numerical illustrations are provided which demonstrate a wide variety of possible situations for model systems.

  14. Jeopardizing Christmas: Why spoiled kids and a tight schedule could make Santa Claus fall?

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Lichtenstein, E; Elliot, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2015-03-01

    Santa Claus' spatio-temporal gait characteristics, ground reaction forces during treadmill walking as well as postural sway during loaded, unloaded and cognitive interference tasks were examined in order to estimate his fall risk. Seventeen healthy males, disguised as researchers and students (age: 30±10 years; height: 179±6 years; weight: 76±7kg; BMI: 24±2kg/m(2); physical activity: 12±4h/week) and who still believe in Santa Claus randomly underwent balance and gait analyses with and without cognitive interference. The conditions were to be dressed as "Santa Claus" (wearing costume consisting of a beard, cap, robe, heavy sack with a load of 20kg) or dressed in "normal clothing" (no costume). Spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking velocity, gait variability and stride time, length and width), ground reaction forces (GRF) (left- and right-sided heel strike and push off) and postural sway (30s tandem stance on a force plate) were measured. "Santa-effects" (0.001

  15. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... with enough terrain or other physical features of the site shown to provide a relative scale to...

  16. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... physical features of the site shown to provide a relative scale to the photographs and to specifically...

  17. "Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child?" The Law and Corporal Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of corporal punishment may be as old as society itself. However, the development of compulsory attendance laws has raised questions about its legality. Under compulsory attendance laws and subject to exceptions for home schooling and nonpublic schools, parents must send their children to public schools or be subject to sanctions. Conflicts…

  18. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions and... the backfill must be compatible with the natural drainage patterns and the surrounding area,...

  19. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions and... the backfill must be compatible with the natural drainage patterns and the surrounding area,...

  20. The role of topographic structure and soil macrofauna presence at spoil heaps during spontaneous succession.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Vach, Marek

    2016-04-01

    This research was investigating whether topographic features, which determine soil nutrient and moisture distribution, in combination with soil fauna (wireworm and earthworm) presence, affect plant community composition at a spontaneously revegetated post mining area with an undulating surface. Two sites of different age with 3 types of topographic features were selected, soil moisture and nutrient content were measured, plant community composition and soil macrofauna community was sampled at each position. Wireworms were present at all positions and were most abundant at bottoms of waves at the younger site; their presence was correlated with several plant species, but the direction of the interaction isn't clear. Earthworms were only present at the older site and had highest abundance at flat sections. Earthworm presence affected the amount of nitrogen in soil - the most nitrogen content was at the site with highest earthworm density and was followed by higher diversity of plant community. The plant community composition was generally correlated with plant available nutrient content - especially P and N. We infer that topographic features affect nutrient and soil fauna distribution, which consequently influences plant community composition.

  1. A good walk spoiled: on the disappearance of golf as an active sport in America.

    PubMed

    Puterbaugh, James S

    2011-07-01

    During the past 60 years, there has been a major transition in the way golf is played in America. Its potential as exercise largely has been negated by the increase in motorized golf cart usage to approximately two of every three rounds played in this country. Accidents in golf carts have increased rapidly, which, by making the sport more dangerous, will likely bring future regulations. Consequently, playing golf has gradually become more of a public health threat than a benefit. The motorized cart also has resulted in an almost doubling of the size of golf courses, which now occupy a large amount of the built environment designated for activity. These changes are a major loss to society, portend future problems, and call for the sport to reevaluate its current model.

  2. Soil health, crop productivity, microbial transport, and mine spoil response to biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is being evaluated by scientists from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for its potential to sequester soil C, to improve soil health, and to increase crop yields. ARS scientists from multiple locations such as Florence, SC, Kimberly, ID,...

  3. Molecular identification of species from the Penicillium roqueforti group associated with spoiled animal feed.

    PubMed

    Boysen, M E; Jacobsson, K G; Schnürer, J

    2000-04-01

    The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from Sweden, previously identified by morphology as P. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Identities were confirmed with random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and secondary metabolite profiles. Of these isolates, 48 were P. roqueforti, 2 were P. paneum, and 2 were Penicillium expansum. No P. carneum isolates were found. The three species produce different mycotoxins, but no obvious relationship between mold and animal disease was detected, based on medical records. P. roqueforti appears to dominate in silage, but the ecological and toxicological importance of P. carneum and P. paneum as feed spoilage fungi is not clear. This is the first report of P. expansum in silage.

  4. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into the design and construction of the fill as follows: (1) The fill shall have, along the vertical... and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock core and... head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and discharge the...

  5. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  6. Effects of mycorrhizae and other soil microbes on revegetation of heavy metal contaminated mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Shetty, K G; Hetrick, B A; Figge, D A; Schwab, A P

    1994-01-01

    The effects of mycorrhizal fungi and other soil microorganisms on growth of two grasses, Andropogon gerardii Vitm. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., in heavy metal-contaminated soil and mine tailings were investigated. A. gerardii is highly dependent on mycorrhizal fungi in native prairie, while F. arundinacea is a facultative mycotroph and relies on mycorrhizal symbiosis only in extremely infertile soils. Regardless of microbial amendments, neither plant species was able to establish and grow in the mine tailings. Both plant species grew in the moderately contaminated or non-contaminated soils, although A. gerardii grew in these soils only when mycorrhizal. Other soil microbes significantly improved growth of A. gerardii only in uncontaminated soil, but to a lesser extent than mycorrhizae. Although F. arundinacea was more highly colonized by mycorrhizal fungi than A. gerardii, neither microbial amendment affected growth of fescue in any soil. In several treatments mycorrhizal fungi adapted to uncontaminated soil stimulated plant growth more than mycorrhizae adapted to the moderately contaminated soil. However, mycorrhizal fungi adapted to contaminated soil did not increase the productivity of plant growth in contaminated soil more than fungi adapted to uncontaminated soil. A. gerardii plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi retained more Zn in roots than in shoots, confirming earlier reports that mycorrhizal fungi alter the translocation pattern of heavy metals in host plants. In contrast, mycorrhizae did not affect translocation patterns in F. arundinaceae, suggesting that the mycorrhizal dependence of a plant species is correlated with the retention of metals in roots. The correlation between mycorrhizal dependence of a plant species and mycorrhizal alteration of translocation pattern may also explain the inconsistent reports of mycorrhizal effects on translocation of heavy metals in plants. Plant response to mycorrhizal symbiosis may therefore provide a useful criterion for the selection of the plant species to be used in revegetation of contaminated sites.

  7. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  8. Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jarosław; van Doorn, Natalie S

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks.

  9. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  10. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  11. Spoiling Childhood: How Well-Meaning Parents Are Giving Children Too Much-But Not What They Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    Parents today are tagged as a generation preoccupied with work and themselves but at the same time overly focused on their children. This book attempts to explain this paradox. It explores the ways in which social, cultural, and psychological changes have come together with a new definition of the child to create a situation in which parenthood…

  12. Potential contaminants at a dredged spoil placement site, Charles City County, Virginia, as revealed by sequential extraction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianwu; Whittecar, G Richard; Johannesson, Karen H; Daniels, W Lee

    2004-01-01

    Backfills of dredged sediments onto a former sand and gravel mine site in Charles City County, VA may have the potential to contaminate local groundwater. To evaluate the mobility of trace elements and to identify the potential contaminants from the dredged sediments, a sequential extraction scheme was used to partition trace elements associated with the sediments from the local aquifer and the dredged sediments into five fractions: exchangeable, acidic, reducible, oxidizable, and residual phases. Sequential extractions indicate that, for most of the trace elements examined, the residual phases account for the largest proportion of the total concentrations, and their total extractable fractions are mainly from reducible and oxidizable phases. Only Cd, Pb, and Zn have an appreciable extractable proportion from the acidic phase in the filled dredged sediments. Our groundwater monitoring data suggest that the dredged sediments are mainly subject to a decrease in pH and a series of oxidation reactions, when exposed to the atmosphere. Because the trace elements released by carbonate dissolution and the oxidation (e.g., organic matter degradation, iron sulfide and, ammonia oxidation) are subsequently immobilized by sorption to iron, manganese, and aluminum oxides, no potential contaminants to local groundwater are expected by addition of the dredged sediments to this site.

  13. Photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria from spoiled raw chicken carcasses in aqueous suspensions by TiO2 nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spoilage is a major cause of reduced shelf life of fresh poultry; therefore, decreasing contamination by spoilage bacteria could increase the shelf life of these products. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of UVA light possess antibacterial activities towards several ba...

  14. Cut-off net acid generation pH in predicting acid-forming potential in mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Liao, B; Huang, L N; Ye, Z H; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S

    2007-01-01

    Acidification of mine wastes can lead to a series of environmental problems, such as acid drainage, heavy metal mobilization, and ecosystem degradation. Prediction of acid-forming potential is one of the key steps in management of sulfide-bearing mine wastes. In this paper, the acid-forming potential of 180 mine waste samples collected from 17 mine sites in China were studied using a net acid generation (NAG) method. The samples contained different contents of total sulfur (ranging from 0.6 to 200 g kg(-1)), pyritic sulfur (ranging from 0 to 100 g kg(-1)), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC, ranging from -41 to 274 kg H2SO4 t(-1)). Samples with high acid-forming potential are generally due to their high sulfur content or low acid neutralization capacity. After the samples were oxidized by H2O2, the amounts of acid generation and the final NAG pH were measured. Results indicated that the final NAG pH gave a well-defined demarcation between acid-forming and non-acid-forming materials. Samples with final NAG pH >or= 5 could be classified as non-acid-forming materials, while those with NAG pH 2.5, but < 5, had low risk of being acid-forming. The confirmation of cut-off NAG pH will be used as a rapid and cost-effective operational monitoring tool for the in-pit prediction of acid-forming potential of mine wastes and classification of waste types.

  15. Evaluation of peracetic acid sanitizers efficiency against spores isolated from spoiled cans in suspension and on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    André, S; Hédin, S; Remize, F; Zuber, F

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of industrial formulations of peracetic acid biocides on bacterial spores adhering to stainless steel surfaces. A standardized protocol was used to validate biocide activity against spores in suspension. To validate sporicidal activity under practical conditions, we developed an additional protocol to simulate industrial sanitization of stainless steel surfaces with a foam sanitizer. Spores of three spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica, were sprayed onto stainless steel as bioaerosols. Sporicidal activity was high against the C. sporogenes spore suspension, with more than 5 log CFU ml(-1) destroyed at all liquid biocide contact times. Sporicidal activity also was high against G. stearothermophilus and M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica spores after 30 min of contact, but we found no population reduction at the 5-min contact time for the highest sporicide concentration tested. The foam biocide effectively inactivated C. sporogenes spores adhered to stainless steel but had a reduced decontamination effect on other species. For G. stearothermophilus spores, sanitization with the foam sporicide was more efficient on horizontal steel than on vertical steel, but foam sanitization was ineffective against M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica whatever the position. These results highlight that decontamination efficiency may differ depending on whether spores are suspended in an aqueous solution or adhered to a stainless steel surface. Biocide efficiency must be validated using relevant protocols and bacteria representative of the microbiological challenges and issues affecting each food industry.

  16. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    PubMed

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts.

  17. Towards Using NMR to Screen for Spoiled Tomatoes Stored in 1,000 L, Aseptically Sealed, Metal-Lined Totes

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Michael D.; Harter, Tod; McCarthy, Michael J.; Augustine, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to track factory relevant tomato paste spoilage. It was found that spoilage in tomato paste test samples leads to longer spin lattice relaxation times T1 using a conventional low magnetic field NMR system. The increase in T1 value for contaminated samples over a five day room temperature exposure period prompted the work to be extended to the study of industry standard, 1,000 L, non-ferrous, metal-lined totes. NMR signals and T1 values were recovered from a large format container with a single-sided NMR sensor. The results of this work suggest that a handheld NMR device can be used to study tomato paste spoilage in factory process environments. PMID:24594611

  18. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. Methods We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Results Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Conclusions Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying “contaminated” breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved understanding regarding diarrhea causation translates into improved diarrhea prevention. PMID:24330586

  19. Initial soil formation and humus accumulation on the spoil heaps of sandy quarry, Russian-North-West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a reference (mature) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was started from grass plant community and finished on the Scotch Pine forest on the 60-years old plot. The pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus stocks in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial (Bs) horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the accumulation of organic carbon; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the caloricity of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. On the base of C-13 NMR study of humic substances the humic and fulvic acid are different in organic, eluvial and illuvial horizons in terms of different structural components content. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages. The main conclusion of investigation is that the 60 years is enough for formation of embrio-profile of podzol soil on the dumps of quaternary sands of former sandy quarry in the south taiga, North-West of Russia.

  20. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and recombination genes from plasmids pLb464-2, -4, and -8 were observed in the gassed beer environment. Thus, plasmids can harbor genes with specific (gassed) beer growth advantages, and confirm that plasmid transfer and acquisition as important activities for adaptation to the beer environment.

  2. Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruyi; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Jing; Su, Nannan; Shao, Zongyuan; Zan, Shuting

    2016-08-01

    Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run.

  3. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  4. [When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jeroen P; Curşeu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

    2014-05-01

    The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. The influence of mycorrhizal symbiosis and fertilizer amendments on establishment of vegetation in heavy metal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, B A; Wilson, G W; Figge, D A

    1994-01-01

    Biomass production of Andropogon gerardii and Festuca arundinacea was assessed in mine tailings (chat), a material containing high levels of zinc. The effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments, the addition of an expanded clay material, and mycorrhizal fungi on the revegetation of chat were assessed. Plant growth in chat was best with mycorrhizal inoculation combined with nitrogen (either organic or inorganic) and phosphorus fertilization. Plant growth was also achieved if the chat material was amended with expanded clay and N and P fertilizer. However, the biomass produced in contaminated soil did not equal that of similarly fertilized uncontaminated soil. Regression analysis and canonical discriminate analysis revealed significant differences in the responses of the two plant species to the various chat amendments. Although F. arundinacea generally produced greater biomass than A. gerardii, it tended to accumulate more zinc in the shoots than A. gerardii. Therefore, if plant cover is to be used as forage or if wind-blown plant dry matter is of concern, A. gerardii may be more appropriate than F. arundinacea for revegetation of these toxic sites. Alternatively, if maximum plant cover is of primary importance to reduce wind or water erosion from contaminated soils, F. arundinacea may be the species of choice.

  6. EFFECTS OF MYCORRHIZAE AND OTHER SOIL MICROBES ON REVEGETATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED MINE SPOIL. (R825549C033)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...; Disposal of Excess Spoil: General Requirements; Contemporaneous Reclamation; Backfilling and Grading: Time... Operations; Disposal of Excess Spoil: General Requirements; Disposal of Excess Spoil: Valley Fills/Head-of Hollow Fills; Disposal of Excess Spoil: Durable Rock Fills; Disposal of Excess Spoil:...

  8. Legionella pneumophila in coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D H; Hill, E C; Howells, C H; Ribeiro, C D

    1985-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease was diagnosed in three mineworkers at a colliery. Investigation of water samples from various sites at the colliery did not discover a source of the infection. Results of serological surveys undertaken on the workmates of the patients and other miners showed only one additional positive Legionella indirect fluorescent antibody test. There was, therefore, no justification for any alteration in the water supply or the ventilation at the colliery. Images PMID:3890934

  9. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  10. - and Cross-Polarization 13C NMR Evidence of Alterations in Molecular Composition of Humic Substances Following Afforestation with Eucalypt in Distinct Brazilian Biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, I. R.; Soares, E. M.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Novais, R.; Barros, N.; Fernandes, S.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of planting fast growing tree species on SOM quality in tropical regions has been overlooked. In the present study 13C-NMR approaches were used to evaluate the impact of eucalypt cultivation on humic and fulvic acids molecular composition. The results indicate that the replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increased the relative contribution of aliphatic groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only). The same trend was observed for FA, except in the Curvelo site. A trend for degradation and smaller contribution of O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) in HA was observed in soils under eucalyptus in Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. For FA such decreases were seen in Cerrado and Grassland biomes after eucalypt planting. In the area cultivated with pasture in the Atlantic Forest biome and in the Grassland soil, the largest contributions of lignin-derived compounds were detected in HA. The HA from the Cerrado at the Curvelo site, where the woody vegetation is virtually devoid of grassy species, showed the lowest intensity of lignin signal then those from the Cerrado sensu stricto in Itacambira, where grass species are more abundant. At our study sites, charred material are most likely derived from burning of the native vegetation, as naturally occurs in the Cerrado region, or anthropogenic fires in the Grassland biome. Burning of harvest residues in eucalypt fields was also a common practice in the early rotations. The replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increases the relative contribution of nonpolar alkyl groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only) biomes. There is evidence of substantial contribution of lignin-derived C to HA and FA, especially in sites planted with Brachiaria sp pastures. Eucalypt introduction decreases the relative contribution of carbohydrates in HA and FA. 13C DP/MAS NMR functional groups in the humic and fulvic acid samples from the Eucalypt and native vegetation soils in the Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and Grassland biomes

  11. Soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes from an afforested lowland raised peatbog in Scotland: implications for drainage and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamulki, S.; Anderson, R.; Peace, A.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of tree (lodgepole pine) planting with and without intensive drainage on soil greenhouse gas fluxes was assessed after 45 yr at a raised peatbog in West Flanders Moss, central Scotland. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from the soil were monitored over a 2-yr period every 2 to 4 weeks using the static opaque chamber method in a randomised experimental block trial with the following treatments: drained and planted (DP), undrained and planted (uDP), undrained and unplanted (uDuP), and for reference also from an adjoining near pristine area of bog at East Flanders Moss (n-pris). There was a strong seasonal pattern in both CO2 and CH4 effluxes which were significantly higher in late spring and summer months, reflecting seasonal temperature changes. Effluxes of N2O were low and no significant differences were observed between the treatments. Annual CH4 emissions increased with the proximity of the water table to the soil surface across treatments in the order: DP < uDP < uDuP < n-pris with mean annual effluxes over the 2-yr monitoring period of 1.5, 6.4, 77.0 and 226.3 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1, respectively. For CO2, effluxes increased in the order uDP < DP< n-pris < uDuP, with mean annual effluxes of 12.3, 16.6, 18.2 and 25.5 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1, respectively. CO2 effluxes dominated the calculated global warming potential (GWP) of the net fluxes for each treatment (76-98%), and only in the n-pris site was CH4 a substantial contribution (23%). Based on soil effluxes only, the near pristine (n-pris) peatbog had 43% higher net GWP compared with the DP treatment because of high CH4 effluxes and the DP treatment had 33% higher GWP compared with the uDP because drainage increased CO2 effluxes. Restoration is likely to increase CH4 emissions, but reduce CO2 effluxes. Including estimates of CO2 uptake by vegetation from similar peatbog sites suggests that the total GWP of restored peatbog would be about half that of the peatbog covered by woodland.

  12. Soil CO2 CH4 and N2O fluxes from an afforested lowland raised peatbog in Scotland: implications for drainage and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamulki, S.; Anderson, R.; Peace, A.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of tree (lodgepole pine) planting with and without intensive drainage on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was assessed after 45 yr at a raised peatbog in West Flanders Moss, central Scotland. Fluxes of CO2 CH4 and N2O from the soil were monitored over a 2-yr period every 2 to 4 weeks using the static opaque chamber method in a randomised experimental block trial with the following treatments: drained and planted (DP), undrained and planted (uDP), undrained and unplanted (uDuP) and for reference also from an adjoining near-pristine area of bog at East Flanders Moss (n-pris). There was a strong seasonal pattern in both CO2 and CH4 effluxes which were significantly higher in late spring and summer months because of warmer temperatures. Effluxes of N2O were low and no significant differences were observed between the treatments. Annual CH4 emissions increased with the proximity of the water table to the soil surface across treatments in the order: DP < uDP < uDuP < n-pris with mean annual effluxes over the 2-yr monitoring period of 0.15, 0.64, 7.70 and 22.63 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, respectively. For CO2, effluxes increased in the order uDP < DP< n-pris < uDuP, with mean annual effluxes of 1.23, 1.66, 1.82 and 2.55 kg CO2 m-2 yr-1, respectively. CO2 effluxes dominated the total net GHG emission, calculated using the global warming potential (GWP) of the three GHGs for each treatment (76-98%), and only in the n-pris site was CH4 a substantial contribution (23%). Based on soil effluxes only, the near pristine (n-pris) peatbog had 43% higher total net GHG emission compared with the DP treatment because of high CH4 effluxes and the DP treatment had 33% higher total net emission compared with the uDP because drainage increased CO2 effluxes. Restoration is likely to increase CH4 emissions, but reduce CO2 effluxes. Our study suggests that if estimates of CO2 uptake by vegetation from similar peatbog sites were included, the total net GHG emission of restored peatbog would still be higher than that of the peatbog with trees.

  13. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., Associated with Spoiled Raw Tomato-Marinated Broiler Meat Strips Packaged under Modified-Atmosphere Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. Johanna; Geisen, Rolf; Schillinger, Ulrich; Weiss, Norbert; De Vos, Paul; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Korkeala, Hannu J.; Vandamme, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species. PMID:10966388

  14. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  15. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  16. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Soil along a Chronosequence of Reclamation and Re-Vegetation on Coal Mine Spoils in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important phase of microbial community recovery occurs between 15 and 20 years after reclamation. PMID:25502754

  17. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-05-01

    This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm).

  18. 19. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Original photograph can be ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, SHOWING SIZED AND WASHED COAL IN COAL CARS, WITH MINING INSPECTORS - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  19. 11. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 145. Bunnell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 145. Bunnell, date unknown Original photograph can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW OF BOILER AND GENERAL ELECTRIC MOTOR, MARVINE COLLIERY - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 147. Bunnell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 147. Bunnell, date unknown Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW OF BOILER EQUIPMENT, MARVINE COLLIERY - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. 1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT OF BREAKER, WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT OF BREAKER, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING FOUNDATIONS OF RETAIL SCALES IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING PIPING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING PIPING AND CHUTES IN FORMER CHANCE CONE AREA, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR MOUNTING, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Shed, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 3. VIEW OF OFFICE, LOOKING NORTH, DOWN OPENING TO UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF OFFICE, LOOKING NORTH, DOWN OPENING TO UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. 4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH CHANCE CONE AT WEST, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  8. 1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, WITH WASHERY WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, WITH WASHERY WATER PIPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  9. 2. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH BOILER HOUSE AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  10. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COAL CHUTES AND WATER PIPING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. 1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 6. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION, SHOWING ROOF STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION, SHOWING ROOF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTH AND UP - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. 3. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING CHUTES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING CHUTES AND PORTION OF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR OVERHEAD CONVEYOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  16. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  17. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  18. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  19. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...; Disposal of Excess Spoil; Road Systems; and Support Facilities. PART 782--UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT...: Records of Blasting Operations; Disposal of Excess Spoil: General Requirements; Contemporaneous... Explosives: Seismographic Measurements; Use of Explosives: Records of Blasting Operations; Disposal of...

  20. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  1. Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67 μg/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil.

  2. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sound waste disposal, resource recovery, affected area reclamation, and enhanced use of spoil and waste... currents and wave patterns; (e) Avoid groundwater drawdown or saltwater intrusion, and minimizes...

  3. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sound waste disposal, resource recovery, affected area reclamation, and enhanced use of spoil and waste... currents and wave patterns; (e) Avoid groundwater drawdown or saltwater intrusion, and minimizes...

  4. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Coal removal, handling, storage, cleaning, and transportation areas and structures; (4) Spoil, coal... disposal areas and structures; (5) Mine facilities; and (6) Water pollution control facilities....

  5. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Coal removal, handling, storage, cleaning, and transportation areas and structures; (4) Spoil, coal... disposal areas and structures; (5) Mine facilities; and (6) Water pollution control facilities....

  6. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Coal removal, handling, storage, cleaning, and transportation areas and structures; (4) Spoil, coal... disposal areas and structures; (5) Mine facilities; and (6) Water pollution control facilities....

  7. 22. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, November 22, 1920. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, November 22, 1920. Negative #D & H 20969 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING TOP OF JIGS AT TIME OF BREAKER CONSTRUCTION - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  8. 8. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, May 1920. Negative # D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, May 1920. Negative # D & H 20830 Original photograph can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION AT NORTHEAST PORTION OF SITE. - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  9. 20. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, February 7, 1921. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, February 7, 1921. Negative #D & H 21895 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, TOP FLOORS, SHOWING DETAIL OF TOP SCREENS AND CRUSHERS AT TIME OF CONSTRUCTION - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  10. 14. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Negative #D & H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Negative #D & H 22413 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING EAST FACADE OF BREAKER, WITH RETAIL SCALES OFFICE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 9. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, August 2, 1920 Original negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, August 2, 1920 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW OF WEST FACADE AND PORTION OF SOUTH FACADE OF BOILER HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. 15. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan. 1920. Original negative can be ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan. 1920. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING BREAKER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING EAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 17. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, September 7, 1920. Negative # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, September 7, 1920. Negative # D & H 20907 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF CONVEYOR TUNNEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. 18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW OF SLUSH TROUGH FROM BREAKER NO. 2 TO BOREHOLE UNDER NORTH END OF BOILER HOUSE NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 23. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D & H 21850 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR LOADING CHUTES AT EAST END OF BREAKER - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. 16. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 6, 1920 Original negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 6, 1920 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING BREAKER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 3, March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and strip-mining collieries and oil fields (India) and also JPRS-UWE-88-007 17 June 1988 12 foundries in Algeria, Iran, Nigeria and Turkey, a...The developing countries had become firmly established on the world markets of textiles, ready-to-wear clothing, footwear and leather goods, jewelry

  18. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The brick and concrete construction of the engine room, airways, and chimney are evident. The shaft housing and flywheel of the Allis- Chalmers Corliss steam engine are visible through the window of the engine room. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  19. 17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The direct-acting 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine was made by George A. Parrish and W. B. Culver of West Pittston, Pennsylvania. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  20. 23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel, shaft, and coupling of the c. 1930 Buffalo Forge Corliss engine are shown. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  1. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING CHUTES AND ELECTRIC MOTOR, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM ELEVATED PLATFORM AT NORTH END - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING PUMP HOUSING FROM RUIN OF WALL AT EXTERIOR NORTH FACADE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 4. VIEW OF WEST FACADE OF MIDDLE SILO WITH PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST FACADE OF MIDDLE SILO WITH PORTION OF SUPPORT STRUCTURE OF OVERHEAD CONVEYOR, LOOKIN EAST FROM BENEATH OVERHEAD CONVEYOR - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. Alterations in soil microbial community composition and biomass following agricultural land use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Wu, Junjun; Yang, Fan; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-11-01

    The effect of agricultural land use change on soil microbial community composition and biomass remains a widely debated topic. Here, we investigated soil microbial community composition and biomass [e.g., bacteria (B), fungi (F), Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Actinomycete (ACT)] using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, and basal microbial respiration in afforested, cropland and adjacent uncultivated soils in central China. We also investigated soil organic carbon and nitrogen (SOC and SON), labile carbon and nitrogen (LC and LN), recalcitrant carbon and nitrogen (RC and RN), pH, moisture, and temperature. Afforestation averaged higher microbial PLFA biomass compared with cropland and uncultivated soils with higher values in top soils than deep soils. The microbial PLFA biomass was strongly correlated with SON and LC. Higher SOC, SON, LC, LN, moisture and lower pH in afforested soils could be explained approximately 87.3% of total variation of higher total PLFAs. Afforestation also enhanced the F: B ratios compared with cropland. The basal microbial respiration was higher while the basal microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFA basis was lower in afforested land than adjacent cropland and uncultivated land, suggesting afforestation may increase soil C utilization efficiency and decrease respiration loss in afforested soils.

  5. Alterations in soil microbial community composition and biomass following agricultural land use change

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wu, Junjun; Yang, Fan; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The effect of agricultural land use change on soil microbial community composition and biomass remains a widely debated topic. Here, we investigated soil microbial community composition and biomass [e.g., bacteria (B), fungi (F), Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Actinomycete (ACT)] using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, and basal microbial respiration in afforested, cropland and adjacent uncultivated soils in central China. We also investigated soil organic carbon and nitrogen (SOC and SON), labile carbon and nitrogen (LC and LN), recalcitrant carbon and nitrogen (RC and RN), pH, moisture, and temperature. Afforestation averaged higher microbial PLFA biomass compared with cropland and uncultivated soils with higher values in top soils than deep soils. The microbial PLFA biomass was strongly correlated with SON and LC. Higher SOC, SON, LC, LN, moisture and lower pH in afforested soils could be explained approximately 87.3% of total variation of higher total PLFAs. Afforestation also enhanced the F: B ratios compared with cropland. The basal microbial respiration was higher while the basal microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFA basis was lower in afforested land than adjacent cropland and uncultivated land, suggesting afforestation may increase soil C utilization efficiency and decrease respiration loss in afforested soils. PMID:27812029

  6. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  7. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  8. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  9. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  10. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  11. Structural Causes and Cyber Effects: A Response to Our Critics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    stable/25656440. 3. Dan Goodin, "Scientists Detect ’Spoiled Onions ’ Trying to Sabotage Tor Privacy Net- work," Ars Technica, 21 January 2014, http...arstechnica.com/security/2014/0llscientists -detect-spoiled- onions -trying-to-sabotage-tor-privacy-network!. Tor is a widely available soft- ware client

  12. Long-term persistence of seeded grass species: an unwanted side effect of ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Rydgren, Knut; Auestad, Inger; Hamre, Liv Norunn; Hagen, Dagmar; Rosef, Line; Skjerdal, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    Spoil heaps are the visible footprint of hydropower production, particularly in vulnerable alpine environments. Speeding up vegetation development by seeding commercial grass species has been a common restoration practice for the last 50 years, but we lack information on whether seeded species decline and allow native plant cover to develop. We visually estimated cover of native vascular plants and five seeded grass species (Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Schedonorus pratensis and Phleum pratense) on eight spoil heaps at different elevations (boreal-alpine zone) in western Norway. Spoil heap vegetation was censused twice (9-20 and 24-36 years after spoil heap construction); the undisturbed surrounding vegetation was also censused on the second occasion. Total cover on the spoil heaps showed some increase, but remained far below that in surrounding areas. Cover of seeded grass species in the surroundings was low (but not negligible), indicating suboptimal establishment ability. Seeded species usually covered less than 20 % of the spoil heaps, and only F. rubra, F. ovina and A. capillaris contributed substantially. Proportional cover indicated better initial establishment by seeded species, but their cover decreased between the censuses on all but the highest located spoil heap. The persistence of seeded grass species is problematic, and despite the decrease in proportional cover, they are likely to persist for decades on spoil heaps, posing a risk of invasion of surrounding areas. We therefore recommend replacing the practice of seeding with more appropriate restoration measures.

  13. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown when the reservoir bottom is exposed and dry. (h) Spoil material from channel excavations must be placed in... Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown when the reservoir bottom is exposed and dry. (h) Spoil material from channel excavations must be placed in... Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  15. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown when the reservoir bottom is exposed and dry. (h) Spoil material from channel excavations must be placed in... Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  16. Stigma: "What Is It and Why Does the Operational Commander Need To Be Concerned?"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    An Achievable Vision, 5. 5 Stuart, Stigma and Work. 6 Goffman , Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. 7 Dovidio, Major, & Crocker...York: Guilford Press, 2000. Goffman , E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963

  17. Europe's forest management did not mitigate climate warming.

    PubMed

    Naudts, Kim; Chen, Yiying; McGrath, Matthew J; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Otto, Juliane; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-05

    Afforestation and forest management are considered to be key instruments in mitigating climate change. Here we show that since 1750, in spite of considerable afforestation, wood extraction has led to Europe's forests accumulating a carbon debt of 3.1 petagrams of carbon. We found that afforestation is responsible for an increase of 0.12 watts per square meter in the radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, whereas an increase of 0.12 kelvin in summertime atmospheric boundary layer temperature was mainly caused by species conversion. Thus, two and a half centuries of forest management in Europe have not cooled the climate. The political imperative to mitigate climate change through afforestation and forest management therefore risks failure, unless it is recognized that not all forestry contributes to climate change mitigation.

  18. Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north- central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increases aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. Median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. The direction of flow generally was from high-wall lakes in the spoil toward East Fork Little Chariton River or South Fork Claybank Creek. Significant differences (95% confidence level) in values and concentrations of aqueous constituents between spoil areas mined at different times (1940, 1952, and 1968) were obtained for pH, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids, but not for iron

  19. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain

    2017-03-01

    The coal-bearing sequences of Barakar and Raniganj formations exposed in Bina and Jhingurdah open-cast collieries, respectively, are analysed for their macro- and miofloral content. The sediment successions primarily comprise of sandstones, shales, claystones and coal seams. In addition to the diverse glossopterid assemblage, four palynoassemblage zones, namely Zones I and II in Bina Colliery and Zones III and IV in Jhingurdah Colliery, have also been recorded in the present study. The megafossil assemblage from the Barakar strata of Bina Colliery comprises of three genera, namely Gangamopteris, Glossopteris and cf. Noeggerathiopsis. Palynoassemblage-I is characterised by the dominance of non-striate bisaccate pollen genus Scheuringipollenites and subdominance of striate bisaccate Faunipollenites and infers these strata to be of Early Permian (Artinskian) age (Lower Barakar Formation). The palynoassemblage has also yielded a large number of naked fossil spore tetrads, which is the first record of spore tetrads from any Artinskian strata in the world and has a significant bearing on the climatic conditions. The palynoassemblage-II is characterised with the dominance of Faunipollenites over Scheuringipollenites and is indicative of Kungurian age (Upper Barakar Formation). The megafossil assemblage from the Raniganj Formation of Jhingurdah Colliery comprises of five genera with 26 species representing four orders, viz., Equisetales, Cordaitales, Cycadales and Glossopteridales. The order Glossopteridales is highly diversified with 23 taxa and the genus Glossopteris, with 22 species, dominates the flora. The mioflora of this colliery is represented by two distinct palynoassemblages. The palynoassemblage-III is correlatable with the palynoflora of Early Permian (Artinskian) Lower Barakar Formation. The assemblage suggests the continuity of older biozones into the younger ones. The palynoassemblage-IV equates the beds with composition V: Striatopodocarpites

  20. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view shows the concrete roof covering the airways and the engine room. The reinforced concrete roof is supported by metal beams. Note how the airshaft, in the foreground, widens to create an airway on either side for the double inlet fan. The brick fan housing is capped by a curved sheet metal roof whose segments are bolted together. The brick updraft chimney, capped with concrete, is to the rear (northeast). Also evident on the wall is the cover over the air velocity indicator. The Hollenback Cemetery, which adjoins the Dorrance Colliery property is in the background. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  1. A comparative study of removal of fluoride from contaminated water using shale collected from different coal mines in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gargi; Dutta, Manjari; Dutta, Susmita; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost water defluoridation technique is one of the most important issues throughout the world. In the present study, shale, a coal mine waste, is employed as novel and low-cost adsorbent to abate fluoride from simulated solution. Shale samples were collected from Mahabir colliery (MBS) and Sonepur Bazari colliery (SBS) of Raniganj coalfield in West Bengal, India, and used to remove fluoride. To increase the adsorption efficiency, shale samples were heat activated at a higher temperature and samples obtained at 550 °C are denoted as heat-activated Mahabir colliery shale (HAMBS550) and heat-activated Sonepur Bazari colliery shale (HASBS550), respectively. To prove the fluoride adsorption onto different shale samples and ascertain its mechanism, natural shale samples, heat-activated shale samples, and their fluoride-loaded forms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of different parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, size of particles, and initial concentration of fluoride was investigated during fluoride removal in a batch contactor. Lower pH shows better adsorption in batch study, but it is acidic in nature and not suitable for direct consumption. However, increase of pH of the solution from 3.2 to 6.8 and 7.2 during fluoride removal process with HAMBS550 and HASBS550, respectively, confirms the applicability of the treated water for domestic purposes. HAMBS550 and HASBS550 show maximum removal of 88.3 and 88.5 %, respectively, at initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 3, and adsorbent dose of 70 g/L.

  2. 21. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D & H 21849 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, MIDDLE FLOOR AREA, SHOWING DETAIL OF INSTALLATION OF FINE COAL SHAKERS AT TIME OF BREAKER CONSTRUCTION - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 12. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, circa 1922 Original photograph can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, circa 1922 Original photograph can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton Pennsylvania. VIEW DEPICTING PORTION OF BREAKER NO. 2 NORTH FACADE AT FAR LEFT, WITH CONVEYOR LINE TO BREAKER NO. 1 AT FAR RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel of the 1908 Allis-Chalmers Corliss steam engine and flywheel are in the foreground. The engine is a horizontal slide valve type with a 24 inch bore and 48 inch stroke. It was direct connected to the Dickson Guibal fan which rotated at 69 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  5. Development of oak plantations established for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

  6. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCalman; L; Miller; G, B.

    2009-02-01

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation.

  7. 46 CFR 174.310 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... most severe loading condition, and the: (1) Specific gravity of the dredge spoil, from 1.02 up to and... with a maximum specific gravity for the areas of operation. (2) When calculating the vessel's...

  8. Microbiological spoilage of mayonnaise and salad dressings.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, C P; Rogers, R; Hesseltine, C W

    1971-05-01

    Saccharomyces bailii was isolated from two-thirds of the spoiled mayonnaise and salad dressing samples examined. Most of the rest were spoiled by Lactobacillus fructivorans. However, one sample contained large numbers of both S. bailii and L. plantarum. Two of the spoiled samples also contained small numbers of bacilli. Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilis, B. polymyxa, B. megaterium, and B. licheniformis were found in one sample and B. subtilis and B. pumilis in another. Small numbers of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were also present in one unspoiled sample. Several media were evaluated for the isolation of L. fructivorans. S. bailii and L. fructivorans vigorously fermented glucose. The concentration of glucose in the spoiled samples ranged from 0 to 38.5 g/kg and from 1.3 to 17.8 g/kg for the unspoiled samples.

  9. Nonlocal charge of the CP/sup n/-1 model and its supersymmetric extension to all orders

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Gomes, M.

    1983-02-15

    We prove that the conservation of quantum nonlocal charge of the CP/sup n/-1 model is spoiled by an anomaly calculable to all orders in the 1/n expansion, while for its supersymmetric extension it is restored.

  10. Smell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental problems Exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides and solvents Numerous medications, including some common antibiotics ... fire, spoiled food, or the odor of a natural gas leak or dangerous fumes. When their smell ...

  11. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  12. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  13. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  14. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  15. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  16. 30 CFR 700.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services to be rendered. Extreme danger means a condition that could reasonably be expected to cause... piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas,...

  17. 30 CFR 700.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services to be rendered. Extreme danger means a condition that could reasonably be expected to cause... piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas,...

  18. 30 CFR 700.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services to be rendered. Extreme danger means a condition that could reasonably be expected to cause... piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas,...

  19. The Jouissance of English Department Politics: A Tale of Shem and Shaun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Henry R.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the role of the English department malcontent, who constantly seems to spoil any chance of departmental consensus. Discusses the typical life of the English department. Analyzes departmental disputes with the aid of Jacques Lacan's notion of "jouissance." (HB)

  20. 40 CFR 113.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contingency Plans. (h) Oil means oil of any kind or in any form, including but not limited to, petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil. (i) Remove or...

  1. 40 CFR 113.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contingency Plans. (h) Oil means oil of any kind or in any form, including but not limited to, petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil. (i) Remove or...

  2. 40 CFR 761.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... fluids; solvents; oils; waste oils; heat transfer fluids; hydraulic fluids; paints or coatings; sludges; slurries; sediments; dredge spoils; soils; materials containing PCBs as a result of spills; and...

  3. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oil or oil and other matter of any kind in any form other than dredged spoil having a combined specific gravity equivalent to or greater than water; United States means the States, the District...

  4. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oil or oil and other matter of any kind in any form other than dredged spoil having a combined specific gravity equivalent to or greater than water; United States means the States, the District...

  5. U.S. Navy Harbor Maintenance Dredging Atlas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Yorktown; and Naval Supply Center - Cheatham Annex, Williamsburg. However, 90% of the composite dredging at these facilities is done at the Norfolk Naval...upland spoil site. The offshore spoil site is still open and EPA approved, but the EPA permit is for land disposal only. See DREDGING COSTS section of... Composite baseline dredging report. Port Hueneme, Calif., 1976. 12. . NESO Report 11-005: Philadelphia baseline dredging report vol 1. Port Hueneme, Calif

  6. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  7. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  8. Study on fire-extinguishing of spontaneous combustion wastes and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Chai, X.

    1994-12-31

    Spoil banks of coal mining have become an important aspect for environmental pollution. Toxic and pernicious gases resulting from the spontaneous combustion of wastes are much more serious pollutants. The authors have gained certain experience in preventing the spontaneous combustion of spoil banks and in fighting fires. The paper describes a revegetation test for the spoil bank. Using a spoil bank in the frigid and arid area in Shanxi, the paper describes the tests and results of the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and thoroughly analyzes the influence these characteristics have on the revegetation of the spoil bank. Revegetation promotes weathering of the wastes and mitigates erosion of the spoil bank. It was found that the wastes do not store adequate water, so that in the early stage of planting, irrigation is recommended. The pH of the wastes is suitable for plant growth, but in the case of fire fighting, care should be taken to mitigate the damage to lime emulsion alkalinity.

  9. Impacts of dredged material disposal on a tropical soft-bottom benthic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Motta, J J; Collins, J

    2004-02-01

    The soft-bottom benthic macrofauna in a spoil-ground of dredged material in Cleveland Bay, North Queensland, Australia, was studied to detect possible impacts of the disposal of sediments. The spatial distribution of the assemblage was studied in relation to the source of the impact at 28 stations on four occasions during 1998 and 1999. Additionally, environmental variables were measured on each occasion at each station. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil-ground were different from assemblages outside the spoil ground only immediately after (15 days) the disposal of dredged material. Given the decrease in the abundance of organisms and number of species, it is suggested that this effect was due to direct burial of the macrobenthic assemblage inside the spoil-ground. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil ground were not different from assemblages outside the spoil ground 3 months after dumping. These results suggest that the soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages may respond quickly to the disturbance associated with the dumping of dredged material.

  10. Impacts of dredged-material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna, Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsiaras, N; Simboura, N; Tsangaris, C; Hatzianestis, I; Pavlidou, A; Kapsimalis, V

    2015-03-01

    Dredged sediments derived by the low course and estuary of the metropolitan river of Athens (Kifissos River) were dumped every day for 21 months to an open-sea site in the Saronikos Gulf. The spoil-ground and surrounding area was monitored prior, during and post to dumping for 24 months, over 6-month intervals. Dumping significantly changed the granulometry of the pre-existing superficial sediments to finer-grained only in the spoil ground and increased the sediment contamination load (aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals) throughout the study area. Microtox® SPT showed that sediment toxicity levels were high at almost all sampling stations. During dumping, burial of natural soft-bottom habitats degraded severely the communities of the spoil-ground resulting in an almost azoic state, as well as significantly declined the species number and abundance of benthic communities in locations up to 3.2 km away from the spoil-ground, due to dispersion of the spoil and smothering. Benthic indices on the surrounding sites were significantly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations and sediment toxicity levels. Post to dumping, the macrofauna communities of the spoil-ground were still significantly degraded, but the surrounding areas showed patterns of recovery. However, the high concentrations of aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levels of toxicity persisted in the sediments after the ceasing of dumping operations in the study area, implying the ecological hazard imposed on the area.

  11. MRI of pancreatic metastases from renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelekis, N.L.; Semelka, R.C.; Siegelman, E.S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the MR features of pancreatic metastases from renal cancer. Five patients with pancreatic metastases from renal cancer were imaged with MR. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MR imager using excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE images (all patients), T1-weighted spoiled GE images (all patients), T2-weighted fast SE (one patient) and excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast SE (one patient) images, serial postgadolinium spoiled GE images (all patients), and postcontrast excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE images (two patients). Multiple pancreatic lesions (n = 6) were present in two patients, solitary tumors in two patients, and diffuse micronodular pancreatic enlargement in one patient. All lesions were hypointense compared to normal pancreas on T1-weighted fat-suppressed SE images. Lesions were high in ST on T2-weighted images in two of two patients. All lesions demonstrated enhancement on the immediate postgadolinium spoiled GE images with the smaller tumors (<1.5 cm, three individual and the micronodular tumors) showing diffuse enhancement and the larger tumors (>1.5 cm, five tumors) showing pre-dominantly rim enhancement. Pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma have distinctive MR features that include diffuse enhancement in small lesions and rim enhancement in large lesions on immediate postgadolinium images and high SI on T2-weighted images. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  13. Hydrologic investigation and remediation of a post-remining acidic seep

    SciTech Connect

    Aljoe, W.W.; Linberg, N.A.

    1996-12-31

    Surface remining of coal pillars in abandoned underground workings in the Pittsburgh seam in southwestern Pennsylvania has often resulted in post-remining discharges whose water quality is the same or better than the pre-existing discharges. However, at one such operation in Washington County, PA, an increase in contaminant loading occurred at an outcrop seep after remining. This problem was believed to be at least partly related to a small unstrapped area of the old deep mine workings immediately upgradient from the seep. A hydrologic investigation that included a chemical tracer test, slug tests in the remined spoil, and water quality monitoring indicated that the mine pool in the old workings discharged through the seep. However, the water in the mine pool and much of the remined spoil was consistently alkaline; this suggested that the acidic water may have originated in other areas of the spoil and old workings, and passed rapidly to the seep through a highly transmissive portion of the spoil. Acting on this assumption, the mine operator successfully implemented a remediation scheme in which the spoil was excavated to intercept the acidic spoil water. The excavation was then re-emplaced with an anoxic limestone drain at its base. The drain now serves both to add alkalinity to the water and to divert the seep to an area where metals can be removed easily via precipitation in wetlands.

  14. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Hernández-Hernández, Jani; Garduño, Margarita Díaz; López-Meyer, Melina; Gómez-Flores, Lydia; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A

    2010-05-01

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use.

  15. Volatiles produced by microorganisms isolated from refrigerated chicken at spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L R; Silverman, G J; Angelini, P; Merritt, C; Esselen, W B

    1976-01-01

    Volatile components present at spoilage of refrigerated chicken breasts were identified using high-vacuum-low-temperature distillation techniques followed by analysis with combined temperature-programmed gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A comparison was made of the compounds detected from both irradiated and non-irradiated muscle stored at 2 and 10 degrees C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Isolates were randomly selected from the spoiled poultry, identified, and evaluated for their ability to produce volatile spoilage noted when grown on radiation-sterilized chicken. Several isolates that produced off-odors on sterile chicken breasts were examined. Twenty-two compounds were associated with spoilage. Some of the compounds found on both irradiated and unirradiated samples were considered to play only a minor role in the spoilage aroma or were present in low concentrations, since the aroma of spoiled irradiated chicken lacked the harsh odor notes typical of spoiled unirradiated chicken. Fifteen of the 22 compounds were considered to be unique to unirradiated, aerobically spoiled samples. Nine of these compounds, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, heptadiene, methanol, and ethanol, were found on chicken spoiled at both 2 and 10 degrees C. xylene, benzaldehyde, and 2,3-dithiahexane were detected only in samples stored at 2 degrees C and methyl thiolacetate, 2-butanone, and ethyl propionate were associated with 10 degrees C spoilage. Fifty-eight isolates randomly selected from fresh, radiation-pasteurized, and unirradiated spoiled poultry were classified taxonomically, and 10 of them, which produced spoilage odors on sterilized chicken breasts, were selected for subsequent analysis of their volatiles. Isolates identified as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas species that were members of groups I and II of Shewan's classification, as well as Flavobacterium and oxidative

  16. Impacts of land use changes on physical and chemical soil properties in the Central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Hoitinga, Leo; Valdivielso, Sergio; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. Afforestation has been one of the main policies for environmental management of forest landscapes in Mediterranean areas. Afforestation has been based mainly on conifers because they are fast-growing species, and also because it was believed that this would lead to rapid restoration of soil properties and hydrological processes, and the formation of protective vegetation cover. This study analyses the effects of afforestation on physical and chemical soil properties. Specifically, we addressed this research question: (i) How do soil properties change after land abandonment? The 11 microsites considered were: Afforestation Pinus sylvestris (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), Afforestation Pinus nigra (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), natural shrubland, grasslands, bare lands, and undisturbed forest site (pine cover and close to the stem). An extensive single sampling was carried out in September 2014. We systematically collected 5 top soil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 deep soil samples (10-20 cm) per microsite (88 composite samples in total). These properties were analysed: (i) soil texture, (ii) bulk density, (iii) pH and electrical conductivity, (iv) total SOC, (v) Total Nitrogen, (vi) organic matter, (vii) CaCO3 and (viii) aggregate stability. Statistical tests have been applied to determine relationships between the different soil properties and are used to assess differences between different soil samples, land use areas and soil depths. Implications of reafforestation for soil development and environmental response are discussed. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).

  17. The influence of organic amendments on soil aggregate stability from semiarid sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health. Under these conditions, vegetation cover in areas having degraded soils may be better sustained if the soil is amended with an external source of organic matter. The addition of organic materials to soils also increases infiltration rates and reduces erosion rates; these factors contribute to an available water increment and a successful and sustainable land management. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of various organic amendments on the aggregate stability of soils in afforested plots. An experimental paired-plot layout was established in southern of Spain (homogeneous slope gradient: 7.5%; aspect: N170). Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. The vegetation was planted in a grid pattern with 0.5 m between plants in each plot. During the afforestation process the soil was tilled to 25 cm depth from the surface. Soil from the afforested plots was sampled in: i) 6 months post-afforestation; ii) 12 months post-afforestation; iii) 18 months post-afforestation; and iv) 24 months post-afforestation. The sampling strategy for each plot involved collection of 4 disturbed soil samples taken from the surface (0-10 cm depth). The stability of aggregates was measured by wet-sieving. Regarding to soil aggregate stability, the percentage of stable aggregates has increased slightly in all the treatments in relation to control. Specifically, the differences were recorded in the fraction of macroaggregates (≥ 0.250 mm). The largest increases have been associated with straw mulch, pinus mulch and sludge. Similar results have been registered for the soil organic carbon content

  18. Environmental management and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

  19. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  20. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  1. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  2. Optical tailoring of xFEL beams

    SciTech Connect

    West, Gavin; Coffee, R.

    2015-08-20

    There is an inherent exibility unique to free electron lasers (FELs) that lends well to experimental approaches normally too difficult for other light sources to accomplish. This includes the ability to optically shape the electron bunch prior to final its acceleration for the final FEL process. Optical pulse shaping of the electron bunch can enable both femtosecond and attosecond level FEL pulse control. Pulse shaping is currently implemented, not optically but mechanically, in LCLS-I with an adjustable foil slit that physically spoils the momentum phase of the electron bunch. This selectively suppresses the downstream FEL process ofspoiled electrons. Such a mechanical spoiling method fails for both the soft x-ray regime as well as the high repetition rates that are planned in LCLS-II. Our proposed optical spoiling method circumvents this limitation by making use of the existing ultrafast laser beam that is typically used for adjusting the energy spread for the initial electron bunch. Using Fourier domain shaping we can nearly arbitrarily shape the laser pulses to affect the electron bunch. This can selectively spoil electrons within each bunch. Here we demonstrate the viability of this approach with a programmable acousto-optic dispersive filter. This method is not only well suited for LCLS-II but also has several advantages over mechanical spoiling, including lack of radiation concerns, experiment specific FEL pulse shapes, and real-time adjustment for applications that require high duty-cycle variation such as lock-in amplification of small signals.

  3. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  4. Characterisation of microbial deep spoilage in Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Benito, María J; Hernández, Alejandro; Pérez-Nevado, Francisco; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the micro-organisms involved in overlooked "bone taint" spoilage of dry-cured Iberian hams. The physico-chemical characteristics of spoiled hams with 12 and 24 months of ripening, showing initial signs of alteration, were analyzed and their correlations with microbial counts studied. The spoilage potential of different microbial groups was assessed by the relationship between the microbial counts and the proteolysis level of spoilage as observed in the degradation of myofribrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions and in the changes in free amino acids. Non-enteric gram-negative bacteria (NEGN) were the dominant microbial group, showing a positive correlation with the moisture of spoiled hams. The Catalase-positive cocci (GPCP) growth was favoured by high NaCl concentrations in the spoiled hams, whereas the counts of Enterobacteriaceae were negatively affected by high NaCl concentration. The highest proteolytic microorganisms were the Gram-negative microbial groups playing Enterobacteriaceae a major role in the undesirable changes of the texture properties of the spoiled hams. With respect to the sensorial analysis, a synergy between NEGN and GPCP was observed in most of the strongly spoiled samples.

  5. [Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.

  6. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  7. 11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The airway (on the left) leads from the Baltimore shaft to the New Fan House. The metal housing (center foreground) encases a single entry Duplex Conoidal fan, made by the Buffalo Forge Company. The Duplex Conoidal fan had two parts: a disk fan which drew air up the airway and a centrifugal fan set at a right angle to it which exhausted the air. The engine house (on the right) contains a direct connected Corliss engine. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  8. New 48-inch line gives Wales more gas supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    A new 11-mile, 48-in pipeline will not only supply an even flow of gas from the British Gas national grid to towns in the Wales Gas district but also serve as a daily storage facility by means of nightime linepacking at 700 psi. The largest diameter gas line to be constructed in the UK, the pipeline is confined to a 165-ft wide corridor leading through wet and dry moorland, farms, reclaimed colliery tips, and bogs. Construction engineers took care to protect archeological features along the route and to restore the land to its original condition.

  9. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  10. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view, taken in the southern airway, shows the circular brick-work surrounding the air intake, the cast iron shaft support, and one of the 1883 Guibal fan cast iron spiders. Three cast iron spiders support the ten feet by eleven feet wooden paddles. Remnants of the catwalk with its screen grating lead to the inner door of the airlock. Note also the support beams and reinforced concrete roof. The concrete floor of the airway has deteriorated. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  11. Autopsy studies of coal miners' lungs. Phase 2. Final report August 77-July 80

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckley, V.A.; Chapman, J.S.; Collings, P.L.; Douglas, A.N.; Fernie, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report is based on a post mortem study of the lungs and hearts of various groups of coal workers drawn from an original cohort of 500 men. The men had worked in collieries which took part in Pneumoconiosis Field Research and which covered the range of mining conditions in Britain. The aim of the study was to relate pathological evidence of pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis and the radiographic appearances of pneumoconiosis to both the dust retained in the lung and the respirable dust to which the men were exposed. Also included were studies of right-sided heart disease and respiratory function during life in relation to lung pathology.

  12. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST This overview of the 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine includes the flywheel and pillowblock in the foreground, with the shaft and cylinder in the background. The engine is a horizontal, slide valve type of 30 inch bore and 60 inch stroke that turned the fan at 49 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  13. 6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The engine house is on the right. The end of the 1883 Pittston Steam Engine cylinder head and steam chest is visible in the doorway. Although its stairs are missing, the iron framing of a porch stands in front of what was a doorway. The entrance door to the north airlock is visible inside the enlarged window. The end view of the upshaft chimney shows the brick ribbing for support, the brick corbelling, and concrete capstones. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  14. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE UPSHAFT CHIMNEY LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE UPSHAFT CHIMNEY LOOKING WEST The Duplex Conoidal Fan is a single entry disk fan (see PA 61-21 and PA 61-22) which drew air from the No. 4 (Baltimore) shaft up the air-way through the cone, seen on the right, into the centrifugal fan, pictured here. The curved metal blades forced the air from the center of the fan to the tips of the blades and out the sheet metal exhaust chimney. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  15. Conveying. [The use and design of conveyor belt systems in mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This paper is composed of three small articles dealing with the development and use of belt conveyors in the Neyveli Lignite Project of India and at the West Cliff Colliery, New South Wales. The paper describes the design and performance of these conveyors both in a surface mining and underground mining environment. The conveyors at the West Cliff site are a folding conveyor belt which can expand with the advance of the mine workings. Finally, the paper describes the development of a belt monitor and a materials flow meter which can help monitor the actual performance level of a conveyor belt.

  16. Implications of policies and prevent climate change for future food security

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Scott, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    Measures to reduce the use of fossil fuels, suppression of on-farm emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), afforestation, and geoengineering ``fixes`` have been proposed to mitigate or eliminate greenhouse-forced climate change. These measures will impact agriculture and other sectors of the economy. this report discusses the above impacts.

  17. Cultivation legacies in soils after rehabilitation seeding in the Great Basin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of knowledge about impacts of historical cultivation on soils for restoration planning is limited even though these legacies can affect land productivity and future land uses for decades. Old fields are often actively transformed through restoration, afforestation or rehabilitation seed...

  18. Fuzzy-logic modeling of land suitability for hybrid poplar across the Prairie Provinces of Canada.

    PubMed

    Joss, B N; Hall, R J; Sidders, D M; Keddy, T J

    2008-06-01

    Determining the feasibility of a large-scale afforestation program is one approach being investigated by the Government of Canada to increase Canada's potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Large-scale afforestation, however, requires knowledge of where it is suitable to establish and grow trees. Spatial models based on Boolean logic and/or statistical models within a geographic information system may be used for this purpose, but empirical environmental data are often lacking, and the association of these data to land suitability is most often a subjective process. As a solution to this problem, this paper presents a fuzzy-logic modeling approach to assess land suitability for afforestation of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) over the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Expert knowledge regarding the selection and magnitudes of environmental variables were integrated into fuzzy rule sets from which estimates of land suitability were generated and presented in map form. The environmental variables selected included growing season precipitation, climate moisture index, growing degree days, and Canada Land Inventory capability for agriculture and elevation. Approximately 150,000 km2, or 28% of the eligible land base within the Prairie Provinces was found to be suitable for afforestation. Accuracy assessments conducted with fuzzy accuracy methods provided a more descriptive assessment of the resulting land suitability map than figures generated from a more conventional Boolean-based accuracy measure. Modeling, mapping and accuracy assessment issues were identified for future extension of this work to map hybrid poplar land suitability over Canada.

  19. Rural Development and Labour-Intensive Schemes. Impact Studies of Some Pilot Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaude, J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines case studies of special public works programs in five countries (Burkina Faso, Burundi, Rwanda, Nepal, and United Republic of Tanzania) that included afforestation projects, anti-erosion works, and the building of reservoirs. Discusses program design, implementation, and impact. (CH)

  20. Field Study of Plant Diversity: Extending the Whole-Class Knowledge Base through Open-Ended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond; Scott, Graham W.

    2009-01-01

    Students following a pre-Certificate year in biology (the preliminary year of a 4-year BSc programme) learnt about plant diversity through integrated field and classroom studies carried out in an afforested area of north-east England. The students identified, listed and made interpretive drawings of their own choice of the specimens they had…