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Sample records for affymetrix human exon

  1. BEAT: Bioinformatics Exon Array Tool to store, analyze and visualize Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon Array data from disease experiments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known from recent studies that more than 90% of human multi-exon genes are subject to Alternative Splicing (AS), a key molecular mechanism in which multiple transcripts may be generated from a single gene. It is widely recognized that a breakdown in AS mechanisms plays an important role in cellular differentiation and pathologies. Polymerase Chain Reactions, microarrays and sequencing technologies have been applied to the study of transcript diversity arising from alternative expression. Last generation Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays offer a more detailed view of the gene expression profile providing information on the AS patterns. The exon array technology, with more than five million data points, can detect approximately one million exons, and it allows performing analyses at both gene and exon level. In this paper we describe BEAT, an integrated user-friendly bioinformatics framework to store, analyze and visualize exon arrays datasets. It combines a data warehouse approach with some rigorous statistical methods for assessing the AS of genes involved in diseases. Meta statistics are proposed as a novel approach to explore the analysis results. BEAT is available at http://beat.ba.itb.cnr.it. Results BEAT is a web tool which allows uploading and analyzing exon array datasets using standard statistical methods and an easy-to-use graphical web front-end. BEAT has been tested on a dataset with 173 samples and tuned using new datasets of exon array experiments from 28 colorectal cancer and 26 renal cell cancer samples produced at the Medical Genetics Unit of IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza. To highlight all possible AS events, alternative names, accession Ids, Gene Ontology terms and biochemical pathways annotations are integrated with exon and gene level expression plots. The user can customize the results choosing custom thresholds for the statistical parameters and exploiting the available clinical data of the samples for a

  2. High correspondence between Affymetrix exon and standard expression arrays.

    PubMed

    Okoniewski, Michał J; Hey, Yvonne; Pepper, Stuart D; Miller, Crispin J

    2007-02-01

    Exon arrays aim to provide comprehensive gene expression data at the level of individual exons, similar to that provided on a per-gene basis by existing expression arrays. This report describes the performance of Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST array by using replicated RNA samples from two human cell lines, MCF7 and MCF10A, hybridized both to Exon 1.0 ST and to HG-U133 Plus2 arrays. Cross-comparison between array types requires an appropriate mapping to be found between individual probe sets. Three possible mappings were considered, reflecting different strategies for dealing with probe sets that target different parts of the same transcript. Irrespective of the mapping used, Exon 1.0 ST and HG-U133 Plus2 arrays show a high degree of correspondence. More than 80% of HG-U133 Plus2 probe sets may be mapped to the Exon chip, and fold changes are found well preserved for over 96% of those probe sets detected present. Since HG-U133 Plus2 arrays have already been extensively validated, these results lend a significant degree of confidence to exon arrays.

  3. X:Map: annotation and visualization of genome structure for Affymetrix exon array analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Tim; Okoniewski, Michał J.; Miller, Crispin J.

    2008-01-01

    Affymetrix exon arrays aim to target every known and predicted exon in the human, mouse or rat genomes, and have reporters that extend beyond protein coding regions to other areas of the transcribed genome. This combination of increased coverage and precision is important because a substantial proportion of protein coding genes are predicted to be alternatively spliced, and because many non-coding genes are known also to be of biological significance. In order to fully exploit these arrays, it is necessary to associate each reporter on the array with the features of the genome it is targeting, and to relate these to gene and genome structure. X:Map is a genome annotation database that provides this information. Data can be browsed using a novel Google-maps based interface, and analysed and further visualized through an associated BioConductor package. The database can be found at http://xmap.picr.man.ac.uk. PMID:17932061

  4. An annotation infrastructure for the analysis and interpretation of Affymetrix exon array data.

    PubMed

    Okoniewski, Michał J; Yates, Tim; Dibben, Siân; Miller, Crispin J

    2007-01-01

    Affymetrix exon arrays contain probesets intended to target every known and predicted exon in the entire genome, posing significant challenges for high-throughput genome-wide data analysis. X:MAP http://xmap.picr.man.ac.uk, an annotation database, and exonmap http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.0/bioc/html/exonmap.html, a BioConductor/R package, are designed to support fine-grained analysis of exon array data. The system supports the application of standard statistical techniques, prior to the use of genome scale annotation to provide gene-, transcript- and exon-level summaries and visualization tools.

  5. An annotation infrastructure for the analysis and interpretation of Affymetrix exon array data

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Michał J; Yates, Tim; Dibben, Siân; Miller, Crispin J

    2007-01-01

    Affymetrix exon arrays contain probesets intended to target every known and predicted exon in the entire genome, posing significant challenges for high-throughput genome-wide data analysis. X:MAP , an annotation database, and exonmap , a BioConductor/R package, are designed to support fine-grained analysis of exon array data. The system supports the application of standard statistical techniques, prior to the use of genome scale annotation to provide gene-, transcript- and exon-level summaries and visualization tools. PMID:17498294

  6. Exon array data analysis using Affymetrix power tools and R statistical software

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of microarray technology to measure gene expression on a genome-wide scale has been well established for more than a decade. Methods to process and analyse the vast quantity of expression data generated by a typical microarray experiment are similarly well-established. The Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST array is a relatively new type of array, which has the capability to assess expression at the individual exon level. This allows a more comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, and in particular enables the study of alternative splicing, a gene regulation mechanism important in both normal conditions and in diseases. Some aspects of exon array data analysis are shared with those for standard gene expression data but others present new challenges that have required development of novel tools. Here, I will introduce the exon array and present a detailed example tutorial for analysis of data generated using this platform. PMID:21498550

  7. Exon array data analysis using Affymetrix power tools and R statistical software.

    PubMed

    Lockstone, Helen E

    2011-11-01

    The use of microarray technology to measure gene expression on a genome-wide scale has been well established for more than a decade. Methods to process and analyse the vast quantity of expression data generated by a typical microarray experiment are similarly well-established. The Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST array is a relatively new type of array, which has the capability to assess expression at the individual exon level. This allows a more comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, and in particular enables the study of alternative splicing, a gene regulation mechanism important in both normal conditions and in diseases. Some aspects of exon array data analysis are shared with those for standard gene expression data but others present new challenges that have required development of novel tools. Here, I will introduce the exon array and present a detailed example tutorial for analysis of data generated using this platform.

  8. Improvements to previous algorithms to predict gene structure and isoform concentrations using Affymetrix Exon arrays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exon arrays provide a way to measure the expression of different isoforms of genes in an organism. Most of the procedures to deal with these arrays are focused on gene expression or on exon expression. Although the only biological analytes that can be properly assigned a concentration are transcripts, there are very few algorithms that focus on them. The reason is that previously developed summarization methods do not work well if applied to transcripts. In addition, gene structure prediction, i.e., the correspondence between probes and novel isoforms, is a field which is still unexplored. Results We have modified and adapted a previous algorithm to take advantage of the special characteristics of the Affymetrix exon arrays. The structure and concentration of transcripts -some of them possibly unknown- in microarray experiments were predicted using this algorithm. Simulations showed that the suggested modifications improved both specificity (SP) and sensitivity (ST) of the predictions. The algorithm was also applied to different real datasets showing its effectiveness and the concordance with PCR validated results. Conclusions The proposed algorithm shows a substantial improvement in the performance over the previous version. This improvement is mainly due to the exploitation of the redundancy of the Affymetrix exon arrays. An R-Package of SPACE with the updated algorithms have been developed and is freely available. PMID:21110835

  9. Methods comparison for high-resolution transcriptional analysis of archival material on Affymetrix Plus 2.0 and Exon 1.0 microarrays.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kim; Hey, Yvonne; Dibben, Sian; Miller, Crispin; Freemont, Anthony; Radford, John; Pepper, Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Microarray gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is a new and evolving technique. This report compares transcript detection rates on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 and Human Exon 1.0 ST GeneChips across several RNA extraction and target labeling protocols, using routinely collected archival FFPE samples. All RNA extraction protocols tested (Ambion-Optimum, Ambion-RecoverAll, and Qiagen-RNeasy FFPE) provided extracts suitable for microarray hybridization. Compared with Affymetrix One-Cycle labeled extracts, NuGEN system protocols utilizing oligo(dT) and random hexamer primers, and cDNA target preparations instead of cRNA, achieved percent present rates up to 55% on Plus 2.0 arrays. Based on two paired-sample analyses, at 90% specificity this equalled an average 30 percentage-point increase (from 50% to 80%) in FFPE transcript sensitivity relative to fresh frozen tissues, which we have assumed to have 100% sensitivity and specificity. The high content of Exon arrays, with multiple probe sets per exon, improved FFPE sensitivity to 92% at 96% specificity, corresponding to an absolute increase of ~600 genes over Plus 2.0 arrays. While larger series are needed to confirm high correspondence between fresh-frozen and FFPE expression patterns, these data suggest that both Plus 2.0 and Exon arrays are suitable platforms for FFPE microarray expression analyses.

  10. Exon structure of the human dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Coffey, A.J.; Bobrow, M.; Bentley, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    Application of a novel vectorette PCR approach to defining intron-exon boundaries has permitted completion of analysis of the exon structure of the largest and most complex known human gene. The authors present here a summary of the exon structure of the entire human dystrophin gene, together with the sizes of genomic HindIII fragments recognized by each exon, and (where available) GenBank accession numbers for adjacent intron sequences. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Exon Microarray Analysis of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Wang, Kun; Butler, Merlin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse is associated with cellular and biochemical disturbances that impact upon protein and nucleic acid synthesis, brain development, function and behavioral responses. To further characterize the genetic influences in alcoholism and the effects of alcohol consumption on gene expression, we used a highly sensitive exon microarray to examine mRNA expression in human frontal cortex of alcoholics and control males. Methods Messenger RNA was isolated from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, Brodmann area 9) of 7 adult Alcoholic (6 males, 1 female, mean age 48 years) and 7 matched controls. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array was performed according to standard procedures and the results analyzed at the gene level. Microarray findings were validated using qRT-PCR, and the ontology of disturbed genes characterized using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Decreased mRNA expression was observed for genes involved in cellular adhesion (e.g., CTNNA3, ITGA2), transport (e.g., TF, ABCA8), nervous system development (e.g., LRP2, UGT8, GLDN) and signaling (e.g., RASGRP, LGR5) with influence over lipid and myelin synthesis (e.g., ASPA, ENPP2, KLK6). IPA identified disturbances in network functions associated with neurological disease, and development including cellular assembly and organization impacting on psychological disorders. Conclusions Our data in alcoholism support a reduction in expression of dlPFC mRNA for genes involved with neuronal growth, differentiation and signaling that targets white matter of the brain. PMID:24890784

  12. Periodic sequence patterns in human exons

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, P.; Brunak, S.; Engelbrecht, J.; Chauvin, Y.; Krogh, A.

    1995-12-31

    We analyze the sequential structure of human exons and their flanking introns by hidden Markov models. Together, models of donor site regions, acceptor site regions and flanked internal exons, show that exons -- besides the reading frame -- hold a specific periodic pattern. The pattern, which has the consensus: non-T(A/T)G and a minimal periodicity of roughly 10 nucleotides, is not a consequence of the nucleotide statistics in the three codon positions, nor of the well known nucleosome positioning signal. We discuss the relation between the pattern and other known sequence elements responsible for the intrinsic bending or curvature of DNA.

  13. Affymetrix Whole-Transcript Human Gene 1.0 ST array is highly concordant with standard 3' expression arrays.

    PubMed

    Pradervand, Sylvain; Paillusson, Alexandra; Thomas, Jérôme; Weber, Johann; Wirapati, Pratyaksha; Hagenbüchle, Otto; Harshman, Keith

    2008-05-01

    The recently released Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array has two major differences compared with standard 3' based arrays: (i) it interrogates the entire mRNA transcript, and (ii) it uses DNA targets. To assess the impact of these differences on array performance, we performed a series of comparative hybridizations between the Human Gene 1.0 ST and the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 and the Illumina HumanRef-8 BeadChip arrays. Additionally, both RNA and DNA targets were hybridized on HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. The results show that the overall reproducibility of the Gene 1.0 ST array is best. When looking only at the high intensity probes, the reproducibility of the Gene 1.0 ST array and the Illumina BeadChip array is equally good. Concordance of array results was assessed using different inter-platform mappings. Agreements are best between the two labeling protocols using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array. The Gene 1.0 ST array is most concordant with the HG-U133 array hybridized with cDNA targets. This may reflect the impact of the target type. Overall, the high degree of correspondence provides strong evidence for the reliability of the Gene 1.0 ST array.

  14. HEXEvent: a database of Human EXon splicing Events.

    PubMed

    Busch, Anke; Hertel, Klemens J

    2013-01-01

    HEXEvent (http://hexevent.mmg.uci.edu) is a new database that permits the user to compile genome-wide exon data sets of human internal exons showing selected splicing events. User queries can be customized based on the type and the frequency of alternative splicing events. For each splicing version of an exon, an ESTs count is given, specifying the frequency of the event. A user-specific definition of constitutive exons can be entered to designate an exon exclusion level still acceptable for an exon to be considered as constitutive. Similarly, the user has the option to define a maximum inclusion level for an exon to be called an alternatively spliced exon. Unlike other existing splicing databases, HEXEvent permits the user to easily extract alternative splicing information for individual, multiple or genome-wide human internal exons. Importantly, the generated data sets are downloadable for further analysis.

  15. Human glucose phosphate isomerase: Exon mapping and gene structure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weiming; Lee, Pauline; Beutler, E.

    1995-10-10

    The structure of the gene for human glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) has been determined. Three GPI clones were isolated from a human genomic library by using a full-length GPI cDNA probe and were characterized. Oligonucleotides based on the known cDNA sequence were used as primers in amplification and sequence analyses. This led to the identification of the exon-intron junctions. By this approach, 18 exons and 17 introns have been identified. The exons range in size from 44 to 431 nucleotides. The intronic sequences surrounding the exons provide useful information for the identification of mutations that give rise to human GPI deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Human decorin gene: Intron-exon junctions and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, U.; Young, M.F.; Fisher, L.W. ); Vogel, W.; Just, W. )

    1993-01-01

    All of the protein-encoding exons and the 3[prime]flanking region of the human decorin gene have been cloned an partially sequenced. The locations of the intron-exon junctions within the coding portion of the gene were identical to those found for the homologous human gene, biglycan. The sizes of the introns in the decorin gene, however, were substantially larger than those of the same introns of the biglycan gene. Portions of introns 1, 2, and 3 as well as exon 1 were not found during our extensive screening process. The 5[prime] end of intron 2 was found to have an AG-rich region followed immediately by a CT-rich region. Furthermore, the 5[prime] end of intron 3 was very rich in thymidine, whereas the 3[prime] end of intron 7 was rich in adenosine. Several cDNA clones constructed from cultured human bone cell mRNA were found to contain a different sequence at the 5[prime] end compared to that previously published for mRNA from a human embryonic fibroblast cell line. We were also unable to find the alternate 3[prime] flanking region of the previously published cDNA sequence. We have mapped the human decorin gene by in situ methods to chromosome 12q2l.3. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Naturally occurring nucleosome positioning signals in human exons and introns.

    PubMed

    Baldi, P; Brunak, S; Chauvin, Y; Krogh, A

    1996-11-08

    We describe the structural implications of a periodic pattern found in human exons and introns by hidden Markov models. We show that exons (besides the reading frame) have a specific sequential structure in the form of a pattern with triplet consensus non-T(A/T)G, and a minimal periodicity of roughly ten nucleotides. The periodic pattern is also present in intron sequences, although the strength per nucleotide is weaker. Using two independent profile methods based on triplet bendability parameters from DNase I experiments and nucleosome positioning data, we show that the pattern in multiple alignments of internal exon and intron sequences corresponds to a periodic "in phase" bending potential towards the major groove of the DNA. The nucleosome positioning data show that the consensus triplets (and their complements) have a preference for locations on a bent double helix where the major groove faces inward and is compressed. The in-phase triplets are located adjacent to GCC/GGC triplets known to have the strongest bias in their positioning on the nuclesome. Analysis of mRNA sequences encoding proteins with known tertiary structure exclude the possibility that the pattern is a consequence of the previously well-known periodicity caused by the encoding of alpha-helices in proteins. Finally, we discuss the relation between the bending potential of coding and non-coding regions and its impact on the translational positioning of nucleosomes and the recognition of genes by the transcriptional machinery.

  18. Use of an engineered ribozyme to produce a circular human exon.

    PubMed Central

    Mikheeva, S; Hakim-Zargar, M; Carlson, D; Jarrell, K

    1997-01-01

    We report the use of an engineered ribozyme to produce a circular human exon in vitro. Specifically, we have designed a derivative of a yeast self-splicing group II intron that is able to catalyze the formation of a circular exon encoding the first kringle domain (K1) of the human tissue plasminogen activator protein. We show that the circular K1 exon is formed with high fidelity in vitro. Furthermore, the system is designed such that the circular exon that is produced consists entirely of human exon sequence. Thus, our results demonstrate that all yeast exon sequences are dispensable for group II intron catalyzed inverse splicing. This is the first demonstration that an engineered ribozyme can be used to create a circular exon containing only human sequences, linked together at a precise desired ligation point. We expect these results to be generalizable, so that similar ribozymes can be designed to precisely create circular derivatives of any nucleotide sequence. PMID:9396820

  19. Exon-intron organization and sequence comparison of human and murine T11 (CD2) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.J.; Clayton, L.K.; Sayre, P.H.; Reinherz, E.L.

    1988-03-01

    Genomic DNA clones containing the human and murine genes coding for the 50-kDa T11 (CD2) T-cell surface glycoprotein were characterized. The human T11 gene is approx. = 12 kilobases long and comprised of five exons. A leader exon (L) contains the 5'-untranslated region and most of the nucleotides defining the signal peptide (amino acids (aa) -24 to -5). Two exons encode the extracellular segment; exon Ex1 is 321 base pairs (bp) long and codes for four residues of the leader peptide and aa 1-103 of the mature protein, and exon Ex2 is 231 bp long and encodes aa 104-180. Exon TM is 123 bp long and codes for the single transmembrane region of the molecule (aa 181-221). Exon C is a large 765-bp exon encoding virtually the entire cytoplasmic domain (aa 222-327) and the 3'-untranslated region. The murine region T11 gene has a similar organization with exon-intron boundaries essentially identical to the human gene. Substantial conservation of nucleotide sequences between species in both 5'- and 3'-gene flanking regions equivalent to that among homologous exons suggests that murine and human genes may be regulated in a similar fashion. The probable relationship of the individual T11 exons to functional and structural protein domains is discussed.

  20. Assessing The Evolutionary Diversity Of Exon Skipping Events In Human, Mouse And Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Fang-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Kuo, Min-Chieh; Chang, Hwan-You; Shia, Wei-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This study is to research on the cross-species comparative analysis of homologous genetic sequence among human, mouse and rat by bioinformatics method, hopefully assessing the evolutionary diversity through exon length, reading frame preservation and KA/KS ratio test of alternative splicing events. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mechanism in eukaryotic organism. We choose the "exon skipping events" from AS events for research. In the data of "conserved exon skipping events", we get 668 human-mouse conserved events, 179 human-rat conserved events and 266 conserved mouse-rat events. There are some extra data such as "non-conserved exon skipping events" and "species-specific events". We found out that the length of AS exon is shorter in conserved exon skipping event, but the ratio of reading frame preservation is higher. Among them, the minor form is the most special. We even got the same result in non-conserved exon skipping events. We calculated the KA/KS value by KA/KS ratio test and found out that the human-mouse KA/KS ratio is 0.158, the human-rat is 0.182 and the mouse-rat is 0.190. This represents that the human-mouse conserved events have the highest purifying selection pressure. In the end, we adopt KA/KS ratio test to do a further analysis between conserved and non-conserved exon skipping events and evaluate the evolutionary diversity of cross-species comparation.

  1. The complete local genotype–phenotype landscape for the alternative splicing of a human exon

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Philippe; Miñana, Belén; Baeza-Centurion, Pablo; Valcárcel, Juan; Lehner, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The properties of genotype–phenotype landscapes are crucial for understanding evolution but are not characterized for most traits. Here, we present a >95% complete local landscape for a defined molecular function—the alternative splicing of a human exon (FAS/CD95 exon 6, involved in the control of apoptosis). The landscape provides important mechanistic insights, revealing that regulatory information is dispersed throughout nearly every nucleotide in an exon, that the exon is more robust to the effects of mutations than its immediate neighbours in genotype space, and that high mutation sensitivity (evolvability) will drive the rapid divergence of alternative splicing between species unless it is constrained by selection. Moreover, the extensive epistasis in the landscape predicts that exonic regulatory sequences may diverge between species even when exon inclusion levels are functionally important and conserved by selection. PMID:27161764

  2. The exon-intron organization of the human erythroid [beta]-spectrin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, K.M.; Forget, B.G. ); Scarpa, A.L.; Curtis, P.J. ); Winkelmann, J.C. )

    1993-10-01

    The human erythrocyte [beta]-spectrin gene DNA has been cloned from overlapping human genomic phage and cosmid recombinants. The entire erythroid [beta]-spectrin mRNA is encoded by 32 exons that range in size from 49 to 871 bases. The exon/intron junctions have been identified and the exons mapped. There is no correlation between intron positions and the repeat units of 106 amino acids within domain II of the [beta]-spectrin gene. The scatter of the introns over the 17 repeats argues against the 106-amino-acid unit representing a minigene that underwent repeated duplication resulting in the present [beta]-spectrin gene. In fact, the two largest exons, exon 14 (871 bp) and 16 (757 bp), extend over 4 and 3 repeat units of 106 amino acids, respectively, while repeat [beta]10 is encoded by 4 exons. No single position of an intron in the [beta]-spectrin gene is conserved between any of the 17 [beta]-spectrin and 22 [alpha]-spectrin repeat units. The nucleotide sequences of the exon/intron boundaries conform to the consensus splice site sequences except for exon 20, whose 5[prime] donor splice-site sequence begins with GC. The [beta]-spectrin isoform present in the human brain, the skeletal muscle, and the cardiac muscle is an alternatively spliced product of the erythroid [beta]-spectrin gene. This splice site is located within the coding sequences of exon 32 and its utilization in nonerythroid tissues leads to the use of 4 additional downstream exons with a size range of 44 to 530 bp. 55 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Contrasting chromatin organization of CpG islands and exons in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CpG islands and nucleosome-free regions are both found in promoters. However, their association has never been studied. On the other hand, DNA methylation is absent in promoters but is enriched in gene bodies. Intragenic nucleosomes and their modifications have been recently associated with RNA splicing. Because the function of intragenic DNA methylation remains unclear, I explored the possibility of its involvement in splicing regulation. Results Here I show that CpG islands were associated not only with methylation-free promoters but also with nucleosome-free promoters. Nucleosome-free regions were observed only in promoters containing a CpG island. However, the DNA sequences of CpG islands predicted the opposite pattern, implying a limitation of sequence programs for the determination of nucleosome occupancy. In contrast to the methylation-and nucleosome-free states of CpG-island promoters, exons were densely methylated at CpGs and packaged into nucleosomes. Exon-enrichment of DNA methylation was specifically found in spliced exons and in exons with weak splice sites. The enrichment patterns were less pronounced in initial exons and in non-coding exons, potentially reflecting a lower need for their splicing. I also found that nucleosomes, DNA methylation, and H3K36me3 marked the exons of transcripts with low, medium, and high gene expression levels, respectively. Conclusions Human promoters containing a CpG island tend to remain nucleosome-free as well as methylation-free. In contrast, exons demonstrate a high degree of methylation and nucleosome occupancy. Exonic DNA methylation seems to function together with exonic nucleosomes and H3K36me3 for the proper splicing of transcripts with different expression levels. PMID:20602769

  4. FUNCTIONAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIVERSE EXON-INTRON STRUCTURES OF HUMAN GPCR GENES

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, DOROTHY A.; OLMAN, VICTOR

    2014-01-01

    The GPCR genes have a variety of exon-intron structures even though their proteins are all structurally homologous. We have examined all human GPCR genes with at least two functional protein isoforms, totaling 199, aiming to gain an understanding of what may have contributed to the large diversity of the exon-intron structures of the GPCR genes. The 199 genes have a total of 808 known protein splicing isoforms with experimentally verified functions. Our analysis reveals that 1,301 (80.6%) adjacent exon-exon pairs out of the total of 1,613 in the 199 genes have either exactly one exon skipped or the intron in-between retained in at least one of the 808 protein splicing isoforms. This observation has a statistical significance p-value of 2.051762* e−09, assuming that the observed splicing isoforms are independent of the exon-intron structures. Our interpretation of this observation is that the exon boundaries of the GPCR genes are not randomly determined; instead they may be selected to facilitate specific alternative splicing for functional purposes. PMID:24467758

  5. A diverse epigenetic landscape at human exons with implication for expression

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Meromit; Kosti, Idit; Pachter, Lior; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic marker associated with gene expression regulation in eukaryotes. While promoter methylation is relatively well characterized, the role of intragenic DNA methylation remains unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship of DNA methylation at exons and flanking introns with gene expression and histone modifications generated from a human fibroblast cell-line and primary B cells. Consistent with previous work we found that intragenic methylation is positively correlated with gene expression and that exons are more highly methylated than their neighboring intronic environment. Intriguingly, in this study we identified a unique subset of hypomethylated exons that demonstrate significantly lower methylation levels than their surrounding introns. Furthermore, we observed a negative correlation between exon methylation and the density of the majority of histone modifications. Specifically, we demonstrate that hypo-methylated exons at highly expressed genes are associated with open chromatin and have a characteristic histone code comprised of significantly high levels of histone markings. Overall, our comprehensive analysis of the human exome supports the presence of regulatory hypomethylated exons in protein coding genes. In particular our results reveal a previously unrecognized diverse and complex role of the epigenetic landscape within the gene body. PMID:25765649

  6. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Methods Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Results Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. Conclusions The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these

  7. Targeted skipping of human dystrophin exons in transgenic mouse model systemically for antisense drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Benrashid, Ehsan; Lu, Peijuan; Cloer, Caryn; Zillmer, Allen; Shaban, Mona; Lu, Qi Long

    2011-01-01

    Antisense therapy has recently been demonstrated with great potential for targeted exon skipping and restoration of dystrophin production in cultured muscle cells and in muscles of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. Therapeutic values of exon skipping critically depend on efficacy of the drugs, antisense oligomers (AOs). However, no animal model has been established to test AO targeting human dystrophin exon in vivo systemically. In this study, we applied Vivo-Morpholino to the hDMD mouse, a transgenic model carrying the full-length human dystrophin gene, and achieved for the first time more than 70% efficiency of targeted human dystrophin exon skipping in vivo systemically. We also established a GFP-reporter myoblast culture to screen AOs targeting human dystrophin exon 50. Antisense efficiency for most AOs is consistent between the reporter cells, human myoblasts and in the hDMD mice in vivo. However, variation in efficiency was also clearly observed. A combination of in vitro cell culture and a Vivo-Morpholino based evaluation in vivo systemically in the hDMD mice therefore may represent a prudent approach for selecting AO drug and to meet the regulatory requirement.

  8. CEL_INTERROGATOR: A FREE AND OPEN SOURCE PACKAGE FOR AFFYMETRIX CEL FILE PARSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CEL_Interrogator Package is a suite of programs designed to extract the average probe intensity and other information for each probe sequence from an Affymetrix GeneChip CEL file and unite them with their human-readable Affymetrix consensus sequence names. The resulting text file is suitable for di...

  9. Dantrolene enhances antisense-mediated exon skipping in human and mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Genevieve C; Mokhonova, Ekaterina I; Moran, Miriana; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Wang, Derek W; Silva, Oscar; Wang, Richard T; Martinez, Leonel; Lu, Qi L; Damoiseaux, Robert; Spencer, Melissa J; Nelson, Stanley F; Miceli, M Carrie

    2012-12-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes profound and progressive muscle weakness and loss, resulting in early death. DMD is usually caused by frameshifting deletions in the gene DMD, which leads to absence of dystrophin protein. Dystrophin binds to F-actin and components of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced injury. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping is a promising therapeutic approach aimed at restoring the DMD reading frame and allowing expression of an intact dystrophin glycoprotein complex. To date, low levels of dystrophin protein have been produced in humans by this method. We performed a small-molecule screen to identify existing drugs that enhance antisense-directed exon skipping. We found that dantrolene, currently used to treat malignant hyperthermia, potentiates antisense oligomer-guided exon skipping to increase exon skipping to restore the mRNA reading frame, the sarcolemmal dystrophin protein, and the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in skeletal muscles of mdx mice when delivered intramuscularly or intravenously. Further, dantrolene synergized with multiple weekly injections of antisense to increase muscle strength and reduce serum creatine kinase in mdx mice. Dantrolene similarly promoted antisense-mediated exon skipping in reprogrammed myotubes from DMD patients. Ryanodine and Rycal S107, which, like dantrolene, targets the ryanodine receptor, also promoted antisense-driven exon skipping, implicating the ryanodine receptor as the critical molecular target.

  10. Categorization and characterization of transcript-confirmed constitutively and alternatively spliced introns and exons from human.

    PubMed

    Clark, Francis; Thanaraj, T A

    2002-02-15

    By spliced alignment of human DNA and transcript sequence data we constructed a data set of transcript-confirmed exons and introns from 2793 genes, 796 of which (28%) were seen to have multiple isoforms. We find that over one-third of human exons can translate in more than one frame, and that this is highly correlated with G+C content. Introns containing adenosine at donor site position +3 (A3), rather than guanosine (G3), are more common in low G+C regions, while the converse is true in high G+C regions. These two classes of introns are shown to have distinct lengths, consensus sequences and correlations among splice signals, leading to the hypothesis that A3 donor sites are associated with exon definition, and G3 donor sites with intron definition. Minor classes of introns, including GC-AG, U12-type GT-AG, weak, and putative AG-dependant introns are identified and characterized. Cassette exons are more prevalent in low G+C regions, while exon isoforms are more prevalent in high G+C regions. Cassette exon events outnumber other alternative events, while exon isoform events involve truncation twice as often as extension, and occur at acceptor sites twice as often as at donor sites. Alternative splicing is usually associated with weak splice signals, and in a majority of cases, preserves the coding frame. The reported characteristics of constitutive and alternative splice signals, and the hypotheses offered regarding alternative splicing and genome organization, have important implications for experimental research into RNA processing. The 'AltExtron' data sets are available at http://www.bit.uq.edu.au/altExtron/ and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/~thanaraj/altExtron/.

  11. Immunochemical detection of proteins related to the human c-myc exon 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gazin, C; Rigolet, M; Briand, J P; Van Regenmortel, M H; Galibert, F

    1986-01-01

    Published sequence data of the human c-myc gene indicate the presence of a coding capacity for a polypeptide of 188 residues within the first exon. Using antibodies raised against five synthetic peptides corresponding to different non-over-lapping parts of this polypeptide, two proteins of 32 kd and 58 kd antigenically related to the synthetic peptides have been detected in extracts of human cells. The confidence of this detection has been reinforced by showing that epitopes corresponding to different peptides were indeed located on the same molecule and that the 58 kd protein appears to be a dimeric form of the 32 kd protein. That these proteins originate from the first exon was indicated by: hybrid-arrested translation experiments followed by immunodetection of the translation products; in vitro translation of messenger RNA derived from cloned exon 1 by SP6 polymerase transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2430795

  12. Sequence requirements for transcriptional arrest in exon 1 of the human adenosine deaminase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi Chen; Kellems, R.E.; Innis, J.W. ); Sun, Minghua; Wright, D.A. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that a transcriptional arrest site exists in exon 1 of the human adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene and that this site may play a role in ADA gene expression. Sequences involved in this process are not known precisely. To further define the template requirements for transcriptional arrest within exon 1 of the human ADA gene, various ADA templates were constructed and their abilities to confer transcriptional arrest were determined following injection into Xenopus oocytes. The exon 1 transcriptional arrest signal functioned downstream of several RNA polymerase II promoters and an RNA polymerase II promoter, implying that the transcriptional arrest site in exon 1 of the ADA gene is promoter independent. They identified a 43-bp DNA fragment which functions as a transcriptional arrest signal. Additional studies showed that the transcriptional arrest site functioned only in the naturally occurring orientation. Therefore, they have identified a 43-bp DNA fragment which functions as a transcriptional arrest signal in an orientation-dependent and promoter-independent manner. On the basis of the authors findings, they hypothesize that tissue-specific expression of the ADA gene is governed by factors that function as antiterminators to promote transcriptional readthrough of the exon 1 transcriptional arrest site.

  13. Distribution of SR protein exonic splicing enhancer motifs in human protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Smith, Philip J; Krainer, Adrian R; Zhang, Michael Q

    2005-01-01

    Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are pre-mRNA cis-acting elements required for splice-site recognition. We previously developed a web-based program called ESEfinder that scores any sequence for the presence of ESE motifs recognized by the human SR proteins SF2/ASF, SRp40, SRp55 and SC35 (http://rulai.cshl.edu/tools/ESE/). Using ESEfinder, we have undertaken a large-scale analysis of ESE motif distribution in human protein-coding genes. Significantly higher frequencies of ESE motifs were observed in constitutive internal protein-coding exons, compared with both their flanking intronic regions and with pseudo exons. Statistical analysis of ESE motif frequency distributions revealed a complex relationship between splice-site strength and increased or decreased frequencies of particular SR protein motifs. Comparison of constitutively and alternatively spliced exons demonstrated slightly weaker splice-site scores, as well as significantly fewer ESE motifs, in the alternatively spliced group. Our results underline the importance of ESE-mediated SR protein function in the process of exon definition, in the context of both constitutive splicing and regulated alternative splicing.

  14. RBFOX and PTBP1 proteins regulate the alternative splicing of micro-exons in human brain transcripts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang I; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Haerty, Wilfried; Ponting, Chris P

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-four percent of mammalian protein-coding exons exceed 51 nucleotides (nt) in length. The paucity of micro-exons (≤ 51 nt) suggests that their recognition and correct processing by the splicing machinery present greater challenges than for longer exons. Yet, because thousands of human genes harbor processed micro-exons, specialized mechanisms may be in place to promote their splicing. Here, we survey deep genomic data sets to define 13,085 micro-exons and to study their splicing mechanisms and molecular functions. More than 60% of annotated human micro-exons exhibit a high level of sequence conservation, an indicator of functionality. While most human micro-exons require splicing-enhancing genomic features to be processed, the splicing of hundreds of micro-exons is enhanced by the adjacent binding of splice factors in the introns of pre-messenger RNAs. Notably, splicing of a significant number of micro-exons was found to be facilitated by the binding of RBFOX proteins, which promote their inclusion in the brain, muscle, and heart. Our analyses suggest that accurate regulation of micro-exon inclusion by RBFOX proteins and PTBP1 plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue-specific protein-protein interactions.

  15. Isolation and characterization of new exon 11-associated N-terminal splice variants of the human mu opioid receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Hurd, Yasmin L; Pasternak, Gavril W; Pan, Ying-Xian

    2009-02-01

    Alternative splicing of the mu opioid receptor genes to create multiple mu receptor subtypes has been demonstrated in animals and humans. Previously, we identified a number of C-terminal variants in mice, rats and human, followed by several N-terminal variants associated with a new upstream exon in mice (exon 11). Behavioral studies in exon 11 knockout mice suggest an important role for the exon 11 variants in the analgesic actions of heroin and morphine-6beta-glucuronide, but not morphine or methadone. We now have identified a homologous human exon 11 and three similar human exon 11-associated variants, suggesting conservation of exon 11 and its associated variants across species. hMOR-1i has an additional 93 amino acids at the tip of the N-terminus but is otherwise identical to hMOR-1. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the additional 93 amino acids in hMOR-1i had little effect on opioid binding, but significantly altered agonist-induced G-protein activation. hMOR-1G1 and hMOR-1G2 predicted six transmembrane domain variants, similar to those seen in mice. The regional expression of these exon 11-associated variants, as determined by RT-PCR, varied markedly, implying region-specific alternative splicing. The presence of exon 11-associated variants in humans raises questions regarding their potential role in heroin and morphine-6beta-glucuronide actions in people as they do in mice.

  16. Exon organization of the human FKBP-12 gene: Correlation with structural and functional protein domains

    SciTech Connect

    DiLella, A.G.; Craig, R.J. )

    1991-09-03

    FKBP-12, the major T-cell binding protein for the immunosuppressive agents FK506 and rapamycin, catalyzes the interconversion of the cis and trans rotamers of the peptidyl-prolyl amide bond of peptide and protein substrates. The function of rotamase activity in cells and the role of FKBP-12 in immunoregulation is uncertain. In this paper the authors report the cloning and characterization of the human chromosomal FKBP-12 gene and four processed FKBP-12 pseudogenes. The FKBP-12 gene is 24 kilobases in length and contains five exons. The protein-coding region of the gene is divided into four exon modules that correlate with the structural and functional domains of the protein. The novel structure of FKBP-12 resulting form the topology of the antiparallel {beta}-sheet is the topological crossing of two loops that are encoded by separate exons. Separate exons also encode the antiparallel {beta}-sheet and {alpha}-helical region that define the drug-binding pocket and enzyme activity site of FKBP-12. The exon organization of the FKBP-12 gene structure will enable inactivation of this gene by homologous recombination in cells to provide a model to study the role of FKBP-12 in immunoregulation and normal cellular processes.

  17. A bioinformatics analysis of alternative exon usage in human genes coding for extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sakabe, Noboru Jo; Vibranovski, Maria Dulcetti; de Souza, Sandro José

    2004-12-30

    Alternative splicing increases protein diversity through the generation of different mRNA molecules from the same gene. Although alternative splicing seems to be a widespread phenomenon in the human transcriptome, it is possible that different subgroups of genes present different patterns, related to their biological roles. Analysis of a subgroup may enhance common features of its members that would otherwise disappear amidst a heterogeneous population. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a good set for such analyses since they are structurally and functionally related. This family of proteins is involved in a large variety of functions, probably achieved by the combinatorial use of protein domains through exon shuffling events. To determine if ECM genes have a different pattern of alternative splicing, we compared clusters of expressed sequences of ECM to all other genes regarding features related to the most frequent type of alternative splicing, alternative exon usage (AEU), such as: the number of alternative exon-intron structures per cluster, the number of AEU events per exon-intron structure, the number of exons per event, among others. Although we did not find many differences between the two sets, we observed a higher frequency of AEU events involving entire protein domains in the ECM set, a feature that could be associated with their multi-domain nature. As other subgroups or even the ECM set in different tissues could present distinct patterns of AEU, it may be premature to conclude that alternative splicing is homogeneous among groups of related genes.

  18. Gene identification using exon amplification on human chromosome 18q21: implications for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Huo, Y; Patel, S; Zhu, X; Swift-Scanlan, T; Reeves, R H; DePaulo, R; Ross, C A; McInnis, M G

    2000-09-01

    We previously reported linkage between bipolar disorder and a region on human chromosome (HC) 18q21. To identify genes in this region, exon trapping was performed on cosmids isolated from an HC18-specific cosmid library (LL18NC02) using 47 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from 18q21 as hybridization probes. A total of 285 unique sequences (exons) were obtained from 850 sequenced clones. Homology searching of the databases using NCBI's BLAST algorithms revealed that 31 exons have identity to known genes and/or ESTs, seven are identical to regions of finished genomic sequences in the 18q21 region, 20 have significant similarity (>30% sequence identity) to genes from human and/or other species, 19 were repetitive sequences, and 208 sequences (72%) are novel. Seventy per cent of the trapped sequences were predicted to be derived from genes using library screening and RT-PCR analyses. This represents an initial stage in characterizing genes in a susceptibility region for further study in bipolar disorder or other diseases that map to this region.

  19. Exon-intron structure of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit (CHRNA4)

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlein, O.; Weiland, S.; Stoodt, J.; Propping, P.

    1996-03-01

    The human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) is located in the candidate region for three different phenotypes: benign familial neonatal convulsions, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and low-voltage EEG. Recently, a missense mutation in transmembrane domain 2 of CHRNA4 was found to be associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in one extended pedigree. We have determined the genomic organization of CHRNA4, which consists of six exons distributed over approximately 17 kb of genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the genomic regions adjacent to the exon boundaries enabled us to develop a set of primer pairs for PCR amplification of the complete coding region. The sequence analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive mutation screening of CHRNA4 in the above-mentioned phenotypes and possibly in other types of idopathic epilepsies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Changes in alternative splicing of human and mouse genes are accompanied by faster evolution of constitutive exons.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Brian P; Wolfe, Kenneth H

    2005-11-01

    Alternative splicing is known to be an important source of protein sequence variation, but its evolutionary impact has not been explored in detail. Studying alternative splicing requires extensive sampling of the transcriptome, but new data sets based on expressed sequence tags aligned to chromosomes make it possible to study alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale. Although genes showing alternative splicing by exon skipping are conserved as compared to the genome as a whole, we find that genes where structural differences between human and mouse result in genome-specific alternatively spliced exons in one species show almost 60% greater nonsynonymous divergence in constitutive exons than genes where exon skipping is conserved. This effect is also seen for genes showing species-specific patterns of alternative splicing where gene structure is conserved. Our observations are not attributable to an inherent difference in rate of evolution between these two sets of proteins or to differences with respect to predictors of evolutionary rate such as expression level, tissue specificity, or genetic redundancy. Where genome-specific alternatively spliced exons are seen in mammals, the vast majority of skipped exons appear to be recent additions to gene structures. Furthermore, among genes with genome-specific alternatively spliced exons, the degree of nonsynonymous divergence in constitutive sequence is a function of the frequency of incorporation of these alternative exons into transcripts. These results suggest that alterations in alternative splicing pattern can have knock-on effects in terms of accelerated sequence evolution in constant regions of the protein.

  1. Tissue-specific expression of the human aromatase cytochrome P-450 gene by alternative use of multiple exons 1 and promoters, and switching of tissue-specific exons 1 in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harada, N; Utsumi, T; Takagi, Y

    1993-01-01

    Extensive screening of aromatase cDNA was carried out in cDNA libraries from various human tissues. The DNA sequences of all the isolated cDNA clones were identical in the region encoded by exons 2-10 of the aromatase gene. However, tissue-specific sequences, which were classified into four groups, were observed in the 5' portions of the clones corresponding to the region encoded by exon 1. All of them were also found in clones isolated from a human genomic library and mapped between exons 1 and 2 of the human aromatase gene reported previously, suggesting the presence of multiple exons 1 and promoters in the gene. Reverse transcription-PCR analyses of aromatase mRNAs in various tissues revealed that aromatase transcripts are tissue-specifically spliced by alternative use of multiple exons 1, although minor forms of the transcripts were also present in each tissue. Aromatase mRNA is spliced from 10 exons in most tissues, but from 9 exons in the prostate and from 10 or 11 exons in the placenta. This suggests that tissue-specific regulation of the aromatase gene in various tissues may be explained by alternative use of multiple exons 1 flanked with tissue-specific promoters. The alternative use of multiple exons 1 for liver transcripts was found to change developmentally. Furthermore, switch from an adipose-specific exon 1 to another type of exon 1 was observed in aromatase transcripts of adipose tissues of three of five breast cancer patients. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248245

  2. TGF-beta(1) regulation of human AT(1) receptor mRNA splice variants harboring exon 2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mickey M; Buckenberger, Jessica A; Knoell, Daren L; Strauch, Arthur R; Elton, Terry S

    2006-04-25

    At least four alternatively spliced mRNAs can be synthesized from the human AT(1)R (hAT(1)R) gene that differ only in the inclusion or exclusion of exon 2 and/or 3. RT-PCR experiments demonstrate that splice variants harboring exon 2 accounts for at least 30% of all the hAT(1)R mRNA transcripts expressed in the human tissues investigated. Since exon 2 contains two upstream AUGs or open reading frames (uORFs), we hypothesized that these AUGs would inhibit the translation of the downstream hAT(1)R protein ORF harbored in exon 4. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of exon 2 in hAT(1)R mRNA transcripts dramatically reduces hAT(1)R protein levels (nine-fold) and significantly attenuates Ang II responsiveness ( approximately four-fold). Interestingly, only when both AUGs were mutated in combination were the hAT(1)R density and Ang II signaling levels comparable with those values obtained using mRNA splice variants that did not include exon 2. This observation is consistent with a model where the majority of the ribosomes likely translate uORF#1 and are then unable to reinitiate at the downstream hAT(1)R ORF, in part due to the presence of AUG#2 and to the short intercistronic spacing. Importantly, TGF-beta(1) treatment (4ng/ml for 4h) of fibroblasts up-regulated hAT(1)R mRNA splice variants, which harbored exon 2, six-fold. Since AT(1)R activation is closely associated with cardiovascular disease, the inclusion of exon 2 by alternative splicing represents a novel mechanism to reduce the overall production of the hAT(1)R protein and possibly limit the potential pathological effects of AT(1)R activation.

  3. Qualitative assessment of gene expression in affymetrix genechip arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2007-01-01

    Affymetrix Genechip microarrays are used widely to determine the simultaneous expression of genes in a given biological paradigm. Probes on the Genechip array are atomic entities which by definition are randomly distributed across the array and in turn govern the gene expression. In the present study, we make several interesting observations. We show that there is considerable correlation between the probe intensities across the array which defy the independence assumption. While the mechanism behind such correlations is unclear, we show that scaling behavior and the profiles of perfect match (PM) as well as mismatch (MM) probes are similar and immune-to-background subtraction. We believe that the observed correlations are possibly an outcome of inherent non-stationarities or patchiness in the array devoid of biological significance. This is demonstrated by inspecting their scaling behavior and profiles of the PM and MM probe intensities obtained from publicly available Genechip arrays from three eukaryotic genomes, namely: Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Homo sapiens (humans) and Mus musculus (house mouse) across distinct biological paradigms and across laboratories, with and without background subtraction. The fluctuation functions were estimated using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) with fourth-order polynomial detrending. The results presented in this study provide new insights into correlation signatures of PM and MM probe intensities and suggests the choice of DFA as a tool for qualitative assessment of Affymetrix Genechip microarrays prior to their analysis. A more detailed investigation is necessary in order to understand the source of these correlations.

  4. Mapping Human Pluripotent-to-Cardiomyocyte Differentiation: Methylomes, Transcriptomes, and Exon DNA Methylation “Memories”

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Joshua D.; Jung, Marc; Chen, Chang-yi; Lin, Ziguang; Ye, Jingjing; Godatha, Swetha; Lizhar, Elizabeth; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A.; Riggs, Arthur D.

    2016-01-01

    The directed differentiation of human cardiomyocytes (CMs) from pluripotent cells provides an invaluable model for understanding mechanisms of cell fate determination and offers considerable promise in cardiac regenerative medicine. Here, we utilize a human embryonic stem cell suspension bank, produced according to a good manufacturing practice, to generate CMs using a fully defined and small molecule-based differentiation strategy. Primitive and cardiac mesoderm purification was used to remove non-committing and multi-lineage populations and this significantly aided the identification of key transcription factors, lncRNAs, and essential signaling pathways that define cardiomyogenesis. Global methylation profiles reflect CM development and we report on CM exon DNA methylation “memories” persisting beyond transcription repression and marking the expression history of numerous developmentally regulated genes, especially transcription factors. PMID:26981572

  5. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors.

  6. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl− channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Strege, Peter R.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R.; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-“exon 0” upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca2+ sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(−0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl− currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca2+, extracellular anions, or Cl− channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(−0) in response to varying intracellular Ca2+. The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(−0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(−0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl− current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  7. PrimerZ: streamlined primer design for promoters, exons and human SNPs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Fang; Lin, Yi-Jung; Cheng, Yu-Chang; Lee, Kuo-Hsi; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Yao, Adam

    2007-07-01

    PrimerZ (http://genepipe.ngc.sinica.edu.tw/primerz/) is a web application dedicated primarily to primer design for genes and human SNPs. PrimerZ accepts genes by gene name or Ensembl accession code, and SNPs by dbSNP rs or AFFY_Probe IDs. The promoter and exon sequence information of all gene transcripts fetched from the Ensembl database (http://www.ensembl.org) are processed before being passed on to Primer3 (http://frodo.wi.mit.edu/cgi-bin/primer3/primer3_www.cgi) for individual primer design. All results returned from Primer 3 are organized and integrated in a specially designed web page for easy browsing. Besides the web page presentation, csv text file export is also provided for enhanced user convenience. PrimerZ automates highly standard but tedious gene primer design to improve the success rate of PCR experiments. More than 2000 primers have been designed with PrimerZ at our institute since 2004 and the success rate is over 70%. The addition of several new features has made PrimerZ even more useful to the research community in facilitating primer design for promoters, exons and SNPs.

  8. Exon Skipping and Gene Transfer Restore Dystrophin Expression in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Cardiomyocytes Harboring DMD Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Emily; Kalra, Spandan; Anderson, David; George, Vinoj; Ritso, Morten; Laval, Steven H.; Barresi, Rita; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2013-01-01

    With an incidence of ∼1:3,500 to 5,000 in male children, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder in which progressive muscle degeneration occurs and affected boys usually die in their twenties or thirties. Cardiac involvement occurs in 90% of patients and heart failure accounts for up to 40% of deaths. To enable new therapeutics such as gene therapy and exon skipping to be tested in human cardiomyocytes, we produced human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) from seven patients harboring mutations across the DMD gene. Mutations were retained during differentiation and analysis indicated the cardiomyocytes showed a dystrophic gene expression profile. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated skipping of exon 51 restored dystrophin expression to ∼30% of normal levels in hiPSC-cardiomyocytes carrying exon 47–50 or 48–50 deletions. Alternatively, delivery of a dystrophin minigene to cardiomyocytes with a deletion in exon 35 or a point mutation in exon 70 allowed expression levels similar to those seen in healthy cells. This demonstrates that DMD hiPSC-cardiomyocytes provide a novel tool to evaluate whether new therapeutics can restore dystrophin expression in the heart. PMID:23829870

  9. Evidence that the SRY protein is encoded by a single exon on the human Y chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Behlke, M.A. Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Bogan, J.S.; Beer-Romero, P.; Page, D.C. )

    1993-09-01

    To facilitate studies of the SRY gene, a 4741-bp portion of the sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome was sequenced and characterized. Two RNAs were found to hybridize to this genomic segment, one transcript deriving from SRY and the second cross-hybridizing to a pseudogene located 2.5 kb 5[prime] of the SRY open reading frame (ORF). Analysis of the SRY transcript using 3[prime] and 5[prime] rapid amplification and cloning of ends suggested that the entire SRY protein is encoded by a single exon. A 700-bp CpG island is located immediately 5[prime] of the pseudogene (and 2 kb 5[prime] of the SRY ORF). Within this CpG island lies the sequence CGCCCCCGC, a potential binding site for the EGR-1/WT1 family of transcription factors, some of which appear to function in gonadal development. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Depletion of TDP 43 overrides the need for exonic and intronic splicing enhancers in the human apoA-II gene.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Pablo Arrisi; Ayala, Youhna M; Romano, Maurizio; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E

    2005-01-01

    Exon 3 of the human apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) gene is efficiently included in the mRNA although its acceptor site is significantly weak because of a peculiar (GU)16 tract instead of a canonical polypyrimidine tract within the intron 2/exon 3 junction. Our previous studies demonstrated that the SR proteins ASF/SF2 and SC35 bind specifically an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) within exon 3 and promote exon 3 splicing. In the present study, we show that the ESE is necessary only in the proper context. In addition, we have characterized two novel sequences in the flanking introns that modulate apoA-II exon 3 splicing. There is a G-rich element in intron 2 that interacts with hnRNPH1 and inhibits exon 3 splicing. The second is a purine rich region in intron 3 that binds SRp40 and SRp55 and promotes exon 3 inclusion in mRNA. We have also found that the (GU) repeats in the apoA-II context bind the splicing factor TDP-43 and interfere with exon 3 definition. Significantly, blocking of TDP-43 expression by small interfering RNA overrides the need for all the other cis-acting elements making exon 3 inclusion constitutive even in the presence of disrupted exonic and intronic enhancers. Altogether, our results suggest that exonic and intronic enhancers have evolved to balance the negative effects of the two silencers located in intron 2 and hence rescue the constitutive exon 3 inclusion in apoA-II mRNA.

  11. Exons I and VII of the gene (Ker10) encoding human keratin 10 undergo structural rearrangements within repeats.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, A V; Buchman, V L; Bliskovsky, V V; Shvets YuP; Kisselev, L L

    1992-07-15

    A genomic fragment containing the K51 gene previously isolated from a rat genomic library by hybridization with the v-mos probe in nonstringent conditions [Chumakov et al., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 290 (1986) 1252-1254], resembles a human keratin type-I-encoding gene [Shvets et al., Mol. Biol. 24 (1990) 663-677]. This genomic clone, K51, has been used as a probe to search for related human genes. A recombinant clone, HK51, with a 1.5-kb insert, was isolated from a human embryonic skin cDNA library, and its nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined. Analysis has shown that the cloned cDNA encodes human keratin 10 (Ker10). All presently known nt sequences of the human Ker10-encoding gene (Ker10) are not identical. Differences are concentrated in the 5'-end of the first exon and in the middle of the seventh exon within repeats. In spite of structural rearrangements in two of eight exons, the reading frame and position of the stop codon are preserved. The genetic rearrangements cause changes in hydrophobicity profiles of the N and C termini of Ker10. It was also noticed that insertion of one nt leads to the formation of an unusual 3'-end of the transcript.

  12. Translation from a DMD exon 5 IRES results in a functional dystrophin isoform that attenuates dystrophinopathy in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Nicolas; Vulin, Adeline; Falzarano, Maria S; Szigyarto, Christina Al-Khalili; Maiti, Baijayanta; Findlay, Andrew; Heller, Kristin N; Uhlén, Mathias; Bakthavachalu, Baskar; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Giuseppe; Passarelli, Chiara; Brioschi, Simona; Bovolenta, Matteo; Neri, Marcella; Gualandi, Francesca; Wilton, Steve D; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R; Yang, Lin; Dunn, Diane M; Schoenberg, Daniel R; Weiss, Robert B; Howard, Michael T; Ferlini, Alessandra; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Most mutations that truncate the reading frame of the DMD gene cause loss of dystrophin expression and lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, amelioration of disease severity has been shown to result from alternative translation initiation beginning in DMD exon 6 that leads to expression of a highly functional N-truncated dystrophin. Here we demonstrate that this isoform results from usage of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within exon 5 that is glucocorticoid inducible. We confirmed IRES activity by both peptide sequencing and ribosome profiling in muscle from individuals with minimal symptoms despite the presence of truncating mutations. We generated a truncated reading frame upstream of the IRES by exon skipping, which led to synthesis of a functional N-truncated isoform in both human subject-derived cell lines and in a new DMD mouse model, where expression of the truncated isoform protected muscle from contraction-induced injury and corrected muscle force to the same level as that observed in control mice. These results support a potential therapeutic approach for patients with mutations within the 5' exons of DMD.

  13. Alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 dominate the expression of fragile X mental retardation 1 gene in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianguo; Zheng, Dezhu; Liao, Juan; Li, Qingqin; Lin, Yuxiang; Zhang, Duo; Yan, Aizhen; Lan, Fenghua

    2015-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) expression is associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and exhibits several splicing products. However, the proportion of spliced isoforms that are expressed in different tissues remains unclear. In the present study, long-chain reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with a T cloning-sequencing method was conducted in order to analyze the entire coding region of the FMR1 gene in human tissues. In particular, FXS-associated tissues were analyzed, including the brain and testis. Twenty alternatively spliced isoforms were observed among 271 recombinants, including six novel ones. The isoform that consisted of the entire FMR1 coding region (ISO1) accounted for a small proportion of all isoforms. Isoforms lacking exon 12 were the most abundant. In particular, spliced isoforms ISO7 and ISO17 were the most abundant. However, their relative abundance varied between the peripheral blood cells, and the testis and brain tissues. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that exon 12 may be the sole exon undergoing positive selection. The results of the present study suggested that the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing (AS) of the FMR1 gene may be more complex. Furthermore, the functions of alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 require further investigation. The results of the present study provide novel insights into the association between AS and the structure and function of the FMR1 gene.

  14. Celsius: a community resource for Affymetrix microarray data.

    PubMed

    Day, Allen; Carlson, Marc R J; Dong, Jun; O'Connor, Brian D; Nelson, Stanley F

    2007-01-01

    Celsius is a data warehousing system to aggregate Affymetrix CEL files and associated metadata. It provides mechanisms for importing, storing, querying, and exporting large volumes of primary and pre-processed microarray data. Celsius contains ten billion assay measurements and affiliated metadata. It is the largest publicly available source of Affymetrix microarray data, and through sheer volume it allows a sophisticated, broad view of transcription that has not previously been possible.

  15. Comparative analysis of antisense oligonucleotide sequences targeting exon 53 of the human DMD gene: Implications for future clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Popplewell, Linda J; Adkin, Carl; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; de Winter, Christa L; Wilton, Steve D; Morgan, Jennifer E; Muntoni, Francesco; Graham, Ian R; Dickson, George

    2010-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the lack of functional dystrophin protein, most commonly as a result of a range of out-of-frame mutations in the DMD gene. Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing with antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) to restore the reading frame has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, such that truncated but functional dystrophin is expressed. AO-induced skipping of exon 51 of the DMD gene, which could treat 13% of DMD patients, has now progressed to clinical trials. We describe here the methodical, cooperative comparison, in vitro (in DMD cells) and in vivo (in a transgenic mouse expressing human dystrophin), of 24 AOs of the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) chemistry designed to target exon 53 of the DMD gene, skipping of which could be potentially applicable to 8% of patients. A number of the PMOs tested should be considered worthy of development for clinical trial.

  16. Structural characterization of the human platelet-derived growth factor A-chain cDNA and gene: Alternative exon usage predicts two different precursor proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rorsman, F.; Bywater, M.; Knott, T.J.; Scott, J.; Betsholtz, C.

    1988-02-01

    The human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A-chain locus was characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis, and the nucleotide sequence of its exons was determined. Seven exons were identified, spanning approximately 22 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. Alternative exon usage, identified by cDNA cloning, occurs in a human glioblastoma cell line and may give rise to two types of A-chain precursors with different C termini. The exon-intron arrangement was similar to that of the PDGF B-chain/sis locus and seemed to divide the precursor proteins into functional domains. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA showed that a single PDGF A-chain gene was present in the human genome.

  17. Characterization of human deoxyribonuclease I gene (DNASE1) promoters reveals the utilization of two transcription-starting exons and the involvement of Sp1 in its transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Yoshihiko; Ueki, Misuzu; Iida, Reiko; Kawai, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Tamiko; Makita, Chikako; Itoi, Masako; Tajima, Yutaka; Kishi, Koichiro; Yasuda, Toshihiro

    2006-07-01

    Levels of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity in vivo have been shown to be altered by physiological and/or pathological processes. However, no information is available on the regulation of DNase I gene (DNASE1) expression in vivo or in vitro. We first mapped the transcription start sites of DNASE1 in human pancreas and in the DNase I-producing human pancreatic cancer cell line QGP-1, and revealed a novel site approximately 12 kb upstream of exon 1, which was previously believed to be the single transcription-starting exon. This initiation site marks an alternative starting exon, designated 1a. Exons 1 and 1a were used simultaneously as transcription-starting exons in pancreas and QGP-1 cells. Promoter assay, EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis with QGP-1 cells showed the promoter region of exon 1a in which the Sp1 transcription factor is specifically involved in promoter activity. This is the first to be identified as a transcription factor responsible for gene expression of vertebrate DNase I genes. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis indicated alternative splicing of human DNASE1 pre-mRNA in pancreas and QGP-1 cells. Only two transcripts among eight alternative splicing products identified can be translated to produce intact DNase I protein. These results suggest that human DNASE1 expression is regulated through the use of alternative promoter and alternative splicing.

  18. Dynamic ASXL1 Exon Skipping and Alternative Circular Splicing in Single Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sivaraman; Carter, Robert; Brown, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs comprise a poorly understood new class of noncoding RNA. In this study, we used a combination of targeted deletion, high-resolution splicing detection, and single-cell sequencing to deeply probe ASXL1 circular splicing. We found that efficient circular splicing required the canonical transcriptional start site and inverted AluSx elements. Sequencing-based interrogation of isoforms after ASXL1 overexpression identified promiscuous linear splicing between all exons, with the two most abundant non-canonical linear products skipping the exons that produced the circular isoforms. Single-cell sequencing revealed a strong preference for either the linear or circular ASXL1 isoforms in each cell, and found the predominant exon skipping product is frequently co-expressed with its reciprocal circular isoform. Finally, absolute quantification of ASXL1 isoforms confirmed our findings and suggests that standard methods overestimate circRNA abundance. Taken together, these data reveal a dynamic new view of circRNA genesis, providing additional framework for studying their roles in cellular biology. PMID:27736885

  19. Common exonic missense variants in the C2 domain of the human KIBRA protein modify lipid binding and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Duning, K; Wennmann, D O; Bokemeyer, A; Reissner, C; Wersching, H; Thomas, C; Buschert, J; Guske, K; Franzke, V; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Knecht, S; Brand, S-M; Pöter, M; Rescher, U; Missler, M; Seelheim, P; Pröpper, C; Boeckers, T M; Makuch, L; Huganir, R; Weide, T; Brand, E; Pavenstädt, H; Kremerskothen, J

    2013-06-18

    The human KIBRA gene has been linked to human cognition through a lead intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs17070145) that is associated with episodic memory performance and the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown how this relates to the function of the KIBRA protein. Here, we identified two common missense SNPs (rs3822660G/T [M734I], rs3822659T/G [S735A]) in exon 15 of the human KIBRA gene to affect cognitive performance, and to be in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with rs17070145. The identified SNPs encode variants of the KIBRA C2 domain with distinct Ca(2+) dependent binding preferences for monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositols likely due to differences in the dynamics and folding of the lipid-binding pocket. Our results further implicate the KIBRA protein in higher brain function and provide direction to the cellular pathways involved.

  20. Common exonic missense variants in the C2 domain of the human KIBRA protein modify lipid binding and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Duning, K; Wennmann, D O; Bokemeyer, A; Reissner, C; Wersching, H; Thomas, C; Buschert, J; Guske, K; Franzke, V; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Knecht, S; Brand, S-M; Pöter, M; Rescher, U; Missler, M; Seelheim, P; Pröpper, C; Boeckers, T M; Makuch, L; Huganir, R; Weide, T; Brand, E; Pavenstädt, H; Kremerskothen, J

    2013-01-01

    The human KIBRA gene has been linked to human cognition through a lead intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs17070145) that is associated with episodic memory performance and the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown how this relates to the function of the KIBRA protein. Here, we identified two common missense SNPs (rs3822660G/T [M734I], rs3822659T/G [S735A]) in exon 15 of the human KIBRA gene to affect cognitive performance, and to be in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with rs17070145. The identified SNPs encode variants of the KIBRA C2 domain with distinct Ca2+ dependent binding preferences for monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositols likely due to differences in the dynamics and folding of the lipid-binding pocket. Our results further implicate the KIBRA protein in higher brain function and provide direction to the cellular pathways involved. PMID:23778582

  1. A Multi-Agent System for Exon Prediction in Human Sequences.

    PubMed

    Vignal; Lisacek

    1997-01-01

    Given the problem of identifying exons in new genomic DNA, the sketch of a resolution process was drawn using sequence data and models of site/signal recognition. A multi-agent architecture is used to validate these models and test hypotheses on the chronology of events involved in gene splicing. Information is channelled through a hierarchy of agents. Each type of agent is the result of a successful step in the resolution process. The system does not rely on the compositional bias of coding sequences which is a key feature of current computer methods.

  2. Glycolysis controls the induction of human regulatory T cells by modulating the expression of FOXP3 exon 2 splicing variants

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Porcellini, Antonio; Colamatteo, Alessandra; Santopaolo, Marianna; Zuchegna, Candida; Romano, Antonella; De Simone, Salvatore; Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carrieri, Pietro Biagio; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Salvetti, Marco; Buscarinu, Maria Chiara; Franzese, Adriana; Mozzillo, Enza; La Cava, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (Treg cells) that develop from conventional T cells (Tconv cells) following suboptimal stimulation via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) (induced Treg cells (iTreg cells)) express the transcription factor Foxp3, are suppressive, and display an active proliferative and metabolic state. Here we found that the induction and suppressive function of iTreg cells tightly depended on glycolysis, which controlled Foxp3 splicing variants containing exon 2 (Foxp3-E2) through the glycolytic enzyme enolase-1. The Foxp3-E2–related suppressive activity of iTreg cells was altered in human autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes, and was associated with impaired glycolysis and signaling via interleukin 2. This link between glycolysis and Foxp3-E2 variants via enolase-1 shows a previously unknown mechanism for controlling the induction and function of Treg cells in health and in autoimmunity. PMID:26414764

  3. Adhesion domain of human T11 (CD2) is encoded by a single exon.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, N E; Chang, H C; Brown, N R; Hussey, R E; Sayre, P H; Reinherz, E L

    1988-01-01

    The 50-kDa T11 (CD2) T-lymphocyte surface glycoprotein facilitates physical adhesion between T-lineage cells and their cognate cellular counterparts (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes-target cells, helper T lymphocytes-antigen-presenting cells, or thymocytes-thymic epithelium) as well as signaling through the antigen-specific T3-Ti receptor complex. To examine the relationship between the structure and function of the T11 molecule, we have utilized a baculoviral expression system to produce milligram quantities of the hydrophilic extracellular T11 segment. Enzyme cleavage, microsequencing, and HPLC analyses of the expressed protein in conjunction with genomic cloning information show that the domain involved in cellular adhesion is encoded by a single 321-base-pair exon. Images PMID:2455894

  4. VIZARD: analysis of Affymetrix Arabidopsis GeneChip data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseyko, Nick; Feldman, Lewis J.

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY: The Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis genome array has proved to be a very powerful tool for the analysis of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, the most commonly studied plant model organism. VIZARD is a Java program created at the University of California, Berkeley, to facilitate analysis of Arabidopsis GeneChip data. It includes several integrated tools for filtering, sorting, clustering and visualization of gene expression data as well as tools for the discovery of regulatory motifs in upstream sequences. VIZARD also includes annotation and upstream sequence databases for the majority of genes represented on the Affymetrix Arabidopsis GeneChip array. AVAILABILITY: VIZARD is available free of charge for educational, research, and not-for-profit purposes, and can be downloaded at http://www.anm.f2s.com/research/vizard/ CONTACT: moseyko@uclink4.berkeley.edu.

  5. [Exon 5 alternative splicing of the cytochrome P450 aromatase could be a regulatory mechanism for estrogen production in humans].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Carolina M; Saraco, Nora I; Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Vaiani, Elisa; Berensztein, Esperanza; Rivarola, Marco A; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    P450 aromatase (P450Aro), involved in androgen to estrogen conversion, is encoded by the CYP19 gene. P450Aro c655G>A mutation described in heterozygous form in a girl and in homozygous form in an adult male with P450Aro deficiency results in an aberrant splicing due to disruption of a donor splice site. A truncated inactive protein would be expected if intron5 is retained. Surprisingly, the girl described with this mutation showed spontaneous breast development and pubertal estradiol (E2) levels suggesting residual P450Aro activity (AA). Formerly, we postulate the in frame E5 skipping as a consequence of this mutation generating a protein with some degree of activity. When P450Aro mRNA expression was analysed from patient's lymphocytes, an aberrant spliced mRNA lacking E5 (-E5mRNA) was detected, suggesting an association between E5 skipping and the presence of the mutation. Splicing assays in Y1 cells confirmed this association. -Ex5 cDNA expression in Y1 cells resulted in an inactive protein that could not explain patient's phenotype. Exon 5 might be predicted as a poorly defined exon suggesting a susceptibility to splicing mutations and physiological alternative splicing (AS) events. Therefore, -Ex5mRNA was assessed as a natural occurring alternative transcript in normal human steroidogenic tissues. As P450Aro -E5mRNA expression was detected in human term placenta, prepubertal testis and prepubertal adrenal, we might speculate that AS of P450Aro coding region would occur in humans and would be involved in the complex AA regulation. Furthermore, tissue specific regulation of AS might suggest low expression of +E5mRNA from the c655G>A allele explaining residual AA evidenced in the affected girl.

  6. Control of Human PLP1 Expression Through Transcriptional Regulatory Elements and Alternatively Spliced Exons in Intron 1

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Hamdan; Kockara, Neriman T.; Jolly, Lee Ann; Haun, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (PLP1) encodes the most abundant protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin, not much is known about the mechanisms that govern expression of the human gene (hPLP1). Much more is known about the processes that regulate Plp1 gene expression in rodents. From studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice, it was determined that the first intron of mouse Plp1 (mPlp1) is required to attain high levels of expression in brain, concurrent with the active myelination period. Other studies have suggested that within mPlp1 intron 1 (>8 kb) lie several regions with enhancer-like activity. To test whether these sequences (and possibly others) in hPLP1 intron 1 are functional, deletion-transfection analysis was performed with hPLP1-lacZ constructs that contain various portions of the intron, or lack it altogether. Results presented here demonstrate the importance of hPLP1 intron 1 in achieving maximal levels of expression in the immortalized oligodendroglial cell line, Oli-neu. Deletion analysis indicates that the intron contains multiple positive regulatory elements which are active in Oli-neu cells. Some of these elements appear to be functionally conserved between human and mouse, while others are not. Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that multiple splice variants can be formed due to inclusion of extra (supplementary) exons from what is classically thought of as hPLP1 intron 1. Thus, splicing of these novel exons (which are not recognized as such in mPlp1 due to lack of conserved splice sites) must utilize factors common to both human and mouse since Oli-neu cells are of mouse origin. PMID:25694552

  7. Human p53 oncogene contains one promoter upstream of exon 1 and a second, stronger promoter within intron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D.; Greenberg, M.; Rotter, V. )

    1988-07-01

    To gain insight into how transcription of the human p53 oncogene is controlled, the authors characterized the regulatory regions of the gene. A 3.8-kilobase-pair (kbp) EcoRI restriction fragment encompassing the 5{prime} end of the human p53 gene, as well as subfragments generated by restriction digests, was cloned upstream of the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and CAT activity was assayed in extracts of transfected cells. Two types of CAT vectors were used: Epstein-Barr virus oriP-derived constructs that were stably introduced into the human cell lines K562, Raji, and HL-60, and pSVO-CAT-derived constructs that were transiently introduced into the monkey cell line COS. By this approach they have identified two promoters for the human p53 gene. One promoter, p53P1, is located 100-250 bp upstream of the 218-bp noncoding first exon; a second, stronger promoter, p53P2, maps within the first intron. CAT activity and expression of CAT RNA indicate that p53P2 functions up to 50-fold more efficiently than p53P1. They conclude that the expression of the human p53 gene may be controlled by two promoters and that differential regulation of these promoters may play an important role in the altered expression of the gene in both normal and transformed cells.

  8. Expression and New Exon Mutations of the Human Beta Defensins and Their Association on Colon Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Al Shahrani, Omair; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; alharbi, Othman; Almadi, Majid A.; Azzam, Nahla Ali; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer involves genetic predisposition and a variety of environmental exposures. Genome-wide linkage analyses provide evidence for the significant linkage of many diseases to susceptibility loci on chromosome 8p23, the location of the human defensin gene cluster. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are important molecules of innate immunity. This study was designed to analyze the expression and genetic variations in hBDs (hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4) and their putative association with colon cancer. hBD gene expression and relative protein expression were evaluated by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, from 40 normal patients and 40 age-matched patients with colon cancer in Saudi Arabia. In addition, hBD polymorphisms were genotyped by exon sequencing and by promoter methylation. hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4 basal messenger RNA expression was significantly lower in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. Several insertion mutations were detected in different exons of the analyzed hBDs. However, no methylation in any hBDs promoters was detected because of the limited number of CpG islands in these regions. We demonstrated for the first time a link between hBD expression and colon cancer. This suggests that there is a significant link between innate immunity deregulation through disruption of cationic peptides (hBDs) and the potential development of colon cancer. PMID:26038828

  9. Expression and new exon mutations of the human Beta defensins and their association on colon cancer development.

    PubMed

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Al Shahrani, Omair; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman; Almadi, Majid A; Azzam, Nahla Ali; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad S

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer involves genetic predisposition and a variety of environmental exposures. Genome-wide linkage analyses provide evidence for the significant linkage of many diseases to susceptibility loci on chromosome 8p23, the location of the human defensin gene cluster. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are important molecules of innate immunity. This study was designed to analyze the expression and genetic variations in hBDs (hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4) and their putative association with colon cancer. hBD gene expression and relative protein expression were evaluated by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, from 40 normal patients and 40 age-matched patients with colon cancer in Saudi Arabia. In addition, hBD polymorphisms were genotyped by exon sequencing and by promoter methylation. hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4 basal messenger RNA expression was significantly lower in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. Several insertion mutations were detected in different exons of the analyzed hBDs. However, no methylation in any hBDs promoters was detected because of the limited number of CpG islands in these regions. We demonstrated for the first time a link between hBD expression and colon cancer. This suggests that there is a significant link between innate immunity deregulation through disruption of cationic peptides (hBDs) and the potential development of colon cancer.

  10. Identification of a novel first exon in the human dystrophin gene and of a new promoter located more than 500 kb upstream of the nearest known promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagawa, H.; Nishio, H.; Takeshima, Y.

    1994-09-01

    The dystrophin gene, which is muted in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, is the largest known human gene. Five alternative promoters have been characterized until now. Here we show that a novel dystrophin isoform with a different first exon can be produced through transcription initiation at a previously-unidentified alternative promoter. The case study presented is that of patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had a deletion extending from 5{prime} end of the dystrophin gene to exon 2, including all promoters previously mapped in the 5{prime} part of the gene. Transcripts from lymphoblastoid cells were found to contain sequences corresponding to exon 3, indicating the presence of new promoter upstream of this exon. The nucleotide sequence of amplified cDNA corresponding to the 5{prime} end of the new transcript indicated that the 5{prime} end of exon 3 was extended by 9 codons, only the last (most 3{prime}) of which codes for methionine. The genomic nucleotide sequence upstream from the new exon, as determined using inverse polymerase chain reaction, revealed the presence of sequences similar to a TATA box, an octamer motif and an MEF-2 element. The identified promoter/exon did not map to intron 2, as might have been expected, but to a position more than 500 kb upstream of the most 5{prime} of the previously-identified promoters, thereby adding 500 kb to the dystrophin gene. The sequence of part of the new promoter region is very similar to that of certain medium reiteration frequency repetitive sequences. These findings may help us understand the molecular evolution of the dystrophin gene.

  11. Translational regulation of human neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by an alternatively spliced 5'-untranslated region leader exon.

    PubMed

    Newton, Derek C; Bevan, Sian C; Choi, Stephen; Robb, G Brett; Millar, Adam; Wang, Yang; Marsden, Philip A

    2003-01-03

    Expression of the neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA is subject to complex cell-specific transcriptional regulation, which is mediated by alternative promoters. Unexpectedly, we identified a 89-nucleotide alternatively spliced exon located in the 5'-untranslated region between exon 1 variants and a common exon 2 that contains the translational initiation codon. Alternative splicing events that do not affect the open reading frame are distinctly uncommon in mammals; therefore, we assessed its functional relevance. Transient transfection of reporter RNAs performed in a variety of cell types revealed that this alternatively spliced exon acts as a potent translational repressor. Stably transfected cell lines confirmed that the alternatively spliced exon inhibited translation of the native nNOS open reading frame. Reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assays indicated that nNOS mRNAs containing this exon are common and expressed in both a promoter-specific and tissue-restricted fashion. Mutational analysis identified the functional cis-element within this novel exon, and a secondary structure prediction revealed that it forms a putative stem-loop. RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay techniques revealed that a specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding complex interacts with this motif. Hence, a unique splicing event within a 5'-untranslated region is demonstrated to introduce a translational control element. This represents a newer model for the translational control of a mammalian mRNA.

  12. Exons, Introns, and DNA Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlon, Enrico; Malki, Mehdi Lejard; Blossey, Ralf

    2005-05-01

    The genes of eukaryotes are characterized by protein coding fragments, the exons, interrupted by introns, i.e., stretches of DNA which do not carry useful information for protein synthesis. We have analyzed the melting behavior of randomly selected human cDNA sequences obtained from genomic DNA by removing all introns. A clear correspondence is observed between exons and melting domains. This finding may provide new insights into the physical mechanisms underlying the evolution of genes.

  13. Splicing of designer exons informs a biophysical model for exon definition.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio A; Lubkin, Ashira; Chasin, Lawrence A

    2015-02-01

    Pre-mRNA molecules in humans contain mostly short internal exons flanked by longer introns. To explain the removal of such introns, exon recognition instead of intron recognition has been proposed. We studied this exon definition using designer exons (DEs) made up of three prototype modules of our own design: an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), an exonic splicing silencer (ESS), and a Reference Sequence (R) predicted to be neither. Each DE was examined as the central exon in a three-exon minigene. DEs made of R modules showed a sharp size dependence, with exons shorter than 14 nt and longer than 174 nt splicing poorly. Changing the strengths of the splice sites improved longer exon splicing but worsened shorter exon splicing, effectively displacing the curve to the right. For the ESE we found, unexpectedly, that its enhancement efficiency was independent of its position within the exon. For the ESS we found a step-wise positional increase in its effects; it was most effective at the 3' end of the exon. To apply these results quantitatively, we developed a biophysical model for exon definition of internal exons undergoing cotranscriptional splicing. This model features commitment to inclusion before the downstream exon is synthesized and competition between skipping and inclusion fates afterward. Collision of both exon ends to form an exon definition complex was incorporated to account for the effect of size; ESE/ESS effects were modeled on the basis of stabilization/destabilization. This model accurately predicted the outcome of independent experiments on more complex DEs that combined ESEs and ESSs.

  14. Novel Exons and Splice Variants in the Human Antibody Heavy Chain Identified by Single Cell and Single Molecule Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vollmers, Christopher; Penland, Lolita; Kanbar, Jad N.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody heavy chains contain a variable and a constant region. The constant region of the antibody heavy chain is encoded by multiple groups of exons which define the isotype and therefore many functional characteristics of the antibody. We performed both single B cell RNAseq and long read single molecule sequencing of antibody heavy chain transcripts and were able to identify novel exons for IGHA1 and IGHA2 as well as novel isoforms for IGHM antibody heavy chain. PMID:25611855

  15. The structure of the human tissue-type plasminogen activator gene: correlation of intron and exon structures to functional and structural domains.

    PubMed Central

    Ny, T; Elgh, F; Lund, B

    1984-01-01

    A genomic clone carrying the human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene was isolated from a cosmid library, and the gene structure was elucidated by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. The cosmid contained all the coding parts of the mRNA, except for the first 58 bases in the 5' end of the mRNA, and had a total length of greater than 20 kilobases. It was separated into at least 14 exons by at least 13 introns, and the exons seemed to code for structural or functional domains. Thus, the signal peptide, the propeptide, and the domains of the heavy chain, including the regions homologous to growth factors, and to the "finger" structure of fibronectin, are all encoded by separate exons. In addition, the two kringle regions of t-PA were both coded for by two exons and were cleaved by introns at identical positions. The region coding for the light chain, comprising the serine protease part of the molecule was split by four introns, revealing a gene organization similar to other serine proteases. PMID:6089198

  16. Remarkable intron and exon sequence conservation in human and mouse homeobox Hox 1. 3 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier-Lasserve, E.; Odenwald, W.F.; Garbern, J.; Trojanowski, J.; Lazzarini, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    A high degree of conservation exists between the Hox 1.3 homeobox genes of mice and humans. The two genes occupy the same relative positions in their respective Hox 1 gene clusters, they show extensive sequence similarities in their coding and noncoding portions, and both are transcribed into multiple transcripts of similar sizes. The predicted human Hox 1.3 protein differs from its murine counterpart in only 7 of 270 amino acids. The sequence similarity in the 250 base pairs upstream of the initiation codon is 98%, the similarity between the two introns, both 960 base pairs long, is 72%, and the similarity in the 3' noncoding region from termination codon to polyadenylation signal is 90%. Both mouse and human Hox 1.3 introns contain a sequence with homology to a mating-type-controlled cis element of the yeast Ty1 transposon. DNA-binding studies with a recombinant mouse Hox 1.3 protein identified two binding sites in the intron, both of which were within the region of shared homology with this Ty1 cis element.

  17. The sequence and antiapoptotic functional domains of the human cytomegalovirus UL37 exon 1 immediate early protein are conserved in multiple primary strains.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, W A; Colberg-Poley, A M; Skaletskaya, A; Bartle, L M; Lesperance, M M; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, D G; Kedersha, N L; Goldmacher, V S

    2001-01-05

    The human cytomegalovirus UL37 exon 1 gene encodes the immediate early protein pUL37x1 that has antiapoptotic and regulatory activities. Deletion mutagenesis analysis of the open reading frame of UL37x1 identified two domains that are necessary and sufficient for its antiapoptotic activity. These domains are confined within the segments between amino acids 5 to 34, and 118 to 147, respectively. The first domain provides the targeting of the protein to mitochondria. Direct PCR sequencing of UL37 exon 1 amplified from 26 primary strains of human cytomegalovirus demonstrated that the promoter, polyadenylation signal, and the two segments of pUL37x1 required for its antiapoptotic function were invariant in all sequenced strains and identical to those in AD169 pUL37x1. In total, UL37 exon 1 varies between 0.0 and 1.6% at the nucleotide level from strain AD169. Only 11 amino acids were found to vary in one or more viral strains, and these variations occurred only in the domains of pUL37x1 dispensable for its antiapoptotic function. We infer from this remarkable conservation of pUL37x1 in primary strains that this protein and, probably, its antiapoptotic function are required for productive replication of human cytomegalovirus in humans.

  18. Rawcopy: Improved copy number analysis with Affymetrix arrays

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Markus; Viklund, Björn; Isaksson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Microarray data is subject to noise and systematic variation that negatively affects the resolution of copy number analysis. We describe Rawcopy, an R package for processing of Affymetrix CytoScan HD, CytoScan 750k and SNP 6.0 microarray raw intensities (CEL files). Noise characteristics of a large number of reference samples are used to estimate log ratio and B-allele frequency for total and allele-specific copy number analysis. Rawcopy achieves better signal-to-noise ratio and higher proportion of validated alterations than commonly used free and proprietary alternatives. In addition, Rawcopy visualizes each microarray sample for assessment of technical quality, patient identity and genome-wide absolute copy number states. Software and instructions are available at http://rawcopy.org. PMID:27796336

  19. An Exon-Specific U1snRNA Induces a Robust Factor IX Activity in Mice Expressing Multiple Human FIX Splicing Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Balestra, Dario; Scalet, Daniela; Pagani, Franco; Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Mari, Rosella; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    In cellular models we have demonstrated that a unique U1snRNA targeting an intronic region downstream of a defective exon (Exon-specific U1snRNA, ExSpeU1) can rescue multiple exon-skipping mutations, a relevant cause of genetic disease. Here, we explored in mice the ExSpeU1 U1fix9 toward two model Hemophilia B-causing mutations at the 5′ (c.519A > G) or 3′ (c.392-8T > G) splice sites of F9 exon 5. Hydrodynamic injection of wt-BALB/C mice with plasmids expressing the wt and mutant (hFIX-2G5′ss and hFIX-8G3′ss) splicing-competent human factor IX (hFIX) cassettes resulted in the expression of hFIX transcripts lacking exon 5 in liver, and in low plasma levels of inactive hFIX. Coinjection of U1fix9, but not of U1wt, restored exon inclusion of variants and in the intrinsically weak FIXwt context. This resulted in appreciable circulating hFIX levels (mean ± SD; hFIX-2G5′ss, 1.0 ± 0.5 µg/ml; hFIX-8G3′ss, 1.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml; and hFIXwt, 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/ml), leading to a striking shortening (from ~100 seconds of untreated mice to ~80 seconds) of FIX-dependent coagulation times, indicating a hFIX with normal specific activity. This is the first proof-of-concept in vivo that a unique ExSpeU1 can efficiently rescue gene expression impaired by distinct exon-skipping variants, which extends the applicability of ExSpeU1s to panels of mutations and thus cohort of patients. PMID:27701399

  20. Novel Nine-Exon AR Transcripts (Exon 1/Exon 1b/Exons 2–8) in Normal and Cancerous Breast and Prostate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong Gui; McKinnon, Ross A.; Hulin, Julie-Ann; Mackenzie, Peter I.; Meech, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20 different transcripts of the human androgen receptor (AR) are reported with two currently listed as Refseq isoforms in the NCBI database. Isoform 1 encodes wild-type AR (type 1 AR) and isoform 2 encodes the variant AR45 (type 2 AR). Both variants contain eight exons: they share common exons 2–8 but differ in exon 1 with the canonical exon 1 in isoform 1 and the variant exon 1b in isoform 2. Splicing of exon 1 or exon 1b is reported to be mutually exclusive. In this study, we identified a novel exon 1b (1b/TAG) that contains an additional TAG trinucleotide upstream of exon 1b. Moreover, we identified AR transcripts in both normal and cancerous breast and prostate cells that contained either exon 1b or 1b/TAG spliced between the canonical exon 1 and exon 2, generating nine-exon AR transcripts that we have named isoforms 3a and 3b. The proteins encoded by these new AR variants could regulate androgen-responsive reporters in breast and prostate cancer cells under androgen-depleted conditions. Analysis of type 3 AR-GFP fusion proteins showed partial nuclear localization in PC3 cells under androgen-depleted conditions, supporting androgen-independent activation of the AR. Type 3 AR proteins inhibited androgen-induced growth of LNCaP cells. Microarray analysis identified a small set of type 3a AR target genes in LNCaP cells, including genes known to modulate growth and proliferation of prostate cancer (PCGEM1, PEG3, EPHA3, and EFNB2) or other types of human cancers (TOX3, ST8SIA4, and SLITRK3), and genes that are diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of prostate cancer (GRINA3, and BCHE). PMID:28035996

  1. Novel Nine-Exon AR Transcripts (Exon 1/Exon 1b/Exons 2-8) in Normal and Cancerous Breast and Prostate Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong Gui; McKinnon, Ross A; Hulin, Julie-Ann; Mackenzie, Peter I; Meech, Robyn

    2016-12-27

    Nearly 20 different transcripts of the human androgen receptor (AR) are reported with two currently listed as Refseq isoforms in the NCBI database. Isoform 1 encodes wild-type AR (type 1 AR) and isoform 2 encodes the variant AR45 (type 2 AR). Both variants contain eight exons: they share common exons 2-8 but differ in exon 1 with the canonical exon 1 in isoform 1 and the variant exon 1b in isoform 2. Splicing of exon 1 or exon 1b is reported to be mutually exclusive. In this study, we identified a novel exon 1b (1b/TAG) that contains an additional TAG trinucleotide upstream of exon 1b. Moreover, we identified AR transcripts in both normal and cancerous breast and prostate cells that contained either exon 1b or 1b/TAG spliced between the canonical exon 1 and exon 2, generating nine-exon AR transcripts that we have named isoforms 3a and 3b. The proteins encoded by these new AR variants could regulate androgen-responsive reporters in breast and prostate cancer cells under androgen-depleted conditions. Analysis of type 3 AR-GFP fusion proteins showed partial nuclear localization in PC3 cells under androgen-depleted conditions, supporting androgen-independent activation of the AR. Type 3 AR proteins inhibited androgen-induced growth of LNCaP cells. Microarray analysis identified a small set of type 3a AR target genes in LNCaP cells, including genes known to modulate growth and proliferation of prostate cancer (PCGEM1, PEG3, EPHA3, and EFNB2) or other types of human cancers (TOX3, ST8SIA4, and SLITRK3), and genes that are diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of prostate cancer (GRINA3, and BCHE).

  2. Polymorphism in exon 6 of the human NT5E gene is associated with aortic valve calcification.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Zdzislaw; Karbowska, Joanna; Gogga, Patrycja; Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2016-12-01

    NT5E encodes ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e5NT, CD73) which hydrolyses extracellular AMP to adenosine. Adenosine has been shown to play a protective role against aortic valve calcification (AVC). We identified two nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.1126A > G, p.T376A and c.1136T > C, p.M379T) in exon 6 of the human NT5E gene. Since both substitutions might affect e5NT activity and consequently alter extracellular adenosine levels, we evaluated the association between NT5E alleles and calcific aortic valve disease in 119 patients (95 patients with AVC and 24 controls). In AVC patients, the frequency of the G allele at c.1126 and the frequency of the GG genotype as well as the frequency of the C allele at c.1136, and the frequencies of CC and TC genotypes tended to be higher as compared to controls. The allele and genotype frequencies in AVC patients and controls were also compared to those calculated from the 1000 Genomes Project data for control individuals of European ancestry (n = 503). We found that the frequency of the C allele at c.1136 is significantly higher in patients with AVC than in the European controls (0.111 vs. 0.054, P = 0.0052). Moreover, e5NT activity in aortic valves showed a trend toward lower levels in AVC patients with CC and TC genotypes than in those with the TT genotype. Our findings indicate that the genetic polymorphism of NT5E may contribute to the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease and that the C allele of SNP c.1136 is associated with an increased risk of AVC.

  3. Micro-Analyzer: automatic preprocessing of Affymetrix microarray data.

    PubMed

    Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2013-08-01

    A current trend in genomics is the investigation of the cell mechanism using different technologies, in order to explain the relationship among genes, molecular processes and diseases. For instance, the combined use of gene-expression arrays and genomic arrays has been demonstrated as an effective instrument in clinical practice. Consequently, in a single experiment different kind of microarrays may be used, resulting in the production of different types of binary data (images and textual raw data). The analysis of microarray data requires an initial preprocessing phase, that makes raw data suitable for use on existing analysis platforms, such as the TIGR M4 (TM4) Suite. An additional challenge to be faced by emerging data analysis platforms is the ability to treat in a combined way those different microarray formats coupled with clinical data. In fact, resulting integrated data may include both numerical and symbolic data (e.g. gene expression and SNPs regarding molecular data), as well as temporal data (e.g. the response to a drug, time to progression and survival rate), regarding clinical data. Raw data preprocessing is a crucial step in analysis but is often performed in a manual and error prone way using different software tools. Thus novel, platform independent, and possibly open source tools enabling the semi-automatic preprocessing and annotation of different microarray data are needed. The paper presents Micro-Analyzer (Microarray Analyzer), a cross-platform tool for the automatic normalization, summarization and annotation of Affymetrix gene expression and SNP binary data. It represents the evolution of the μ-CS tool, extending the preprocessing to SNP arrays that were not allowed in μ-CS. The Micro-Analyzer is provided as a Java standalone tool and enables users to read, preprocess and analyse binary microarray data (gene expression and SNPs) by invoking TM4 platform. It avoids: (i) the manual invocation of external tools (e.g. the Affymetrix Power

  4. HnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L coordinately enhance skipping of human MUSK exon 10 to generate a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Farhana; Rahman, Mohammad Alinoor; Masuda, Akio; Ohe, Kenji; Takeda, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Kinji

    2014-10-30

    Muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) is an essential postsynaptic transmembrane molecule that mediates clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). MUSK exon 10 is alternatively skipped in human, but not in mouse. Skipping of this exon disrupts a cysteine-rich region (Fz-CRD), which is essential for Wnt-mediated AChR clustering. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of alternative splicing, we exploited block-scanning mutagenesis with human minigene and identified a 20-nucleotide block that contained exonic splicing silencers. Using RNA-affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting, we identified that hnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L are bound to MUSK exon 10. siRNA-mediated knockdown and cDNA overexpression confirmed the additive, as well as the independent, splicing suppressing effects of hnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L. Antibody-mediated in vitro protein depletion and scanning mutagenesis additionally revealed that binding of hnRNP C to RNA subsequently promotes binding of YB-1 and hnRNP L to the immediate downstream sites and enhances exon skipping. Simultaneous tethering of two splicing trans-factors to the target confirmed the cooperative effect of YB-1 and hnRNP L on hnRNP C-mediated exon skipping. Search for a similar motif in the human genome revealed nine alternative exons that were individually or coordinately regulated by hnRNP C and YB-1.

  5. Computational discovery of internal micro-exons.

    PubMed

    Volfovsky, Natalia; Haas, Brian J; Salzberg, Steven L

    2003-06-01

    Very short exons, also known as micro-exons, occur in large numbers in some eukaryotic genomes. Existing annotation tools have a limited ability to recognize these short sequences, which range in length up to 25 bp. Here, we describe a computational method for the identification of micro-exons using near-perfect alignments between cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. Using this method, we detected 319 micro-exons in 4 complete genomes, of which 224 were previously unknown, human (170), the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (4), the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (14), and the mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana (36). Comparison of our computational method with popular cDNA alignment programs shows that the new algorithm is both efficient and accurate. The algorithm also aids in the discovery of micro-exon-skipping events and cross-species micro-exon conservation.

  6. Cloning and characterization of human inducible nitric oxide synthase splice variants: A domain, encoded by exons 8 and 9, is critical for dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, N. Tony; Yuan, Jean W.; Haggerty, Cynthia M.; Choo, Esther K.; Palmer, Celeste D.; Moss, Joel

    1998-01-01

    The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contains an amino-terminal oxygenase domain, a carboxy-terminal reductase domain, and an intervening calmodulin-binding region. For the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), iNOS is active as a homodimer. The human iNOS mRNA is subject to alternative splicing, including deletion of exons 8 and 9 that encode amino acids 242–335 of the oxygenase domain. In this study, iNOS8−9− and full-length iNOS (iNOSFL) were cloned from bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of iNOS8−9− in 293 cell line resulted in generation of iNOS8−9− mRNA and protein but did not lead to NO production. In contrast to iNOSFL, iNOS8−9− did not form dimers. Similar to iNOSFL, iNOS8−9− exhibited NADPH-diaphorase activity and contained tightly bound calmodulin, indicating that the reductase and calmodulin-binding domains were functional. To identify sequences in exons 8 and 9 that are critical for dimerization, iNOSFL was used to construct 12 mutants, each with deletion of eight residues in the region encoded by exons 8 and 9. In addition, two “control” iNOS deletion mutants were synthesized, lacking either residues 45–52 of the oxygenase domain or residues 1131–1138 of the reductase domain. Whereas both control deletion mutants generated NO and formed dimers, none of the 12 other mutants formed dimers or generated NO. The region encoded by exons 8 and 9 is critical for iNOS dimer formation and NO production but not for reductase activity. This region could be a potential target for therapeutic interventions aimed at inhibiting iNOS dimerization and hence NO synthesis. PMID:9636200

  7. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. )

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  8. Mining Affymetrix microarray data for long non-coding RNAs: altered expression in the nucleus accumbens of heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Lipovich, Leonard; Blythe, Jason; Jia, Hui; Kapatos, Gregory; Bannon, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Although recent data suggest that some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert widespread effects on gene expression and organelle formation, lncRNAs as a group constitute a sizable but poorly characterized fraction of the human transcriptome. We investigated whether some human lncRNA sequences were fortuitously represented on commonly used microarrays, then used this annotation to assess lncRNA expression in human brain. A computational and annotation pipeline was developed to identify lncRNA transcripts represented on Affymetrix U133 arrays. A previously published dataset derived from human nucleus accumbens was then examined for potential lncRNA expression. Twenty-three lncRNAs were determined to be represented on U133 arrays. Of these, dataset analysis revealed that five lncRNAs were consistently detected in samples of human nucleus accumbens. Strikingly, the abundance of these lncRNAs was up-regulated in human heroin abusers compared to matched drug-free control subjects, a finding confirmed by quantitative PCR. This study presents a paradigm for examining existing Affymetrix datasets for the detection and potential regulation of lncRNA expression, including changes associated with human disease. The finding that all detected lncRNAs were up-regulated in heroin abusers is consonant with the proposed role of lncRNAs as mediators of widespread changes in gene expression as occur in drug abuse.

  9. Lariat sequencing in a unicellular yeast identifies regulated alternative splicing of exons that are evolutionarily conserved with humans.

    PubMed

    Awan, Ali R; Manfredo, Amanda; Pleiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-30

    Alternative splicing is a potent regulator of gene expression that vastly increases proteomic diversity in multicellular eukaryotes and is associated with organismal complexity. Although alternative splicing is widespread in vertebrates, little is known about the evolutionary origins of this process, in part because of the absence of phylogenetically conserved events that cross major eukaryotic clades. Here we describe a lariat-sequencing approach, which offers high sensitivity for detecting splicing events, and its application to the unicellular fungus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an organism that shares many of the hallmarks of alternative splicing in mammalian systems but for which no previous examples of exon-skipping had been demonstrated. Over 200 previously unannotated splicing events were identified, including examples of regulated alternative splicing. Remarkably, an evolutionary analysis of four of the exons identified here as subject to skipping in S. pombe reveals high sequence conservation and perfect length conservation with their homologs in scores of plants, animals, and fungi. Moreover, alternative splicing of two of these exons have been documented in multiple vertebrate organisms, making these the first demonstrations of identical alternative-splicing patterns in species that are separated by over 1 billion y of evolution.

  10. Introns differ from exons by their redundancy

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, T.G.; Sadovskii, M.G.

    1995-10-01

    This paper is devoted to an analysis of the intrinsic structure of the gene from the point of view of the redundancy of different structural units - exons and introns. Human genes for which the exon-intron structure has been clearly established were studied. The redundancy of each exon and intron in the gene was determined. It was shown that, in human genes, introns are more redundant than exons. Redundancy is determined as the smallest length of a word (oliconucleotide) beginning with which all words in the studied nucleotide sequence are found exactly once. Mechanisms leading to the disruption of the general pattern of ratios of redundancy of exons and introns are studied. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. An exonic splicing silencer in the testes-specific DNA ligase III β exon

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Shern L.; Baginsky, Lysa; Eperon, Ian C.

    2000-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing of two terminal exons (α and β) regulates the expression of the human DNA ligase III gene. In most tissues, the α exon is expressed. In testes and during spermatogenesis, the β exon is used instead. The α exon encodes the interaction domain with a scaffold DNA repair protein, XRCC1, while the β exon-encoded C-terminal does not. Sequence elements regulating the alternative splicing pattern were mapped by in vitro splicing assays in HeLa nuclear extracts. Deletion of a region beginning in the β exon and extending into the downstream intron derepressed splicing to the β exon. Two silencing elements were found within this 101 nt region: a 16 nt exonic splicing silencer immediately upstream of the β exon polyadenylation signal and a 45 nt intronic splicing silencer. The exonic splicing silencer inhibited splicing, even when the polyadenylation signal was deleted or replaced by a 5′ splice site. This element also enhanced polyadenylation under conditions unfavourable to splicing. The splicing silencer partially inhibited assembly of spliceosomal complexes and functioned in an adenoviral pre-mRNA context. Silencing of splicing by the element was associated with cross-linking of a 37 kDa protein to the RNA substrate. The element exerts opposite functions in splicing and polyadenylation. PMID:10606636

  12. Relationship between initial treatment effect of recombinant human growth hormone and exon 3 polymorphism of growth hormone receptor in Chinese children with growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhangqian; Cao, Lingfeng; Pei, Zhou; Zhi, Dijing; Zhao, Zhuhui; Xi, Li; Cheng, Ruoqian; Luo, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency distribution of exon 3 deleted (d3-GHR) genetic polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in growth hormone deficient (GHD) Chinese children and to explore the correlation between the growth promoting effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and exon 3 genetic polymorphism of GHR in GHD children. In this study, 111 GHD (excluded small for gestational age) children were treated with rhGH (0.20 mg/kg/week) for six months. The body height (Ht), body weight, bone age (BA) and growth velocity (GV) were measured before and after six months of treatment. The d3-GHR and full length GHR (fl-GHR) were analyzed to detect the frequency distribution of two isoforms and their influence on growth promoting effect of rhGH. The results indicated that the frequencies of fl/fl, fl/d3 and d3/d3 GHR genotypes were 67.6%, 18.9% and 13.5%. After six months of GH therapy, there were significant differences of ΔGV (ΔGV: 10.77±3.40 cm/year vs 12.18±3.08 cm/year) (P<0.05) and ΔHt (ΔHt: 5.38±1.70 cm vs 6.09±1.54 cm) (P<0.05) were found among GHD children with different genotypes (fl/fl vs fl/d3 and d3/d3). In conclusion, the frequency distribution of three GHR genotypes in 111 Chinese GHD children was different from that reported in Caucasian, indicating the existence of ethnic difference of exon 3 GHR polymorphism. There was a closely relationship between GHR genotypes and growth-promoting effect of rhGH in Chinese GHD children. PMID:26221355

  13. Identification of positive and negative splicing regulatory elements within the terminal tat-rev exon of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Staffa, A; Cochrane, A

    1995-01-01

    The requirement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to generate numerous proteins from a single primary transcript is met largely by the use of suboptimal splicing to generate over 30 mRNAs. To ensure that appropriate quantities of each protein are produced, there must be a signal(s) that controls the efficiency with which any particular splice site in the RNA is used. To identify this control element(s) and to understand how it operates to generate the splicing pattern observed, we have initially focused on the control of splicing of the tat-rev intron, which spans the majority of the env open reading frame. Previous analysis indicated that a suboptimal branchpoint and polypyridimine tract in this intron contribute to its suboptimal splicing (A. Staffa and A. Cochrane, J. Virol. 68:3071-3079, 1994). In this report, we identify two additional elements within the 3'-terminal exon, an exon-splicing enhancer (ESE) and an exon splicing silencer (ESS), that modulate the overall efficiency with which the 3' tat-rev splice site is utilized. Both elements are capable of functioning independently of one another. Furthermore, while both the ESE and ESS can function in a heterologous context, the function of the ESS is extremely sensitive to the sequence context into which it is placed. In conclusion, it would appear that the presence of a suboptimal branchpoint and a polypyrimidine tract as well as the ESE and ESS operate together to yield the balanced splicing of the tat-rev intron observed in vivo. PMID:7623851

  14. Targeted RNA-Seq profiling of splicing pattern in the DMD gene: exons are mostly constitutively spliced in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bougé, Anne-Laure; Murauer, Eva; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Miro, Julie; Varilh, Jessica; Taulan, Magali; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    We have analysed the splicing pattern of the human Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) NB transcript in normal skeletal muscle. To achieve depth of coverage required for the analysis of this lowly expressed gene in muscle, we designed a targeted RNA-Seq procedure that combines amplification of the full-length 11.3 kb DMD cDNA sequence and 454 sequencing technology. A high and uniform coverage of the cDNA sequence was obtained that allowed to draw up a reliable inventory of the physiological alternative splicing events in the muscular DMD transcript. In contrast to previous assumptions, we evidenced that most of the 79 DMD exons are constitutively spliced in skeletal muscle. Only a limited number of 12 alternative splicing events were identified, all present at a very low level. These include previously known exon skipping events but also newly described pseudoexon inclusions and alternative 3′ splice sites, of which one is the first functional NAGNAG splice site reported in the DMD gene. This study provides the first RNA-Seq-based reference of DMD splicing pattern in skeletal muscle and reports on an experimental procedure well suited to detect condition-specific differences in this low abundance transcript that may prove useful for diagnostic, research or RNA-based therapeutic applications. PMID:28045018

  15. The "alternative" choice of constitutive exons throughout evolution.

    PubMed

    Lev-Maor, Galit; Goren, Amir; Sela, Noa; Kim, Eddo; Keren, Hadas; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Leibman-Barak, Shelly; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2007-11-01

    Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes-exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5' splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs) that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing.

  16. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lubahn, D B; Brown, T R; Simental, J A; Higgs, H N; Migeon, C J; Wilson, E M; French, F S

    1989-12-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. We have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46,XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development.

  17. SFP Genotyping from Affymetrix Arrays is Robust but Largely Detects Cis-acting Expression Regulators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent development of Affymetrix chips designed from assembled EST sequences has spawned considerable interest in identifying single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) from transcriptome data. SFPs are valuable genetic markers that potentially offer a physical link to the structural genes themselves....

  18. Discovery and mapping of single feature polymorphisms in wheat using affymetrix arrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) can be a rich source of markers for gene mapping and function studies. To explore the feasibility of using the Affymetrix GeneChip to discover and map SFPs in the large hexaploid wheat genome, six wheat varieties of diverse origins were analyzed for significant pr...

  19. Non-covalent interactions of the carcinogen (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras proto-oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jorge H.; Deligkaris, Christos

    2013-03-01

    Investigating the complementary, but different, effects of physical (non-covalent) and chemical (covalent) mutagen-DNA and carcinogen-DNA interactions is important for understanding possible mechanisms of development and prevention of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. A highly mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[ α]pyrene, namely (+)-anti-BPDE, is known to undergo both physical and chemical complexation with DNA. The major covalent adduct, a promutagenic, is known to be an external (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N2-dGuanosine configuration whose origins are not fully understood. Thus, it is desirable to study the mechanisms of external non-covalent BPDE-DNA binding and their possible relationships to external covalent trans adduct formation. We present a detailed codon-by-codon computational study of the non-covalent interactions of (+)-anti-BPDE with DNA which explains and correctly predicts preferential (+)-anti-BPDE binding at minor groove guanosines. Due to its relevance to carcinogenesis, the interaction of (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras gene has been studied in detail. Present address: Department of Physics, Drury University

  20. Microsatellite and Mini-Exon Analysis of Mexican Human DTU I Trypanosoma cruzi Strains and Their Susceptibility to Nifurtimox and Benznidazole

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ignacio; Nogueda, Benjamín; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it affects as many as 10 million people in North and South America, where it represents a major public health problem. T. cruzi is a parasite with high genetic diversity, and it has been grouped into 6 discrete typing units (DTUs), designated as T. cruzi I (TcI) to T. cruzi VI (TcVI). Mexican isolates from humans and from vector insects have been primarily found to be TcI, and these isolates are likely to be the strains that cause the clinical manifestations observed in Mexico. However, genetic characterization and drug susceptibility assays are limited in Mexican TcI strains. In this work, 24 Mexican T. cruzi strains, obtained primarily from humans, were studied with 7 locus microsatellites and mini-exon gene by PCR. Also, drug susceptibility was evaluated by growth and mobility assays. All of the human strains belonged to TcI, and they could be further grouped through microsatellite analysis into 2 subgroups (microsatellite genotypes 1 and 2), which were not related to the host clinical status or biological origin of the strain. Two strains, both from wild mammals, belonged to the TcII–TcVI groups; these strains and the CL Brener strain constituted microsatellite genotype 3. The number of alleles in each locus was lower than reported for South American strains, and a departure from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was observed. The susceptibility of these strains to nifurtimox and benznidazole was heterogeneous. T. cruzi strains characterized as microsatellite genotypes 2 and 3 were significantly more susceptible to benznidazole than strains of microsatellite genotype 1. Only 1 Mexican strain resistant to both drugs was found in this study. PMID:23421890

  1. BK channels in rat and human pulmonary smooth muscle cells are BKα-β1 functional complexes lacking the oxygen-sensitive stress axis regulated exon insert

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Neil D.; Song, Li; McClenahan, Samantha J.; Versluis, Rachel J.; Kharade, Sujay V.; Kurten, Richard C.; Rhee, Sung W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A loss of K+ efflux in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) contributes to abnormal vasoconstriction and PASMC proliferation during pulmonary hypertension (PH). Activation of high-conductance Ca2+-activated (BK) channels represents a therapeutic strategy to restore K+ efflux to the affected PASMCs. However, the properties of BK channels in PASMCs—including sensitivity to BK channel openers (BKCOs)—are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to compare the properties of BK channels between PASMCs of normoxic (N) and chronic hypoxic (CH) rats and then explore key findings in human PASMCs. Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that 94.3% of transcripts encoding BKα pore proteins in PASMCs from N rats represent splice variants lacking the stress axis regulated exon insert, which confers oxygen sensitivity. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings from inside-out (I-O) patches confirmed a dense population of BK channels insensitive to hypoxia. The BK channels were highly activated by intracellular Ca2+ and the BKCO lithocholate; these responses require BKα-β1 subunit coupling. PASMCs of CH rats with established PH exhibited a profound overabundance of the dominant oxygen-insensitive BKα variant. Importantly, human BK (hBK) channels in PASMCs from human donor lungs also represented the oxygen-insensitive BKα variant activated by BKCOs. The hBK channels showed significantly enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity compared with rat BK channels. We conclude that rat BK and hBK channels in PASMCs are oxygen-insensitive BKα-β1 complexes highly sensitive to Ca2+ and the BKCO lithocholate. BK channels are overexpressed in PASMCs of a rat model of PH and may provide an abundant target for BKCOs designed to restore K+ efflux. PMID:28090300

  2. The role of D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphisms in shaping human altruism and prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yushi; Chew, Soo H.; Ebstein, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are an extraordinarily altruistic species often willing to help strangers at a considerable cost (sometimes life itself) to themselves. But as Darwin noted “… he who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature.” Hence, this is the paradox of altruism. Twin studies have shown that altruism and other prosocial behavior show considerable heritability and more recently a number of candidate genes have been identified with this phenotype. Among these first provisional findings are genes encoding elements of dopaminergic transmission. In this article we will review the evidence for the involvement of one of these, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, in shaping human prosocial behavior and consider the methodologies employed in measuring this trait, specific molecular genetic findings and finally, evidence from several Gene × Environment (G × E) studies that imply differential susceptibility of this gene to environmental influences. PMID:23717276

  3. Characterization of the in vitro expressed autoimmune rippling muscle disease immunogenic domain of human titin encoded by TTN exons 248-249

    SciTech Connect

    Zelinka, L.; McCann, S.; Budde, J.; Sethi, S.; Guidos, M.; Giles, R.; Walker, G.R.

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Affinity purification of the autoimmune rippling muscle disease immunogenic domain of titin. {yields} Partial sequence analysis confirms that the peptides is in the I band region of titin. {yields} This region of the human titin shows high degree of homology to mouse titin N2-A. -- Abstract: Autoimmune rippling muscle disease (ARMD) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease associated with myasthenia gravis (MG). Past studies in our laboratory recognized a very high molecular weight skeletal muscle protein antigen identified by ARMD patient antisera as the titin isoform. These past studies used antisera from ARMD and MG patients as probes to screen a human skeletal muscle cDNA library and several pBluescript clones revealed supporting expression of immunoreactive peptides. This study characterizes the products of subcloning the titin immunoreactive domain into pGEX-3X and the subsequent fusion protein. Sequence analysis of the fusion gene indicates the cloned titin domain (GenBank ID: (EU428784)) is in frame and is derived from a sequence of N2-A spanning the exons 248-250 an area that encodes the fibronectin III domain. PCR and EcoR1 restriction mapping studies have demonstrated that the inserted cDNA is of a size that is predicted by bioinformatics analysis of the subclone. Expression of the fusion protein result in the isolation of a polypeptide of 52 kDa consistent with the predicted inferred amino acid sequence. Immunoblot experiments of the fusion protein, using rippling muscle/myasthenia gravis antisera, demonstrate that only the titin domain is immunoreactive.

  4. Mutation in intron 6 of the hamster Mitf gene leads to skipping of the subsequent exon and creates a novel animal model for the human Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Graw, Jochen; Pretsch, Walter; Löster, Jana

    2003-01-01

    In the course of analysis of ENU-induced mutations in Syrian hamsters, a novel dominant anophthalmic white mutant (Wh(V203)) with hearing loss was recovered. Because of this phenotype and a close linkage to the Tpi gene, the Mitf gene was considered as a candidate gene. In the Mitf cDNA, a deletion of 76 bp covering the entire exon 7 was detected. Further molecular analysis revealed a T --> A exchange 16 bp upstream of the end of intron 6, leading to skipping of exon 7. These 16 bp at the end of intron 6 are identical in hamster, rat, mouse, and humans, indicating high conservation during evolution and a functional importance in splicing. Since the loss of exon 7 changes the open reading frame of the MITF transcript, translation will be stopped after 10 new amino acids. The truncated protein is predicted to contain only a part of the basic region and will miss the two helical domains and the leucine zipper. The Wh(V203) mutation in the Syrian hamster affects the same functional domains of the Mitf transcription factor as the human R124X mutation, causing human Waardenburg syndrome type II. Therefore, the Wh(V203) hamster mutant provides a novel model for this particular syndrome. PMID:12871913

  5. During in vivo maturation of eukaryotic nuclear mRNA, splicing yields excised exon circles.

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, B

    1996-01-01

    Circular splicing has already been described on nuclear pre-mRNA for certain splice sites far apart in the multi exonic ETS-1 gene and in the single 1.2 kb exon of the Sry locus. To date, it is unclear how splice site juxtaposition occurs in normal and circular splicing. The splice site selection of an internal exon is likely to involve pairing between splice sites across that exon. Based on this, we predict that, albeit at low frequency, internal exons yield circular RNA by splicing as an error-prone mechanism of exon juxtaposition or, perhaps more interestingly, as a regulated mechanism on alternative exons. To address this question, the circular exon formation was analyzed at three ETS-1 internal exons (one alternative spliced exon and two constitutive), in human cell line and blood cell samples. Here, we show by RT-PCR and sequencing that exon circular splicing occurs at the three individual exons that we examined. RNase protection experiments suggest that there is no correlation between exon circle expression and exon skipping. PMID:8604331

  6. Noncoder: a web interface for exon array-based detection of long non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, Pascal; Ponomareva, Yuliya; Braun, Thomas; Uchida, Shizuka

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent technical developments, a high number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered in mammals. Although it has been shown that lncRNAs are regulated differently among tissues and disease statuses, functions of these transcripts are still unknown in most cases. GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (exon arrays) from Affymetrix, Inc. have been used widely to profile genome-wide expression changes and alternative splicing of protein-coding genes. Here, we demonstrate that re-annotation of exon array probes can be used to profile expressions of tens of thousands of lncRNAs. With this annotation, a detailed inspection of lncRNAs and their isoforms is possible. To allow for a general usage to the research community, we developed a user-friendly web interface called ‘noncoder’. By uploading CEL files from exon arrays and with a few mouse clicks and parameter settings, exon array data will be normalized and analysed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs. Noncoder provides the detailed annotation information of lncRNAs and is equipped with unique features to allow for an efficient search for interesting lncRNAs to be studied further. The web interface is available at http://noncoder.mpi-bn.mpg.de. PMID:23012263

  7. Therapeutic exon skipping for dysferlinopathies?

    PubMed

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Singh, Kavita H K; Fokkema, Ivo F A C; Ginjaar, Ieke B; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; den Dunnen, Johan T; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2010-08-01

    Antisense-mediated exon skipping is a promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) currently tested in clinical trials. The aim is to reframe dystrophin transcripts using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). These hide an exon from the splicing machinery to induce exon skipping, restoration of the reading frame and generation of internally deleted, but partially functional proteins. It thus relies on the characteristic of the dystrophin protein, which has essential N- and C-terminal domains, whereas the central rod domain is largely redundant. This approach may also be applicable to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B), Myoshi myopathy (MM) and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT), which are caused by mutations in the dysferlin-encoding DYSF gene. Dysferlin has a function in repairing muscle membrane damage. Dysferlin contains calcium-dependent C2 lipid binding (C2) domains and an essential transmembrane domain. However, mildly affected patients in whom one or a large number of DYSF exons were missing have been described, suggesting that internally deleted dysferlin proteins can be functional. Thus, exon skipping might also be applicable as a LGMD2B, MM and DMAT therapy. In this study we have analyzed the dysferlin protein domains and DYSF mutations and have described what exons are promising targets with regard to applicability and feasibility. We also show that DYSF exon skipping seems to be as straightforward as DMD exon skipping, as AONs to induce efficient skipping of four DYSF exons were readily identified.

  8. Exon-skipping and mRNA decay in human liver tissue: molecular consequences of pathogenic bile salt export pump mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dröge, Carola; Schaal, Heiner; Engelmann, Guido; Wenning, Daniel; Häussinger, Dieter; Kubitz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The bile salt export pump BSEP mediates bile formation. Over 150 BSEP mutations are associated with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2), with few characterised specifically. We examined liver tissues from two PFIC-2 patients compound heterozygous for the splice-site mutation c.150 + 3A > C and either c.2783_2787dup5 resulting in a frameshift with a premature termination codon (child 1) or p.R832C (child 2). Splicing was analysed with a minigene system and mRNA sequencing from patients’ livers. Protein expression was shown by immunofluorescence. Using the minigene, c.150 + 3A > C causes complete skipping of exon 3. In liver tissue of child 1, c.2783_2787dup5 was found on DNA but not on mRNA level, implying nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) when c.2783_2787dup5 is present. Still, BSEP protein as well as mRNA with and without exon 3 were detectable and can be assigned to the c.150 + 3A > C allele. Correctly spliced transcripts despite c.150 + 3A > C were also confirmed in liver of child 2. In conclusion, we provide evidence (1) for effective NMD due to a BSEP frameshift mutation and (2) partial exon-skipping due to c.150 + 3A > C. The results illustrate that the extent of exon-skipping depends on the genomic and cellular context and that regulation of splicing may have therapeutic potential. PMID:27114171

  9. Exon-skipping and mRNA decay in human liver tissue: molecular consequences of pathogenic bile salt export pump mutations.

    PubMed

    Dröge, Carola; Schaal, Heiner; Engelmann, Guido; Wenning, Daniel; Häussinger, Dieter; Kubitz, Ralf

    2016-04-26

    The bile salt export pump BSEP mediates bile formation. Over 150 BSEP mutations are associated with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2), with few characterised specifically. We examined liver tissues from two PFIC-2 patients compound heterozygous for the splice-site mutation c.150 + 3A > C and either c.2783_2787dup5 resulting in a frameshift with a premature termination codon (child 1) or p.R832C (child 2). Splicing was analysed with a minigene system and mRNA sequencing from patients' livers. Protein expression was shown by immunofluorescence. Using the minigene, c.150 + 3A > C causes complete skipping of exon 3. In liver tissue of child 1, c.2783_2787dup5 was found on DNA but not on mRNA level, implying nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) when c.2783_2787dup5 is present. Still, BSEP protein as well as mRNA with and without exon 3 were detectable and can be assigned to the c.150 + 3A > C allele. Correctly spliced transcripts despite c.150 + 3A > C were also confirmed in liver of child 2. In conclusion, we provide evidence (1) for effective NMD due to a BSEP frameshift mutation and (2) partial exon-skipping due to c.150 + 3A > C. The results illustrate that the extent of exon-skipping depends on the genomic and cellular context and that regulation of splicing may have therapeutic potential.

  10. Exon-specific northern analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) reveal that the proximal promoter II (PII) is responsible for aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) expression in human ovary.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C; Michael, D; Mahendroo, M; Simpson, E

    1993-11-01

    Estrogens are synthesized from C19 steroids by a unique form of cytochrome P450, aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P-450AROM; the product of the CYP19 gene). We have shown that tissue-specific expression of human P-450AROM is determined, in part, by the use of alternative promoters. Previous methods of analysis for determining the specific 5'-termini of the different transcripts included S1 nuclease protection, primer extension, and Northern analysis. In the present study we have used the RACE procedure (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) to amplify and clone the 5' termini of P-450AROM transcripts expressed in human corpus luteum (CL). Sequencing of the resulting clones supports the results of the previously performed studies. Specifically, the proximal promoter, PII, is the predominant promoter utilized in CL, such that the start of transcription occurs 26 bp downstream of the putative TATA sequence. A minority of the clones possess an alternative 5'-end, namely I.3. Exon-specific Northern analysis confirms that the majority of the P-450AROM transcripts in CL tissue contain sequence specific for promoter II. Similarly, exon-specific Northern analysis indicates that transcripts in human follicles, as well as granulosa cells in culture, contain primarily sequence specific for promoter II.

  11. Understanding the physics of oligonucleotide microarrays: the Affymetrix spike-in data reanalysed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burden, Conrad J.

    2008-03-01

    The Affymetrix U95 and U133 Latin-Square spike-in datasets are reanalysed, together with a dataset from a version of the U95 spike-in experiment without a complex non-specific background. The approach uses a physico-chemical model which includes the effects of the specific and non-specific hybridization and probe folding at the microarray surface, target folding and hybridization in the bulk RNA target solution and duplex dissociation during the post-hybridization washing phase. The model predicts a three-parameter hyperbolic response function that fits well with fluorescence intensity data from all the three datasets. The importance of the various hybridization and washing effects in determining each of the three parameters is examined, and some guidance is given as to how a practical algorithm for determining specific target concentrations might be developed.

  12. MAAMD: a workflow to standardize meta-analyses and comparison of affymetrix microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mandatory deposit of raw microarray data files for public access, prior to study publication, provides significant opportunities to conduct new bioinformatics analyses within and across multiple datasets. Analysis of raw microarray data files (e.g. Affymetrix CEL files) can be time consuming, complex, and requires fundamental computational and bioinformatics skills. The development of analytical workflows to automate these tasks simplifies the processing of, improves the efficiency of, and serves to standardize multiple and sequential analyses. Once installed, workflows facilitate the tedious steps required to run rapid intra- and inter-dataset comparisons. Results We developed a workflow to facilitate and standardize Meta-Analysis of Affymetrix Microarray Data analysis (MAAMD) in Kepler. Two freely available stand-alone software tools, R and AltAnalyze were embedded in MAAMD. The inputs of MAAMD are user-editable csv files, which contain sample information and parameters describing the locations of input files and required tools. MAAMD was tested by analyzing 4 different GEO datasets from mice and drosophila. MAAMD automates data downloading, data organization, data quality control assesment, differential gene expression analysis, clustering analysis, pathway visualization, gene-set enrichment analysis, and cross-species orthologous-gene comparisons. MAAMD was utilized to identify gene orthologues responding to hypoxia or hyperoxia in both mice and drosophila. The entire set of analyses for 4 datasets (34 total microarrays) finished in ~ one hour. Conclusions MAAMD saves time, minimizes the required computer skills, and offers a standardized procedure for users to analyze microarray datasets and make new intra- and inter-dataset comparisons. PMID:24621103

  13. Computational definition of sequence motifs governing constitutive exon splicing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang H-F; Chasin, Lawrence A

    2004-06-01

    We have searched for sequence motifs that contribute to the recognition of human pre-mRNA splice sites by comparing the frequency of 8-mers in internal noncoding exons versus unspliced pseudo exons and 5' untranslated regions (5' untranslated regions [UTRs]) of transcripts of intronless genes. This type of comparison avoids the isolation of sequences that are distinguished by their protein-coding information. We classified sequence families comprising 2069 putative exonic enhancers and 974 putative exonic silencers. Representatives of each class functioned as enhancers or silencers when inserted into a test exon and assayed in transfected mammalian cells. As a class, the enhancer sequencers were more prevalent and the silencer elements less prevalent in all exons compared with introns. A survey of 58 reported exonic splicing mutations showed good agreement between the splicing phenotype and the effect of the mutation on the motifs defined here. The large number of effective sequences implied by these results suggests that sequences that influence splicing may be very abundant in pre-mRNA.

  14. Germline mutations of BRCA1 gene exon 11 are not associated with platinum response neither with survival advantage in patients with primary ovarian cancer: understanding the clinical importance of one of the biggest human exons. A study of the Tumor Bank Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Desislava; Ruscito, Ilary; Olek, Sven; Richter, Rolf; Hellwag, Alexander; Türbachova, Ivana; Woopen, Hannah; Baron, Udo; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2016-09-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 gene have been reported in up to 20 % of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Distinct clinical characteristics have been attributed to this special EOC population. We hypothesized that mutations in different BRCA1 gene exons may differently affect the clinical course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large cohort of primary EOCs, the clinical impact of mutations in BRCA1 gene exon 11, the largest exon of the gene sequence encoding the 60 % of BRCA1 protein. Two hundred sixty-three primary EOC patients, treated between 2000 and 2008 at Charité University Hospital of Berlin, were included. Patients' blood samples were obtained from the Tumor Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Network ( www.toc-network.de ). Direct sequencing of BRCA1 gene exon 11 was performed for each patient to detect mutations. Based on their BRCA1 exon 11 mutational status, patients were compared regarding clinico-pathological variables and survival. Mutations in BRCA1 exon 11 were found in 18 out of 263 patients (6.8 %). Further 10/263 (3.8 %) cases showed variants of uncertain significance (VUS). All exon 11 BRCA1-positive tumors (100 %) were Type 2 ovarian carcinomas (p = 0.05). Age at diagnosis was significantly younger in Type 2 exon 11 mutated patients (p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, BRCA1 exon 11 mutational status was not found to be an independent predictive factor for optimal cytoreduction, platinum response, or survival. Mutations in BRCA1 gene exon 11 seem to predispose women to exclusively develop a Type 2 ovarian cancer at younger age. Exon 11 BRCA1-mutated EOC patients showed distinct clinico-pathological features but similar clinical outcome with respect to sporadic EOC patients.

  15. Human T-cell leukemia virus type II nucleotide sequences between env and the last exon of tax/rex are not required for viral replication or cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Green, P L; Ross, T M; Chen, I S; Pettiford, S

    1995-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) and bovine leukemia virus contain a region of approximately 600 nucleotides located 3' to the env gene and 5' to the last exon of the tax and rex regulatory genes. This region was originally termed nontranslated or untranslated (UT) since it did not appear to be expressed. Several studies have identified novel mRNAs in HTLV-I-, HTLV-II-, a bovine leukemia virus-infected cells that splice into open reading frames (ORFs) contained in the UT region and, thus, have the potential to produce proteins that might contribute to the biological properties of these viruses. The HTLV-II infectious molecular clone pH6neo has several ORFs in the UT region (nucleotides 6641 to 7213) and a large ORF which overlaps the third exon of tax/rex. To investigate the importance of these ORF-containing sequences on viral replication and transformation in cell culture, proviral clones containing deletions in UT (pH6neo delta UT) or a stop codon insertion mutation (pH6neoST) were constructed. Lymphoid cells were transfected with mutant proviral constructs, and stable cell clones, designated 729pH6neo delta UT and 729pH6neoST, were characterized. Viral protein production, reverse transcriptase activity, and the capacity to induce syncytia were indistinguishable from cells transfected with the wild-type clone. Finally, 729pH6neo delta UT- and 729pH6neoST-producer cells cocultured with primary blood T lymphocytes resulted in cellular transformation characteristic of HTLV. These results indicate that putative protein-coding sequences between env and the last exon of tax/rex are not required for viral replication or transformation in cell culture.

  16. Design of a tobacco exon array with application to investigate the differential cadmium accumulation property in two tobacco varieties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For decades the tobacco plant has served as a model organism in plant biology to answer fundamental biological questions in the areas of plant development, physiology, and genetics. Due to the lack of sufficient coverage of genomic sequences, however, none of the expressed sequence tag (EST)-based chips developed to date cover gene expression from the whole genome. The availability of Tobacco Genome Initiative (TGI) sequences provides a useful resource to build a whole genome exon array, even if the assembled sequences are highly fragmented. Here, the design of a Tobacco Exon Array is reported and an application to improve the understanding of genes regulated by cadmium (Cd) in tobacco is described. Results From the analysis and annotation of the 1,271,256 Nicotiana tabacum fasta and quality files from methyl filtered genomic survey sequences (GSS) obtained from the TGI and ~56,000 ESTs available in public databases, an exon array with 272,342 probesets was designed (four probes per exon) and tested on two selected tobacco varieties. Two tobacco varieties out of 45 accumulating low and high cadmium in leaf were identified based on the GGE biplot analysis, which is analysis of the genotype main effect (G) plus analysis of the genotype by environment interaction (GE) of eight field trials (four fields over two years) showing reproducibility across the trials. The selected varieties were grown under greenhouse conditions in two different soils and subjected to exon array analyses using root and leaf tissues to understand the genetic make-up of the Cd accumulation. Conclusions An Affymetrix Exon Array was developed to cover a large (~90%) proportion of the tobacco gene space. The Tobacco Exon Array will be available for research use through Affymetrix array catalogue. As a proof of the exon array usability, we have demonstrated that the Tobacco Exon Array is a valuable tool for studying Cd accumulation in tobacco leaves. Data from field and greenhouse

  17. Proteins, exons and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Holland, S K; Blake, C C

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of the eukaryotic gene structure has prompted research into the potential relationship between protein structure and function and the corresponding exon/intron patterns. The exon shuffling hypothesis put forward by Gilbert and Blake suggests the encodement of structural and functional protein elements by exons which can recombine to create novel proteins. This provides an explanation for the relatively rapid evolution of proteins from a few primordial molecules. As the number of gene and protein structures increases, evidence of exon shuffling is becoming more apparent and examples are presented both from modern multi-domain proteins and ancient proteins. Recent work into the chemical properties and catalytic functions of RNA have led to hypotheses based upon the early existence of RNA. These theories suggest that the split gene structure originated in the primordial soup as a result of random RNA synthesis. Stable regions of RNA, or exons, were utilised as primitive enzymes. In response to selective pressures for information storage, the activity was directly transferred from the RNA enzymes or ribozymes, to proteins. These short polypeptides fused together to create larger proteins with a wide range of functions. Recent research into RNA processing and exon size, discussed in this review, provides a clearer insight into the evolutionary development of the gene and protein structure.

  18. Identification of a novel missense mutation in exon 4 of the human factor VIII gene associated with sever hemophilia A patient.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Ali; Montaser-Kouhsari, Sheideh; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseinpour, Abbas Ali

    2007-12-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked congenital bleeding disorder caused by factor VIII deficiency. The factor VIII gene is on the long arm of the X chromosome at Xq28 spans 186 kb and consists of 26 exons. In this study to identify defects in the factor VIII gene, Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used. A novel missense mutation due to T --> C transition at codon 153 (TGC) of the factor VIII gene which replace a cysteine with an arginine residue, was found in a patient of North-Western of Iran with sever hemophilia A. Direct sequencing of the amplified fragment was performed to confirm the mutation. This study shows that we can use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and silver staining of SSCP methods for detecting most of the point mutations causative hemophilia A.

  19. In-frame dystrophin following exon 51-skipping improves muscle pathology and function in the exon 52-deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Nakamura, Akinori; Yokota, Toshifumi; Saito, Takashi; Okazawa, Hitoshi; Nagata, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2010-11-01

    A promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs). In-frame deletions of the hinge 3 region of the dystrophin protein, which is encoded by exons 50 and 51, are predicted to cause a variety of phenotypes. Here, we performed functional analyses of muscle in the exon 52-deleted mdx (mdx52) mouse, to predict the function of in-frame dystrophin following exon 51-skipping, which leads to a protein lacking most of hinge 3. A series of AOs based on phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers was screened by intramuscular injection into mdx52 mice. The highest splicing efficiency was generated by a two-oligonucleotide cocktail targeting both the 5' and 3' splice sites of exon 51. After a dose-escalation study, we systemically delivered this cocktail into mdx52 mice seven times at weekly intervals. This induced 20-30% of wild-type (WT) dystrophin expression levels in all muscles, and was accompanied by amelioration of the dystrophic pathology and improvement of skeletal muscle function. Because the structure of the restored in-frame dystrophin resembles human dystrophin following exon 51-skipping, our results are encouraging for the ongoing clinical trials for DMD. Moreover, the therapeutic dose required can provide a suggestion of the theoretical equivalent dose for humans.

  20. Multi-exon Skipping Using Cocktail Antisense Oligonucleotides in the Canine X-linked Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Lee, Joshua J.A.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases worldwide, caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Exon skipping employs short DNA/RNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) that restore the reading frame and produce shorter but functional proteins. However, exon skipping therapy faces two major hurdles: limited applicability (up to only 13% of patients can be treated with a single AON drug), and uncertain function of truncated proteins. These issues were addressed with a cocktail AON approach. While approximately 70% of DMD patients can be treated by single exon skipping (all exons combined), one could potentially treat more than 90% of DMD patients if multiple exon skipping using cocktail antisense drugs can be realized. The canine X-linked muscular dystrophy (CXMD) dog model, whose phenotype is more similar to human DMD patients, was used to test the systemic efficacy and safety of multi-exon skipping of exons 6 and 8. The CXMD dog model harbors a splice site mutation in intron 6, leading to a lack of exon 7 in dystrophin mRNA. To restore the reading frame in CXMD requires multi-exon skipping of exons 6 and 8; therefore, CXMD is a good middle-sized animal model for testing the efficacy and safety of multi-exon skipping. In the current study, a cocktail of antisense morpholinos targeting exon 6 and exon 8 was designed and it restored dystrophin expression in body-wide skeletal muscles. Methods for transfection/injection of cocktail oligos and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of multi-exon skipping in the CXMD dog model are presented. PMID:27285612

  1. Identifying the impact of G-quadruplexes on Affymetrix 3' arrays using cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Memon, Farhat N; Owen, Anne M; Sanchez-Graillet, Olivia; Upton, Graham J G; Harrison, Andrew P

    2010-01-15

    A tetramer quadruplex structure is formed by four parallel strands of DNA/ RNA containing runs of guanine. These quadruplexes are able to form because guanine can Hoogsteen hydrogen bond to other guanines, and a tetrad of guanines can form a stable arrangement. Recently we have discovered that probes on Affymetrix GeneChips that contain runs of guanine do not measure gene expression reliably. We associate this finding with the likelihood that quadruplexes are forming on the surface of GeneChips. In order to cope with the rapidly expanding size of GeneChip array datasets in the public domain, we are exploring the use of cloud computing to replicate our experiments on 3' arrays to look at the effect of the location of G-spots (runs of guanines). Cloud computing is a recently introduced high-performance solution that takes advantage of the computational infrastructure of large organisations such as Amazon and Google. We expect that cloud computing will become widely adopted because it enables bioinformaticians to avoid capital expenditure on expensive computing resources and to only pay a cloud computing provider for what is used. Moreover, as well as financial efficiency, cloud computing is an ecologically-friendly technology, it enables efficient data-sharing and we expect it to be faster for development purposes. Here we propose the advantageous use of cloud computing to perform a large data-mining analysis of public domain 3' arrays.

  2. The Affymetrix DMET Plus Platform Reveals Unique Distribution of ADME-Related Variants in Ethnic Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Wakil, Salma M.; Nguyen, Cao; Muiya, Nzioka P.; Andres, Editha; Lykowska-Tarnowska, Agnieszka; Baz, Batoul; Meyer, Brian F.; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus Premier Pack has been designed to genotype 1936 gene variants thought to be essential for screening patients in personalized drug therapy. These variants include the cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), the key metabolizing enzymes, many other enzymes involved in phase I and phase II pharmacokinetic reactions, and signaling mediators associated with variability in clinical response to numerous drugs not only among individuals, but also between ethnic populations. Materials and Methods. We genotyped 600 Saudi individuals for 1936 variants on the DMET platform to evaluate their clinical potential in personalized medicine in ethnic Arabs. Results. Approximately 49% each of the 437 CYP450 variants, 56% of the 581 transporters, 56% of 419 transferases, 48% of the 104 dehydrogenases, and 58% of the remaining 390 variants were detected. Several variants, such as rs3740071, rs6193, rs258751, rs6199, rs11568421, and rs8187797, exhibited significantly either higher or lower minor allele frequencies (MAFs) than those in other ethnic groups. Discussion. The present study revealed some unique distribution trends for several variants in Arabs, which displayed partly inverse allelic prevalence compared to other ethnic populations. The results point therefore to the need to verify and ascertain the prevalence of a variant as a prerequisite for engaging it in clinical routine screening in personalized medicine in any given population. PMID:25802476

  3. Non-hominid TP63 lacks retroviral LTRs but contains a novel conserved upstream exon.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Ulrike; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2011-06-15

    We have recently identified novel isoforms of human p63, with specific expression in testicular germ cells. The synthesis of these p63 mRNA species is driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the endogenous retrovirus ERV9. This LTR was inserted upstream of the previously known TP63 exons roughly 15 million years ago, leading to the expression of novel exons and the synthesis of germline-specific transactivating p63 (GTAp63) isoforms in humans and great apes (Beyer et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108:3624-9). However, this study did not reveal whether similar upstream exons can also be found in the TP63 genes of non-hominid animals. Here we performed rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to identify a novel upstream exon of murine TP63, located in the 5' position from the previously described start of transcription. This exon, termed "exon U3" in our previous publication, is conserved within a broad range of mammalian species, including hominids. However, in contrast to the human TP63 gene structure, the murine exon U3 represented the most upstream transcribed sequence of TP63. Murine exon U3 is then alternatively spliced to acceptor sites within exon 1 or upstream of exon 2, resulting in two different available translational start sites. p63 mRNAs comprising exon U3 are detectable in various tissues, with no particular preference for testicular cells. Thus, whereas the retroviral LTR in hominid species results in strictly germline-associated p63 isoforms, the upstream exon in non-hominids fails to confer this tissue specificity. This notion strongly supports the concept that the synthesis of a testis-specific p63 isoform is a recently acquired, unique feature of humans and great apes.

  4. An RRM-ZnF RNA recognition module targets RBM10 to exonic sequences to promote exon exclusion.

    PubMed

    Collins, Katherine M; Kainov, Yaroslav A; Christodolou, Evangelos; Ray, Debashish; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy; Taylor, Ian A; Makeyev, Eugene V; Ramos, Andres

    2017-04-04

    RBM10 is an RNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in development and is frequently mutated in the context of human disease. RBM10 recognizes a diverse set of RNA motifs in introns and exons and regulates alternative splicing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this seemingly relaxed sequence specificity are not understood and functional studies have focused on 3΄ intronic sites only. Here, we dissect the RNA code recognized by RBM10 and relate it to the splicing regulatory function of this protein. We show that a two-domain RRM1-ZnF unit recognizes a GGA-centered motif enriched in RBM10 exonic sites with high affinity and specificity and test that the interaction with these exonic sequences promotes exon skipping. Importantly, a second RRM domain (RRM2) of RBM10 recognizes a C-rich sequence, which explains its known interaction with the intronic 3΄ site of NUMB exon 9 contributing to regulation of the Notch pathway in cancer. Together, these findings explain RBM10's broad RNA specificity and suggest that RBM10 functions as a splicing regulator using two RNA-binding units with different specificities to promote exon skipping.

  5. Comparative analysis identifies exonic splicing regulatory sequences--The complex definition of enhancers and silencers.

    PubMed

    Goren, Amir; Ram, Oren; Amit, Maayan; Keren, Hadas; Lev-Maor, Galit; Vig, Ida; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2006-06-23

    Exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs) are cis-acting factor binding sites that regulate constitutive and alternative splicing. A computational method based on the conservation level of wobble positions and the overabundance of sequence motifs between 46,103 human and mouse orthologous exons was developed, identifying 285 putative ESRs. Alternatively spliced exons that are either short in length or contain weak splice sites show the highest conservation level of those ESRs, especially toward the edges of exons. ESRs that are abundant in those subgroups show a different distribution between constitutively and alternatively spliced exons. Representatives of these ESRs and two SR protein binding sites were shown, experimentally, to display variable regulatory effects on alternative splicing, depending on their relative locations in the exon. This finding signifies the delicate positional effect of ESRs on alternative splicing regulation.

  6. Coding exon-structure aware realigner (CESAR) utilizes genome alignments for accurate comparative gene annotation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Virag; Elghafari, Anas; Hiller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Identifying coding genes is an essential step in genome annotation. Here, we utilize existing whole genome alignments to detect conserved coding exons and then map gene annotations from one genome to many aligned genomes. We show that genome alignments contain thousands of spurious frameshifts and splice site mutations in exons that are truly conserved. To overcome these limitations, we have developed CESAR (Coding Exon-Structure Aware Realigner) that realigns coding exons, while considering reading frame and splice sites of each exon. CESAR effectively avoids spurious frameshifts in conserved genes and detects 91% of shifted splice sites. This results in the identification of thousands of additional conserved exons and 99% of the exons that lack inactivating mutations match real exons. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of using CESAR for comparative gene annotation, we applied it to 188 788 exons of 19 865 human genes to annotate human genes in 99 other vertebrates. These comparative gene annotations are available as a resource (http://bds.mpi-cbg.de/hillerlab/CESAR/). CESAR (https://github.com/hillerlab/CESAR/) can readily be applied to other alignments to accurately annotate coding genes in many other vertebrate and invertebrate genomes. PMID:27016733

  7. Targeting of exon VI-skipping human RGR-opsin to the plasma membrane of pigment epithelium and co-localization with terminal complement complex C5b-9

    PubMed Central

    Kochounian, Harold; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Spee, Christine; Hinton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rare mutations in the human RGR gene lead to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa or dominantly inherited peripapillary choroidal atrophy. Here, we analyze a common exon-skipping isoform of the human retinal G protein-coupled receptor opsin (RGR-d) to determine differences in subcellular targeting between RGR-d and normal RGR and possible association with abnormal traits in the human eye. Methods The terminal complement complex (C5b-9), vitronectin, CD46, syntaxin-4, and RGR-d were analyzed in human eye tissue from young and old donors or in cultured fetal RPE cells by means of immunofluorescent labeling and high-resolution confocal microscopy or immunohistochemical staining. Results We observed that RGR-d is targeted to the basolateral plasma membrane of the RPE. RGR-d, but not normal RGR, is expressed in cultured human fetal RPE cells in which the protein also trafficks to the plasma membrane. In young donors, the amount of RGR-d protein in the basolateral plasma membrane was much higher than that in the RPE cells of older subjects. In older donor eyes, the level of immunoreactive RGR-d within RPE cells was often low or undetectable, and immunostaining of RGR-d was consistently strongest in extracellular deposits in Bruch’s membrane. Double immunofluorescent labeling in the basal deposits revealed significant aggregate and small punctate co-localization of RGR-d with C5b-9 and vitronectin. Conclusions RGR-d may escape endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and in contrast to full-length RGR, traffick to the basolateral plasma membrane, particularly in younger subjects. RGR-d in the plasma membrane indicates that the protein is properly folded, as misfolded membrane proteins cannot otherwise sort to the plasma membrane. The close association of extracellular RGR-d with both vitronectin and C5b-9 suggests a potential role of RGR-d-containing deposits in complement activation. PMID:27011730

  8. The complete exon-intron structure of the 156-kb human gene NFKB1, which encodes the p105 and p50 proteins of transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and I{kappa}B-{gamma}: Implications for NF-{kappa}B-mediated signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Heron, E.; Deloukas, P.; van Loon, A.P.G.M.

    1995-12-10

    The NFKB1 gene encodes three proteins of the NF-{kappa}/Rel and I{kappa}B families: p105, p50, and (in mouse) I{kappa}B-{gamma}. We determined the complete genomic structure of human NFKB1. NFKB1 spans 156 kb and has 24 exons with introns varying between 40,000 and 323 bp in length. Although NFKB2, which encodes p100 and p52, also has 24 exons and has a comparable exon-intron structure, it is 20 times shorter than NFKB1. We propose that the long size of NFKB1 is important for transient activation of NF-{kappa}B complexes containing p50. I{kappa}B-{gamma} corresponds to the carboxyl-terminal half of p105. DNA sequence analysis showed that the 3{prime}-end of human intron 11 and the 5{prime}-end of exon 12 of NFKB1 are colinear with the 5{prime}-untranslated region of mouse I{kappa}B-{gamma} cDNA. I{kappa}B-{gamma} is thus likely to be generated by transcription starting within intron 11 and not by alternative splicing of the mouse mRNA encoding p105 and p50. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Transcriptome networks in the mouse retina: An exon level BXD RI database

    PubMed Central

    King, Rebecca; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in gene expression provide diverse retina phenotypes and may also contribute to susceptibility to injury and disease. The present study defines the transcriptome of the retina in the BXD RI strain set, using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array to investigate all exons of traditional protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, and microRNAs. These data are presented in a highly interactive database on the GeneNetwork website. Methods In the Normal Retina Database, the mRNA levels of the transcriptome from retinas was quantified using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array. This database consists of data from male and female mice. The data set includes a total of 52 BXD RI strains, the parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), and a reciprocal cross. Results In combination with GeneNetwork, the Department of Defense (DoD) Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) Normal Retina Database provides a large resource for mapping, graphing, analyzing, and testing complex genetic networks. Protein-coding and non-coding RNAs can be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to expression differences among the BXD strains and to establish links between classical ocular phenotypes associated with differences in the genomic sequence. Using this resource, we extracted transcriptome signatures for retinal cells and defined genetic networks associated with the maintenance of the normal retina. Furthermore, we examined differentially expressed exons within a single gene. Conclusions The high level of variation in mRNA levels found among the BXD RI strains makes it possible to identify expression networks that underline differences in retina structure and function. Ultimately, we will use this database to define changes that occur following blast injury to the retina. PMID:26604663

  10. A sequence-based identification of the genes detected by probesets on the Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 array.

    PubMed

    Harbig, Jeremy; Sprinkle, Robert; Enkemann, Steven A

    2005-02-18

    One of the biggest problems facing microarray experiments is the difficulty of translating results into other microarray formats or comparing microarray results to other biochemical methods. We believe that this is largely the result of poor gene identification. We re-identified the probesets on the Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 GeneChip array. This identification was based on the sequence of the probes and the sequence of the human genome. Using the BLAST program, we matched probes with documented and postulated human transcripts. This resulted in the redefinition of approximately 37% of the probes on the U133 plus 2.0 array. This updated identification specifically points out where the identification is complicated by cross-hybridization from splice variants or closely related genes. More than 5000 probesets detect multiple transcripts and therefore the exact protein affected cannot be readily concluded from the performance of one probeset alone. This makes naming difficult and impacts any downstream analysis such as associating gene ontologies, mapping affected pathways or simply validating expression changes. We have now automated the sequence-based identification and can more appropriately annotate any array where the sequence on each spot is known.

  11. A Single-Array-Based Method for Detecting Copy Number Variants Using Affymetrix High Density SNP Arrays and its Application to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Fu, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence has shown that structural variations, due to insertions, deletions, and inversions of DNA, may contribute considerably to the development of complex human diseases, such as breast cancer. High-throughput genotyping technologies, such as Affymetrix high density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, have produced large amounts of genetic data for genome-wide SNP genotype calling and copy number estimation. Meanwhile, there is a great need for accurate and efficient statistical methods to detect copy number variants. In this article, we introduce a hidden-Markov-model (HMM)-based method, referred to as the PICR-CNV, for copy number inference. The proposed method first estimates copy number abundance for each single SNP on a single array based on the raw fluorescence values, and then standardizes the estimated copy number abundance to achieve equal footing among multiple arrays. This method requires no between-array normalization, and thus, maintains data integrity and independence of samples among individual subjects. In addition to our efforts to apply new statistical technology to raw fluorescence values, the HMM has been applied to the standardized copy number abundance in order to reduce experimental noise. Through simulations, we show our refined method is able to infer copy number variants accurately. Application of the proposed method to a breast cancer dataset helps to identify genomic regions significantly associated with the disease. PMID:26279618

  12. The Contribution of Exon-Skipping Events on Chromosome 22 to Protein Coding Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hide, Winston A.; Babenko, Vladimir N.; van Heusden, Peter A.; Seoighe, Cathal; Kelso, Janet F.

    2001-01-01

    Completion of the human genome sequence provides evidence for a gene count with lower bound 30,000–40,000. Significant protein complexity may derive in part from multiple transcript isoforms. Recent EST based studies have revealed that alternate transcription, including alternative splicing, polyadenylation and transcription start sites, occurs within at least 30–40% of human genes. Transcript form surveys have yet to integrate the genomic context, expression, frequency, and contribution to protein diversity of isoform variation. We determine here the degree to which protein coding diversity may be influenced by alternate expression of transcripts by exhaustive manual confirmation of genome sequence annotation, and comparison to available transcript data to accurately associate skipped exon isoforms with genomic sequence. Relative expression levels of transcripts are estimated from EST database representation. The rigorous in silico method accurately identifies exon skipping using verified genome sequence. 545 genes have been studied in this first hand-curated assessment of exon skipping on chromosome 22. Combining manual assessment with software screening of exon boundaries provides a highly accurate and internally consistent indication of skipping frequency. 57 of 62 exon skipping events occur in the protein coding regions of 52 genes. A single gene, (FBXO7) expresses an exon repetition. 59% of highly represented multi-exon genes are likely to express exon-skipped isoforms in ratios that vary from 1:1 to 1:>100. The proportion of all transcripts corresponding to multi-exon genes that exhibit an exon skip is estimated to be 5%. PMID:11691849

  13. Reengineering a transmembrane protein to treat muscular dystrophy using exon skipping.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quan Q; Wyatt, Eugene; Goldstein, Jeff A; LoPresti, Peter; Castillo, Lisa M; Gazda, Alec; Petrossian, Natalie; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Barefield, David Y; Demonbreun, Alexis R; Bönnemann, Carsten; Wolf, Matthew; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2015-11-02

    Exon skipping uses antisense oligonucleotides as a treatment for genetic diseases. The antisense oligonucleotides used for exon skipping are designed to bypass premature stop codons in the target RNA and restore reading frame disruption. Exon skipping is currently being tested in humans with dystrophin gene mutations who have Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the rationale for exon skipping derived from observations in patients with naturally occurring dystrophin gene mutations that generated internally deleted but partially functional dystrophin proteins. We have now expanded the potential for exon skipping by testing whether an internal, in-frame truncation of a transmembrane protein γ-sarcoglycan is functional. We generated an internally truncated γ-sarcoglycan protein that we have termed Mini-Gamma by deleting a large portion of the extracellular domain. Mini-Gamma provided functional and pathological benefits to correct the loss of γ-sarcoglycan in a Drosophila model, in heterologous cell expression studies, and in transgenic mice lacking γ-sarcoglycan. We generated a cellular model of human muscle disease and showed that multiple exon skipping could be induced in RNA that encodes a mutant human γ-sarcoglycan. Since Mini-Gamma represents removal of 4 of the 7 coding exons in γ-sarcoglycan, this approach provides a viable strategy to treat the majority of patients with γ-sarcoglycan gene mutations.

  14. Reengineering a transmembrane protein to treat muscular dystrophy using exon skipping

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Quan Q.; Wyatt, Eugene; Goldstein, Jeff A.; LoPresti, Peter; Castillo, Lisa M.; Gazda, Alec; Petrossian, Natalie; Earley, Judy U.; Hadhazy, Michele; Barefield, David Y.; Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Bönnemann, Carsten; Wolf, Matthew; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Exon skipping uses antisense oligonucleotides as a treatment for genetic diseases. The antisense oligonucleotides used for exon skipping are designed to bypass premature stop codons in the target RNA and restore reading frame disruption. Exon skipping is currently being tested in humans with dystrophin gene mutations who have Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the rationale for exon skipping derived from observations in patients with naturally occurring dystrophin gene mutations that generated internally deleted but partially functional dystrophin proteins. We have now expanded the potential for exon skipping by testing whether an internal, in-frame truncation of a transmembrane protein γ-sarcoglycan is functional. We generated an internally truncated γ-sarcoglycan protein that we have termed Mini-Gamma by deleting a large portion of the extracellular domain. Mini-Gamma provided functional and pathological benefits to correct the loss of γ-sarcoglycan in a Drosophila model, in heterologous cell expression studies, and in transgenic mice lacking γ-sarcoglycan. We generated a cellular model of human muscle disease and showed that multiple exon skipping could be induced in RNA that encodes a mutant human γ-sarcoglycan. Since Mini-Gamma represents removal of 4 of the 7 coding exons in γ-sarcoglycan, this approach provides a viable strategy to treat the majority of patients with γ-sarcoglycan gene mutations. PMID:26457733

  15. Recurring exon deletions in the haptoglobin (HP) gene associate with lower blood cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  16. Genetic recombination at the human RH locus: A family study of the red-cell Evans phenotype reveals a transfer of exons 2-6 from the RHD to the RHCE gene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.H.; Chen, Y.; Reid, M.; Ghosh, S.

    1996-10-01

    The human RH locus appears to consist of two structural genes, D and CE, which map on the short arm p34-36 of chromosome 1 and specify a most complex system of blood-group genetic polymorphisms. Here we describe a family study of the Evans (also known as {open_quotes}D..{open_quotes}) phenotype, a codominant trait associated with both qualitative and quantitative changes in D-antigen expression. A cataract-causing mutation was also inherited in this family and was apparently cotransmitted with Evans, suggesting a chromosomal linkage of these two otherwise unrelated traits. Southern blot analysis and allele-specific PCR showed the linkage of Evans with a SphI RFLP marker and the presence of a hybrid gene in the RH locus. To delineate the pattern of gene expression, the composition and structure of Rh-polypeptide transcripts were characterized by reverse transcriptase-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. This resulted in the identification of a novel Rh transcript expressed only in the Evans-positive erythroid cells. Sequence analysis showed that the transcript maintained a normal open reading frame but occurred as a CE-D-CE composite in which exons 2-6 of the CE gene were replaced by the homologous counterpart of the D gene. This hybrid gene was predicted to encode a CE-D-CE fusion protein whose surface expression correlates with the Evans phenotype. The mode and consequence of such a recombination event suggest the occurrence, in the RH locus, of a segmental DNA transfer via the mechanism of gene conversion. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. EzArray: A web-based highly automated Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuerong; Zhu, Yuelin; Xu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background Though microarray experiments are very popular in life science research, managing and analyzing microarray data are still challenging tasks for many biologists. Most microarray programs require users to have sophisticated knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer skills for usage. With accumulating microarray data deposited in public databases, easy-to-use programs to re-analyze previously published microarray data are in high demand. Results EzArray is a web-based Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system for researchers who need to organize microarray data efficiently and get data analyzed instantly. EzArray organizes microarray data into projects that can be analyzed online with predefined or custom procedures. EzArray performs data preprocessing and detection of differentially expressed genes with statistical methods. All analysis procedures are optimized and highly automated so that even novice users with limited pre-knowledge of microarray data analysis can complete initial analysis quickly. Since all input files, analysis parameters, and executed scripts can be downloaded, EzArray provides maximum reproducibility for each analysis. In addition, EzArray integrates with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and allows instantaneous re-analysis of published array data. Conclusion EzArray is a novel Affymetrix expression array data analysis and sharing system. EzArray provides easy-to-use tools for re-analyzing published microarray data and will help both novice and experienced users perform initial analysis of their microarray data from the location of data storage. We believe EzArray will be a useful system for facilities with microarray services and laboratories with multiple members involved in microarray data analysis. EzArray is freely available from . PMID:18218103

  18. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases.

  19. The first exon duplication mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A tool for therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    Vulin, Adeline; Wein, Nicolas; Simmons, Tabatha R; Rutherford, Andrea M; Findlay, Andrew R; Yurkoski, Jacqueline A; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2015-11-01

    Exon duplication mutations account for up to 11% of all cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and a duplication of exon 2 is the most common duplication in patients. For use as a platform for testing of duplication-specific therapies, we developed a mouse model that carries a Dmd exon 2 duplication. By using homologous recombination we duplicated exon 2 within intron 2 at a location consistent with a human duplication hotspot. mRNA analysis confirms the inclusion of a duplicated exon 2 in mouse muscle. Dystrophin expression is essentially absent by immunofluorescent and immunoblot analysis, although some muscle specimens show very low-level trace dystrophin expression. Phenotypically, the mouse shows similarities to mdx, the standard laboratory model of DMD. In skeletal muscle, areas of necrosis and phagocytosis are seen at 3 weeks, with central nucleation prominent by four weeks, recapitulating the "crisis" period in mdx. Marked diaphragm fibrosis is noted by 6 months, and remains unchanged at 12 months. Our results show that the Dup2 mouse is both pathologically (in degree and distribution) and physiologically similar to mdx. As it recapitulates the most common single exon duplication found in DMD patients, this new model will be a useful tool to assess the potential of duplicated exon skipping.

  20. The evolutionary fate of alternatively spliced homologous exons after gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Tress, Michael L; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-04-29

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are the two main processes responsible for expanding protein functional diversity. Although gene duplication can generate new genes and alternative splicing can introduce variation through alternative gene products, the interplay between the two processes is complex and poorly understood. Here, we have carried out a study of the evolution of alternatively spliced exons after gene duplication to better understand the interaction between the two processes. We created a manually curated set of 97 human genes with mutually exclusively spliced homologous exons and analyzed the evolution of these exons across five distantly related vertebrates (lamprey, spotted gar, zebrafish, fugu, and coelacanth). Most of these exons had an ancient origin (more than 400 Ma). We found examples supporting two extreme evolutionary models for the behaviour of homologous axons after gene duplication. We observed 11 events in which gene duplication was accompanied by splice isoform separation, that is, each paralog specifically conserved just one distinct ancestral homologous exon. At other extreme, we identified genes in which the homologous exons were always conserved within paralogs, suggesting that the alternative splicing event cannot easily be separated from the function in these genes. That many homologous exons fall in between these two extremes highlights the diversity of biological systems and suggests that the subtle balance between alternative splicing and gene duplication is adjusted to the specific cellular context of each gene.

  1. Inhomogeneous DNA: Conducting exons and insulating introns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, A. A.; Bagci, V. M. K.; Izrailev, F. M.; Usatenko, O. V.; Yampol'Skii, V. A.

    2009-08-01

    Parts of DNA sequences known as exons and introns play very different roles in coding and storage of genetic information. Here we show that their conducting properties are also very different. Taking into account long-range correlations among four basic nucleotides that form double-stranded DNA sequence, we calculate electron localization length for exon and intron regions. Analyzing different DNA molecules, we obtain that the exons have narrow bands of extended states, unlike the introns where all the states are well localized. The band of extended states is due to a specific form of the binary correlation function of the sequence of basic DNA nucleotides.

  2. Alternative 5' exons and differential splicing regulate expression of protein 4.1R isoforms with distinct n-termini

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn K.; Gee, Sherry L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2003-03-25

    Among the alternative pre-mRNA splicing events that characterize protein 4.1R gene expression, one involving exon 2' plays a critical role in regulating translation initiation and N-terminal protein structure. Exon 2' encompasses translation initiation site AUG1 and is located between alternative splice acceptor sites at the 5' end of exon 2; its inclusion or exclusion from mature 4.1R mRNA regulates expression of longer or shorter isoforms of 4.1R protein, respectively. The current study reports unexpected complexity in the 5' region of the 4.1R gene that directly affects alternative splicing of exon 2'. Three mutually exclusive alternative 5' exons, designated 1A, 1B, and 1C, were identified far upstream of exon 2 in both mouse and human genomes; all three are associated with strong transcriptional promoters in the flanking genomic sequence. Importantly, exons 1A and 1B splice differentially with respect to exon 2', generating transcripts with different 5' ends and distinct N-terminal protein coding capacity. Exon 1A-type transcripts splice so as to exclude exon 2' and therefore utilize the downstream AUG2 for translation of 80kD 4.1R protein, whereas exon 1B transcripts include exon 2' and initiate at AUG1 to synthesize 135kD isoforms. RNA blot analyses revealed that 1A transcripts increase in abundance in late erythroblasts, consistent with the previously demonstrated upregulation of 80kD 4.1R during terminal erythroid differentiation. Together these results suggest that synthesis of structurally distinct 4.1R protein isoforms in various cell types is regulated by a novel mechanism requiring coordination between upstream transcription initiation events and downstream alternative splicing events.

  3. Global gene regulation during activation of immunoglobulin class switching in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youming; Fear, David J.; Willis-Owen, Saffron A. G.; Cookson, William O.; Moffatt, Miriam F.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) to IgE is a tightly regulated process central to atopic disease. To profile the B-cell transcriptional responses underlying the activation of the germinal centre activities leading to the generation of IgE, naïve human B-cells were stimulated with IL-4 and anti-CD40. Gene expression and alternative splicing were profiled over 12 days using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. A total of 1,399 genes, forming 13 temporal profiles were differentially expressed. CCL22 and CCL17 were dramatically induced but followed a temporal trajectory distinct from classical mediators of isotype switching. AICDA, NFIL3, IRF4, XBP1 and BATF3 shared a profile with several genes involved in innate immunity, but with no recognised role in CSR. A transcription factor BHLHE40 was identified at the core of this profile. B-cell activation was also accompanied by variation in exon retention affecting >200 genes including CCL17. The data indicate a circadian component and central roles for the Th2 chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 in the activation of CSR. PMID:27897229

  4. Protein domains correlate strongly with exons in multiple eukaryotic genomes--evidence of exon shuffling?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyi; Grigoriev, Andrei

    2004-09-01

    We conducted a multi-genome analysis correlating protein domain organization with the exon-intron structure of genes in nine eukaryotic genomes. We observed a significant correlation between the borders of exons and domains on a genomic scale for both invertebrates and vertebrates. In addition, we found that the more complex organisms displayed consistently stronger exon-domain correlation, with substantially more significant correlations detected in vertebrates compared with invertebrates. Our observations concur with the principles of exon shuffling theory, including the prediction of predominantly symmetric phase of introns flanking the borders of correlating exons. These results suggest that extensive exon shuffling events during evolution significantly contributed to the shaping of eukaryotic proteomes.

  5. Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, W M; Distler, C; Dekomien, G; Arning, L; Hoffmann, K-P; Epplen, J T

    2007-08-01

    Albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. Mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. In this study, we demonstrate that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The coding sequence of the five exons of TYR was determined in genomic DNA from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. It was not possible to amplify TYR exon 4 in albino ferrets originating from different breeds. The deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from albino and pigmented ferrets. This is the first report of a deletion of a TYR exon in a non-human mammal.

  6. Different RPGR exon ORF15 mutations in Canids provide insights into photoreceptor cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Acland, Gregory M; Wu, Wen X; Johnson, Jennifer L; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Tulloch, Brian; Vervoort, Raf; Wright, Alan F; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2002-05-01

    The canine disease, X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA), is similar to human RP3, an X-linked form of retinitis pigmentosa, and maps to the same region in the X chromosome. Analysis of the physical map of the XLPRA and RP3 intervals shows a high degree of conservation in terms of genes and their order. We have found different mutations in exon ORF15 of the RPGR gene in two distinct mutant dog strains (XLPRA1, XLPRA2). Microdeletions resulting in a premature stop or a frameshift mutation result in very different retinal phenotypes, which are allele-specific and consistent for each mutation. The phenotype associated with the frameshift mutation in XLPRA2 is very severe and manifests during retinal development; the phenotype resulting from the XLPRA1 nonsense mutation is expressed only after normal photoreceptor morphogenesis. Splicing of RPGR mRNA transcripts in retina is complex, and either exon ORF15 or exon 19 can be a terminal exon. The retina-predominant transcript contains ORF15 as a terminal exon, and is expressed in normal and mutant retinas. The frameshift mutation dramatically alters the deduced amino acid sequence, and the protein aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum of transfected cells. The cellular and molecular results in the two canine RPGR exon ORF15 mutations have implications for understanding the phenotypic variability found in human RP3 families that carry similar mutations.

  7. High Resolution Melting Analysis for JAK2 Exon 14 and Exon 12 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rapado, Inmaculada; Grande, Silvia; Albizua, Enriqueta; Ayala, Rosa; Hernández, José-Angel; Gallardo, Miguel; Gilsanz, Florinda; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    JAK2 mutations are important criteria for the diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. We aimed to assess JAK2 exon 14 and exon 12 mutations by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, which allows variation screening. The exon 14 analysis included 163 patients with polycythemia vera, secondary erythrocytoses, essential thrombocythemia, or secondary thrombocytoses, and 126 healthy subjects. The study of exon 12 included 40 JAK2 V617F-negative patients (nine of which had polycythemia vera, and 31 with splanchnic vein thrombosis) and 30 healthy subjects. HRM analyses of JAK2 exons 14 and 12 gave analytical sensitivities near 1% and both intra- and interday coefficients of variation of less than 1%. For HRM analysis of JAK2 exon 14 in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, clinical sensitivities were 93.5% and 67.9%, clinical specificities were 98.8% and 97.0%, positive predictive values were 93.5% and 79.2%, and negative predictive values were 98.8% and 94.6, respectively. Correlations were observed between the results from HRM and three commonly used analytical methods. The JAK2 exon 12 HRM results agreed completely with those from sequencing analysis, and the three mutations in exon 12 were detected by both methods. Hence, HRM analysis of exons 14 and 12 in JAK2 shows better diagnostic values than three other routinely used methods against which it was compared. In addition, HRM analysis has the advantage of detecting unknown mutations. PMID:19225136

  8. Acquisition of biologically relevant gene expression data by Affymetrix microarray analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours

    PubMed Central

    Linton, K M; Hey, Y; Saunders, E; Jeziorska, M; Denton, J; Wilson, C L; Swindell, R; Dibben, S; Miller, C J; Pepper, S D; Radford, J A; Freemont, A J

    2008-01-01

    Robust protocols for microarray gene expression profiling of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) are needed to facilitate research when availability of fresh-frozen tissue is limited. Recent reports attest to the feasibility of this approach, but the clinical value of these data is poorly understood. We employed state-of-the-art RNA extraction and Affymetrix microarray technology to examine 34 archival FFPET primary extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Nineteen arrays met stringent QC criteria and were used to model prognostic signatures for metastatic recurrence. Arrays from two paired frozen and FFPET samples were compared: although FFPET sensitivity was low (∼50%), high specificity (95%) and positive predictive value (92%) suggest that transcript detection is reliable. Good agreement between arrays and real time (RT)–PCR was confirmed, especially for abundant transcripts, and RT–PCR validated the regulation pattern for 19 of 24 candidate genes (overall R2=0.4662). RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry on independent cases validated prognostic significance for several genes including RECQL4, FRRS1, CFH and MET – whose combined expression carried greater prognostic value than tumour grade – and cmet and TRKB proteins. These molecules warrant further evaluation in larger series. Reliable clinically relevant data can be obtained from archival FFPET, but protocol amendments are needed to improve the sensitivity and broad application of this approach. PMID:18382428

  9. Acquisition of biologically relevant gene expression data by Affymetrix microarray analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours.

    PubMed

    Linton, K M; Hey, Y; Saunders, E; Jeziorska, M; Denton, J; Wilson, C L; Swindell, R; Dibben, S; Miller, C J; Pepper, S D; Radford, J A; Freemont, A J

    2008-04-22

    Robust protocols for microarray gene expression profiling of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) are needed to facilitate research when availability of fresh-frozen tissue is limited. Recent reports attest to the feasibility of this approach, but the clinical value of these data is poorly understood. We employed state-of-the-art RNA extraction and Affymetrix microarray technology to examine 34 archival FFPET primary extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Nineteen arrays met stringent QC criteria and were used to model prognostic signatures for metastatic recurrence. Arrays from two paired frozen and FFPET samples were compared: although FFPET sensitivity was low ( approximately 50%), high specificity (95%) and positive predictive value (92%) suggest that transcript detection is reliable. Good agreement between arrays and real time (RT)-PCR was confirmed, especially for abundant transcripts, and RT-PCR validated the regulation pattern for 19 of 24 candidate genes (overall R(2)=0.4662). RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on independent cases validated prognostic significance for several genes including RECQL4, FRRS1, CFH and MET - whose combined expression carried greater prognostic value than tumour grade - and cmet and TRKB proteins. These molecules warrant further evaluation in larger series. Reliable clinically relevant data can be obtained from archival FFPET, but protocol amendments are needed to improve the sensitivity and broad application of this approach.

  10. Multiple splicing defects in an intronic false exon.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Chasin, L A

    2000-09-01

    Splice site consensus sequences alone are insufficient to dictate the recognition of real constitutive splice sites within the typically large transcripts of higher eukaryotes, and large numbers of pseudoexons flanked by pseudosplice sites with good matches to the consensus sequences can be easily designated. In an attempt to identify elements that prevent pseudoexon splicing, we have systematically altered known splicing signals, as well as immediately adjacent flanking sequences, of an arbitrarily chosen pseudoexon from intron 1 of the human hprt gene. The substitution of a 5' splice site that perfectly matches the 5' consensus combined with mutation to match the CAG/G sequence of the 3' consensus failed to get this model pseudoexon included as the central exon in a dhfr minigene context. Provision of a real 3' splice site and a consensus 5' splice site and removal of an upstream inhibitory sequence were necessary and sufficient to confer splicing on the pseudoexon. This activated context also supported the splicing of a second pseudoexon sequence containing no apparent enhancer. Thus, both the 5' splice site sequence and the polypyrimidine tract of the pseudoexon are defective despite their good agreement with the consensus. On the other hand, the pseudoexon body did not exert a negative influence on splicing. The introduction into the pseudoexon of a sequence selected for binding to ASF/SF2 or its replacement with beta-globin exon 2 only partially reversed the effect of the upstream negative element and the defective polypyrimidine tract. These results support the idea that exon-bridging enhancers are not a prerequisite for constitutive exon definition and suggest that intrinsically defective splice sites and negative elements play important roles in distinguishing the real splicing signal from the vast number of false splicing signals.

  11. Development of Therapeutic Chimeric Uricase by Exon Replacement/Restoration and Site-Directed Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guangrong; Yang, Weizhen; Chen, Jing; Li, Miaomiao; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Baixue; Chen, Si; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-05-20

    The activity of urate oxidase was lost during hominoid evolution, resulting in high susceptibility to hyperuricemia and gout in humans. In order to develop a more "human-like" uricase for therapeutic use, exon replacement/restoration and site-directed mutagenesis were performed to obtain porcine-human uricase with higher homology to deduced human uricase (dHU) and increased uricolytic activity. In an exon replacement study, substitution of exon 6 in wild porcine uricase (wPU) gene with corresponding exon in dhu totally abolished its activity. Substitutions of exon 5, 3, and 1-2 led to 85%, 60%, and 45% loss of activity, respectively. However, replacement of exon 4 and 7-8 did not significantly change the enzyme activity. When exon 5, 6, and 3 in dhu were replaced by their counterparts in wpu, the resulting chimera H1-2P₃H₄P5-6H7-8 was active, but only about 28% of wPU. Multiple sequence alignment and homology modeling predicted that mutations of E24D and E83G in H1-2P₃H₄P5-6H7-8 were favorable for further increase of its activity. After site-directed mutagenesis, H1-2P₃H₄P5-6H7-8 (E24D & E83G) with increased homology (91.45%) with dHU and higher activity and catalytic efficiency than the FDA-approved porcine-baboon chimera (PBC) was obtained. It showed optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 35 °C and was stable in a pH range of 6.5-11.0 and temperature range of 20-40 °C.

  12. Exon expression profiling reveals stimulus-mediated exon use in neural cells

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Adrienne E; Neretti, Nicola; Carvalho, Luis E; Meyer, Clifford A; Fox, Edward A; Brodsky, Alexander S; Silver, Pamela A

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neuronal cells respond to changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by affecting both the abundance and architecture of specific mRNAs. Although calcium-induced transcription and transcript variation have both been recognized as important sources of gene regulation, the interplay between these two phenomena has not been evaluated on a genome-wide scale. Results: Here, we show that exon-centric microarrays can be used to resolve the [Ca2+]i-modulated gene expression response into transcript-level and exon-level regulation. Global assessments of affected transcripts reveal modulation within distinct functional gene categories. We find that transcripts containing calcium-modulated exons exhibit enrichment for calcium ion binding, calmodulin binding, plasma membrane associated, and metabolic proteins. Additionally, we uncover instances of regulated exon use in potassium channels, neuroendocrine secretory proteins and metabolic enzymes, and demonstrate that regulated changes in exon expression give rise to distinct transcript variants. Conclusion: Our findings connect extracellular stimuli to specific exon behavior, and suggest that changes in transcript and exon abundance are reflective of a coordinated gene expression response to elevated [Ca2+]i. The technology we describe here lends itself readily to the resolution of stimulus-induced gene expression at both the transcript and exon levels. PMID:17683528

  13. Endogenous Multiple Exon Skipping and Back-Splicing at the DMD Mutation Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Kameyama, Toshiki; Saito, Takashi; Masuda, Satoru; Tanihata, Jun; Nagata, Tetsuya; Mayeda, Akila; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscular disorder. It was reported that multiple exon skipping (MES), targeting exon 45–55 of the DMD gene, might improve patients’ symptoms because patients who have a genomic deletion of all these exons showed very mild symptoms. Thus, exon 45–55 skipping treatments for DMD have been proposed as a potential clinical cure. Herein, we detected the expression of endogenous exons 44–56 connected mRNA transcript of the DMD using total RNAs derived from human normal skeletal muscle by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and identified a total of eight types of MES products around the hotspot. Surprisingly, the 5′ splice sites of recently reported post-transcriptional introns (remaining introns after co-transcriptional splicing) act as splicing donor sites for MESs. We also tested exon combinations to generate DMD circular RNAs (circRNAs) and determined the preferential splice sites of back-splicing, which are involved not only in circRNA generation, but also in MESs. Our results fit the current circRNA-generation model, suggesting that upstream post-transcriptional introns trigger MES and generate circRNA because its existence is critical for the intra-intronic interaction or for extremely distal splicing. PMID:27754374

  14. Antisense-induced exon skipping restores dystrophin expression in DMD patient derived muscle cells.

    PubMed

    van Deutekom, J C; Bremmer-Bout, M; Janson, A A; Ginjaar, I B; Baas, F; den Dunnen, J T; van Ommen, G J

    2001-07-15

    Due to frame-shifting mutations in the DMD gene that cause dystrophin deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients suffer from lethal muscle degeneration. In contrast, mutations in the allelic Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) do not disrupt the translational reading frame, resulting in a less severe phenotype. In this study, we explored a genetic therapy aimed at restoring the reading frame in muscle cells from DMD patients through targeted modulation of dystrophin pre-mRNA splicing. Considering that exon 45 is the single most frequently deleted exon in DMD, whereas exon (45+46) deletions cause only a mild form of BMD, we set up an antisense-based system to induce exon 46 skipping from the transcript in cultured myotubes of both mouse and human origin. In myotube cultures from two unrelated DMD patients carrying an exon 45 deletion, the induced skipping of exon 46 in only approximately 15% of the mRNA led to normal amounts of properly localized dystrophin in at least 75% of myotubes. Our results provide first evidence of highly effective restoration of dystrophin expression from the endogenous gene in DMD patient-derived muscle cells. This strategy may be applicable to not only >65% of DMD mutations, but also many other genetic diseases.

  15. Oxidative Stress Triggers Body-Wide Skipping of Multiple Exons of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joonbae; Singh, Natalia N.; Ottesen, Eric W.; Sivanesan, Senthilkumar; Shishimorova, Maria; Singh, Ravindra N.

    2016-01-01

    Humans carry two nearly identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Loss of SMN1 leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most frequent genetic cause of infant mortality. While SMN2 cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7, correction of SMN2 exon 7 splicing holds the promise of a cure for SMA. Previously, we used cell-based models coupled with a multi-exon-skipping detection assay (MESDA) to demonstrate the vulnerability of SMN2 exons to aberrant splicing under the conditions of oxidative stress (OS). Here we employ a transgenic mouse model and MESDA to examine the OS-induced splicing regulation of SMN2 exons. We induced OS using paraquat that is known to trigger production of reactive oxygen species and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. We show an overwhelming co-skipping of SMN2 exon 5 and exon 7 under OS in all tissues except testis. We also show that OS increases skipping of SMN2 exon 3 in all tissues except testis. We uncover several new SMN2 splice isoforms expressed at elevated levels under the conditions of OS. We analyze cis-elements and transacting factors to demonstrate the diversity of mechanisms for splicing misregulation under OS. Our results of proteome analysis reveal downregulation of hnRNP H as one of the potential consequences of OS in brain. Our findings suggest SMN2 as a sensor of OS with implications to SMA and other diseases impacted by low levels of SMN protein. PMID:27111068

  16. Involvement of exon 11-associated variants of the mu opioid receptor MOR-1 in heroin, but not morphine, actions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying-Xian; Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C; Matulonis, Joshua E; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2009-03-24

    Heroin remains a major drug of abuse and is preferred by addicts over morphine. Like morphine, heroin has high affinity and selectivity for mu-receptors, but its residual analgesia in exon 1 MOR-1 knockout mice that do not respond to morphine suggests a different mechanism of action. MOR-1 splice variants lacking exon 1 have been observed in mice, humans, and rats, raising the possibility that they might be responsible for the residual heroin and morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G) analgesia in the exon 1 knockout mice. To test this possibility, we disrupted exon 11 of MOR-1, which eliminates all of the variants that do not contain exon 1. Morphine and methadone analgesia in the exon 11 knockout mouse was normal, but the analgesic actions of heroin, M6G, and fentanyl were markedly diminished in the radiant heat tail-flick and hot-plate assays. Similarly, the ability of M6G to inhibit gastrointestinal transit was greatly diminished in these exon 11 knockout mice, whereas the ability of morphine was unchanged. These findings identify receptors selectively involved with heroin and M6G actions and confirm the relevance of the exon 11-associated variants and raise important issues regarding the importance of atypical truncated G-protein-coupled receptors.

  17. Exon-skipped dystrophins for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mass spectrometry mapping of most exons and cooperative domain designs based on single molecule mechanics.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Christine Carag; Bhasin, Nishant; Tewari, Manorama; Brown, Andre E X; Safer, Daniel; Sweeney, H Lee; Discher, Dennis E

    2010-12-01

    Force-bearing linkages between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix are clearly important to normal cell viability-as is evident in a disease such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which arises in the absence of the linkage protein dystrophin. Therapeutic approaches to DMD include antisense-mediated skipping of exons to delete nonsense mutations while maintaining reading frame, but the structure and stability of the resulting proteins are generally unclear. Here we use mass spectrometry to detect most dystrophin exons, and we express and physically characterize dystrophin "nano"-constructs based on multiexon deletions that might find use in a large percentage of DMD patients. The primary structure challenge is addressed first with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) which can detect tryptic peptides from 53 of dystrophin's 79 exons; equivalent information from immunodetection would require 53 different high-specificity antibodies. Folding predictions for the nano-constructs reveal novel helical bundle domains that arise out of exon-deleted "linkers," while secondary structure studies confirm high helicity and also melting temperatures well above physiological. Extensional forces with an atomic force microscope nonetheless unfold the constructs, and the ensemble of unfolding trajectories reveal the number of folded domains, proving consistent with structure predictions. A mechanical cooperativity parameter for unfolding of tandem domains is also introduced as the best predictor of a multiexon deletion that is asymptomatic in humans. The results thereby provide insight and confidence in exon-skipped designs.

  18. Antisense oligonucleotide–mediated MDM4 exon 6 skipping impairs tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Dewaele, Michael; Tabaglio, Tommaso; Willekens, Karen; Bezzi, Marco; Teo, Shun Xie; Low, Diana H.P.; Koh, Cheryl M.; Rambow, Florian; Fiers, Mark; Rogiers, Aljosja; Radaelli, Enrico; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Tan, Soo Yong; Hermans, Els; Amant, Frederic; Yan, Hualong; Lakshmanan, Manikandan; Koumar, Ratnacaram Chandrahas; Lim, Soon Thye; Derheimer, Frederick A.; Campbell, Robert M.; Bonday, Zahid; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Shackleton, Mark; Blattner, Christine; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Guccione, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    MDM4 is a promising target for cancer therapy, as it is undetectable in most normal adult tissues but often upregulated in cancer cells to dampen p53 tumor-suppressor function. The mechanisms that underlie MDM4 upregulation in cancer cells are largely unknown. Here, we have shown that this key oncogenic event mainly depends on a specific alternative splicing switch. We determined that while a nonsense-mediated, decay-targeted isoform of MDM4 (MDM4-S) is produced in normal adult tissues as a result of exon 6 skipping, enhanced exon 6 inclusion leads to expression of full-length MDM4 in a large number of human cancers. Although this alternative splicing event is likely regulated by multiple splicing factors, we identified the SRSF3 oncoprotein as a key enhancer of exon 6 inclusion. In multiple human melanoma cell lines and in melanoma patient–derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, antisense oligonucleotide–mediated (ASO-mediated) skipping of exon 6 decreased MDM4 abundance, inhibited melanoma growth, and enhanced sensitivity to MAPK-targeting therapeutics. Additionally, ASO-based MDM4 targeting reduced diffuse large B cell lymphoma PDX growth. As full-length MDM4 is enhanced in multiple human tumors, our data indicate that this strategy is applicable to a wide range of tumor types. We conclude that enhanced MDM4 exon 6 inclusion is a common oncogenic event and has potential as a clinically compatible therapeutic target. PMID:26595814

  19. iGEMS: an integrated model for identification of alternative exon usage events

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Sanjana; Szkop, Krzysztof J.; Nakhuda, Asif; Gallagher, Iain J.; Murie, Carl; Brogan, Robert J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Atherton, Philip J.; Kujala, Urho M.; Gustafsson, Thomas; Larsson, Ola; Timmons, James A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA microarrays and RNAseq are complementary methods for studying RNA molecules. Current computational methods to determine alternative exon usage (AEU) using such data require impractical visual inspection and still yield high false-positive rates. Integrated Gene and Exon Model of Splicing (iGEMS) adapts a gene-level residuals model with a gene size adjusted false discovery rate and exon-level analysis to circumvent these limitations. iGEMS was applied to two new DNA microarray datasets, including the high coverage Human Transcriptome Arrays 2.0 and performance was validated using RT-qPCR. First, AEU was studied in adipocytes treated with (n = 9) or without (n = 8) the anti-diabetes drug, rosiglitazone. iGEMS identified 555 genes with AEU, and robust verification by RT-qPCR (∼90%). Second, in a three-way human tissue comparison (muscle, adipose and blood, n = 41) iGEMS identified 4421 genes with at least one AEU event, with excellent RT-qPCR verification (95%, n = 22). Importantly, iGEMS identified a variety of AEU events, including 3′UTR extension, as well as exon inclusion/exclusion impacting on protein kinase and extracellular matrix domains. In conclusion, iGEMS is a robust method for identification of AEU while the variety of exon usage between human tissues is 5–10 times more prevalent than reported by the Genotype-Tissue Expression consortium using RNA sequencing. PMID:27095197

  20. Statistical evaluation of transcriptomic data generated using the Affymetrix one-cycle, two-cycle and IVT-Express RNA labelling protocols with the Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microarrays are a powerful tool used for the determination of global RNA expression. There is an increasing requirement to focus on profiling gene expression in tissues where it is difficult to obtain large quantities of material, for example individual tissues within organs such as the root, or individual isolated cells. From such samples, it is difficult to produce the amount of RNA required for labelling and hybridisation in microarray experiments, thus a process of amplification is usually adopted. Despite the increasing use of two-cycle amplification for transcriptomic analyses on the Affymetrix ATH1 array, there has been no report investigating any potential bias in gene representation that may occur as a result. Results Here we compare transcriptomic data generated using Affymetrix one-cycle (standard labelling protocol), two-cycle (small-sample protocol) and IVT-Express protocols with the Affymetrix ATH1 array using Arabidopsis root samples. Results obtained with each protocol are broadly similar. However, we show that there are 35 probe sets (of a total of 22810) that are misrepresented in the two-cycle data sets. Of these, 33 probe sets were classed as mis-amplified when comparisons of two independent publicly available data sets were undertaken. Conclusions Given the unreliable nature of the highlighted probes, we caution against using data associated with the corresponding genes in analyses involving transcriptomic data generated with two-cycle amplification protocols. We have shown that the Affymetrix IVT-E labelling protocol produces data with less associated bias than the two-cycle protocol, and as such, would recommend this kit for new experiments that involve small samples. PMID:20230623

  1. Exon skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kole, Ryszard; Krieg, Arthur M

    2015-06-29

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused mostly by internal deletions in the gene for dystrophin, a protein essential for maintaining muscle cell membrane integrity. These deletions abrogate the reading frame and the lack of dystrophin results in progressive muscle deterioration. DMD patients experience progressive loss of ambulation, followed by a need for assisted ventilation, and eventual death in mid-twenties. By the method of exon skipping in dystrophin pre-mRNA the reading frame is restored and the internally deleted but functional dystrophin is produced. Two oligonucleotide drugs that induce desired exon skipping are currently in advanced clinical trials.

  2. Hardware accelerator for prediction of exons.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Adeel; Khan, Shoab A

    2006-01-01

    Gene annotation is by nature a computationally intensive problem, as it needs to process huge data size of DNA sequences. This forces the need to look for alternate ways of implementing algorithms to predict exons. The paper presents an accelerator for indexing DNA sequences. The accelerator effectively exploits the 3-periodicity property exhibited by protein coding regions and indicates their presence in the sequence. Experimental results show superior performance compared with software-based approach for evaluating exons from DNA. The accelerator based PCI pluggable card offers a great utility to scientists and engineers actively involved in indexing DNA sequences.

  3. Detecting tissue-specific alternative splicing and disease-associated aberrant splicing of the PTCH gene with exon junction microarrays.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kazuaki; Togawa, Naoyuki; Fujii, Katsunori; Uchikawa, Hideki; Kohno, Yoichi; Yamada, Masao; Miyashita, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-15

    Mutations in the human ortholog of Drosophila patched (PTCH) have been identified in patients with autosomal dominant nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), characterized by minor developmental anomalies and an increased incidence of cancers such as medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. We identified many isoforms of PTCH mRNA involving exons 1-5, exon 10 and a novel exon, 12b, generated by alternative splicing (AS), most of which have not been deposited in GenBank nor discussed earlier. To monitor splicing events of the PTCH gene, we designed oligonucleotide arrays on which exon probes and exon-exon junction probes as well as a couple of intron probes for the PTCH gene were placed in duplicate. Probe intensities were normalized on the basis of the total expression of PTCH and probe sensitivity. Tissue-specific regulation of AS identified with the microarrays closely correlated with the results obtained by RT-PCR. Of note, the novel exon, exon 12b, was specifically expressed in the brain and heart, especially in the cerebellum. Additionally, using these microarrays, we were able to detect disease-associated aberrant splicings of the PTCH gene in two patients with NBCCS. In both cases, cryptic splice donor sites located either in an exon or in an intron were activated because of the partial disruption of the consensus sequence for the authentic splice donor sites due to point mutations. Taken together, oligonucleotide microarrays containing exon junction probes are demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate tissue-specific regulation of AS and aberrant splicing taking place in genetic disorders.

  4. Characterization of a spliced exon product of herpes simplex type-1 latency-associated transcript in productively infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Wen; Mukerjee, Ruma; Gartner, Jared J.; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.; Fraser, Nigel W. . E-mail: nfraser@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-12-20

    The latency-associated transcripts (LATs) of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) are the only viral RNAs accumulating during latent infections in the sensory ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. The major form of LAT that accumulates in latently infected neurons is a 2 kb intron, spliced from a much less abundant 8.3 primary transcript. The spliced exon mRNA has been hard to detect. However, in this study, we have examined the spliced exon RNA in productively infected cells using ribonuclease protection (RPA), and quantitative RT-PCR (q-PCR) assays. We were able to detect the LAT exon RNA in productively infected SY5Y cells (a human neuronal cell line). The level of the LAT exon RNA was found to be approximately 5% that of the 2 kb intron RNA and thus is likely to be relatively unstable. Quantitative RT-PCR (q-PCR) assays were used to examine the LAT exon RNA and its properties. They confirmed that the LAT exon mRNA is present at a very low level in productively infected cells, compared to the levels of other viral transcripts. Furthermore, experiments showed that the LAT exon mRNA is expressed as a true late gene, and appears to be polyadenylated. In SY5Y cells, in contrast to most late viral transcripts, the LAT exon RNA was found to be mainly nuclear localized during the late stage of a productive infection. Interestingly, more LAT exon RNA was found in the cytoplasm in differentiated compared to undifferentiated SY5Y cells, suggesting the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of the LAT exon RNA and its related function may be influenced by the differentiation state of cells.

  5. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and protein-coding exons, we name them exitrons (exonic introns). Though exitrons were detected as a subset of retained introns, they are clearly distinguishable, and their splicing results in transcripts with different fates. About half of the 1002 Arabidopsis and 923 human exitrons have sizes of multiples of 3 nucleotides (nt). Splicing of these exitrons results in internally deleted proteins and affects protein domains, disordered regions, and various post-translational modification sites, thus broadly impacting protein function. Exitron splicing is regulated across tissues, in response to stress and in carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, annotated intronless genes can be also alternatively spliced via exitron usage. We demonstrate that at least some exitrons originate from ancestral coding exons. Based on our findings, we propose a “splicing memory” hypothesis whereby upon intron loss imprints of former exon borders defined by vestigial splicing regulatory elements could drive the evolution of exitron splicing. Altogether, our studies show that exitron splicing is a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in plants and animals, complementing the repertoire of AS events. PMID:25934563

  6. A survey on intron and exon lengths.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J D

    1988-01-01

    The lengths of introns and exons in various parts of genes of vertebrates, insects, plants and fungi are tabulated. Differences between the various groups of organisms are apparent. The results are discussed and support the idea that, generally speaking, introns were present in primitive genomes, though in some cases they may have been inserted into pre-existing genes. PMID:3057449

  7. Homozygous deletion but not mutation of exons 5 and 8 of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene is associated with features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Tao; Wang, Lin; Sun, Jianrei; Yin, Fengyan; Yan, Qingtao; Shen, Ru-Long; Gao, Jian-Xin; He, Gang

    2010-01-01

    The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encompasses the most common human fragile site, FRA3B at 3p14.2, a region that is involved in homozygous deletions in a variety of human tumors. FHIT is considered to be a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in various types of cancer. To study the role of the FHIT gene in thyroid tumorigenesis, we looked for homozygous deletions or mutations of exons 5 and 8 of the FHIT gene in 65 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and their matched non-cancerous epithelium (NCE), using exon-specific PCR amplification and PCR single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) techniques. In DTC, the incidence of homozygous deletion of exon 5 was 30.8% (20/65), and it was associated with tumor metastasis to lymph nodes (p <0.05). The incidence of homozygous deletion of exon 8 was 29.2% (19/65), and it was associated with the tumor pathological grade, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis (p <0.05). There was strong correlation between homozygous deletions of exon 5 and exon 8 (p <0.01). No point mutations were observed in either exon 5 or exon 8. These findings suggest that: (a) exons 5 and 8 of FHIT are key target regions of deletion, (b) homozygous deletions of exon 5 and exon 8 may be good biomarkers for the biological behavior of DTC, and (c) point mutation of these exons may not be involved in the inactivation of the FHIT gene in DTC.

  8. Deletion of ameloblastin exon 6 is associated with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Poulter, James A; Murillo, Gina; Brookes, Steven J; Smith, Claire E L; Parry, David A; Silva, Sandra; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J

    2014-10-15

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) describes a heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects reflecting failure of normal amelogenesis. Ameloblastin (AMBN) is the second most abundant enamel matrix protein expressed during amelogenesis. The pivotal role of AMBN in amelogenesis has been confirmed experimentally using mouse models. However, no AMBN mutations have been associated with human AI. Using autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified genomic deletion of AMBN exon 6 in a second cousin consanguineous family with three of the six children having hypoplastic AI. The genomic deletion corresponds to an in-frame deletion of 79 amino acids, shortening the protein from 447 to 368 residues. Exfoliated primary teeth (unmatched to genotype) were available from family members. The most severely affected had thin, aprismatic enamel (similar to that reported in mice homozygous for Ambn lacking exons 5 and 6). Other teeth exhibited thicker but largely aprismatic enamel. One tooth had apparently normal enamel. It has been suggested that AMBN may function in bone development. No clinically obvious bone or other co-segregating health problems were identified in the family investigated. This study confirms for the first time that AMBN mutations cause non-syndromic human AI and that mouse models with disrupted Ambn function are valid.

  9. Deletion of ameloblastin exon 6 is associated with amelogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Poulter, James A.; Murillo, Gina; Brookes, Steven J.; Smith, Claire E. L.; Parry, David A.; Silva, Sandra; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Mighell, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) describes a heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects reflecting failure of normal amelogenesis. Ameloblastin (AMBN) is the second most abundant enamel matrix protein expressed during amelogenesis. The pivotal role of AMBN in amelogenesis has been confirmed experimentally using mouse models. However, no AMBN mutations have been associated with human AI. Using autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified genomic deletion of AMBN exon 6 in a second cousin consanguineous family with three of the six children having hypoplastic AI. The genomic deletion corresponds to an in-frame deletion of 79 amino acids, shortening the protein from 447 to 368 residues. Exfoliated primary teeth (unmatched to genotype) were available from family members. The most severely affected had thin, aprismatic enamel (similar to that reported in mice homozygous for Ambn lacking exons 5 and 6). Other teeth exhibited thicker but largely aprismatic enamel. One tooth had apparently normal enamel. It has been suggested that AMBN may function in bone development. No clinically obvious bone or other co-segregating health problems were identified in the family investigated. This study confirms for the first time that AMBN mutations cause non-syndromic human AI and that mouse models with disrupted Ambn function are valid. PMID:24858907

  10. Lack of exon 10 in the murine tau gene results in mild sensorimotor defects with aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex species-specific, developmental- and tissue-dependent mechanisms regulate alternative splicing of tau, thereby diversifying tau protein synthesis. The functional role of alternative splicing of tau e.g. exon 10 has never been examined in vivo, although genetic studies suggest that it is important to neurodegenerative disease. Results Gene-targeting was used to delete exon 10 in murine tau on both alleles (E10−/−) to study its functional role. Moreover, mice devoid of exon 10 (E10+/−) on one allele were generated to investigate the effects of 1:1 balanced expression of 4R-/3R-tau protein, since equal amounts of 4R-/3R-tau protein are synthesized in human brain. Middle-aged E10−/− mice displayed sensorimotor disturbances in the rotarod when compared to age-matched E10+/− and wild-type mice, and their muscular grip strength was less than that of E10+/− mice. The performance of E10+/− mice and wild-type mice (E10+/+) was similar in sensorimotor tests. Cognitive abilities or anxiety-like behaviours did not depend on exon 10 in tau, and neither pathological inclusions nor gene-dependent morphological abnormalities were found. Conclusion Ablation of exon 10 in the murine tau gene alters alternative splicing and tau protein synthesis which results in mild sensorimotor phenotypes with aging. Presumably related microtubule-stabilizing genes rescue other functions. PMID:24261309

  11. Association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hojati, Zohreh; Nouri Emamzadeh, Fatemeh; Dehghanian, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters. Objective: The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 in JHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24. Results: Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons. Conclusion: Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility. PMID:27525322

  12. Limited HLA sequence variation outside of antigen recognition domain exons of 360 10 of 10 matched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant donor-recipient pairs.

    PubMed

    Hou, L; Vierra-Green, C; Lazaro, A; Brady, C; Haagenson, M; Spellman, S; Hurley, C K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional DNA-based typing focuses primarily on interrogating the exons of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes that form the antigen recognition domain (ARD). The relevance of mismatching donor and recipient for HLA variation outside the ARD on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of variation outside the ARD in 10 of 10 (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1) matched unrelated donor transplant pairs (n = 360). Next-generation DNA sequencing was used to characterize both HLA exons and introns for HLA-A, -B, -C alleles; exons 2, 3 and the intervening intron for HLA-DRB1 and exons only for HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1. Over 97% of alleles at each locus were matched for their nucleotide sequence outside of the ARD exons. Of the 4320 allele comparisons overall, only 17 allele pairs were mismatched for non-ARD exons, 41 for noncoding regions and 9 for ARD exons. The observed variation between donor and recipient usually involved a single nucleotide difference (88% of mismatches); 88% of the non-ARD exon variants impacted the amino acid sequence. The impact of amino acid sequence variation caused by substitutions in exons outside ARD regions in D-R pairs will be difficult to assess in HSCT outcome studies because these mismatches do not occur very frequently.

  13. Skipping multiple exons of dystrophin transcripts using cocktail antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2014-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common and lethal genetic disorders, with 20,000 children per year born with DMD globally. DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Antisense-mediated exon skipping therapy is a promising therapeutic approach that uses short DNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) to skip over/splice out the mutated part of the gene to produce a shortened but functional dystrophin protein. One major challenge has been its limited applicability. Multiple exon skipping has recently emerged as a potential solution. Indeed, many DMD patients need exon skipping of multiple exons in order to restore the reading frame, depending on how many base pairs the mutated exon(s) and adjacent exons have. Theoretically, multiple exon skipping could be used to treat approximately 90%, 80%, and 98% of DMD patients with deletion, duplication, and nonsense mutations, respectively. In addition, multiple exon skipping could be used to select deletions that optimize the functionality of the truncated dystrophin protein. The proof of concept of systemic multiple exon skipping using a cocktail of AOs has been demonstrated in dystrophic dog and mouse models. Remaining challenges include the insufficient efficacy of systemic treatment, especially for therapies that target the heart, and limited long-term safety data. Here we review recent preclinical developments in AO-mediated multiple exon skipping and discuss the remaining challenges.

  14. Mutations in exons 10 and 11 of human glucokinase result in conformational variations in the active site of the structure contributing to poor substrate binding - explains hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Nandakumar; Mahto, Manoj Kumar; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; Sarma, P V G K; Matcha, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the glucokinase (GK) gene play a critical role in the establishment of type 2 diabetes. In our earlier study, R308K mutation in GK in a clinically proven type 2 diabetic patient showed, structural and functional variations that contributed immensely to the hyperglycemic condition. In the extension of this work, a cohort of 30 patients with established type 2 diabetic condition were chosen and the exons 10 and 11 of GK were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence alignment showed A379S, D400Y, E300A, E395A, E395G, H380N, I348N, L301M, M298I, M381G, M402R, R308K, R394P, R397S, and S398R mutations in 12 different patients. The structural analysis of these mutated GKs, showed a variable number of β-α-β units, hairpins, β-bulges, strands, helices, helix-helix interactions, β-turns, and γ-turns along with the RMSD variations when compared to wild-type GK. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the substrate showed variable binding orientations and could not fit into the active site of these mutated structures; moreover, it was expelled out of the conformations. Therefore, these structural variations in GK due to mutations could be one of the strongest reasons for the hyperglycemic levels in these type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. A five prime splice-region G yields C mutation in exon 1 of the human. beta. -globin gene inhibits pre-mRNA splicing: A mechanism for. beta. sup + -thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Vidaud, M.; Vidaud, D.; Amselem, S.; Rosa, J.; Goossens, M. ); Gattoni, R.; Stevenin, J. ); Chibani, J. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors have characterized a Mediterranean {beta}-thalassemia allele containing a sequence change at codon 30 that alters both {beta}-globin pre-mRNA splicing and the structure of the homoglobin product. Presumably, this G {yields} C transversion at position {minus}1 of intron 1 reduces severely the utilization of the normal 5{prime} splice site since the level of the Arg {yields} Thr mutant hemoglobin (designated hemoglobin Kairouan) found in the erythrocytes of the patient is very low (2% of total hemoglobin). Since no natural mutations of the guanine located at position {minus}1 of the CAG/GTAAGT consensus sequence had been isolated previously. They investigated the role of this nucleotide in the constitution of an active 5{prime} splice site by studying the splicing of the pre-mRNA in cell-free extracts. They demonstrate that correct splicing of the mutant pre-mRNA is 98% inhibited. Their results provide further insights into the mechanisms of pre-mRNA maturation by revealing that the last residue of the exon plays a role at least equivalent to that of the intron residue at position +5.

  16. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutation in Japanese lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hidefumi; Endo, Katsuhiko; Takada, Minoru; Kawahara, Masaaki; Kitahara, Naoto; Tanaka, Hisaichi; Okumura, Meinoshin; Matsumura, Akihide; Iuchi, Keiji; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Kawano, Osamu; Yukiue, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Tomoki; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2007-12-01

    Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in female, never smoker patients with adenocarcinoma. Some common somatic mutations in EGFR, including deletion mutations in exon 19 and leucine to arginine substitution at amino acid position 858 (L858R) in exon 21, have been examined for their ability to predict sensitivity to gefitinib or erlotinib. On the other hand, previous report has shown that the insertion mutation at exon 20 is related to gefitinib resistance. We investigated the exon 20 EGFR mutation statuses in 322 surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer cases. Two hundred and five adenocarcinoma cases were included. The presence or absence of EGFR mutations of kinase domains was analyzed by direct sequences. EGFR insertion mutations at exon 20 were found from 7 of 322 (2.17%) lung cancer patients. We also detected the 18 deletion type mutations in exon 19, and 25 L858R type mutations in exon 21. There was a tendency towards higher exon 20 insertion ratio in never smoker (never smoker 4.4% versus smoker 1.3%, p=0.0996) and female (female 4.5% versus male 1.3%, p=0.0917). Two exon 20 insertion cases were treated with gefitinib and failed to response. EGFR insertion mutation in exon 20 could not be ignored from Japanese lung cancers.

  17. Compartmentalization of PDGF on extracellular binding sites dependent on exon-6-encoded sequences

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The PDGFs are a family of molecules assembled as disulfide-bonded homo- and heterodimers from two distinct but highly homologous polypeptide chains (PDGF-A and PDGF-B). Two PDGF A-chain transcripts, which arise from alternative usage of the 69-bp exon 6 and exon 7, give rise to two forms of PDGF-A. In spite of the conservation of two PDGF A-chain forms over at least 350 million years, no differences in their biological activities have been identified. We have investigated the activity of the sequence encoded by the alternatively spliced exon 6 of the PDGF A- chain (peptide AL). Addition of peptide AL at 10(-5)-10(-9) M to cultured endothelium and smooth muscle induced a dose-dependent, 3-20- fold increase in PDGF in conditioned media within 30 min. Peptide AL had no detectable effect on A- or B-chain transcript levels, and decrease in culture temperature did not prevent rapid release of PDGF. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with peptide AL, the PDGF release was principally PDGF-BB, while in smooth muscle cells it was primarily PDGF-AA. The capacity to induce release of PDGF is shared by the homologous peptide encoded by exon 6 of the B-chain of PDGF. Binding studies and cross-linking analysis are consistent with a charge- based association of exon 6 sequences with membrane- and matrix- associated heparan-sulfate proteoglycans. We hypothesize that translation of exon 6 of the A- or B-chain of PDGF results in compartmentalization of these forms of PDGF with HS-PG, whereas forms lacking this sequence would be soluble and diffuse. PMID:1309814

  18. Alternative splicing and evolution: diversification, exon definition and function.

    PubMed

    Keren, Hadas; Lev-Maor, Galit; Ast, Gil

    2010-05-01

    Over the past decade, it has been shown that alternative splicing (AS) is a major mechanism for the enhancement of transcriptome and proteome diversity, particularly in mammals. Splicing can be found in species from bacteria to humans, but its prevalence and characteristics vary considerably. Evolutionary studies are helping to address questions that are fundamental to understanding this important process: how and when did AS evolve? Which AS events are functional? What are the evolutionary forces that shaped, and continue to shape, AS? And what determines whether an exon is spliced in a constitutive or alternative manner? In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of AS and evolution and provide insights into some of these unresolved questions.

  19. Gene correction of a duchenne muscular dystrophy mutation by meganuclease-enhanced exon knock-in.

    PubMed

    Popplewell, Linda; Koo, Taeyoung; Leclerc, Xavier; Duclert, Aymeric; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Gouble, Agnés; Mouly, Vincent; Voit, Thomas; Pâques, Frédéric; Cédrone, Frédéric; Isman, Olga; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Dickson, George

    2013-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe inherited, muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Gene therapy development for DMD has concentrated on vector-based DMD minigene transfer, cell-based gene therapy using genetically modified adult muscle stem cells or healthy wild-type donor cells, and antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon-skipping therapy to restore the reading frame of the mutated DMD gene. This study is an investigation into DMD gene targeting-mediated correction of deletions in human patient myoblasts using a target-specific meganuclease (MN) and a homologous recombination repair matrix. The MN was designed to cleave within DMD intron 44, upstream of a deletion hotspot, and integration-competent lentiviral vectors expressing the nuclease (LVcMN) were generated. MN western blotting and deep gene sequencing for LVcMN-induced non-homologous end-joining InDels (microdeletions or microinsertions) confirmed efficient MN expression and activity in transduced DMD myoblasts. A homologous repair matrix carrying exons 45-52 (RM45-52) was designed and packaged into integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs; LVdRM45-52). After cotransduction of DMD myoblasts harboring a deletion of exons 45 to 52 with LVcMN and LVdRM45-52 vectors, targeted knock-in of the RM45-52 region in the correct location in DMD intron 44, and expression of full-length, correctly spliced wild-type dystrophin mRNA containing exons 45-52 were observed. This work demonstrates that genome surgery on human DMD gene mutations can be achieved by MN-induced locus-specific genome cleavage and homologous recombination knock-in of deleted exons. The feasibility of human DMD gene repair in patient myoblasts has exciting therapeutic potential.

  20. Cooperative binding of TIA-1 and U1 snRNP in K-SAM exon splicing activation

    SciTech Connect

    Gesnel, Marie-Claude; Theoleyre, Sandrine; Del Gatto-Konczak, Fabienne; Breathnach, Richard . E-mail: breathna@nantes.inserm.fr

    2007-07-13

    In 293 cells, splicing of the human fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 K-SAM alternative exon is inefficient, but can be made efficient by provoking TIA-1 binding to the U-rich IAS1 sequence downstream from the exon's 5' splice site. We show here that TIA-1 domains known to interact with U1 snRNP and to recruit it to 5' splice sites in vitro are required for TIA-1 activation of K-SAM exon splicing in vivo. We further show that tethering downstream from the K-SAM exon a fusion between the U1 snRNP component U1C and the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein provokes IAS1-dependent exon splicing, and present evidence that the fusion functions after its incorporation into U1 snRNP. Our in vivo data, taken together with previous in vitro results, show that K-SAM splicing activation involves cooperative binding of TIA-1 and U1 snRNP to the exon's 5' splice site region.

  1. Triple-layer dissection of the lung adenocarcinoma transcriptome – regulation at the gene, transcript, and exon levels

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Min-Kung; Wu, I-Ching; Cheng, Ching-Chia; Su, Jen-Liang; Hsieh, Chang-Huain; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Chen, Feng-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the most deadly human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, particularly RNA splicing, have remained underexplored. Here, we report a triple-level (gene-, transcript-, and exon-level) analysis of lung adenocarcinoma transcriptomes from 77 paired tumor and normal tissues, as well as an analysis pipeline to overcome genetic variability for accurate differentiation between tumor and normal tissues. We report three major results. First, more than 5,000 differentially expressed transcripts/exonic regions occur repeatedly in lung adenocarcinoma patients. These transcripts/exonic regions are enriched in nicotine metabolism and ribosomal functions in addition to the pathways enriched for differentially expressed genes (cell cycle, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and axon guidance). Second, classification models based on rationally selected transcripts or exonic regions can reach accuracies of 0.93 to 1.00 in differentiating tumor from normal tissues. Of the 28 selected exonic regions, 26 regions correspond to alternative exons located in such regulators as tumor suppressor (GDF10), signal receptor (LYVE1), vascular-specific regulator (RASIP1), ubiquitination mediator (RNF5), and transcriptional repressor (TRIM27). Third, classification systems based on 13 to 14 differentially expressed genes yield accuracies near 100%. Genes selected by both detection methods include C16orf59, DAP3, ETV4, GABARAPL1, PPAR, RADIL, RSPO1, SERTM1, SRPK1, ST6GALNAC6, and TNXB. Our findings imply a multilayered lung adenocarcinoma regulome in which transcript-/exon-level regulation may be dissociated from gene-level regulation. Our described method may be used to identify potentially important genes/transcripts/exonic regions for the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma and to construct accurate tumor vs. normal classification systems for this disease. PMID:26356813

  2. In Silico Screening Based on Predictive Algorithms as a Design Tool for Exon Skipping Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense ‘splice-switching’ oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2’O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R2 0.89) and 53 (R2 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each

  3. A Prospective Study in the Rational Design of Efficient Antisense Oligonucleotides for Exon Skipping in the DMD Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Keng Boon; Wang, Jian Li; Chen, Yi Jun; Xiong, Qian Bin; Lai, Poh San; Yee, Woon Chee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping to restore dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) therapy shown promise in a number of human clinical trials. Current AON design methods are semi-empirical, involving either trial-and-error and/or preliminary experimentations. Therefore, a rational approach to design efficient AONs to address the wide spectrum of patients' mutations is desirable. Retrospective studies have extracted many AON design variables, but they were not tested prospectively to design AONs for skipping DMD exons. Not only did the variables differ among the various studies, no numerical cutoff for each variable was inferred, which makes their use in AON design difficult. The challenge is to thus select a minimal set of key independent variables that can consistently design efficient AONs. In this prospective study, a novel set of design variables with respective cutoff values was used to design 23 novel AONs, each to skip one of nine DMD exons. Nineteen AONs were found to be efficacious in inducing specific exon skipping (83% of total), of which 14 were considered efficient (61% of total), i.e., they induced exon skipping in >25% of total transcripts. Notably, the satisfactory success rates were achieved by using only three design variables; namely, co-transcriptional binding accessibility of target site, presence of exonic splicing enhancers, and target length. Retrospective analyses revealed that the most efficient AON in every exon targeted has the lowest average cumulative position (ACP) score. Taking the prospective and retrospective studies together, we propose that design guidelines recommend using the ACP score to select the most efficient AON for each exon. PMID:22486275

  4. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense 'splice-switching' oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2'O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R² 0.89) and 53 (R² 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each position of

  5. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNA profiles in human colorectal cancer and its association with overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Xu, Lingling; Wang, Qian; Wang, Min; An, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) emerged as key regulators of diverse roles during colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis, but their specific function still remains to be explored. The present study aimed to re-annotate the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array for defining differential lncRNAs in CRC. Their prognostic relevance was also developed for screening key regulators in CRC. The CRC datasets E-GEOD-31737, E-MATB-829, Affymetrix colon cancer dataset and E-GEOD-24550 were re-purposed for searching differential lncRNAs and exploring their association with overall survival (OS). The identified lncRNAs were validated in CRC tissues or cell lines. As a result, 462, 286 and 166 differential lncRNAs were identified, respectively, in three predictive datasets. Among them, 48 lncRNAs were commonly observed to exhibit differential expression in the three datasets. Notably, the overexpression of family with sequence similarity 83 member H (FAM83H)-antisense (AS) 1 (P=0.038) and VPS9 domain containing 1 (VPS9D1)-AS1 (P=0.020) indicated shorter OS time than lower expression. The overexpression of FAM83H-AS1 (P=0.033) and VPS9D1-AS1 (P=0.011) was validated in cancerous tissues. Thus, FAM83H-AS1 and VPS9D1-AS1 may potentially enhance carcinogenesis or may be developed as prognostic biomarkers for CRC. In conclusion, a total of 48 CRC-related lncRNAs were identified, the majority of which were confirmed to exhibit dysregulation. FAM83H-AS1 and VPS9D1-AS1 could have a potential use as prognostic biomarkers for CRC patients. PMID:27895773

  6. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) alternative skipping of exon 2 or 3 affects ovarian response to FSH.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Cengiz; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Hobbs, Rebecca J; Gerasimova, Tsilya; Uyar, Asli; Erdem, Mehmet; Oktem, Mesut; Erdem, Ahmet; Gumuslu, Seyhan; Ercan, Deniz; Sakkas, Denny; Comizzoli, Pierre; Seli, Emre; Lalioti, Maria D

    2014-07-01

    Genes critical for fertility are highly conserved in mammals. Interspecies DNA sequence variation, resulting in amino acid substitutions and post-transcriptional modifications, including alternative splicing, are a result of evolution and speciation. The mammalian follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene encodes distinct species-specific forms by alternative splicing. Skipping of exon 2 of the human FSHR was reported in women of North American origin and correlated with low response to ovarian stimulation with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). To determine whether this variant correlated with low response in women of different genetic backgrounds, we performed a blinded retrospective observational study in a Turkish cohort. Ovarian response was determined as low, intermediate or high according to retrieved oocyte numbers after classifying patients in four age groups (<35, 35-37, 38-40, >40). Cumulus cells collected from 96 women undergoing IVF/ICSI following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation revealed four alternatively spliced FSHR products in seven patients (8%): exon 2 deletion in four patients; exon 3 and exons 2 + 3 deletion in one patient each, and a retention of an intron 1 fragment in one patient. In all others (92%) splicing was intact. Alternative skipping of exons 2, 3 or 2 + 3 were exclusive to low responders and was independent of the use of agonist or antagonist. Interestingly, skipping of exon 3 occurs naturally in the ovaries of domestic cats--a good comparative model for human fertility. We tested the signaling potential of human and cat variants after transfection in HEK293 cells and FSH stimulation. None of the splicing variants initiated cAMP signaling despite high FSH doses, unlike full-length proteins. These data substantiate the occurrence of FSHR exon skipping in a subgroup of low responders and suggest that species-specific regulation of FSHR splicing plays diverse roles in mammalian ovarian function.

  7. Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) exon 11 is vulnerable: molecular pathology of mutations in PAH exon 11.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Demirkol, Mübeccel; Blau, Nenad; Andresen, Brage Storstein

    2012-08-01

    In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified PAH exon 11 as a vulnerable exon and used patient derived lymphoblast cell lines and PAH minigenes to study the molecular defect that impacted pre-mRNA processing. We showed that the c.1144T>C and c.1066-3C>T mutations cause exon 11 skipping, while the c.1139C>T mutation is neutral or slightly beneficial. The c.1144T>C mutation resides in a putative splicing enhancer motif and binding by splicing factors SF2/ASF, SRp20 and SRp40 is disturbed. Additional mutations in potential splicing factor binding sites contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis of mutations in PAH exon 11. We suggest that PAH exon 11 is vulnerable due to a weak 3' splice site and that this makes exon 11 inclusion dependent on an ESE spanning position c.1144. Importantly, this implies that other mutations in exon 11 may affect splicing, since splicing is often determined by a fine balance between several positive and negative splicing regulatory elements distributed throughout the exon. Finally, we identified a pseudoexon in intron 11, which would have pathogenic consequences if activated by mutations or improved splicing conditions. Exonic mutations that disrupt splicing are unlikely to facilitate response to BH(4) and may lead to inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlations. Therefore, recognizing such mutations enhances our ability to predict the BH(4)-response.

  8. Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons Have Ancient Origins and Are Highly Expressed at the Protein Level

    PubMed Central

    Abascal, Federico; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; del Pozo, Angela; Vázquez, Jesús; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of messenger RNA can generate a wide variety of mature RNA transcripts, and these transcripts may produce protein isoforms with diverse cellular functions. While there is much supporting evidence for the expression of alternative transcripts, the same is not true for the alternatively spliced protein products. Large-scale mass spectroscopy experiments have identified evidence of alternative splicing at the protein level, but with conflicting results. Here we carried out a rigorous analysis of the peptide evidence from eight large-scale proteomics experiments to assess the scale of alternative splicing that is detectable by high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We find fewer splice events than would be expected: we identified peptides for almost 64% of human protein coding genes, but detected just 282 splice events. This data suggests that most genes have a single dominant isoform at the protein level. Many of the alternative isoforms that we could identify were only subtly different from the main splice isoform. Very few of the splice events identified at the protein level disrupted functional domains, in stark contrast to the two thirds of splice events annotated in the human genome that would lead to the loss or damage of functional domains. The most striking result was that more than 20% of the splice isoforms we identified were generated by substituting one homologous exon for another. This is significantly more than would be expected from the frequency of these events in the genome. These homologous exon substitution events were remarkably conserved—all the homologous exons we identified evolved over 460 million years ago—and eight of the fourteen tissue-specific splice isoforms we identified were generated from homologous exons. The combination of proteomics evidence, ancient origin and tissue-specific splicing indicates that isoforms generated from homologous exons may have important cellular roles. PMID:26061177

  9. Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons Have Ancient Origins and Are Highly Expressed at the Protein Level.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; del Pozo, Angela; Vázquez, Jesús; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    Alternative splicing of messenger RNA can generate a wide variety of mature RNA transcripts, and these transcripts may produce protein isoforms with diverse cellular functions. While there is much supporting evidence for the expression of alternative transcripts, the same is not true for the alternatively spliced protein products. Large-scale mass spectroscopy experiments have identified evidence of alternative splicing at the protein level, but with conflicting results. Here we carried out a rigorous analysis of the peptide evidence from eight large-scale proteomics experiments to assess the scale of alternative splicing that is detectable by high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We find fewer splice events than would be expected: we identified peptides for almost 64% of human protein coding genes, but detected just 282 splice events. This data suggests that most genes have a single dominant isoform at the protein level. Many of the alternative isoforms that we could identify were only subtly different from the main splice isoform. Very few of the splice events identified at the protein level disrupted functional domains, in stark contrast to the two thirds of splice events annotated in the human genome that would lead to the loss or damage of functional domains. The most striking result was that more than 20% of the splice isoforms we identified were generated by substituting one homologous exon for another. This is significantly more than would be expected from the frequency of these events in the genome. These homologous exon substitution events were remarkably conserved--all the homologous exons we identified evolved over 460 million years ago--and eight of the fourteen tissue-specific splice isoforms we identified were generated from homologous exons. The combination of proteomics evidence, ancient origin and tissue-specific splicing indicates that isoforms generated from homologous exons may have important cellular roles.

  10. Tandemly repeated exons encode 81-base repeats in multiple, developmentally regulated Schistosoma mansoni transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R E; Davis, A H; Carroll, S M; Rajkovic, A; Rottman, F M

    1988-01-01

    The adult Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone 10-3 encodes an antigen that is recognized by sera from infected humans. We characterized multiple developmentally regulated transcripts homologous to the 10-3 cDNA and portions of the complex genomic loci encoding those transcripts. Transcripts of approximately 950, 870, and 780 nucleotides were expressed in adults, whereas only the 780-nucleotide transcript was observed in the larval stage. These transcripts were highly similar, containing variable numbers of identical direct tandem repeats of 81 bases. Although the sequence of the repeating elements and sequences 3' to them were identical in all the transcripts, sequences 5' of the repeating elements exhibited variations, including a 27-base insertion, alternative start sites for transcription, and alternate 5' exon usage. These transcripts appeared to be derived in part by the developmentally controlled alternative splicing of small exons and the use of alternative transcription initiation sites from the one or two complex loci of at least 40 kilobase pairs. Each 81-base repeat in the transcripts was encoded by three dispersed 27-base-pair exons. These 27-base-pair exons were contained within highly conserved, reiterated 3-kilobase-pair genomic tandem arrays. Images PMID:3211127

  11. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DRB exon 2 and DRA exon 3 fragments in a primary terrestrial rabies vector (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sarrah; Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Meunier, Vanessa; Kyle, Christopher J

    2010-08-10

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents a unique system to explore links between genetic diversity and pathogens, as diversity within MHC is maintained in part by pathogen driven selection. While the majority of wildlife MHC studies have investigated species that are of conservation concern, here we characterize MHC variation in a common and broadly distributed species, the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor). Raccoons host an array of broadly distributed wildlife diseases (e.g., canine distemper, parvovirus and raccoon rabies virus) and present important human health risks as they persist in high densities and in close proximity to humans and livestock. To further explore how genetic variation influences the spread and maintenance of disease in raccoons we characterized a fragment of MHC class II DRA exon 3 (250 bp) and DRB exon 2 (228 bp). MHC DRA was found to be functionally monomorphic in the 32 individuals screened; whereas DRB exon 2 revealed 66 unique alleles among the 246 individuals screened. Between two and four alleles were observed in each individual suggesting we were amplifying a duplicated DRB locus. Nucleotide differences between DRB alleles ranged from 1 to 36 bp (0.4-15.8% divergence) and translated into 1 to 21 (1.3-27.6% divergence) amino acid differences. We detected a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at the peptide binding region (P = 0.005), indicating that DRB exon 2 in raccoons has been influenced by positive selection. These data will form the basis of continued analyses into the spatial and temporal relationship of the raccoon rabies virus and the immunogenetic response in its primary host.

  12. Gene Expression Analysis of Cultured Rat-Endothelial Cells after Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation by Affymetrix GeneChip Array

    PubMed Central

    MASUDA, YOSHIKO; YOKOSE, SATOSHI; SAKAGAMI, HIROSHI

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial cells and dental pulp cells enhance osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation. In our previous study, rat pulp cells migrated to Nd:YAG laser-irradiated endothelial cells in an insert cell culture system. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible changes in the gene expression of cultured rat aortic endothelial cells after Nd:YAG laser irradiation using affymetrix GeneChip Array. Total RNA was extracted from the cells at 5 h after laser irradiation. Gene expressions were evaluated by DNA array chip. Up-regulated genes were related to cell migration and cell structure (membrane stretch, actin regulation and junctional complexes), neurotransmission and inflammation. Heat-shock 70 kDa protein (Hsp70) was related to the development of tooth germ. This study offers candidate genes for understanding the relationship between the laser-stimulated endothelial cells and dental pulp cells. PMID:28064220

  13. Correction of Dystrophin Expression in Cells From Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Through Genomic Excision of Exon 51 by Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in ~13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons. PMID:25492562

  14. Correction of dystrophin expression in cells from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients through genomic excision of exon 51 by zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in ~13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons.

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors with KIT exon 9 mutations: Update on genotype-phenotype correlation and validation of a high-resolution melting assay for mutational testing.

    PubMed

    Künstlinger, Helen; Huss, Sebastian; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Binot, Elke; Kleine, Michaela Angelika; Loeser, Heike; Mittler, Jens; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Hohenberger, Peter; Reichardt, Peter; Büttner, Reinhard; Wardelmann, Eva; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    KIT exon 9 mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are highly relevant and have direct therapeutic implications. In this context, we established and validated a fast and sensitive high-resolution melting assay. Analyzing 126 primary and 18 metastatic KIT exon 9-mutated cases from our registry, we demonstrate that the mutational spectrum of exon 9 is broader than previously thought and describe 3 novel mutations. Including these cases and the common p.A502_Y503dup mutation, we provide a comprehensive list of all known KIT exon 9 mutations according to the Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature. Two of the newly described mutations were associated with an aggressive phenotype and tumor progression while being treated with 400 mg imatinib, indicating that also GIST with rare exon 9 mutations could be treated with increased imatinib dosage. On the basis of >1500 GISTs from our registry, we have determined the frequency of KIT exon 9 mutations to be 9.2% among all GISTs and 22.5% among small-bowel cases. We describe for the first time that nearly 20% of exon 9-mutated GIST occur in the stomach or rectum. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that exon 9-mutated GISTs metastasize significantly more often to the peritoneum than to the liver. Performing extensive statistical analyses on data from our registry and from the literature, we demonstrate that KIT exon 9 mutations are neither associated with intermediate-risk/high-risk status nor overrepresented among metastatic lesions. Thus, we conclude that exon 9 mutations per se do not have prognostic relevance.

  16. Exclusion of exon 2 is a common mRNA splice variant of primate telomerase reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Withers, Johanna B; Ashvetiya, Tamara; Beemon, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Telomeric sequences are added by an enzyme called telomerase that is made of two components: a catalytic protein called telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and an integral RNA template (TR). Telomerase expression is tightly regulated at each step of gene expression, including alternative splicing of TERT mRNA. While over a dozen different alternative splicing events have been reported for human TERT mRNA, these were all in the 3' half of the coding region. We were interested in examining splicing of the 5' half of hTERT mRNA, especially since exon 2 is unusually large (1.3 kb). Internal mammalian exons are usually short, typically only 50 to 300 nucleotides, and most long internal exons are alternatively processed. We used quantitative RT-PCR and high-throughput sequencing data to examine the variety and quantity of mRNA species generated from the hTERT locus. We determined that there are approximately 20-40 molecules of hTERT mRNA per cell in the A431 human cell line. In addition, we describe an abundant, alternatively-spliced mRNA variant that excludes TERT exon 2 and was seen in other primates. This variant causes a frameshift and results in translation termination in exon 3, generating a 12 kDa polypeptide.

  17. Methylation pattern of H19 exon 1 is closely related to preeclampsia and trophoblast abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linshan; Hou, Zheng; Li, Li; Yang, Yanhong; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Beilei; Ren, Mo; Zhao, Dan; Miao, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Yao, Yuanqing

    2014-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-induced disorder characterized by the overproliferation of trophoblasts. Hydatidiform moles, which are associated with a high risk of developing PE, are characterized by the excessive proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. H19 is highly expressed in placental tissue; however, its biological function remains unclear. A fundamental modification of the H19 gene is DNA methylation, which typically occurs in CG-rich regions at the promoter or the first exon region. In this study, in order to investigate the DNA methylation pattern of the H19 exon 1 region in placental tissues and trophoblast cells, placental specimens were collected from women in the first trimester of pregrancy (FTP) and the third trimester of pregnancy (TTP), as well as from from women with severe preeclampsia (sPE). We found that the DNA methylation levels of H19 exon 1 were significantly higher in the tissues obtained from women in TTP than from those obtained from women in FFP. The methylation status of CpG 1 sites within exon 1 of H19 was markedly higher in the placental tissues obtained from women with sPE than in the tissues obtained from women in TTP. In addition, we used the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JEG-3, and treated the cells with the methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza‑Dc). Following treatment with 5-Aza-Dc, the methylation levels at this CpG site showed marked hypomethylation. In addtion, the cell proliferative, migratory and invasive capacities of the cells were remarkably inhibited. Our data suggest that hypermethylation at individual CpG sites within exon 1 of H19 may be involved in the dysfunction of trophoblasts and the pathogenesis of PE.

  18. Distribution bias of the sequence matching between exons and introns in exon joint and EJC binding region in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Yan; Zhou, Deliang

    2015-01-07

    We propose a mechanism that there are matching relations between mRNA sequences and corresponding post-spliced introns, and introns play a significant role in the process of gene expression. In order to reveal the sequence matching features, Smith-Waterman local alignment method is used on C. elegans mRNA sequences to obtain optimal matched segments between exon-exon sequences and their corresponding introns. Distribution characters of matching frequency on exon-exon sequences and sequence characters of optimal matched segments are studied. Results show that distributions of matching frequency on exon-exon junction region have obvious differences, and the exon boundary is revealed. Distributions of the length and matching rate of optimal matched segments are consistent with sequence features of siRNA and miRNA. The optimal matched segments have special sequence characters compared with their host sequences. As for the first introns and long introns, matching frequency values of optimal matched segments with high GC content, rich CG dinucleotides and high λCG values show the minimum distribution in exon junction complex (EJC) binding region. High λCG values in optimal matched segments are main characters in distinguishing EJC binding region. Results indicate that EJC and introns have competitive and cooperative relations in the process of combining on protein coding sequences. Also intron sequences and protein coding sequences do have concerted evolution relations.

  19. Antisense-mediated Exon Skipping Decreases Tau Protein Expression: A Potential Therapy For Tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Sud, Reeteka; Geller, Evan T; Schellenberg, Gerard D

    2014-07-29

    In Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, the microtubule associated protein tau aggregates to form intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and glial tangles, abnormal structures that are part of disease pathogenesis. Disorders with aggregated tau are called tauopathies. Presently, there are no disease-modifying treatments for this disease class. Tau is encoded by the MAPT gene. We propose that reducing MAPT expression and thus the amount of tau protein made could prevent aggregation, and potentially be an approach to treat tauopathies. We tested 31 morpholinos, complementary to the sense strand of the MAPT gene to identify oligonucleotides that can downregulate MAPT expression and reduce the amount of tau protein produced. Oligonucleotides were tested in human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y and IMR32. We identified several morpholinos that reduced MAPT mRNA expression up to 50% and tau protein levels up to ~80%. The two most potent oligonucleotides spanned the 3' boundary of exons 1 and 5, masking the 5'-splice sites of these exons. Both morpholinos induced skipping of the targeted exons. These in vitro findings were confirmed in mice transgenic for the entire human MAPT gene and that express human tau protein. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using modified oligonucleotides to alter tau expression.

  20. Targeted Integration of a Super-Exon into the CFTR Locus Leads to Functional Correction of a Cystic Fibrosis Cell Line Model.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Christien; Tomczak, Katja; Vom Hövel, Beate; Weber, Wolf-Michael; Cathomen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models have enabled insights into the pathophysiology of human disease as well as the functional evaluation of new therapies, such as novel genome engineering strategies. In the context of cystic fibrosis (CF), various cellular disease models have been established in recent years, including organoids based on induced pluripotent stem cell technology that allowed for functional readouts of CFTR activity. Yet, many of these in vitro CF models require complex and expensive culturing protocols that are difficult to implement and may not be amenable for high throughput screens. Here, we show that a simple cellular CF disease model based on the bronchial epithelial ΔF508 cell line CFBE41o- can be used to validate functional CFTR correction. We used an engineered nuclease to target the integration of a super-exon, encompassing the sequences of CFTR exons 11 to 27, into exon 11 and re-activated endogenous CFTR expression by treating CFBE41o- cells with a demethylating agent. We demonstrate that the integration of this super-exon resulted in expression of a corrected mRNA from the endogenous CFTR promoter and used short-circuit current measurements in Ussing chambers to corroborate restored ion transport of the repaired CFTR channels. In conclusion, this study proves that the targeted integration of a large super-exon in CFTR exon 11 leads to functional correction of CFTR, suggesting that this strategy can be used to functionally correct all CFTR mutations located downstream of the 5' end of exon 11.

  1. Alternative splicing regulation of APP exon 7 by RBFox proteins.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shafiul; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    RBFox proteins are well-known alternative splicing regulators. We have shown previously that during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid and cell aggregation, RBFox1 shows markedly increased temporal expression. To find its key splicing regulation, we examined the effect of RBFox1 on 33 previously reported and validated neuronal splicing events of P19 cells. We observed that alternative splicing of three genes, specifically, amyloid precursor protein (APP), disks large homolog 3 (DLG3), and G protein, alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1), was altered by transient RBFox1 expression in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, an RBFox1 mutant (RBFox1FA) that was unable to bind the target RNA sequence ((U)GCAUG) did not induce these splicing events. APP generates amyloid beta peptides that are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and therefore we examined APP alternative splicing regulation by RBFox1 and other splicing regulators. Our results indicated that RBFox proteins promote the skipping of APP exon 7, but not the inclusion of exon 8. We made APP6789 minigenes and observed that two (U)GCAUG sequences, located upstream of exon 7 and in exon 7, functioned to induce skipping of exon 7 by RBFox proteins. Overall, RBFox proteins may shift APP from exon 7 containing isoforms, APP770 and APP751, toward the exon 7 lacking isoform, APP695, which is predominant in neural tissues.

  2. TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations produce separation of function isoforms with pro-tumorigenic functions

    PubMed Central

    Shirole, Nitin H; Pal, Debjani; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Senturk, Serif; Boroda, Joseph; Pisterzi, Paola; Miller, Madison; Munoz, Gustavo; Anderluh, Marko; Ladanyi, Marc; Lowe, Scott W; Sordella, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    TP53 truncating mutations are common in human tumors and are thought to give rise to p53-null alleles. Here, we show that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations occur at higher than expected frequencies and produce proteins that lack canonical p53 tumor suppressor activities but promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Functionally and molecularly, these p53 mutants resemble the naturally occurring alternative p53 splice variant, p53-psi. Accordingly, these mutants can localize to the mitochondria where they promote tumor phenotypes by binding and activating the mitochondria inner pore permeability regulator, Cyclophilin D (CypD). Together, our studies reveal that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations, contrary to current beliefs, act beyond p53 loss to promote tumorigenesis, and could inform the development of strategies to target cancers driven by these prevalent mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17929.001 PMID:27759562

  3. Deletion of Dystrophin In-Frame Exon 5 Leads to a Severe Phenotype: Guidance for Exon Skipping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Zhi Yon Charles; Thandar Aung-Htut, May; Pinniger, Gavin; Adams, Abbie M.; Krishnaswarmy, Sudarsan; Wong, Brenda L.; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy severity depends upon the nature and location of the DMD gene lesion and generally correlates with the dystrophin open reading frame. However, there are striking exceptions where an in-frame genomic deletion leads to severe pathology or protein-truncating mutations (nonsense or frame-shifting indels) manifest as mild disease. Exceptions to the dystrophin reading frame rule are usually resolved after molecular diagnosis on muscle RNA. We report a moderate/severe Becker muscular dystrophy patient with an in-frame genomic deletion of DMD exon 5. This mutation has been reported by others as resulting in Duchenne or Intermediate muscular dystrophy, and the loss of this in-frame exon in one patient led to multiple splicing events, including omission of exon 6, that disrupts the open reading frame and is consistent with a severe phenotype. The patient described has a deletion of dystrophin exon 5 that does not compromise recognition of exon 6, and although the deletion does not disrupt the reading frame, his clinical presentation is more severe than would be expected for classical Becker muscular dystrophy. We suggest that the dystrophin isoform lacking the actin-binding sequence encoded by exon 5 is compromised, reflected by the phenotype resulting from induction of this dystrophin isoform in mouse muscle in vivo. Hence, exon skipping to address DMD-causing mutations within DMD exon 5 may not yield an isoform that confers marked clinical benefit. Additional studies will be required to determine whether multi-exon skipping strategies could yield more functional dystrophin isoforms, since some BMD patients with larger in-frame deletions in this region have been reported with mild phenotypes. PMID:26745801

  4. Isoform/variant mRNAs for sex steroid hormone receptors in humans.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shuji; Shoda, Tomoko; Kato, Junzo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko

    2003-04-01

    The open reading frames of human sex steroid hormone receptors (hSSHRs) are composed of eight exons. In addition, the presence of various exons - including 5'-untranslated exons, alternative coding exons and novel 'intronic' exons - has been demonstrated in the genes encoding hSSHRs. The isoform/variant hSSHR mRNAs generated from thes e exons can be tentatively classified into seven types. In type 1, different mRNAs are generated with the use of alternative transcription start sites. In type 2, one or more exons are skipped. In type 3, one or more exons are duplicated. In type 4, distinct mRNAs containing different 5'-untranslated exon(s) are synthesized. In type 5, distinct mRNAs possessing different coding exon(s) are generated. In type 6, mRNA is synthesized by intronic exons and coding exons 4/5-8. In type 7, mRNA with insertion of intronic exon(s) is generated. Here, we review the isoform/variant hSSHR mRNAs and the structure of the genes encoding them.

  5. Systematic identification and analysis of exonic splicing silencers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zefeng; Rolish, Michael E; Yeo, Gene; Tung, Vivian; Mawson, Matthew; Burge, Christopher B

    2004-12-17

    Exonic splicing silencers (ESSs) are cis-regulatory elements that inhibit the use of adjacent splice sites, often contributing to alternative splicing (AS). To systematically identify ESSs, an in vivo splicing reporter system was developed to screen a library of random decanucleotides. The screen yielded 141 ESS decamers, 133 of which were unique. The silencer activity of over a dozen of these sequences was also confirmed in a heterologous exon/intron context and in a second cell type. Of the unique ESS decamers, most could be clustered into groups to yield seven putative ESS motifs, some resembling known motifs bound by hnRNPs H and A1. Potential roles of ESSs in constitutive splicing were explored using an algorithm, ExonScan, which simulates splicing based on known or putative splicing-related motifs. ExonScan and related bioinformatic analyses suggest that these ESS motifs play important roles in suppression of pseudoexons, in splice site definition, and in AS.

  6. Disentangling Sources of Selection on Exonic Transcriptional Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Agoglia, Rachel M.; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to coding for proteins, exons can also impact transcription by encoding regulatory elements such as enhancers. It has been debated whether such features confer heightened selective constraint, or evolve neutrally. We have addressed this question by developing a new approach to disentangle the sources of selection acting on exonic enhancers, in which we model the evolutionary rates of every possible substitution as a function of their effects on both protein sequence and enhancer activity. In three exonic enhancers, we found no significant association between evolutionary rates and effects on enhancer activity. This suggests that despite having biochemical activity, these exonic enhancers have no detectable selective constraint, and thus are unlikely to play a major role in protein evolution. PMID:26500252

  7. Exon deletions of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian hyperphenylalaninemics

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Vinci, Mirella; Meli, Concetta; Carducci, Carla; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Pozzessere, Simone; Schinocca, Pietro; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    A consistent finding of many studies describing the spectrum of mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) alleles underlying hyperphenylalaninemia is the impossibility of achieving a 100% mutation ascertainment rate using conventional gene-scanning methods. These methods include denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct sequencing. In recent years, it has been shown that a significant proportion of undetermined alleles consist of large deletions overlapping one or more exons. These deletions have been difficult to detect in compound heterozygotes using gene-scanning methods due to a masking effect of the non-deleted allele. To date, no systematic search has been carried out for such exon deletions in Italian patients with phenylketonuria or mild hyperphenylalaninemia. We used multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification (MLPA), comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA), and real-time PCR to search for both large deletions and duplications of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian hyperphenylalaninemia patients. Four deletions removing different phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene exons were identified in 12 patients. Two of these deletions involving exons 4-5-6-7-8 (systematic name c.353-?_912 + ?del) and exon 6 (systematic name c.510-?_706 + ?del) have not been reported previously. In this study, we show that exon deletion of the PAH gene accounts for 1.7% of all mutant PAH alleles in Italian hyperphenylalaninemics. PMID:19946181

  8. Short Exon Detection via Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Shen, Yuanyu; Chen, Miaomiao; Zhao, Jiaxiang; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    The detection of short exons is a challenging open problem in the field of bioinformatics. Due to the fact that the weakness of existing model-independent methods lies in their inability to reliably detect small exons, a model-independent method based on the singularity detection with wavelet transform modulus maxima has been developed for detecting short coding sequences (exons) in eukaryotic DNA sequences. In the analysis of our method, the local maxima can capture and characterize singularities of short exons, which helps to yield significant patterns that are rarely observed with the traditional methods. In order to get some information about singularities on the differences between the exon signal and the background noise, the noise level is estimated by filtering the genomic sequence through a notch filter. Meanwhile, a fast method based on a piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial is applied to reconstruct the wavelet coefficients for improving the computational efficiency. In addition, the output measure of a paired-numerical representation calculated in both forward and reverse directions is used to incorporate a useful DNA structural property. The performances of our approach and other techniques are evaluated on two benchmark data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms all assessed model-independent methods for detecting short exons in terms of evaluation metrics. PMID:27635656

  9. Differences in the mutation of the p53 gene in exons 6 and 7 in cervical samples from HIV- and HPV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a serious problem for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, increases their risk of cervical lesions and cancer. In cervical carcinogenesis, mutations in the p53 gene occur most frequently within exons 5–8. To our knowledge, no previous studies have analyzed mutations in exons 5–8 of the p53 gene in HIV- and HPV-infected women. In our study, we verified these mutations in women with and without cervical abnormalities. Findings The study included 160 women, divided into three groups: (1) 83 HPV- and HIV-infected women (HIV group); (2) 37 HPV-infected/HIV-uninfected (control group); and (3) 40 normal cytology/DNA-HPV negative/HIV-uninfected women (negative control p53 reactions). HPV-DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Using primers for exons 5–8, the mutation of the p53 gene was verified by PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism. The total mutation of the p53 gene in exons 5–8 was not significantly associated with the HIV and control groups. The mutations in exon 7 were the highest in the HIV group (43.8%) and in exon 6 in the control group (57.2%) (p = 0.0793) suggesting a tendency toward differential mutation in exon 7 in the HIV group. Conclusions Our study provides preliminary evidence that the mutation in exon 7 might be an important differentiating factor for cervical carcinogenesis in HIV-infected women. This aspect deserves an additional cross-sectional and longitudinal study using a larger sample size with a higher number of High-grade squamous intraephitelial lesion (HSIL) to observe the evolution of cervical lesions. PMID:24098975

  10. 5'- and 3'-terminal nucleotides in the FGFR2 ISAR splicing element core have overlapping roles in exon IIIb activation and exon IIIc repression.

    PubMed

    Jones, R B; Carstens, R P; Luo, Y; McKeehan, W L

    2001-09-01

    The cell type-specific, mutually-exclusive alternative splicing of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) pre-mRNA is tightly regulated. A sequence termed ISAR (intronic splicing activator and repressor) has been implicated as an important cis regulatory element in both activation of exon IIIb and repression of exon IIIc splicing in epithelial cells. In order to better understand how this single sequence could have dual roles, we transfected minigenes containing a series of 2-bp mutations in the 18 3'-most nucleotides of ISAR that we refer to as the ISAR core. Transfection of cells with dual-exon (IIIb and IIIc) minigenes revealed that mutation of terminal sequences of the core led to decreased exon IIIb inclusion and increased exon IIIc inclusion. Transfection of cells with single-exon IIIb minigenes and single-exon IIIc minigenes revealed that mutation of terminal sequences of the ISAR core led to decreased exon IIIb inclusion and increased exon IIIc inclusion, respectively. Nucleotides of the ISAR core responsible for exon IIIb activation appear to overlap very closely with those required for exon IIIc repression. We describe a model in which ISAR and a 5' intronic sequence known as IAS2 form a stem structure required for simultaneous exon IIIb activation and exon IIIc repression.

  11. Antisense-mediated exon skipping: a therapeutic strategy for titin-based dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gramlich, Michael; Pane, Luna Simona; Zhou, Qifeng; Chen, Zhifen; Murgia, Marta; Schötterl, Sonja; Goedel, Alexander; Metzger, Katja; Brade, Thomas; Parrotta, Elvira; Schaller, Martin; Gerull, Brenda; Thierfelder, Ludwig; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Labeit, Siegfried; Atherton, John J; McGaughran, Julie; Harvey, Richard P; Sinnecker, Daniel; Mann, Matthias; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Gawaz, Meinrad Paul; Moretti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Frameshift mutations in the TTN gene encoding titin are a major cause for inherited forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a heart disease characterized by ventricular dilatation, systolic dysfunction, and progressive heart failure. To date, there are no specific treatment options for DCM patients but heart transplantation. Here, we show the beneficial potential of reframing titin transcripts by antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping in human and murine models of DCM carrying a previously identified autosomal-dominant frameshift mutation in titin exon 326. Correction of TTN reading frame in patient-specific cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells rescued defective myofibril assembly and stability and normalized the sarcomeric protein expression. AON treatment in Ttn knock-in mice improved sarcomere formation and contractile performance in homozygous embryos and prevented the development of the DCM phenotype in heterozygous animals. These results demonstrate that disruption of the titin reading frame due to a truncating DCM mutation can be restored by exon skipping in both patient cardiomyocytes in vitro and mouse heart in vivo, indicating RNA-based strategies as a potential treatment option for DCM. PMID:25759365

  12. Engineering exon-skipping vectors expressing U7 snRNA constructs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Davies, Kay E

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. In most cases, the open-reading frame is disrupted which results in the absence of a functional protein. Antisense-mediated exon skipping is one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of DMD and has recently been shown to correct the reading frame and restore dystrophin expression in vitro and in vivo. Specific exon skipping can be achieved using synthetic oligonucleotides or viral -vectors encoding modified snRNAs, by masking important splicing sites. We have recently demonstrated that enhanced exon skipping can be induced by a U7 snRNA carrying binding sites for the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A1. In DMD patient cells, bifunctional U7 snRNAs harboring silencer motifs induce complete skipping of exon 51 and thus restore dystrophin expression to near wild-type levels. Furthermore, we have confirmed the efficacy of these constructs in vivo in transgenic mice carrying the entire human DMD locus after intramuscular injection of AAV vectors encoding the bifunctional U7 snRNA. These new constructs are very promising for the optimization of therapeutic exon skipping for DMD, but also offer powerful and versatile tools to modulate pre-mRNA splicing in a wide range of applications. Here, we outline the design of these U7 snRNA constructs to achieve efficient exon skipping of the dystrophin gene. We also describe methods to evaluate the efficiency of such U7 snRNA constructs in vitro in DMD patient cells and in vivo in the transgenic hDMD mouse model, using lentiviral and recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, respectively.

  13. Nr4a3, a possibile oncogenic factor for neuroblastoma associated with CpGi methylation within the third exon.

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Shota; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Sugito, Kiminobu; Yoshizawa, Shinsuke; Shinojima, Yui; Igarashi, Jun; Ghosh, Srimoyee; Wang, Xaofei; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Ikeda, Taro; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Soma, Masayoshi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant methylation of Nr4a3 exon 3 CpG island (CpGi) was initially identified during multistep mouse skin carcinogenesis. Nr4a3 is also known as a critical gene for neuronal development. Thus, we examined the Nr4a3 exon 3 CpGi methylation in mouse brain tissues from 15-day embryos, newborns and 12-week-old adults and found significant increase of its methylation and Nr4a3 expression during mouse brain development after birth. In addition, homologous region in human genome was frequently and aberrantly methylated in neuroblastoma specimens. A quantitative analysis of DNA methylation revealed that hypomethylation of CpG islands on Nr4a3 exon 3, but not on exon 1 was identified in three neuroblastomas compared with matched adrenal glands. Additional analysis for 20 neuroblastoma patients was performed and 8 of 20 showed hypomethylation of the CpGi on Nr4a3 exon 3. The survival rate of those 8 patients was significantly lower compared with those in patients with hypermethylation. Immunohistochemical Nr4a3 expression was generally faint in neuroblastoma tissues compared with normal tissues. Moreover, the MYCN amplified NB9 cell line showed hypomethylation and low expression of Nr4a3, while the non-MYCN amplified NB69 cell line showed hypermethylation and high expression. These results indicate that DNA hypomethylation of the CpGi at Nr4a3 exon 3 is associated with low Nr4a3 expression, and correlates with poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Since Nr4a3 upregulation associated with the hypermethylation and neuronal differentiation in mice, poor prognosis of neuroblastoma associated with Nr4a3 low expression may be partly explained by dysregulation of its differentiation.

  14. Macaca specific exon creation event generates a novel ZKSCAN5 transcript.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Song, Bong-Seok; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Myung-Jin; Park, Young-Ho; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Sim, Bo-Woong; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Young-Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-15

    ZKSCAN5 (also known as ZFP95) is a zinc-finger protein belonging to the Krűppel family. ZKSCAN5 contains a SCAN box and a KRAB A domain and is proposed to play a distinct role during spermatogenesis. In humans, alternatively spliced ZKSCAN5 transcripts with different 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) have been identified. However, investigation of our Macaca UniGene Database revealed novel alternative ZKSCAN5 transcripts that arose due to an exon creation event. Therefore, in this study, we identified the full-length sequences of ZKSCAN5 and its alternative transcripts in Macaca spp. Additionally, we investigated different nonhuman primate sequences to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the exon creation event. We analyzed the evolutionary features of the ZKSCAN5 transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genomic PCR, and by sequencing various nonhuman primate DNA and RNA samples. The exon-created transcript was only detected in the Macaca lineage (crab-eating monkey and rhesus monkey). Full-length sequence analysis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) identified ten full-length transcripts and four functional isoforms of ZKSCAN5. Protein sequence analyses revealed the presence of two groups of isoforms that arose because of differences in start-codon usage. Together, our results demonstrate that there has been specific selection for a discrete set of ZKSCAN5 variants in the Macaca lineage. Furthermore, study of this locus (and perhaps others) in Macaca spp. might facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the mechanism of exon creation in primates.

  15. Transcriptional enhancers in protein-coding exons of vertebrate developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Deborah I; Dong, Zhiqiang; Guo, Su; Chuang, Jeffrey H

    2012-01-01

    Many conserved noncoding sequences function as transcriptional enhancers that regulate gene expression. Here, we report that protein-coding DNA also frequently contains enhancers functioning at the transcriptional level. We tested the enhancer activity of 31 protein-coding exons, which we chose based on strong sequence conservation between zebrafish and human, and occurrence in developmental genes, using a Tol2 transposable GFP reporter assay in zebrafish. For each exon we measured GFP expression in hundreds of embryos in 10 anatomies via a novel system that implements the voice-recognition capabilities of a cellular phone. We find that 24/31 (77%) exons drive GFP expression compared to a minimal promoter control, and 14/24 are anatomy-specific (expression in four anatomies or less). GFP expression driven by these coding enhancers frequently overlaps the anatomies where the host gene is expressed (60%), suggesting self-regulation. Highly conserved coding sequences and highly conserved noncoding sequences do not significantly differ in enhancer activity (coding: 24/31 vs. noncoding: 105/147) or tissue-specificity (coding: 14/24 vs. noncoding: 50/105). Furthermore, coding and noncoding enhancers display similar levels of the enhancer-related histone modification H3K4me1 (coding: 9/24 vs noncoding: 34/81). Meanwhile, coding enhancers are over three times as likely to contain an H3K4me1 mark as other exons of the host gene. Our work suggests that developmental transcriptional enhancers do not discriminate between coding and noncoding DNA and reveals widespread dual functions in protein-coding DNA.

  16. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of Vitis vinifera under high light using a custom-made array and the Affymetrix GeneChip.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luísa C; Vilela, Belmiro J; Mullineaux, Phil M; Amâncio, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Understanding abiotic stress responses is one of the most important issues in plant research nowadays. Abiotic stress, including excess light, can promote the onset of oxidative stress through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress also arises when in vitro propagated plants are exposed to high light upon transfer to ex vitro. To determine whether the underlying pathways activated at the transfer of in vitro grapevine to ex vitro conditions reflect the processes occurring upon light stress, we used Vitis vinifera Affymetrix GeneChip (VvGA) and a custom array of genes responsive to light stress (LSCA) detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). When gene-expression profiles were compared, 'protein metabolism and modification', 'signaling', and 'anti-oxidative' genes were more represented in LSCA, while, in VvGA, 'cell wall metabolism' and 'secondary metabolism' were the categories in which gene expression varied more significantly. The above functional categories confirm previous studies involving other types of abiotic stresses, enhancing the common attributes of abiotic stress defense pathways. The LSCA analysis of our experimental system detected strong response of heat shock genes, particularly the protein rescuing mechanism involving the cooperation of two ATP-dependent chaperone systems, Hsp100 and Hsp70, which showed an unusually late response during the recovery period, of extreme relevance to remove non-functional, potentially harmful polypeptides arising from misfolding, denaturation, or aggregation brought about by stress. The success of LSCA also proves the feasibility of a custom-made qRT-PCR approach, particularly for species for which no GeneChip is available and for researchers dealing with a specific and focused problem.

  17. SMN2 exon 7 splicing is inhibited by binding of hnRNP A1 to a common ESS motif that spans the 3' splice site.

    PubMed

    Doktor, Thomas Koed; Schroeder, Lisbeth Dahl; Vested, Anne; Palmfeldt, Johan; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Gregersen, Niels; Andresen, Brage Storstein

    2011-02-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy is caused by homozygous loss of SMN1 with phenotypic modulation by SMN2. SMN2 expresses only limited amounts of full-length transcript due to skipping of exon 7 caused by disruption of an SF2/ASF binding ESE. Additionally, hnRNP A1 has been reported to inhibit inclusion of SMN2 exon 7. We previously reported high similarity between the sequence spanning the 3' ss of SMN1 and SMN2 exon 7 and an hnRNP A1 binding ESS, which regulates MCAD exon 5 splicing. We show here that this 3' ss motif indeed functions as a crucial hnRNP A1 binding ESS, which inhibits inclusion of SMN1/2 exon 7 and is antagonized by the SMN1 ESE, but not by the inactive SMN2 sequence. Pull-down experiments revealed a specific interaction between hnRNP A1 and the 3' ss AG-dinucleotide, which could be disrupted by mutations shown to improve splicing in reporter minigenes. Genomic analyses revealed that in the human genome, 3' ss matching the SMN1/2 ESS motif region are much less abundant than 3' ss with a disrupted ESS motif. This indicates that this ESS may be a general splicing inhibitory motif, which binds hnRNP A1 and inhibits exon inclusion by binding to 3' ss harboring this ESS motif.

  18. Antisense-mediated exon skipping to reframe transcripts.

    PubMed

    Turczynski, Sandrina; Titeux, Matthias; Pironon, Nathalie; Hovnanian, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Numerous genetic disorders are caused by loss-of-function mutations that disrupt the open reading frame of the gene either by nonsense or by frameshift (insertion, deletion, indel, or splicing) mutations. Most of the time, the result is the absence of functional protein synthesis due to mRNA degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, or rapid degradation of a truncated protein. Antisense-based splicing modulation is a powerful tool that has the potential to treat genetic disorders by restoring the open reading frame through selective removal of the mutated exon, or by restoring correct splicing.We have developed this approach for a severe genetic skin disorder, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen. This gene is particularly suited for exon-skipping approaches due to its unique genomic structure. It is composed of 118 exons, 83 of which are in frame. Moreover, these exons encode a single repetitive collagenous domain.Using this gene as an example, we describe general methods that demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of the antisense-mediated exon-skipping strategy to reframe transcripts.

  19. Chimeric snRNA molecules carrying antisense sequences against the splice junctions of exon 51 of the dystrophin pre-mRNA induce exon skipping and restoration of a dystrophin synthesis in Δ48-50 DMD cells

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Fernanda Gabriella; Sthandier, Olga; Berarducci, Barbara; Toso, Silvia; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Ricci, Enzo; Cossu, Giulio; Bozzoni, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Deletions and point mutations in the dystrophin gene cause either the severe progressive myopathy Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or the milder Becker muscular dystrophy, depending on whether the translational reading frame is lost or maintained. Because internal in-frame deletions in the protein produce only mild myopathic symptoms, it should be possible, by preventing the inclusion of specific mutated exon(s) in the mature dystrophin mRNA, to restore a partially corrected phenotype. Such control has been previously accomplished by the use of synthetic oligonucleotides; nevertheless, a significant drawback to this approach is caused by the fact that oligonucleotides would require periodic administrations. To circumvent this problem, we have produced several constructs able to express in vivo, in a stable fashion, large amounts of chimeric RNAs containing antisense sequences. In this paper we show that antisense molecules against exon 51 splice junctions are able to direct skipping of this exon in the human DMD deletion 48–50 and to rescue dystrophin synthesis. We also show that the highest skipping activity was found when antisense constructs against the 5′ and 3′ splice sites are coexpressed in the same cell. PMID:12077324

  20. Gain of a New Exon by a Lineage-Specific Alu Element-Integration Event in the BCS1L Gene during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Choe, Se-Hee; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Lee, Youngjeon; Park, Young-Ho; Park, Young Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2015-01-01

    BCS1L gene encodes mitochondrial protein and is a member of conserved AAA protein family. This gene is involved in the incorporation of Rieske FeS and Qcr10p into complex III of respiratory chain. In our previous study, AluYRa2-derived alternative transcript in rhesus monkey genome was identified. However, this transcript has not been reported in human genome. In present study, we conducted evolutionary analysis of AluYRa2-exonized transcript with various primate genomic DNAs and cDNAs from humans, rhesus monkeys, and crab-eating monkeys. Remarkably, our results show that AluYRa2 element has only been integrated into genomes of Macaca species. This Macaca lineage-specific integration of AluYRa2 element led to exonization event in the first intron region of BCS1L gene by producing a conserved 3′ splice site. Intriguingly, in rhesus and crab-eating monkeys, more diverse transcript variants by alternative splicing (AS) events, including exon skipping and different 5′ splice sites from humans, were identified. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that AluYRa2-exonized transcript has short N-terminal peptides. Therefore, AS events play a major role in the generation of various transcripts and proteins during primate evolution. In particular, lineage-specific integration of Alu elements and species-specific Alu-derived exonization events could be important sources of gene diversification in primates. PMID:26537194

  1. How slow RNA polymerase II elongation favors alternative exon skipping.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Gwendal; Lafaille, Celina; de la Mata, Manuel; Marasco, Luciano E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine; Corcos, Laurent; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-05-22

    Splicing is functionally coupled to transcription, linking the rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation and the ability of splicing factors to recognize splice sites (ss) of various strengths. In most cases, slow Pol II elongation allows weak splice sites to be recognized, leading to higher inclusion of alternative exons. Using CFTR alternative exon 9 (E9) as a model, we show here that slowing down elongation can also cause exon skipping by promoting the recruitment of the negative factor ETR-3 onto the UG-repeat at E9 3' splice site, which displaces the constitutive splicing factor U2AF65 from the overlapping polypyrimidine tract. Weakening of E9 5' ss increases ETR-3 binding at the 3' ss and subsequent E9 skipping, whereas strengthening of the 5' ss usage has the opposite effect. This indicates that a delay in the cotranscriptional emergence of the 5' ss promotes ETR-3 recruitment and subsequent inhibition of E9 inclusion.

  2. Large-scale remodeling of a repressed exon ribonucleoprotein to an exon definition complex active for splicing

    PubMed Central

    Wongpalee, Somsakul Pop; Vashisht, Ajay; Sharma, Shalini; Chui, Darryl; Wohlschlegel, James A; Black, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein PTBP1 can repress splicing during the exon definition phase of spliceosome assembly, but the assembly steps leading to an exon definition complex (EDC) and how PTBP1 might modulate them are not clear. We found that PTBP1 binding in the flanking introns allowed normal U2AF and U1 snRNP binding to the target exon splice sites but blocked U2 snRNP assembly in HeLa nuclear extract. Characterizing a purified PTBP1-repressed complex, as well as an active early complex and the final EDC by SILAC-MS, we identified extensive PTBP1-modulated changes in exon RNP composition. The active early complex formed in the absence of PTBP1 proceeded to assemble an EDC with the eviction of hnRNP proteins, the late recruitment of SR proteins, and binding of the U2 snRNP. These results demonstrate that during early stages of splicing, exon RNP complexes are highly dynamic with many proteins failing to bind during PTBP1 arrest. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19743.001 PMID:27882870

  3. Nonsense but not missense mutations can decrease the abundance of nuclear mRNA for the mouse major urinary protein, while both types of mutations can facilitate exon skipping.

    PubMed Central

    Belgrader, P; Maquat, L E

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanisms by which nonsense codons affect RNA metabolism in mammalian cells, nonsense mutations were generated within the gene for the secretory major urinary protein (MUP) of mice. The translation of MUP mRNA normally begins within exon 1 and terminates within exon 6, the penultimate exon. Through the use of Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and assays that couple reverse transcription and PCR, a nonsense mutation within codon 50 of exon 2 or codon 143 of exon 5 was found to reduce the abundance of fully spliced, nuclear MUP mRNA to 10 to 20% of normal without an additional reduction in the abundance of cytoplasmic mRNA. In contrast, a nonsense mutation within codon 172 of exon 5 was found to have no effects on the abundance of MUP mRNA. These findings suggest that a boundary between nonsense mutations that do and do not reduce the abundance of nuclear mRNA exists within the exon preceding the exon that harbors the normal site of translation termination. In this way, the boundary is analogous to the boundary that exists within the penultimate exon of the human gene for the cytosolic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase. Assays for exon skipping, i.e., the removal of an exon as a part of the flanking introns during the process of splicing, reveal that 0.1, 2.0, and 0.1% of MUP mRNA normally lack exon 5, exon 6, and exons 5 plus 6, respectively. Relative to normal, the two nonsense mutations within exon 5 increase the abundance of RNA lacking exon 5 on average 20-fold and increase the abundance of RNA lacking exons 5 plus 6 on average 5-fold. Since only one of these nonsense mutations also reduces the abundance of fully spliced nuclear mRNA to 10 to 20% of normal, the two mechanisms by which a nonsense mutation can alter nuclear RNA metabolism must be distinct. The analysis of missense mutations within codons 143 and 172, some of which retain the nonsense mutation, indicates that the reduction in the abundance of fully spliced nuclear m

  4. NextSearch: A Search Engine for Mass Spectrometry Data against a Compact Nucleotide Exon Graph.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Heejin; Paek, Eunok

    2015-07-02

    Proteogenomics research has been using six-frame translation of the whole genome or amino acid exon graphs to overcome the limitations of reference protein sequence database; however, six-frame translation is not suitable for annotating genes that span over multiple exons, and amino acid exon graphs are not convenient to represent novel splice variants and exon skipping events between exons of incompatible reading frames. We propose a proteogenomic pipeline NextSearch (Nucleotide EXon-graph Transcriptome Search) that is based on a nucleotide exon graph. This pipeline consists of constructing a compact nucleotide exon graph that systematically incorporates novel splice variations and a search tool that identifies peptides by directly searching the nucleotide exon graph against tandem mass spectra. Because our exon graph stores nucleotide sequences, it can easily represent novel splice variations and exon skipping events between incompatible reading frame exons. Searching for peptide identification is performed against this nucleotide exon graph, without converting it into a protein sequence in FASTA format, achieving an order of magnitude reduction in the size of the sequence database storage. NextSearch outputs the proteome-genome/transcriptome mapping results in a general feature format (GFF) file, which can be visualized by public tools such as the UCSC Genome Browser.

  5. A Fast Algorithm for Exonic Regions Prediction in DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Saberkari, Hamidreza; Shamsi, Mousa; Heravi, Hamed; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a fast method for gene prediction in DNA sequences based on the period-3 property in exons. First, the symbolic DNA sequences were converted to digital signal using the electron ion interaction potential method. Then, to reduce the effect of background noise in the period-3 spectrum, we used the discrete wavelet transform at three levels and applied it on the input digital signal. Finally, the Goertzel algorithm was used to extract period-3 components in the filtered DNA sequence. The proposed algorithm leads to decrease the computational complexity and hence, increases the speed of the process. Detection of small size exons in DNA sequences, exactly, is another advantage of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm ability in exon prediction was compared with several existing methods at the nucleotide level using: (i) specificity - sensitivity values; (ii) receiver operating curves (ROC); and (iii) area under ROC curve. Simulation results confirmed that the proposed method can be used as a promising tool for exon prediction in DNA sequences. PMID:24672762

  6. Basal exon skipping and genetic pleiotropy: A predictive model of disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Drivas, Theodore G; Wojno, Adam P; Tucker, Budd A; Stone, Edwin M; Bennett, Jean

    2015-06-10

    Genetic pleiotropy, the phenomenon by which mutations in the same gene result in markedly different disease phenotypes, has proven difficult to explain with traditional models of disease pathogenesis. We have developed a model of pleiotropic disease that explains, through the process of basal exon skipping, how different mutations in the same gene can differentially affect protein production, with the total amount of protein produced correlating with disease severity. Mutations in the centrosomal protein of 290 kDa (CEP290) gene are associated with a spectrum of phenotypically distinct human diseases (the ciliopathies). Molecular biologic examination of CEP290 transcript and protein expression in cells from patients carrying CEP290 mutations, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, correlated with disease severity and corroborated our model. We show that basal exon skipping may be the mechanism underlying the disease pleiotropy caused by CEP290 mutations. Applying our model to a different disease gene, CC2D2A (coiled-coil and C2 domains-containing protein 2A), we found that the same correlations held true. Our model explains the phenotypic diversity of two different inherited ciliopathies and may establish a new model for the pathogenesis of other pleiotropic human diseases.

  7. Discovery of novel isoforms of huntingtin reveals a new hominid-specific exon.

    PubMed

    Ruzo, Albert; Ismailoglu, Ismail; Popowski, Melissa; Haremaki, Tomomi; Croft, Gist F; Deglincerti, Alessia; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurological disorder that is caused by an expansion of the poly-Q tract in exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene (HTT). HTT is an evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein that has been linked to a variety of functions including transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial function, and vesicle transport. This large protein has numerous caspase and calpain cleavage sites and can be decorated with several post-translational modifications such as phosphorylations, acetylations, sumoylations, and palmitoylations. However, the exact function of HTT and the role played by its modifications in the cell are still not well understood. Scrutiny of HTT function has been focused on a single, full length mRNA. In this study, we report the discovery of 5 novel HTT mRNA splice isoforms that are expressed in normal and HTT-expanded human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as well as in cortical neurons differentiated from hESCs. Interestingly, none of the novel isoforms generates a truncated protein. Instead, 4 of the 5 new isoforms specifically eliminate domains and modifications to generate smaller HTT proteins. The fifth novel isoform incorporates a previously unreported additional exon, dubbed 41b, which is hominid-specific and introduces a potential phosphorylation site in the protein. The discovery of this hominid-specific isoform may shed light on human-specific pathogenic mechanisms of HTT, which could not be investigated with current mouse models of the disease.

  8. EXONSAMPLER: a computer program for genome-wide and candidate gene exon sampling for targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cosart, Ted; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    The computer program EXONSAMPLER automates the sampling of thousands of exon sequences from publicly available reference genome sequences and gene annotation databases. It was designed to provide exon sequences for the efficient, next-generation gene sequencing method called exon capture. The exon sequences can be sampled by a list of gene name abbreviations (e.g. IFNG, TLR1), or by sampling exons from genes spaced evenly across chromosomes. It provides a list of genomic coordinates (a bed file), as well as a set of sequences in fasta format. User-adjustable parameters for collecting exon sequences include a minimum and maximum acceptable exon length, maximum number of exonic base pairs (bp) to sample per gene, and maximum total bp for the entire collection. It allows for partial sampling of very large exons. It can preferentially sample upstream (5 prime) exons, downstream (3 prime) exons, both external exons, or all internal exons. It is written in the Python programming language using its free libraries. We describe the use of EXONSAMPLER to collect exon sequences from the domestic cow (Bos taurus) genome for the design of an exon-capture microarray to sequence exons from related species, including the zebu cow and wild bison. We collected ~10% of the exome (~3 million bp), including 155 candidate genes, and ~16,000 exons evenly spaced genomewide. We prioritized the collection of 5 prime exons to facilitate discovery and genotyping of SNPs near upstream gene regulatory DNA sequences, which control gene expression and are often under natural selection.

  9. Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Transformation by Rho GTPase Through a Novel Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    and scanning were performed by Microarray Core Facility, Northwestern University. Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 chips (containing >47,000...annotation of the HG- U133 Plus 2 microarray was updated using the Entrez gene database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Raw...gene expression profiles of normal hMECs with those of cells immortalized using RhoA-WT, G14V, or T37A using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0

  10. Global control of aberrant splice-site activation by auxiliary splicing sequences: evidence for a gradient in exon and intron definition.

    PubMed

    Královicová, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Auxiliary splicing signals play a major role in the regulation of constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing, but their relative importance in selection of mutation-induced cryptic or de novo splice sites is poorly understood. Here, we show that exonic sequences between authentic and aberrant splice sites that were activated by splice-site mutations in human disease genes have lower frequencies of splicing enhancers and higher frequencies of splicing silencers than average exons. Conversely, sequences between authentic and intronic aberrant splice sites have more enhancers and less silencers than average introns. Exons that were skipped as a result of splice-site mutations were smaller, had lower SF2/ASF motif scores, a decreased availability of decoy splice sites and a higher density of silencers than exons in which splice-site mutation activated cryptic splice sites. These four variables were the strongest predictors of the two aberrant splicing events in a logistic regression model. Elimination or weakening of predicted silencers in two reporters consistently promoted use of intron-proximal splice sites if these elements were maintained at their original positions, with their modular combinations producing expected modification of splicing. Together, these results show the existence of a gradient in exon and intron definition at the level of pre-mRNA splicing and provide a basis for the development of computational tools that predict aberrant splicing outcomes.

  11. Brief naturalistic stress induces an alternative splice variant of SMG-1 lacking exon 63 in peripheral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Ken; Kuwano, Yuki; Tominaga, Kumiko; Kawai, Tomoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Yamagishi, Naoko; Satake, Yuzuru; Kajita, Keisuke; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2010-10-29

    Alternative splicing (AS) not only regulates the gene expression program in response to surrounding environment, but also produces protein isoforms with unique properties under stressful conditions. However, acute psychological stress-initiated AS events have not been documented in human studies. After assessments of changes in salivary cortisol levels and anxiety among 28 fourth-grade medical students 7 weeks prior to, 1 day before, immediately after, and 1 week after an examination for promotion, we selected 5 male students, who showed a typical stress response, and screened AS events in their circulating leukocytes using the GeneChip human exon 1.0 ST array. AS events of 27 genes with splicing indices >1.0 could be detected between immediately after and either 7 weeks before, 1 day before, or 1 week after the examination. The examination stress preferentially caused skipping rather than inclusion: 21 out of the 27 pre-mRNAs underwent skipping of exons, and skipping in 3'UTR was observed in 8 genes. Among the candidate genes, real-time reverse transcription PCR validated the stress-initiated skipping of exon 63 of SMG-1 that encodes a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase crucial for activations of p53-dependent pathways and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Our results indicate a significant impact of brief naturalistic stressors on AS-mediated regulation of gene expression in peripheral leukocytes, and suggest the SMG-1 splice variant as a potential biomarker for acute psychological stress.

  12. Novel P2 promoter-derived HNF4{alpha} isoforms with different N-terminus generated by alternate exon insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jianmin; Levitsky, Lynne L.; Rhoads, David B.

    2009-04-15

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) is a critical transcription factor for pancreas and liver development and functions in islet {beta} cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Mutations in the human HNF4A gene lead to maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1) and polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Expression of six HNF4{alpha} variants, three each from two developmentally regulated promoters, has been firmly established. We have now detected a new set of HNF4{alpha} variants designated HNF4{alpha}10-12 expressed from distal promoter P2. These variants, generated by inclusion of previously undetected exon 1E (human = 222 nt, rodent = 136 nt) following exon 1D have an altered N-terminus but identical remaining reading frame. HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 are expressed in pancreatic islets (and liver) and exhibit transactivation potentials similar to the corresponding {alpha}7-{alpha}9 isoforms. DNA-binding analyses implied much higher protein levels of HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 in liver than expected from the RT-PCR data. Our results provide evidence for a more complex expression pattern of HNF4{alpha} than previously appreciated. We recommend inclusion of exon 1E and nearby DNA sequences in screening for HNF4{alpha} mutations and polymorphisms in genetic analyses of MODY1 and T2DM.

  13. Grey, a novel mutation in the murine Lyst gene, causes the beige phenotype by skipping of exon 25.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Fabian; Büssow, Heinrich; Seburn, Kevin L; Cox, Gregory A; Ward, Diane McVey; Kaplan, Jerry; Franz, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The murine beige mutant phenotype and the human Chediak-Higashi syndrome are caused by mutations in the murine Lyst (lysosomal trafficking regulator) gene and the human CHS gene, respectively. In this report we have analyzed a novel murine mutant Lyst allele, called Lyst(bg-grey), that had been found in an ENU mutation screen and named grey because of the grey coat color of affected mice. The phenotype caused by the Lyst(bg-grey) mutation was inherited in a recessive fashion. Melanosomes of melanocytes associated with hair follicles and the choroid layer of the eye, as well as melanosomes in the neural tube-derived pigment epithelium of the retina, were larger and irregularly shaped in homozygous mutants compared with those of wild-type controls. Secretory vesicles in dermal mast cells of the mutant skin were enlarged as well. Test crosses with beige homozygous mutant mice (Lyst(bg)) showed that double heterozygotes (Lyst(bg)/Lyst(bg-grey)) were phenotypically indistinguishable from either homozygous parent, demonstrating that the ENU mutation was an allele of the murine Lyst gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed the skipping of exon 25 in Lyst(bg-grey) mutants, which is predicted to cause a missense D2399E mutation and the loss of the following 77 amino acids encoded by exon 25 but leave the C-terminal end of the protein intact. Analysis of the genomic Lyst locus around exon 25 showed that the splice donor at the end of exon 25 showed a T-to-C transition point mutation. Western blot analysis suggests that the Lyst(bg-grey) mutation causes instability of the LYST protein. Because the phenotype of Lyst(bg) and Lyst(bg-grey) mutants is indistinguishable, at least with respect to melanosomes and secretory granules in mast cells, the Lyst(bg-grey) mutation defines a critical region for the stability of the murine LYST protein.

  14. Efficient internal exon recognition depends on near equal contributions from the 3' and 5' splice sites.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Peter J; Choi, Eun-A; Busch, Anke; Hertel, Klemens J

    2011-11-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is carried out by the spliceosome, which identifies exons and removes intervening introns. In vertebrates, most splice sites are initially recognized by the spliceosome across the exon, because most exons are small and surrounded by large introns. This gene architecture predicts that efficient exon recognition depends largely on the strength of the flanking 3' and 5' splice sites. However, it is unknown if the 3' or the 5' splice site dominates the exon recognition process. Here, we test the 3' and 5' splice site contributions towards efficient exon recognition by systematically replacing the splice sites of an internal exon with sequences of different splice site strengths. We show that the presence of an optimal splice site does not guarantee exon inclusion and that the best predictor for exon recognition is the sum of both splice site scores. Using a genome-wide approach, we demonstrate that the combined 3' and 5' splice site strengths of internal exons provide a much more significant separator between constitutive and alternative exons than either the 3' or the 5' splice site strength alone.

  15. Efficient use of a translation start codon in BDNF exon I.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Indrek; Tuvikene, Jürgen; Lekk, Ingrid; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2015-09-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene contains a number of 5' exons alternatively spliced with a common 3' exon. BDNF protein is synthesized from alternative transcripts as a prepro-precursor encoded by the common 3' exon IX, which has a translation start site 21 bp downstream of the splicing site. BDNF mRNAs containing exon I are an exception to this arrangement as the last three nucleotides of this exon constitute an in-frame AUG. Here, we show that this AUG is efficiently used for translation initiation in PC12 cells and cultured cortical neurons. Use of exon I-specific AUG produces higher levels of BDNF protein than use of the common translation start site, resulting from a higher translation rate. No differences in protein degradation, constitutive or regulated secretion were detected between BDNF isoforms with alternative 5' termini. As the BDNF promoter preceding exon I is known to be highly regulated by neuronal activity, our results suggest that the function of this translation start site may be efficient stimulus-dependent synthesis of BDNF protein. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene contains multiple untranslated 5' exons alternatively spliced to one common protein-coding 3' exon. However, exon I contains an in-frame ATG in a favorable translation context. Here, we show that use of this ATG is associated with more efficient protein synthesis than the commonly used ATG in exon IX.

  16. Therapeutic effects of exon skipping and losartan on skeletal muscle of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Min, Chang-Woo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Park, Jin-Kyu; Hwang, Meeyul; Kwon, Soon-Hak; Tremblay, Jacques P; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2014-08-01

    Various attempts have been made to find treatments for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Exon skipping is one of the promising technologies for DMD treatment by restoring dystropin protein, which is one of the muscle components. It is well known that losartan, an angiotensin II type1 receptor blocker, promotes muscle regeneration and differentiation by lowering the level of transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling. In this study, we illustrated the combined effects of exon skipping and losartan on skeletal muscle of mdx mice. We supplied mdx mice with losartan for 2 weeks before exon skipping treatment. The losartan with the exon skipping group showed less expression of myf5 than the losartan treated group. Also the losartan with exon skipping group recovered normal muscle architecture, in contrast to the losartan group which still showed many central nuclei. However, the exon skipping efficiency and the restoration of dystrophin protein were lower in the losartan with exon skipping group compared to the exon skipping group. We reveal that losartan promotes muscle regeneration and shortens the time taken to restore normal muscle structure when combined with exon skipping. However, combined treatment of exon skipping and losartan decreases the restoration of dystrophin protein meaning decrease of exon skipping efficiency.

  17. SinEx DB: a database for single exon coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Roddy; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Ossandon, F; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Sepúlveda, Rene; González, Carolina; Holmes, David S

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically interrupted by intragenic, noncoding sequences termed introns. However, some genes lack introns in their coding sequence (CDS) and are generally known as 'single exon genes' (SEGs). In this work, a SEG is defined as a nuclear, protein-coding gene that lacks introns in its CDS. Whereas, many public databases of Eukaryotic multi-exon genes are available, there are only two specialized databases for SEGs. The present work addresses the need for a more extensive and diverse database by creating SinEx DB, a publicly available, searchable database of predicted SEGs from 10 completely sequenced mammalian genomes including human. SinEx DB houses the DNA and protein sequence information of these SEGs and includes their functional predictions (KOG) and the relative distribution of these functions within species. The information is stored in a relational database built with My SQL Server 5.1.33 and the complete dataset of SEG sequences and their functional predictions are available for downloading. SinEx DB can be interrogated by: (i) a browsable phylogenetic schema, (ii) carrying out BLAST searches to the in-house SinEx DB of SEGs and (iii) via an advanced search mode in which the database can be searched by key words and any combination of searches by species and predicted functions. SinEx DB provides a rich source of information for advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of SEGs.Database URL: www.sinex.cl.

  18. SinEx DB: a database for single exon coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Jorquera, Roddy; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Ossandon, F.; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Sepúlveda, Rene; González, Carolina; Holmes, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically interrupted by intragenic, noncoding sequences termed introns. However, some genes lack introns in their coding sequence (CDS) and are generally known as ‘single exon genes’ (SEGs). In this work, a SEG is defined as a nuclear, protein-coding gene that lacks introns in its CDS. Whereas, many public databases of Eukaryotic multi-exon genes are available, there are only two specialized databases for SEGs. The present work addresses the need for a more extensive and diverse database by creating SinEx DB, a publicly available, searchable database of predicted SEGs from 10 completely sequenced mammalian genomes including human. SinEx DB houses the DNA and protein sequence information of these SEGs and includes their functional predictions (KOG) and the relative distribution of these functions within species. The information is stored in a relational database built with My SQL Server 5.1.33 and the complete dataset of SEG sequences and their functional predictions are available for downloading. SinEx DB can be interrogated by: (i) a browsable phylogenetic schema, (ii) carrying out BLAST searches to the in-house SinEx DB of SEGs and (iii) via an advanced search mode in which the database can be searched by key words and any combination of searches by species and predicted functions. SinEx DB provides a rich source of information for advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of SEGs. Database URL: www.sinex.cl PMID:27278816

  19. The exon junction complex controls transposable element activity by ensuring faithful splicing of the piwi transcript

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Colin D.; Mestdagh, Claire; Akhtar, Junaid; Kreim, Nastasja; Deinhard, Pia; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Treisman, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a highly conserved ribonucleoprotein complex that binds RNAs during splicing and remains associated with them following export to the cytoplasm. While the role of this complex in mRNA localization, translation, and degradation has been well characterized, its mechanism of action in splicing a subset of Drosophila and human transcripts remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe a novel function for the EJC and its splicing subunit, RnpS1, in preventing transposon accumulation in both Drosophila germline and surrounding somatic follicle cells. This function is mediated specifically through the control of piwi transcript splicing, where, in the absence of RnpS1, the fourth intron of piwi is retained. This intron contains a weak polypyrimidine tract that is sufficient to confer dependence on RnpS1. Finally, we demonstrate that RnpS1-dependent removal of this intron requires splicing of the flanking introns, suggesting a model in which the EJC facilitates the splicing of weak introns following its initial deposition at adjacent exon junctions. These data demonstrate a novel role for the EJC in regulating piwi intron excision and provide a mechanism for its function during splicing. PMID:25104425

  20. Detection of an exon 53 polymorphism in the dystrophin gene.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S

    1993-10-01

    We utilized a heteroduplex method to screen for small mutations in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients who did not have deletions or duplications. A dystrophin exon 53 heteroduplex band was identified in 14.4% of the affected patients. Direct sequencing of the amplified product from DNA producing the heteroduplex revealed the presence of a polymorphism in the coding region. The codon for asparagine was converted from AAT to AAC.

  1. Structural basis for exon recognition by a group II intron

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, Navtej; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Keating, Kevin S.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2008-11-18

    Free group II introns are infectious retroelements that can bind and insert themselves into RNA and DNA molecules via reverse splicing. Here we report the 3.4-A crystal structure of a complex between an oligonucleotide target substrate and a group IIC intron, as well as the refined free intron structure. The structure of the complex reveals the conformation of motifs involved in exon recognition by group II introns.

  2. A two-stage exon recognition model based on synergetic neural network.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhehuang; Chen, Yidong

    2014-01-01

    Exon recognition is a fundamental task in bioinformatics to identify the exons of DNA sequence. Currently, exon recognition algorithms based on digital signal processing techniques have been widely used. Unfortunately, these methods require many calculations, resulting in low recognition efficiency. In order to overcome this limitation, a two-stage exon recognition model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we use synergetic neural network to rapidly determine initial exon intervals. Secondly, adaptive sliding window is used to accurately discriminate the final exon intervals. Finally, parameter optimization based on artificial fish swarm algorithm is used to determine different species thresholds and corresponding adjustment parameters of adaptive windows. Experimental results show that the proposed model has better performance for exon recognition and provides a practical solution and a promising future for other recognition tasks.

  3. An Exon-Capture System for the Entire Class Ophiuroidea

    PubMed Central

    Hugall, Andrew F.; O’Hara, Timothy D.; Hunjan, Sumitha; Nilsen, Roger; Moussalli, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Exon-capture studies have typically been restricted to relatively shallow phylogenetic scales due primarily to hybridization constraints. Here, we present an exon-capture system for an entire class of marine invertebrates, the Ophiuroidea, built upon a phylogenetically diverse transcriptome foundation. The system captures approximately 90% of the 1,552 exon target, across all major lineages of the quarter-billion-year-old extant crown group. Key features of our system are 1) basing the target on an alignment of orthologous genes determined from 52 transcriptomes spanning the phylogenetic diversity and trimmed to remove anything difficult to capture, map, or align; 2) use of multiple artificial representatives based on ancestral state reconstructions rather than exemplars to improve capture and mapping of the target; 3) mapping reads to a multi-reference alignment; and 4) using patterns of site polymorphism to distinguish among paralogy, polyploidy, allelic differences, and sample contamination. The resulting data give a well-resolved tree (currently standing at 417 samples, 275,352 sites, 91% data-complete) that will transform our understanding of ophiuroid evolution and biogeography. PMID:26474846

  4. Mutations Preventing Regulated Exon Skipping in MET Cause Osteofibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Mary J.; Kannu, Peter; Sharma, Swarkar; Neyt, Christine; Zhang, Dongping; Paria, Nandina; Daniel, Philip B.; Whetstone, Heather; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Hammerschmidt, Philipp; Weng, Angela; Dupuis, Lucie; Jobling, Rebekah; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dray, Michael; Su, Peiqiang; Wilson, Megan J.; Kapur, Raj P.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Alman, Benjamin A.; Howard, Andrew; Somers, Gino R.; Marshall, Christian R.; Manners, Simon; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Rathjen, Karl E.; Karol, Lori A.; Crawford, Haemish; Markie, David M.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Wise, Carol A.; Robertson, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The periosteum contributes to bone repair and maintenance of cortical bone mass. In contrast to the understanding of bone development within the epiphyseal growth plate, factors that regulate periosteal osteogenesis have not been studied as intensively. Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a congenital disorder of osteogenesis and is typically sporadic and characterized by radiolucent lesions affecting the cortical bone immediately under the periosteum of the tibia and fibula. We identified germline mutations in MET, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, that segregate with an autosomal-dominant form of OFD in three families and a mutation in a fourth affected subject from a simplex family and with bilateral disease. Mutations identified in all families with dominant inheritance and in the one simplex subject with bilateral disease abolished the splice inclusion of exon 14 in MET transcripts, which resulted in a MET receptor (METΔ14) lacking a cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain. Splice exclusion of this domain occurs during normal embryonic development, and forced induction of this exon-exclusion event retarded osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and inhibited bone-matrix mineralization. In an additional subject with unilateral OFD, we identified a somatic MET mutation, also affecting exon 14, that substituted a tyrosine residue critical for MET receptor turnover and, as in the case of the METΔ14 mutations, had a stabilizing effect on the mature protein. Taken together, these data show that aberrant MET regulation via the juxtamembrane domain subverts core MET receptor functions that regulate osteogenesis within cortical diaphyseal bone. PMID:26637977

  5. Immortalized skin fibroblasts expressing conditional MyoD as a renewable and reliable source of converted human muscle cells to assess therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies: validation of an exon-skipping approach to restore dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy cells.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Soraya; Mouly, Vincent; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Vulin, Adeline; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Negroni, Elisa; Di Santo, James; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Torrente, Yvan; Garcia, Luis; Furling, Denis

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Numerous strategies are under development for the correction of deleterious effects of mutations in muscular dystrophies, and these strategies must be validated in compelling models. Cellular models seem straightforward to set up; however, the proliferative capacity of muscle cells isolated from dystrophic patients is limited, and in addition it is difficult to envisage the use of large muscle biopsies from patients to obtain enough cells for ex vivo assessments. To overcome these problems, we have devised a strategy to obtain, from a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an inexhaustible source of myogenic progenitor cells with a deletion of exons 49 and 50 in the dystrophin gene. Starting material consisted of dermal fibroblasts isolated from a skin biopsy taken in a noninvasive way. These fibroblasts were first immortalized by telomerase gene transfer. Subsequent cell lines were converted into myogenic cells by means of a lentiviral vector encoding an inducible MyoD construct. Before myogenic induction, engineered DMD fibroblasts were able to proliferate infinitely. Under induction conditions, they were converted into myogenic cells, which differentiated into large multinucleated myotubes. We used these DMD fibroblast cell lines to assess dystrophin rescue by using engineered U7 small nuclear RNAs harboring antisense sequences required to restore an in-frame dystrophin mRNA by skipping exon 51. Further molecular analyses showed dystrophin rescue ex vivo as well as in vivo after engrafting of treated cells into regenerating muscles in immunodeficient mice.

  6. Does the mutant CAG expansion in huntingtin mRNA interfere with exonucleolytic cleavage of its first exon?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanzhao; Pfister, Edith L.; Kennington, Lori A.; Chase, Kathryn O.; Mueller, Christian; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Silencing mutant huntingtin mRNA by RNA interference (RNAi) is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington’s disease. RNAi induces specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the target HTT mRNA, followed by exonucleolytic processing of the cleaved mRNA fragments. Objectives We investigated the clearance of huntingtin mRNA cleavage products following RNAi, to find if particular huntingtin mRNA sequences persist. We especially wanted to find out if the expanded CAG increased production of a toxic mRNA species by impeding degradation of human mutant huntingtin exon 1 mRNA. Methods Mice expressing the human mutant HTT transgene with 128 CAG repeats (YAC128 mice) were injected in the striatum with self-complementary AAV9 vectors carrying a miRNA targeting exon 48 of huntingtin mRNA (scAAV-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP). Transgenic huntingtin mRNA levels were measured in striatal lysates after two weeks. For qPCR, we used species specific primer-probe combinations that together spanned 6 positions along the open reading frame and untranslated regions of the human huntingtin mRNA. Knockdown was also measured in the liver following tail vein injection. Results Two weeks after intrastriatal administration of scAAV9-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP, we measured transgenic mutant huntingtin in striatum using probes targeting six different sites along the huntingtin mRNA. Real time PCR showed a reduction of 29% to 36% in human HTT. There was no significant difference in knockdown measured at any of the six sites, including exon 1. In liver, we observed a more pronounced HTT mRNA knockdown of 70% to 76% relative to the untreated mice, and there were also no significant differences among sites. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that degradation is equally distributed across the human mutant huntingtin mRNA following RNAi-induced cleavage. PMID:27003665

  7. Splicing repression allows the gradual emergence of new Alu-exons in primate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Jan; Ruiz de los Mozos, Igor; Haberman, Nejc; Wang, Zhen; Emmett, Warren; Zarnack, Kathi; König, Julian; Ule, Jernej

    2016-01-01

    Alu elements are retrotransposons that frequently form new exons during primate evolution. Here, we assess the interplay of splicing repression by hnRNPC and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in the quality control and evolution of new Alu-exons. We identify 3100 new Alu-exons and show that NMD more efficiently recognises transcripts with Alu-exons compared to other exons with premature termination codons. However, some Alu-exons escape NMD, especially when an adjacent intron is retained, highlighting the importance of concerted repression by splicing and NMD. We show that evolutionary progression of 3' splice sites is coupled with longer repressive uridine tracts. Once the 3' splice site at ancient Alu-exons reaches a stable phase, splicing repression by hnRNPC decreases, but the exons generally remain sensitive to NMD. We conclude that repressive motifs are strongest next to cryptic exons and that gradual weakening of these motifs contributes to the evolutionary emergence of new alternative exons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19545.001 PMID:27861119

  8. IUGR increases chromatin-remodeling factor Brg1 expression and binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter in newborn male rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xingrao; McKnight, Robert A; Gracey Maniar, Lia E; Sun, Ying; Callaway, Christopher W; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert H; Cohen, Susan S

    2015-07-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for neurodevelopment delay and neuroendocrine reprogramming in both humans and rats. Neuroendocrine reprogramming involves the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene that is epigenetically regulated in the hippocampus. Using a well-characterized rodent model, we have previously shown that IUGR increases GR exon 1.7 mRNA variant and total GR expressions in male rat pup hippocampus. Epigenetic regulation of GR transcription may involve chromatin remodeling of the GR gene. A key chromatin remodeler is Brahma-related gene-1(Brg1), a member of the ATP-dependent SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex. Brg1 regulates gene expression by affecting nucleosome repositioning and recruiting transcriptional components to target promoters. We hypothesized that IUGR would increase hippocampal Brg1 expression and binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter, as well as alter nucleosome positioning over GR promoters in newborn male pups. Further, we hypothesized that IUGR would lead to accumulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and RNA pol II at GR exon 1.7 promoter. Indeed, we found that IUGR increased Brg1 expression and binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter. We also found that increased Brg1 binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter was associated with accumulation of Sp1 and RNA pol II carboxy terminal domain pSer-5 (a marker of active transcription). Furthermore, the transcription start site of GR exon 1.7 was located within a nucleosome-depleted region. We speculate that changes in hippocampal Brg1 expression mediate GR expression and subsequently trigger neuroendocrine reprogramming in male IUGR rats.

  9. Protein variation in blood-dwelling schistosome worms generated by differential splicing of micro-exon gene transcripts.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Manuel, Sophia J; Dillon, Gary P; Curwen, Rachel S; Ashton, Peter D; Ivens, Alasdair C; Berriman, Matthew; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Wilson, R Alan

    2010-08-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a well-adapted blood-dwelling parasitic helminth, persisting for decades in its human host despite being continually exposed to potential immune attack. Here, we describe in detail micro-exon genes (MEG) in S. mansoni, some present in multiple copies, which represent a novel molecular system for creating protein variation through the alternate splicing of short (< or =36 bp) symmetric exons organized in tandem. Analysis of three closely related copies of one MEG family allowed us to trace several evolutionary events and propose a mechanism for micro-exon generation and diversification. Microarray experiments show that the majority of MEGs are up-regulated in life cycle stages associated with establishment in the mammalian host after skin penetration. Sequencing of RT-PCR products allowed the description of several alternate splice forms of micro-exon genes, highlighting the potential use of these transcripts to generate a complex pool of protein variants. We obtained direct evidence for the existence of such pools by proteomic analysis of secretions from migrating schistosomula and mature eggs. Whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunolocalization showed that MEG transcripts and proteins were restricted to glands or epithelia exposed to the external environment. The ability of schistosomes to produce a complex pool of variant proteins aligns them with the other major groups of blood parasites, but using a completely different mechanism. We believe that our data open a new chapter in the study of immune evasion by schistosomes, and their ability to generate variant proteins could represent a significant obstacle to vaccine development.

  10. An ADAM9 mutation in canine cone-rod dystrophy 3 establishes homology with human cone-rod dystrophy 9

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Anguish, Lynne J.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation in a canine cone-rod dystrophy (crd3) that segregates as an adult onset disorder in the Glen of Imaal Terrier breed of dog. Methods Glen of Imaal Terriers were ascertained for crd3 phenotype by clinical ophthalmoscopic examination, and in selected cases by electroretinography. Blood samples from affected cases and non-affected controls were collected and used, after DNA extraction, to undertake a genome-wide association study using Affymetrix Version 2 Canine single nucleotide polymorphism chips and 250K Sty Assay protocol. Positional candidate gene analysis was undertaken for genes identified within the peak-association signal region. Retinal morphology of selected crd3-affected dogs was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results A peak association signal exceeding genome-wide significance was identified on canine chromosome 16. Evaluation of genes in this region suggested A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain, family member 9 (ADAM9), identified concurrently elsewhere as the cause of human cone-rod dystrophy 9 (CORD9), as a strong positional candidate for canine crd3. Sequence analysis identified a large genomic deletion (over 20 kb) that removed exons 15 and 16 from the ADAM9 transcript, introduced a premature stop, and would remove critical domains from the encoded protein. Light and electron microscopy established that, as in ADAM9 knockout mice, the primary lesion in crd3 appears to be a failure of the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium to appropriately invest photoreceptor outer segments. By electroretinography, retinal function appears normal in very young crd3-affected dogs, but by 15 months of age, cone dysfunction is present. Subsequently, both rod and cone function degenerate. Conclusions Identification of this ADAM9 deletion in crd3-affected dogs establishes this canine disease as orthologous to CORD9 in humans, and offers opportunities for further characterization of the disease

  11. Hypomethylation of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotor and first exon is linked to expression of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Albini, A; Toffenetti, J; Zhu, Z; Chader, G J; Noonan, D M

    1990-01-01

    The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is limited in expression to retinal photoreceptor cells and a subset of pinealocytes. We have obtained a genomic clone containing the entire coding region and 7 kb of 5' flanking sequence. As a first step in studying IRBP gene regulation we have examined the CpG methylation patterns of the entire IRBP gene in expressing and non-expressing human cells. This has been done by isolation of high molecular weight DNA from Y-79 cells grown in suspension or attached to poly-D-lysine, which synthesize IRBP at different levels, and from human lymphocytes, which were shown by northern analysis to lack IRBP message. The DNA was digested by either Hpa II, Msp I, or Hha I. Southern blots were prepared with these digests and hybridized with probes made from fragments covering the complete genomic clone. Probes from the first exon, the introns and the 3' end gave banding patterns which showed no differences between the expressing cells and the lymphocytes. A probe from the very 5' end did not give a clear banding pattern, probably due to the presence of repetitive elements in the probe. However, a Hind III probe covering the 5' flanking 3 kb and the beginning of the first exon hybridized with a 1.8 kb band in Hpa II digests of Y-79 cells which was not present in Hpa II digests of lymphocyte DNA. In addition, a 2.1-2.3 kb Hha I band was found only in the Y-79 DNA digests. Sequence analysis of the promoter region indicated that these bands were due to hypomethylation of sites within a CpG rich island from -1578 to -1108 in the promoter and hypomethylation of sites in the beginning of the first exon. A Hha I site between the CpG island and the first exon was not hypomethylated in the expressing Y-79 cells. We propose that hypomethylation of the CpG rich island of the IRBP promoter and the first exon is linked to the expression of this gene. Images PMID:2402443

  12. Identification of beta1C-2, a novel variant of the integrin beta1 subunit generated by utilization of an alternative splice acceptor site in exon C.

    PubMed Central

    Svineng, G; Fässler, R; Johansson, S

    1998-01-01

    A new splice variant of the human integrin subunit beta1 has been identified and designated beta1C-2. It differs from the previously reported beta1C (in this report designated beta1C-1) by 18 nucleotides, and is generated by splicing from exon 6 to an alternative splice acceptor site within exon C, causing an in-frame deletion of six amino acids of the cytoplasmic region of beta1C-1. The beta1C-2 mRNA is present in several human cell lines and tissues at low levels, similarly to beta1C-1. In peripheral T-lymphocytes, beta1C-2 is the selectively expressed isoform. Neither beta1C-1 nor beta1C-2 mRNA could be detected in mouse tissues, and Southern hybridization of a mouse genomic beta1 clone with a human exon-C-specific probe failed to identify a corresponding mouse exon. The antisense orientation of exon C is highly homologous to an Alu element. Since Alu elements are restricted to primates, the beta1C-1 and beta1C-2 variants of the integrin subunit beta1 are specific for these species. The protein coded for by the beta1C-2 cDNA can be expressed and localized to the surface of beta1 deficient mouse cells. However, while stable transformed clones expressing high levels of the beta1A were commonly found, the beta1C-1 and beta1C-2 expressing clones expressed barely detectable amounts of the beta1 protein. Hence, high levels of beta1C-2 may be incompatible with cell proliferation, as previously suggested for beta1C-1. PMID:9494094

  13. Novel methodologies for spectral classification of exon and intron sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Hon Keung; Kwan, Benjamin Y. M.; Kwan, Jennifer Y. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Digital processing of a nucleotide sequence requires it to be mapped to a numerical sequence in which the choice of nucleotide to numeric mapping affects how well its biological properties can be preserved and reflected from nucleotide domain to numerical domain. Digital spectral analysis of nucleotide sequences unfolds a period-3 power spectral value which is more prominent in an exon sequence as compared to that of an intron sequence. The success of a period-3 based exon and intron classification depends on the choice of a threshold value. The main purposes of this article are to introduce novel codes for 1-sequence numerical representations for spectral analysis and compare them to existing codes to determine appropriate representation, and to introduce novel thresholding methods for more accurate period-3 based exon and intron classification of an unknown sequence. The main findings of this study are summarized as follows: Among sixteen 1-sequence numerical representations, the K-Quaternary Code I offers an attractive performance. A windowed 1-sequence numerical representation (with window length of 9, 15, and 24 bases) offers a possible speed gain over non-windowed 4-sequence Voss representation which increases as sequence length increases. A winner threshold value (chosen from the best among two defined threshold values and one other threshold value) offers a top precision for classifying an unknown sequence of specified fixed lengths. An interpolated winner threshold value applicable to an unknown and arbitrary length sequence can be estimated from the winner threshold values of fixed length sequences with a comparable performance. In general, precision increases as sequence length increases. The study contributes an effective spectral analysis of nucleotide sequences to better reveal embedded properties, and has potential applications in improved genome annotation.

  14. Testing the exon theory of genes: the evidence from protein structure.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, A; Spencer, D F; Zuker, M; Logsdon, J M; Doolittle, W F

    1994-07-08

    A tendency for exons to correspond to discrete units of protein structure in protein-coding genes of ancient origin would provide clear evidence in favor of the exon theory of genes, which proposes that split genes arose not by insertion of introns into unsplit genes, but from combinations of primordial mini-genes (exons) separated by spacers (introns). Although putative examples of such correspondence have strongly influenced previous debate on the origin of introns, a general correspondence has not been rigorously proved. Objective methods for detecting correspondences were developed and applied to four examples that have been cited previously as evidence of the exon theory of genes. No significant correspondence between exons and units of protein structure was detected, suggesting that the putative correspondence does not exist and that the exon theory of genes is untenable.

  15. Evidence for a novel exon in the coding region of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Ling; St. Denis, K.A.; Bapat, B.

    1995-08-10

    Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene APC cause familial adenomatous polyposis. Somatic APC alterations are involved in several sporadic neoplasma, including colorectal, duodenal, gastric, and esophageal carcinoma. The APC mRNA is encoded by 15 exons. Additional transcripts have been reported, due to alternative splicing of coding as well as noncoding regions. Two mRNA isoforms occur due to a deletion of exon 7 or a partial deletion of exon 9. We have identified a novel exon, flanked by APC exons 10 and 11, which is expressed as an alternatively transcribed product of the gene. Further, we have shown that the novel exon consists of a heptad repeat motif and is conserved across species. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Personalized exon skipping strategies to address clustered non-deletion dystrophin mutations.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Sarah; Meloni, Penny L; Muntoni, Francesco; Kim, Jihee; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D

    2010-12-01

    Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping is showing promise as a therapy to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To date, the focus has been on excluding single exons flanking frame-shifting deletions in the dystrophin gene. However, a third of all Duchenne muscular dystrophy causing mutations are more subtle DNA changes. Thirty nine dystrophin exons are potentially frame-shifting and mutations in these will require the targeted removal of exon blocks to generate in-frame transcripts. We report that clustered non-deletion mutations in the dystrophin gene respond differently to different antisense oligomer preparations targeting the same dual exon block, the removal of which bypasses the mutation and restores the open reading-frame. The personalized nature of the responses to antisense oligomer application presents additional challenges to the induction of multi-exon skipping with a single oligomer preparation.

  17. Genomic organization of the human lysosomal acid lipase gene (LIPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Aslandis, C.; Klima, H.; Lackner, K.J.; Schmitz, G. )

    1994-03-15

    Defects in the human lysosomal acid lipase gene are responsible for cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and Wolman disease. Exon skipping as the cause for CESD has been demonstrated. The authors present here a summary of the exon structure of the entire human lysosomal acid lipase gene consisting of 10 exons, together with the sizes of genomic EcoRI and SacI fragments hybridizing to each exon. In addition, the DNA sequence of the putative promoter region is presented. The EMBL accession numbers for adjacent intron sequences are given. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Alternative splicing of a cryptic exon embedded in intron 6 of SMN1 and SMN2

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Satomi; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Hamamura, Yuko; Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Shima, Ai; Morisada, Naoya; Shinohara, Masakazu; Saito, Toshio; Saito, Kayoko; Lai, Poh San; Matsuo, Masafumi; Awano, Hiroyuki; Morioka, Ichiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide

    2016-01-01

    Both survival of motor neuron (SMN) genes are associated with spinal muscular atrophy; mutations in SMN1 cause the disease, and SMN2 modulates its severity. It is established that different alternative splicing of exon 7 occurs for SMN1 and SMN2, and a cryptic exon was recently found in intron 6 of both genes. Here, we characterize this cryptic exon and clarify its alternative splicing pattern in control and spinal muscular atrophy cells. PMID:27917293

  19. Lex-SVM: exploring the potential of exon expression profiling for disease classification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiongying; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Changning; Bu, Dongbo

    2011-04-01

    Exon expression profiling technologies, including exon arrays and RNA-Seq, measure the abundance of every exon in a gene. Compared with gene expression profiling technologies like 3' array, exon expression profiling technologies could detect alterations in both transcription and alternative splicing, therefore they are expected to be more sensitive in diagnosis. However, exon expression profiling also brings higher dimension, more redundancy, and significant correlation among features. Ignoring the correlation structure among exons of a gene, a popular classification method like L1-SVM selects exons individually from each gene and thus is vulnerable to noise. To overcome this limitation, we present in this paper a new variant of SVM named Lex-SVM to incorporate correlation structure among exons and known splicing patterns to promote classification performance. Specifically, we construct a new norm, ex-norm, including our prior knowledge on exon correlation structure to regularize the coefficients of a linear SVM. Lex-SVM can be solved efficiently using standard linear programming techniques. The advantage of Lex-SVM is that it can select features group-wisely, force features in a subgroup to take equal weihts and exclude the features that contradict the majority in the subgroup. Experimental results suggest that on exon expression profile, Lex-SVM is more accurate than existing methods. Lex-SVM also generates a more compact model and selects genes more consistently in cross-validation. Unlike L1-SVM selecting only one exon in a gene, Lex-SVM assigns equal weights to as many exons in a gene as possible, lending itself easier for further interpretation.

  20. Exon 10 skipping in ACAT1 caused by a novel c.949G>A mutation located at an exonic splice enhancer site.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiroki; Sasai, Hideo; Nakama, Mina; Aoyama, Yuka; Abdelkreem, Elsayed; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    Beta-ketothiolase deficiency, also known as mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the acetyl‑CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) gene. A German T2‑deficient patient that developed a severe ketoacidotic episode at the age of 11 months, was revealed to be a compound heterozygote of a previously reported null mutation, c.472A>G (p.N158D) and a novel mutation, c.949G>A (p.D317N), in ACAT1. The c.949G>A mutation was suspected to cause aberrant splicing as it is located within an exonic splicing enhancer sequence (c. 947CTGACGC) that is a potential binding site for serine/arginine‑rich splicing factor 1. A mutation in this sequence, c.951C>T, results in exon 10 skipping. A minigene construct was synthesized that included exon 9‑truncated intron 9‑exon 10‑truncated intron 10‑exon 11, and the splicing of this minigene revealed that the c.949G>A mutant construct caused exon 10 skipping in a proportion of the transcripts. Furthermore, additional substitution of G for C at the first nucleotide of exon 10 (c.941G>C) abolished the effect of the c.949G>A mutation. Transient expression analysis of the c.949G>A mutant cDNA revealed no residual T2 activity in the mutated D317N enzyme. Therefore, c.949G>A (D317N) is a pathogenic missense mutation, and diminishes the effect of an exonic splicing enhancer and causes exon 10 skipping. The present study demonstrates that a missense mutation, or even a synonymous substitution, may disrupt enzyme function by interference with splicing.

  1. A Relaxed Active Site After Exon Ligation by the Group I Intron

    SciTech Connect

    Lipchock,S.; Strobel, S.

    2008-01-01

    During RNA maturation, the group I intron promotes two sequential phosphorotransfer reactions resulting in exon ligation and intron release. Here, we report the crystal structure of the intron in complex with spliced exons and two additional structures that examine the role of active-site metal ions during the second step of RNA splicing. These structures reveal a relaxed active site, in which direct metal coordination by the exons is lost after ligation, while other tertiary interactions are retained between the exon and the intron. Consistent with these structural observations, kinetic and thermodynamic measurements show that the scissile phosphate makes direct contact with metals in the ground state before exon ligation and in the transition state, but not after exon ligation. Despite no direct exonic interactions and even in the absence of the scissile phosphate, two metal ions remain bound within the active site. Together, these data suggest that release of the ligated exons from the intron is preceded by a change in substrate-metal coordination before tertiary hydrogen bonding contacts to the exons are broken.

  2. Exon deletion patterns of the dystrophin gene in 82 Vietnamese Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Khanh; Ta, Van Thanh; Vu, Dung Chi; Nguyen, Suong Thi-Bang; Do, Hai Ngoc; Ta, Minh Hieu; Tran, Thinh Huy; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2013-12-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD) are the most common inherited muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The reading frame rule explains the genotype-phenotype relationship in DMD/BMD. In Vietnam, extensive mutation analysis has never been conducted in DMD/BMD. Here, 152 Vietnamese muscular dystrophy patients were examined for dystrophin exon deletion by amplifying 19 deletion-prone exons and deletion ends were confirmed by dystrophin cDNA analysis if necessary. The result was that 82 (54%) patients were found to have exon deletions, thus confirming exact deletion ends. A further result was that 37 patterns of deletion were classified. Deletions of exons 45-50 and 49-52 were the most common patterns identified, numbering six cases each (7.3%). The reading frame rule explained the genotype-phenotype relationship, but not five (6.1%) DMD cases. Each of five patients had deletions of exons 11-27 in common. The applicability of the therapy producing semifunctional in frame mRNA in DMD by inducing skipping of a single exon was examined. Induction of exon 51 skipping was ranked at top priority, since 16 (27%) patients were predicted to have semifunctional mRNA skipping. Exons 45 and 53 were the next ranked, with 12 (20%) and 11 (18%) patients, respectively. The largest deletion database of the dystrophin gene, established in Vietnamese DMD/BMD patients, disclosed a strong indication for exon-skipping therapy.

  3. Exon dosage analysis of parkin gene in Chinese sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ji-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qian; Li, Nan; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Xia, Kun; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2015-09-14

    Parkin gene mutations are by far the most common mutations in both familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and sporadic PD. Approximately, 50% of parkin mutations is exon dosage mutations (i.e., deletions and duplications of entire exons). Here, we first established a MLPA assay for quick detection of parkin exon rearrangements. Then, we studied parkin exon dosage mutations in 755 Chinese sporadic PDdisease patients using the established MLPA assay. We found that there were 25 (3.3%) patients with exon dosage alterations including deletions and duplications, 20 (11.4%) patients with exon rearrangements in 178 early-onset patients, and 5 (0.86%) patients with exon rearrangement mutations in 579 later-onset patients. The percentage of individuals with parkin dosage mutations is more than 33% when the age at onset is less than 30 years old, but less than 7% when the age at onset is more than 30. In these mutations, deletion is the main mutational style, especially in exon 2-5. Our results indicated that exon dosage mutations in parkin gene might be the main cause for sporadic PD, especially in EOP.

  4. Exon Shuffling and Origin of Scorpion Venom Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueli; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a complex combinatorial library of peptides and proteins with multiple biological functions. A combination of transcriptomic and proteomic techniques has revealed its enormous molecular diversity, as identified by the presence of a large number of ion channel-targeted neurotoxins with different folds, membrane-active antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and protease inhibitors. Although the biodiversity of scorpion venom has long been known, how it arises remains unsolved. In this work, we analyzed the exon-intron structures of an array of scorpion venom protein-encoding genes and unexpectedly found that nearly all of these genes possess a phase-1 intron (one intron located between the first and second nucleotides of a codon) near the cleavage site of a signal sequence despite their mature peptides remarkably differ. This observation matches a theory of exon shuffling in the origin of new genes and suggests that recruitment of different folds into scorpion venom might be achieved via shuffling between body protein-coding genes and ancestral venom gland-specific genes that presumably contributed tissue-specific regulatory elements and secretory signal sequences. PMID:28035955

  5. Exon capture optimization in amphibians with large genomes.

    PubMed

    McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Mount, Genevieve G; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Gathering genomic-scale data efficiently is challenging for nonmodel species with large, complex genomes. Transcriptome sequencing is accessible for organisms with large genomes, and sequence capture probes can be designed from such mRNA sequences to enrich and sequence exonic regions. Maximizing enrichment efficiency is important to reduce sequencing costs, but relatively few data exist for exon capture experiments in nonmodel organisms with large genomes. Here, we conducted a replicated factorial experiment to explore the effects of several modifications to standard protocols that might increase sequence capture efficiency for amphibians and other taxa with large, complex genomes. Increasing the amounts of c0 t-1 repetitive sequence blocker and individual input DNA used in target enrichment reactions reduced the rates of PCR duplication. This reduction led to an increase in the percentage of unique reads mapping to target sequences, essentially doubling overall efficiency of the target capture from 10.4% to nearly 19.9% and rendering target capture experiments more efficient and affordable. Our results indicate that target capture protocols can be modified to efficiently screen vertebrates with large genomes, including amphibians.

  6. JuncDB: an exon–exon junction database

    PubMed Central

    Chorev, Michal; Guy, Lotem; Carmel, Liran

    2016-01-01

    Intron positions upon the mRNA transcript are sometimes remarkably conserved even across distantly related eukaryotic species. This has made the comparison of intron–exon architectures across orthologous transcripts a very useful tool for studying various evolutionary processes. Moreover, the wide range of functions associated with introns may confer biological meaning to evolutionary changes in gene architectures. Yet, there is currently no database that offers such comparative information. Here, we present JuncDB (http://juncdb.carmelab.huji.ac.il/), an exon–exon junction database dedicated to the comparison of architectures between orthologous transcripts. It covers nearly 40 000 sets of orthologous transcripts spanning 88 eukaryotic species. JuncDB offers a user-friendly interface, access to detailed information, instructive graphical displays of the comparative data and easy ways to download data to a local computer. In addition, JuncDB allows the analysis to be carried out either on specific genes, or at a genome-wide level for any selected group of species. PMID:26519469

  7. Genomic V exons from whole genome shotgun data in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D N; von Haeften, B; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Faro, J; Gambón-Deza, F

    2014-08-01

    Reptiles and mammals diverged over 300 million years ago, creating two parallel evolutionary lineages amongst terrestrial vertebrates. In reptiles, two main evolutionary lines emerged: one gave rise to Squamata, while the other gave rise to Testudines, Crocodylia, and Aves. In this study, we determined the genomic variable (V) exons from whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS) data in reptiles corresponding to the three main immunoglobulin (IG) loci and the four main T cell receptor (TR) loci. We show that Squamata lack the TRG and TRD genes, and snakes lack the IGKV genes. In representative species of Testudines and Crocodylia, the seven major IG and TR loci are maintained. As in mammals, genes of the IG loci can be grouped into well-defined IMGT clans through a multi-species phylogenetic analysis. We show that the reptilian IGHV and IGLV genes are distributed amongst the established mammalian clans, while their IGKV genes are found within a single clan, nearly exclusive from the mammalian sequences. The reptilian and mammalian TRAV genes cluster into six common evolutionary clades (since IMGT clans have not been defined for TR). In contrast, the reptilian TRBV genes cluster into three clades, which have few mammalian members. In this locus, the V exon sequences from mammals appear to have undergone different evolutionary diversification processes that occurred outside these shared reptilian clans. These sequences can be obtained in a freely available public repository (http://vgenerepertoire.org).

  8. Deletion of amelotin exons 3–6 is associated with amelogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Claire E.L.; Murillo, Gina; Brookes, Steven J.; Poulter, James A.; Silva, Sandra; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Mighell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions that result in defective dental enamel formation. Amelotin (AMTN) is a secreted protein thought to act as a promoter of matrix mineralization in the final stage of enamel development, and is strongly expressed, almost exclusively, in maturation stage ameloblasts. Amtn overexpression and Amtn knockout mouse models have defective enamel with no other associated phenotypes, highlighting AMTN as an excellent candidate gene for human AI. However, no AMTN mutations have yet been associated with human AI. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified an 8,678 bp heterozygous genomic deletion encompassing exons 3-6 of AMTN in a Costa Rican family segregating dominant hypomineralised AI. The deletion corresponds to an in-frame deletion of 92 amino acids, shortening the protein from 209 to 117 residues. Exfoliated primary teeth from an affected family member had enamel that was of a lower mineral density compared to control enamel and exhibited structural defects at least some of which appeared to be associated with organic material as evidenced using elemental analysis. This study demonstrates for the first time that AMTN mutations cause non-syndromic human AI and explores the human phenotype, comparing it with that of mice with disrupted Amtn function. PMID:27412008

  9. Modifications in host cell cytoskeleton structure and function mediated by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein are greatly dependent on the second coding exon

    PubMed Central

    López-Huertas, M. R.; Callejas, S.; Abia, D.; Mateos, E.; Dopazo, A.; Alcamí, J.; Coiras, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulator Tat is essential for viral replication because it achieves complete elongation of viral transcripts. Tat can be released to the extracellular space and taken up by adjacent cells, exerting profound cytoskeleton rearrangements that lead to apoptosis. In contrast, intracellular Tat has been described as protector from apoptosis. Tat gene is composed by two coding exons that yield a protein of 101 amino acids (aa). First exon (1–72aa) is sufficient for viral transcript elongation and second exon (73–101 aa) appears to contribute to non-transcriptional functions. We observed that Jurkat cells stably expressing intracellular Tat101 showed gene expression deregulation 4-fold higher than cells expressing Tat72. Functional experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of this deregulation. First, NF-κB-, NF-AT- and Sp1-dependent transcriptional activities were greatly enhanced in Jurkat-Tat101, whereas Tat72 induced milder but efficient activation. Second, cytoskeleton-related functions as cell morphology, proliferation, chemotaxis, polarization and actin polymerization were deeply altered in Jurkat-Tat101, but not in Jurkat-Tat72. Finally, expression of several cell surface receptors was dramatically impaired by intracellular Tat101 but not by Tat72. Consequently, these modifications were greatly dependent on Tat second exon and they could be related to the anergy observed in HIV-1-infected T cells. PMID:20139419

  10. CDKN2A exon-wise deletion status and novel somatic mutations in Indian glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Sibin, M K; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Lavanya, Ch; Manoj, M Jeru; Aakershita, S; Chetan, G K

    2014-02-01

    Over the years, deletions of CDKN2A (p16) tumor suppressor gene has been studied using FISH and multiplex PCR, with major focus on exon 2 in various cancers, and the frequency of mutation is found to be varied in different studies. In this study, we analyzed the deletion status of all three exons of p16 and frequency of exon 2 somatic point mutations in glioma from the Indian population and its clinical implications. Multiplex PCR was carried out in order to check deletion of all 3 exons in 50 glioma samples. Nonconventional PCR-SSCP analysis and sequencing was done to identify mutations in 48 cases. Deletion of at least one of the three exons of p16 INK4A was observed in ten cases (20 %). The frequencies of exon-wise deletions were 10 % for exon 1, 4 % for exon 2, and 8 % for exon 3. Two out of 48 samples were positive for mutations in p16 exon 2. One sample had a transition of G to C on position 147 with a codon change TGG to TGC which does not contribute to the protein structure. Another sample had a transversion of A to G on the position 154 with a codon change ATG to GTG with change in amino acid methionine to valine in 52nd position. Deletion pattern was found to be varied in three exons. Frequency of p16 gene mutation was less in the Indian population (4.2 %), and this mutation does not contribute to any remarkable change in protein structure.

  11. FOXP2: novel exons, splice variants, and CAG repeat length stability.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Heather A; Margolis, Russell L

    2002-08-01

    FOXP2 is a transcription factor containing a polyglutamine tract, a zinc-finger motif, and a forkhead DNA-binding domain. The FOXP2 gene is located on 7q31. A missense mutation in the forkhead domain (exon 14) and a balanced reciprocal translocation t(5;7)(q22;q31.2) with a breakpoint between exons 3b and 4 have recently been associated with a speech and language disorder (SPCH1). The role of FOXP2 in this neurodevelopmental disorder suggests that mutations in FOXP2 could cause other neuropsychiatric disorders. To begin investigation of this possibility, we examined the genomic structure and CAG/CAA repeat region of FOXP2. We detected little polymorphism and no expansions in the FOXP2 CAG/CAA repeat in 142 individuals with progressive movement disorders. We found evidence of alternate splice variants and six previously undetected exons: three 5' untranslated exons (s1, s2, s3), two additional untranslated exons (2a and 2b) between exons 2 and 3, a translated exon (4a) between exons 4 and 5, and a longer version of exon 10 (10+) that contains an alternate stop codon and produces a truncated protein (FOXP2-S). Our results suggest that FOXP2 spans at least 603 kb of genomic DNA, more than twice the previously defined region, and provide evidence of a promoter region flanking exon s1. This demonstration of additional FOXP2 exons and splice variants should facilitate understanding of FOXP2 function and the search for additional FOXP2 mutations.

  12. A phosphorylation pattern-recognizing antibody specifically reacts to RNA polymerase II bound to exons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jungwon; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Sunyoung; Yoon, Soomin; Yoon, Aerin; Hwang, Do B; Lee, Hwa K; Kim, Min S; Lee, Yujean; Yang, Won J; Youn, Hong-Duk; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II is an unusual series of repeated residues appended to the C-terminus of the largest subunit and serves as a flexible binding scaffold for numerous nuclear factors. The binding of these factors is determined by the phosphorylation patterns on the repeats in the domain. In this study, we generated a synthetic antibody library by replacing the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region of an anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibody (trastuzumab) with artificial sequences of 7–18 amino-acid residues. From this library, antibodies were selected that were specific to serine phosphopeptides that represent typical phosphorylation patterns on the functional unit (YSPTSPS)2 of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD). Antibody clones pCTD-1stS2 and pCTD-2ndS2 showed specificity for peptides with phosphoserine at the second residues of the first or second heptamer repeat, respectively. Additional clones specifically reacted to peptides with phosphoserine at the fifth serine of the first repeat (pCTD-1stS5), the seventh residue of the first repeat and fifth residue of the second repeat (pCTD-S7S5) or the seventh residue of either the first or second repeat (pCTD-S7). All of these antibody clones successfully reacted to RNA polymerase II in immunoblot analysis. Interestingly, pCTD-2ndS2 precipitated predominately RNA polymerase II from the exonic regions of genes in genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis, which suggests that the phosphoserine at the second residue of the second repeat of the functional unit (YSPTSPS)2 is a mediator of exon definition. PMID:27857068

  13. The mouse collagen X gene: complete nucleotide sequence, exon structure and expression pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Elima, K; Eerola, I; Rosati, R; Metsäranta, M; Garofalo, S; Perälä, M; De Crombrugghe, B; Vuorio, E

    1993-01-01

    Overlapping genomic clones covering the 7.2 kb mouse alpha 1(X) collagen gene, 0.86 kb of promoter and 1.25 kb of 3'-flanking sequences were isolated from two genomic libraries and characterized by nucleotide sequencing. Typical features of the gene include a unique three-exon structure, similar to that in the chick gene, with the entire triple-helical domain of 463 amino acids coded by a single large exon. The highest degree of amino acid and nucleotide sequence conservation was seen in the coding region for the collagenous and C-terminal non-collagenous domains between the mouse and known chick, bovine and human collagen type X sequences. More divergence between the sequences occurred in the N-terminal non-collagenous domain. Similarity between the mammalian collagen X sequences extended into the 3'-untranslated sequence, particularly near the polyadenylation site. The promoter of the mouse collagen X gene was found to contain two TATAA boxes 159 bp apart; primer extension analyses of the transcription start site revealed that both were functional. The promoter has an unusual structure with a very low G + C content of 28% between positions -220 and -1 of the upstream transcription start site. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses confirmed that the expression of the alpha 1(X) collagen gene is restricted to hypertrophic chondrocytes in tissues undergoing endochondral calcification. The detailed sequence information of the gene is useful for studies on the promoter activity of the gene and for generation of transgenic mice. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8424763

  14. Requirements for mini-exon inclusion in potato invertase mRNAs provides evidence for exon-scanning interactions in plants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C G; Hedley, P E; Watters, J A; Clark, G P; McQuade, C; Machray, G C; Brown, J W

    2000-03-01

    Invertases are responsible for the breakdown of sucrose to fructose and glucose. In all but one plant invertase gene, the second exon is only 9 nt in length and encodes three amino acids of a five-amino-acid sequence that is highly conserved in all invertases of plant origin. Sequences responsible for normal splicing (inclusion) of exon 2 have been investigated in vivo using the potato invertase, invGF gene. The upstream intron 1 is required for inclusion whereas the downstream intron 2 is not. Mutations within intron 1 have identified two sequence elements that are needed for inclusion: a putative branchpoint sequence and an adjacent U-rich region. Both are recognized plant intron splicing signals. The branchpoint sequence lies further upstream from the 3' splice site of intron 1 than is normally seen in plant introns. All dicotyledonous plant invertase genes contain this arrangement of sequence elements: a distal branchpoint sequence and adjacent, downstream U-rich region. Intron 1 sequences upstream of the branchpoint and sequences in exons 1, 2, or 3 do not determine inclusion, suggesting that intron or exon splicing enhancer elements seen in vertebrate mini-exon systems are absent. In addition, mutation of the 3' and 5' splice sites flanking the mini-exon cause skipping of the mini-exon, suggesting that both splice sites are required. The branchpoint/U-rich sequence is able to promote splicing of mini-exons of 6, 3, and 1 nt in length and of a chicken cTNT mini-exon of 6 nt. These sequence elements therefore act as a splicing enhancer and appear to function via interactions between factors bound at the branchpoint/U-rich region and at the 5' splice site of intron 2, activating removal of this intron followed by removal of intron 1. This first example of splicing of a plant mini-exon to be analyzed demonstrates that particular arrangement of standard plant intron splicing signals can drive constitutive splicing of a mini-exon.

  15. A fusion protein of HCMV IE1 exon4 and IE2 exon5 stimulates potent cellular immunity in an MVA vaccine vector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Zhou, W.; Srivastava, T.; La Rosa, C.; Mandarino, A.; Forman, S.J.; Zaia, J.A.; Britt, W.J.; Diamond, D.J.

    2008-08-01

    A therapeutic CMV vaccine incorporating an antigenic repertoire capable of eliciting a cellular immune response has yet to be successfully implemented for patients who already have acquired an infection. To address this problem, we have developed a vaccine candidate derived from modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that expresses three immunodominant antigens (pp65, IE1, IE2) from CMV. The novelty of this vaccine is the fusion of two adjacent exons from the immediate-early region of CMV, their successful expression in MVA, and robust immunogenicity in both primary and memory response models. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the viral vaccine in mouse models shows that it can stimulate primary immunity against all three antigens in both the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell subsets. Evaluation of human PBMC from healthy CMV-positive donors or patients within 6 months of receiving hematopoietic cell transplant shows robust stimulation of existing CMV-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell subsets.

  16. Random Splicing of Several Exons Caused by a Single Base Change in the Target Exon of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Knockout

    PubMed Central

    Kapahnke, Marcel; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA. We here show that such CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alterations in the target exon may also result in altered splicing of the respective pre-mRNA, most likely due to mutations of splice-regulatory sequences. Using the human FLOT-1 gene as an example, we demonstrate that such altered splicing products also give rise to aberrant protein products. These may potentially function as dominant-negative proteins and thus interfere with the interpretation of the data generated with these cell lines. Since most researchers only control the consequences of CRISPR knockout at genomic and protein level, our data should encourage to also check the alterations at the mRNA level. PMID:27983621

  17. Characterization of disease-associated mutations affecting an exonic splicing enhancer and two cryptic splice sites in exon 13 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.

    PubMed

    Aznarez, Isabel; Chan, Elayne M; Zielenski, Julian; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Tsui, Lap-Chee

    2003-08-15

    Sequences in exons can play an important role in constitutive and regulated pre-mRNA splicing. Since exonic splicing regulatory sequences are generally poorly conserved and their mechanism of action is not well understood, the consequence of exonic mutations on splicing can only be determined empirically. In this study, we have investigated the consequence of two cystic fibrosis (CF) disease-causing mutations, E656X and 2108delA, on the function of a putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 13 of the CFTR gene. We have also determined whether five other CF mutations D648V, D651N, G654S, E664X and T665S located near this putative ESE could lead to aberrant splicing of exon 13. Using minigene constructs, we have demonstrated that the E656X and 2108delA mutations could indeed cause aberrant splicing in a predicted manner, supporting a role for the putative ESE sequence in pre-mRNA splicing. In addition, we have shown that D648V, E664X and T665S mutations could cause aberrant splicing of exon 13 by improving the polypyrimidine tracts of two cryptic 3' splice sites. We also provide evidence that the relative levels of two splicing factors, hTra2alpha and SF2/ASF, could alter the effect on splicing of some of the exon 13 disease mutations. Taken together, our results suggest that the severity of CF disease could be modulated by changes in the fidelity of CFTR pre-mRNA splicing.

  18. Structure of the human annexin VI gene

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.; Moss, S.E.; Davies, A.; Crumpton, M.J.

    1994-03-29

    The authors report the structure of the human annexin VI gene and compare the intron-exon organization with the known structures of the human annexin I and II genes. The gene is {approximately}60 kbp long and contains 26 exons. Consistent with the published annexin VI cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence at the 3{prime} end does not contain a canonical polyadenylation signal. The genomic sequence upstream of the transcription start site contains TATAA and CAAT motifs. The spatial organization of the exons does not reveal any obvious similarities between the two halves of the annexin VI gene. Comparison of the intron-exon boundary positions of the annexin VI gene with those of annexins I and II reveals that within the repeated domains the break points are perfectly conserved except for exon 8, which is one codon smaller in annexin II. The corresponding point in the second half of annexin VI is represented by two exons, exons 20 and 21. The latter exon is alternatively spliced, giving rise to two annexin VI isoforms that differ with respect to a 6-amino acid insertion at the start of repeat 7. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Regulation of Dscam exon 17 alternative splicing by steric hindrance in combination with RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuan; Li, Guoli; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Huawei; Chen, Ran; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yongfeng

    2013-12-01

    The gene Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) potentially encodes 38 016 distinct isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster via mutually exclusive splicing. Here we reveal a combinatorial mechanism of regulation of Dscam exon 17 mutually exclusive splicing through steric hindrance in combination with RNA secondary structure. This mutually exclusive behavior is enforced by steric hindrance, due to the close proximity of the exon 17.2 branch point to exon 17.1 in Diptera, and the interval size constraint in non-Dipteran species. Moreover, intron-exon RNA structures are evolutionarily conserved in 36 non-Drosophila species of six distantly related orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Phthiraptera), which regulates the selection of exon 17 variants via masking the splice site. By contrast, a previously uncharacterized RNA structure specifically activated exon 17.1 by bringing splice sites closer together in Drosophila, while the other moderately suppressed exon 17.1 selection by hindering the accessibility of polypyrimidine sequences. Taken together, these data suggest a phylogeny of increased complexity in regulating alternative splicing of Dscam exon 17 spanning more than 300 million years of insect evolution. These results also provide models of the regulation of alternative splicing through steric hindrance in combination with dynamic structural codes.

  20. SR proteins regulate V6 exon splicing of CD44 pre-mRNA.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tiing Jen; Moon, Heegyum; Jang, Ha Na; Liu, Yongchao; Choi, Namjeong; Shen, Shengfu; Williams, Darren Reece; Jung, Da-Woon; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2016-11-01

    CD44 pre-mRNA includes 20 exons, of which exons 1-5 (C1-C5) and exons 16-20 (C6-C10) are constant exons, whereas exons 6-15 (V1-V10) are variant exons. V6-exon-containing isoforms have been known to be implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we performed a SR protein screen for CD44 V6 splicing using overexpression and lentivirus-mediated shRNA treatment. Using a CD44 V6 minigene, we demonstrate that increased SRSF3 and SRSF4 expression do not affect V6 splicing, but increased expression of SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9 significantly inhibit V6 splicing. In addition, using a constitutive exon-specific primer set, we could not detect alterations of CD44 splicing after SR protein-targeting shRNA treatment. However, using a V6 specific primer, we identified that reduced SRSF2 expression significantly reduced the V6 isoform, but increased V6-10 and V6,7-10 isoforms. Our results indicate that SR proteins are important regulatory proteins for CD44 V6 splicing. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 612-616].

  1. SR proteins regulate V6 exon splicing of CD44 pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tiing Jen; Moon, Heegyum; Jang, Ha Na; Liu, Yongchao; Choi, Namjeong; Shen, Shengfu; Williams, Darren Reece; Jung, Da-Woon; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    CD44 pre-mRNA includes 20 exons, of which exons 1–5 (C1–C5) and exons 16–20 (C6–C10) are constant exons, whereas exons 6–15 (V1–V10) are variant exons. V6-exon-containing isoforms have been known to be implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we performed a SR protein screen for CD44 V6 splicing using overexpression and lentivirus-mediated shRNA treatment. Using a CD44 V6 minigene, we demonstrate that increased SRSF3 and SRSF4 expression do not affect V6 splicing, but increased expression of SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9 significantly inhibit V6 splicing. In addition, using a constitutive exon-specific primer set, we could not detect alterations of CD44 splicing after SR protein-targeting shRNA treatment. However, using a V6 specific primer, we identified that reduced SRSF2 expression significantly reduced the V6 isoform, but increased V6–10 and V6,8–10 isoforms. Our results indicate that SR proteins are important regulatory proteins for CD44 V6 splicing. PMID:27530682

  2. Exon-level expression analyses identify MYCN and NTRK1 as major determinants of alternative exon usage and robustly predict primary neuroblastoma outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, A; Schowe, B; Fielitz, K; Heilmann, M; Martin, M; Marschall, T; Köster, J; Vandesompele, J; Vermeulen, J; de Preter, K; Koster, J; Versteeg, R; Noguera, R; Speleman, F; Rahmann, S; Eggert, A; Morik, K; Schulte, J H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mRNA expression-derived signatures as predictors of individual patient outcome has been a goal ever since the introduction of microarrays. Here, we addressed whether analyses of tumour mRNA at the exon level can improve on the predictive power and classification accuracy of gene-based expression profiles using neuroblastoma as a model. Methods: In a patient cohort comprising 113 primary neuroblastoma specimens expression profiling using exon-level analyses was performed to define predictive signatures using various machine-learning techniques. Alternative transcript use was calculated from relative exon expression. Validation of alternative transcripts was achieved using qPCR- and cell-based approaches. Results: Both predictors derived from the gene or the exon levels resulted in prediction accuracies >80% for both event-free and overall survival and proved as independent prognostic markers in multivariate analyses. Alternative transcript use was most prominently linked to the amplification status of the MYCN oncogene, expression of the TrkA/NTRK1 neurotrophin receptor and survival. Conclusion: As exon level-based prediction yields comparable, but not significantly better, prediction accuracy than gene expression-based predictors, gene-based assays seem to be sufficiently precise for predicting outcome of neuroblastoma patients. However, exon-level analyses provide added knowledge by identifying alternative transcript use, which should deepen the understanding of neuroblastoma biology. PMID:23047593

  3. Modeling the evolution dynamics of exon-intron structure with a general random fragmentation process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by spliceosomal introns. The evolution of exon-intron structure remains mysterious despite rapid advance in genome sequencing technique. In this work, a novel approach is taken based on the assumptions that the evolution of exon-intron structure is a stochastic process, and that the characteristics of this process can be understood by examining its historical outcome, the present-day size distribution of internal translated exons (exon). Through the combination of simulation and modeling the size distribution of exons in different species, we propose a general random fragmentation process (GRFP) to characterize the evolution dynamics of exon-intron structure. This model accurately predicts the probability that an exon will be split by a new intron and the distribution of novel insertions along the length of the exon. Results As the first observation from this model, we show that the chance for an exon to obtain an intron is proportional to its size to the 3rd power. We also show that such size dependence is nearly constant across gene, with the exception of the exons adjacent to the 5′ UTR. As the second conclusion from the model, we show that intron insertion loci follow a normal distribution with a mean of 0.5 (center of the exon) and a standard deviation of 0.11. Finally, we show that intron insertions within a gene are independent of each other for vertebrates, but are more negatively correlated for non-vertebrate. We use simulation to demonstrate that the negative correlation might result from significant intron loss during evolution, which could be explained by selection against multi-intron genes in these organisms. Conclusions The GRFP model suggests that intron gain is dynamic with a higher chance for longer exons; introns are inserted into exons randomly with the highest probability at the center of the exon. GRFP estimates that there are 78 introns in every 10 kb coding sequences for vertebrate genomes

  4. Exon 44 nonsense mutation in two-Duchenne muscular dystrophy brothers detected by heteroduplex analysis.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartolo, C; Mendell, J R

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a heteroduplex method, we screened the dystrophin exon 43-45 region for point mutations, including small deletions and insertions. The method depends upon the formation of a heteroduplex between wild-type and mutant DNA PCR products. DNA specimens from one hundred and four DMD patients without detected deletions or duplications were multiplexed amplified for exons 43, 44, and 45. The PCR products were mixed with the PCR products from nonaffected controls, electrophoresed, and examined for the presence of altered mobility heteroduplex bands. An exon 44 nonsense mutation in two DMD brothers and a common intron 44 polymorphism were identified using this approach. Although the exon 44-45 region is a hotspot for deletion breakpoints, it does not appear to be prone to point mutations. The technique is extremely useful for screening several exons simultaneously and it allowed us to screen a large number of patients.

  5. TDP-43 repression of nonconserved cryptic exons is compromised in ALS-FTD.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan P; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C; Wong, Philip C

    2015-08-07

    Cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43, accompanied by its nuclear clearance, is a key common pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). However, a limited understanding of this RNA-binding protein (RBP) impedes the clarification of pathogenic mechanisms underlying TDP-43 proteinopathy. In contrast to RBPs that regulate splicing of conserved exons, we found that TDP-43 repressed the splicing of nonconserved cryptic exons, maintaining intron integrity. When TDP-43 was depleted from mouse embryonic stem cells, these cryptic exons were spliced into messenger RNAs, often disrupting their translation and promoting nonsense-mediated decay. Moreover, enforced repression of cryptic exons prevented cell death in TDP-43-deficient cells. Furthermore, repression of cryptic exons was impaired in ALS-FTD cases, suggesting that this splicing defect could potentially underlie TDP-43 proteinopathy.

  6. Characterization of the exon structure of the Menkes disease gene using vectorette PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Tuemer, Z.; Tonnesen, T.; Horn, N.

    1995-04-10

    The gene defective in Menkes disease, an X-linked recessive disturbance of copper metabolism, has been isolated and predicted to encode a copper-binding P-type ATPase. We determined the complete exon-intron structure of the Menkes disease gene, which spans about 150 kb of genomic DNA. The gene contains 23 exons, and the ATG start codon is in the second exon. All of the exon-intron boundaries were sequenced and conformed to the GT/AT rule, except for the 5{prime} splice site of intron 9. A preliminary comparison demonstrated a striking similarity between the exon structures of the Menkes and Wilson disease genes, giving insight into their evolution. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. ATRX binds to atypical chromatin domains at the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes to preserve H3K9me3 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Asif H.; Hasson, Dan; Dyer, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ATRX is a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler proposed to govern genomic stability through the regulation of repetitive sequences, such as rDNA, retrotransposons, and pericentromeric and telomeric repeats. However, few direct ATRX target genes have been identified and high-throughput genomic approaches are currently lacking for ATRX. Here we present a comprehensive ChIP-sequencing study of ATRX in multiple human cell lines, in which we identify the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) as a new class of ATRX targets. These 3′ exonic regions encode the zinc finger motifs, which can range from 1–40 copies per ZNF gene and share large stretches of sequence similarity. These regions often contain an atypical chromatin signature: they are transcriptionally active, contain high levels of H3K36me3, and are paradoxically enriched in H3K9me3. We find that these ZNF 3′ exons are co-occupied by SETDB1, TRIM28, and ZNF274, which form a complex with ATRX. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function studies demonstrate (i) a reduction of H3K9me3 at the ZNF 3′ exons in the absence of ATRX and ZNF274 and, (ii) H3K9me3 levels at atypical chromatin regions are particularly sensitive to ATRX loss compared to other H3K9me3-occupied regions. As a consequence of ATRX or ZNF274 depletion, cells with reduced levels of H3K9me3 show increased levels of DNA damage, suggesting that ATRX binds to the 3′ exons of ZNFs to maintain their genomic stability through preservation of H3K9me3. PMID:27029610

  8. Evidence of a stabilizing mutation of β-catenin encoded by CTNNB1 exon 3 in a large series of sporadic parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Starker, Lee F; Fonseca, Annabelle L; Fonseca, Annabelle; Akerström, Göran; Björklund, Peyman; Westin, Gunnar; Carling, Tobias

    2012-12-01

    Aberrant accumulation of β-catenin plays an important role in a variety of human neoplasms. This can be caused by stabilizing mutation of β-catenin (CTNNB1, exon 3) or by mutation or deregulated expression of other components of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. Accumulation of non-phosphorylated active β-catenin has been reported to commonly occur in parathyroid adenomas from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), either due to the aberrantly spliced internally truncated WNT receptor LRP5 (LRP5Δ) or to a stabilizing mutation of β-catenin. The S37A mutation was reported to occur in 7.3 % in a single study of parathyroid adenomas, while in other studies no stabilizing mutations of β-catenin exon 3 were identified. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational frequency of the CTNNB1 gene, specifically exon 3 in a large series of parathyroid adenomas. One hundred and eighty sporadic parathyroid adenomas were examined for mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 by direct DNA sequencing, utilizing previously published primer sequences. The mutation S33C (TCT>TGT) was detected by direct-DNA sequencing of PCR fragments in 1 out of 180 sporadic parathyroid adenomas (0.68 %). Like serine 37, mutations of serine 33 have been reported in many neoplasms with resulting β-catenin stabilization, enhanced transcription, and oncogenic activities. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an overexpression of the β-catenin protein in the lone mutant tumor. Taking also previous studies into account we conclude that activating mutations of the regulatory GSK-3β phosphorylation sites serine 33 and 37, encoded by CTNNB1 exon 3, rarely occur in parathyroid adenomas from patients with pHPT.

  9. Alternative splicing of U2AF1 reveals a shared repression mechanism for duplicated exons

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2AF) facilitates branch point (BP) recognition and formation of lariat introns. The gene for the 35-kD subunit of U2AF gives rise to two protein isoforms (termed U2AF35a and U2AF35b) that are encoded by alternatively spliced exons 3 and Ab, respectively. The splicing recognition sequences of exon 3 are less favorable than exon Ab, yet U2AF35a expression is higher than U2AF35b across tissues. We show that U2AF35b repression is facilitated by weak, closely spaced BPs next to a long polypyrimidine tract of exon Ab. Each BP lacked canonical uridines at position -2 relative to the BP adenines, with efficient U2 base-pairing interactions predicted only for shifted registers reminiscent of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The BP cluster was compensated by interactions involving unpaired cytosines in an upstream, EvoFold-predicted stem loop (termed ESL) that binds FUBP1/2. Exon Ab inclusion correlated with predicted free energies of mutant ESLs, suggesting that the ESL operates as a conserved rheostat between long inverted repeats upstream of each exon. The isoform-specific U2AF35 expression was U2AF65-dependent, required interactions between the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) and the α6 helix of U2AF35, and was fine-tuned by exon Ab/3 variants. Finally, we identify tandem homologous exons regulated by U2AF and show that their preferential responses to U2AF65-related proteins and SRSF3 are associated with unpaired pre-mRNA segments upstream of U2AF-repressed 3′ss. These results provide new insights into tissue-specific subfunctionalization of duplicated exons in vertebrate evolution and expand the repertoire of exon repression mechanisms that control alternative splicing. PMID:27566151

  10. The structure and organization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gromoll, J; Pekel, E.; Nieschlag, E.

    1996-07-15

    The structure and organization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene were determined by either screening a phage library of human genomic DNA or applying the long PCR technique to amplify different exon pairs with their corresponding introns. The FSHR gene spans a region of 54 kb and consists of 10 exons and 9 introns. Most of the extracellular domain is encoded by 9 exons, ranging in length between 69 and 251 bp; the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular domain are encoded by the large exon 10 (1234 bp). Overall the gene encodes 695 amino acids. The structure of the human FSHR displays a striking similarity to that of the previously characterized rat FSHR gene, with a high degree of conservation in exon sizes and exon/intron junctions. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), slow (exon 3, 113His) and fast (exon 4, 139Arg) alleles confer susceptibility to squamous cell esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Meenu; Tilak, Anup Raj; Upadhyay, Rohit; Kumar, Ashwani; Mittal, Balraj

    2008-07-15

    Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may alter risk of various cancers. Present case-control study evaluated the influence of EPHX1 genetic variations on squamous cell esophageal cancer (ESCC) susceptibility in 107 patients and 320 controls. EPHX1 polymorphic alleles were genotyped by direct sequencing (exon 3, Tyr113His) or PCR-RFLP (exon 4, His139Arg). Patients with exon 3 genotypes (Tyr113His, His113His) and 113His allele were at risk of ESCC (OR{sub Tyr113His} 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4, p = 0.007; OR{sub His113His} 2.3 95% CI = 1.0-5.2, p = 0.03 and OR{sub His} 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1, p = 0.01). In contrast, individuals with exon 4, 139Arg allele were at low risk of cancer (OR 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.56, p = 0.001). However, none of haplotype combinations of exon 3 (Tyr113His) and exon 4 (His139Arg) polymorphisms showed modulation of risk for ESCC. Sub-grouping of patients based on anatomical location of tumor predicted that patients with exon 3, His113His and Tyr113His genotypes were at higher risk for developing ESCC tumor at upper and middle third locations (OR 4.4, 95% CI = 1.0-18.5, p = 0.04; OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-5.0, p = 0.005 respectively). The frequency of exon 4, His139Arg genotype was significantly lower in ESCC patients with lower third tumor location as compared to controls (14.8% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.02). In case-only study, gene-environment interaction of EPHX1 genotypes with tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposures did not appear to modulate the cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, exon 3, Tyr113His genotype was associated with higher risk of ESCC particularly at upper and middle-third anatomical locations of tumor. However, His139Arg genotype of exon 4, exhibited low risk for ESCC as well as its clinical characteristics.

  12. Physiological state co-regulates thousands of mammalian mRNA splicing events at tandem splice sites and alternative exons.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Karol; Fritsch, Claudia; Schumann, Frank; Siebel, Lisa; Sinha, Rileen; Hampe, Jochen; Hiller, Michael; Englert, Christoph; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Thousands of tandem alternative splice sites (TASS) give rise to mRNA insertion/deletion variants with small size differences. Recent work has concentrated on the question of biological relevance in general, and the physiological regulation of TASS in particular. We have quantitatively studied 11 representative TASS cases in comparison to one mutually exclusive exon case and two cassette exons (CEs) using a panel of human and mouse tissues, as well as cultured cell lines. Tissues show small but significant differences in TASS isoform ratios, with a variance 4- to 20-fold lower than seen for CEs. Remarkably, in cultured cells, all studied alternative splicing (AS) cases showed a cell-density-dependent shift of isoform ratios with similar time series profiles. A respective genome-wide co-regulation of TASS splicing was shown by next-generation mRNA sequencing data. Moreover, data from human and mouse organs indicate that this co-regulation of TASS occurs in vivo, with brain showing the strongest difference to other organs. Together, the results indicate a physiological AS regulation mechanism that functions almost independently from the splice site context and sequence.

  13. EGFR exon mutation distribution and outcome in non-small-cell lung cancer: a Portuguese retrospective study.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Ramon Andrade; Pires, Filipa Soares; Marques, Dânia Sofia; Oliveira, Júlio; Rodrigues, Ana; Soares, Marta; Azevedo, Isabel; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Pinto, Carla; Hespanhol, Venceslau; Teixeira, Manuel R; Amaro, Teresina; Queiroga, Henrique; Araújo, António

    2012-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations play a predictive role in advanced stages of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We conducted this study in order to assess EGFR status in a Portuguese population and its role in NSCLC patients' outcomes. Patients were submitted to EGFR assessment by high-resolution melting and/or direct sequencing. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to assess overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS). Two hundred forty eight out of 322 participants were assessed for EGFR status. Forty-two patients (16.9 %) presented EGFR-mutated status: one patient (2.4 %) presented exon 18; 21 patients (50 %), exon 19; one patient (2.4 %), exon 20; and 18 patients (45.2 %), exon 21 mutations, p < 0.001. PFS was not assessed (n.a.) for patient with exon 18 mutation, and for the other patients with mutations, it was 7 months (3.96-10.03) (exon 19), <1 month (exon 20), and 7 months (0-14.2) (exon 21) (p = 0.027). Overall survival (OS) was 11 months (exon 18), 11 months (1-18) (exon 19), 1 month (exon 20), and 7.5 months (2-70) (exon 21) (p = n.a). This study suggests that the EGFR mutation is herein observed in a higher proportion than expected for a Caucasian population, and OS is a little less than that published in the literature.

  14. Dystrophin-deficient large animal models: translational research and exon skipping

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinran; Bao, Bo; Echigoya, Yusuke; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Affecting approximately 1 in 3,600-9337 boys, DMD patients exhibit progressive muscle degeneration leading to fatality as a result of heart or respiratory failure. Despite the severity and prevalence of the disease, there is no cure available. While murine models have been successfully used in illustrating the mechanisms of DMD, their utility in DMD research is limited due to their mild disease phenotypes such as lack of severe skeletal muscle and cardiac symptoms. To address the discrepancy between the severity of disease displayed by murine models and human DMD patients, dystrophin-deficient dog models with a splice site mutation in intron 6 were established. Examples of these are Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy and beagle-based Canine X-linked muscular dystrophy. These large animal models are widely employed in therapeutic DMD research due to their close resemblance to the severity of human patient symptoms. Recently, genetically tailored porcine models of DMD with deleted exon 52 were developed by our group and others, and can potentially act as a new large animal model. While therapeutic outcomes derived from these large animal models can be more reliably extrapolated to DMD patients, a comprehensive understanding of these models is still needed. This paper will discuss recent progress and future directions of DMD studies with large animal models such as canine and porcine models. PMID:26396664

  15. Novel exons in the tbx5 gene locus generate protein isoforms with distinct expression domains and function.

    PubMed

    Yamak, Abir; Georges, Romain O; Sheikh-Hassani, Massomeh; Morin, Martin; Komati, Hiba; Nemer, Mona

    2015-03-13

    TBX5 is the gene mutated in Holt-Oram syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder with complex heart and limb deformities. Its protein product is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors and an evolutionarily conserved dosage-sensitive regulator of heart and limb development. Understanding TBX5 regulation is therefore of paramount importance. Here we uncover the existence of novel exons and provide evidence that TBX5 activity may be extensively regulated through alternative splicing to produce protein isoforms with differing N- and C-terminal domains. These isoforms are also present in human heart, indicative of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanism. The newly identified isoforms have different transcriptional properties and can antagonize TBX5a target gene activation. Droplet Digital PCR as well as immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies reveal differential as well as overlapping expression domains. In particular, we find that the predominant isoform in skeletal myoblasts is Tbx5c, and we show that it is dramatically up-regulated in differentiating myotubes and is essential for myotube formation. Mechanistically, TBX5c antagonizes TBX5a activation of pro-proliferative signals such as IGF-1, FGF-10, and BMP4. The results provide new insight into Tbx5 regulation and function that will further our understanding of its role in health and disease. The finding of new exons in the Tbx5 locus may also be relevant to mutational screening especially in the 30% of Holt-Oram syndrome patients with no mutations in the known TBX5a exons.

  16. Polymorphism in exon 4 of TP53 gene associated to HPV 16 and 18 in Mexican women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Dulce María; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; González-Herrera, Ana Lilia; Rodea-Avila, Carlos; Apresa-García, Teresa; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Vázquez-Ortíz, Guelaguetza; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Dueñas-González, Alfonso; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2011-12-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer in Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but not sufficient for CC development. Furthermore, genetic factors as polymorphisms could be important susceptibility factors. Controversial results regarding TP53 polymorphisms specifically in codon 72 of CC have been reported. In the present work, the exon 4 sequence of TP53 gene in CC and healthy Mexican-mestizo women were analyzed. A group of 111 women with CC and 126 healthy women (control) were included. Peripheral blood cells for polymorphism analysis and cervical scrape for HPV detection were used. PCR of exon 4 of TP53 were subjected to denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis and sequencing. HPV detection was subjected to PCR and sequencing. The statistical analysis was carried out using the Arlequin software. Codon 72 Arg/Arg was the most common SNP detected, and Hardy-Weinberg analysis showed equilibrium in control and CC samples (P>0.05). Wild type sequence of TP53 exon 4 was detected in 66 and 57% in control and CC samples, respectively. For codon 72 Arg/Arg, differences between control and CC women were found (P=0.043). An association between HPV 16/18 infection and 72 Arg/Arg in woman with CC was found (P=0.026). Haplotype GC (codon 36 and 72) was statistically significantly associated with CC (P=0.011). HPV 16 was the most common viral type. Codon 72 Arg/Arg is the most common polymorphism in the Mexican population and could be associated to HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 infection in CC.

  17. Impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the EDA exon of the fibronectin gene.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Moretti, Federico Andrea; Iaconcig, Alessandra; Baralle, Francisco Ernesto; Muro, Andrés Fernando

    2005-06-03

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) by modulating the migration of cells, axons and dendrites of neurons. Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of the ECM in the CNS and plays essential roles in development, cell adhesion and cell migration. Specific FN-isoforms, generated by alternative splicing at three conserved regions, the extra domain B (EDB), extra domain A (EDA) and type III homologies connecting segment (IIICS), have been shown to modulate these processes in vitro and in vivo. The inclusion of the EDA exon in the brain is highly regulated during development and aging, suggesting an important role of this exon in brain function. However, the direct role of FN-isoforms in brain function and behaviour is still obscure. Therefore, to directly assess the role of the FN-EDA exon in vivo, we have generated two mouse strains devoid of EDA exon regulated splicing in the FN gene that constitutively include (EDA(+/+)) or exclude (EDA(-/-)) the EDA exon in all tissues. Here, we show the behavioural consequences of the absence of regulated splicing of the EDA exon in the FN gene. Deletion of the EDA domain in the FN protein results in reduced motor-coordination abilities and vertical exploratory capacity, whereas mice that constitutively include the EDA domain displayed a decrease in locomotory activity in the open field (OF) test. These results strongly suggest that regulated splicing of the EDA exon is necessary for a normal function of the brain.

  18. 11p15-subband specific search for transcribed sequences using exon trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Loebbert, R.; Prawitt, D.; Monroe, D.

    1994-09-01

    Evidence from cytogenetic and molecular data suggest that the region 11p15 contains genes involved in different disorders, like Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), long QT syndrome (LQT), Usher syndrome type I and tumor development. Focusing on the subregion 11p15.1, we are isolating and characterizing new transcribed sequences. The applied strategy includes exon amplification and subsequent PCR screening of cDNA libraries. So far 100 YACs and 38 cosmid clones from 11p15.1-15.3 have been collected and are currently arrayed. 16 cosmids have been analyzed for transcribed sequences using the exon amplification scheme developed by Buckler et al. (1991). We were able to identify 18 exons that contain correct open reading frames and map back to the cosmid clones. A data base search revealed that two exons represent parts of known genes from this region (ST5 and AMPD3). Moreover, we identified one exon that represents an EGF-like repeat with homologies to various proteins. Using PCR and primers from the exon sequences, a fetal brain library, which has been arranged in the form of hierarchic arrayed phage pools, was screened. Up to now, two cDNA clones corresponding to different exons were isolated and are currently sequenced.

  19. Comparison of exon 5 sequences from 35 class I genes of the BALB/c mouse

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    DNA sequences of the fifth exon, which encodes the transmembrane domain, were determined for the BALB/c mouse class I MHC genes and used to study the relationships between them. Based on nucleotide sequence similarity, the exon 5 sequences can be divided into seven groups. Although most members within each group are at least 80% similar to each other, comparison between groups reveals that the groups share little similarity. However, in spite of the extensive variation of the fifth exon sequences, analysis of their predicted amino acid translations reveals that only four class I gene fifth exons have frameshifts or stop codons that terminate their translation and prevent them from encoding a domain that is both hydrophobic and long enough to span a lipid bilayer. Exactly 27 of the remaining fifth exons could encode a domain that is similar to those of the transplantation antigens in that it consists of a proline-rich connecting peptide, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic portion with membrane- anchoring basic residues. The conservation of this motif in the majority of the fifth exon translations in spite of extensive variation suggests that selective pressure exists for these exons to maintain their ability to encode a functional transmembrane domain, raising the possibility that many of the nonclassical class I genes encode functionally important products. PMID:2584927

  20. A novel insertion mutation on exon 20 of epidermal growth factor receptor, conferring resistance to erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawazish A; Mirshahidi, Saied; Mirshahidi, Hamid R

    2014-05-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine kinase receptor. The small-molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (TKIs) are in clinical use to treat non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations. Variable tumor responses to erlotinib and gefitinib have been observed. The response to these TKIs varies by the type of EGFR mutations found in the tumor. The deletion on exon 19 and the L858R substitution on exon 21 constitute the most frequent mutations and are known to show good response to TKIs. However, mutations on exon 20 are less common and seem to respond poorly to TKIs. In clinical settings, the reported response of exon 20 mutations to reversible TKIs (both gefitinib and erlotinib) remains inconstant. The type of coexisting mutation seems to affect the response of these insertions to TKIs. We herein present a case of disease progression despite the use of erlotinib in a female patient who had a novel insertion mutation on exon 20. Our patient was a never-smoker and was identified to have a Pro772_His773insGlnCysPro mutation on exon 20. She had previously been treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine and then with carboplatin and pemetrexed. She was treated with erlotinib upon intolerance to second-line chemotherapy and did not respond. Our patient had a novel insertion mutation on exon 20, which was found to be resistant to erlotinib.

  1. DNA aptamers against exon v10 of CD44 inhibit breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Iida, Joji; Clancy, Rebecca; Dorchak, Jesse; Somiari, Richard I; Somiari, Stella; Cutler, Mary Lou; Mural, Richard J; Shriver, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    CD44 adhesion molecules are expressed in many breast cancer cells and have been demonstrated to play a key role in regulating malignant phenotypes such as growth, migration, and invasion. CD44 is an integral transmembrane protein encoded by a single 20-exon gene. The diversity of the biological functions of CD44 is the result of the various splicing variants of these exons. Previous studies suggest that exon v10 of CD44 plays a key role in promoting cancer invasion and metastasis, however, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Given the fact that exon v10 is in the ectodomain of CD44, we hypothesized that CD44 forms a molecular complex with other cell surface molecules through exon v10 in order to promote migration of breast cancer cells. In order to test this hypothesis, we selected DNA aptamers that specifically bound to CD44 exon v10 using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). We selected aptamers that inhibited migration of breast cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that EphA2 was co-precipitated with CD44. Pull-down studies demonstrated that recombinant CD44 exon v10 bound to EphA2 and more importantly aptamers that inhibited migration also prevented the binding of EphA2 to exon v10. These results suggest that CD44 forms a molecular complex with EphA2 on the breast cancer cell surface and this complex plays a key role in enhancing breast cancer migration. These results provide insight not only for characterizing mechanisms of breast cancer migration but also for developing target-specific therapy for breast cancers and possibly other cancer types expressing CD44 exon v10.

  2. Bodywide skipping of exons 45-55 in dystrophic mdx52 mice by systemic antisense delivery.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Yokota, Toshifumi; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Akinori; Tanihata, Jun; Saito, Takashi; Duguez, Stephanie M R; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P; Partridge, Terence; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2012-08-21

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the commonest form of muscular dystrophy, is caused by lack of dystrophin. One of the most promising therapeutic approaches is antisense-mediated elimination of frame-disrupting mutations by exon skipping. However, this approach faces two major hurdles: limited applicability of each individual target exon and uncertain function and stability of each resulting truncated dystrophin. Skipping of exons 45-55 at the mutation hotspot of the DMD gene would address both issues. Theoretically it could rescue more than 60% of patients with deletion mutations. Moreover, spontaneous deletions of this specific region are associated with asymptomatic or exceptionally mild phenotypes. However, such multiple exon skipping of exons 45-55 has proved technically challenging. We have therefore designed antisense oligo (AO) morpholino mixtures to minimize self- or heteroduplex formation. These were tested as conjugates with cell-penetrating moieties (vivo-morpholinos). We have tested the feasibility of skipping exons 45-55 in H2K-mdx52 myotubes and in mdx52 mice, which lack exon 52. Encouragingly, with mixtures of 10 AOs, we demonstrated skipping of all 10 exons in vitro, in H2K-mdx52 myotubes and on intramuscular injection into mdx52 mice. Moreover, in mdx52 mice in vivo, systemic injections of 10 AOs induced extensive dystrophin expression at the subsarcolemma in skeletal muscles throughout the body, producing up to 15% of wild-type dystrophin protein levels, accompanied by improved muscle strength and histopathology without any detectable toxicity. This is a unique successful demonstration of effective rescue by exon 45-55 skipping in a dystrophin-deficient animal model.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against the muscle-specific N-terminus of dystrophin: Characterization of dystrophin in a muscular dystrophy patient with a frameshift deletion of Exons 3-7

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh, L. T.; Man, N. thi; Morris, G.E. ); Love, D.R.; Davies, K.E. ); Helliwell, T.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The first three exons of the human muscle dystrophin gene were expressed as a [beta]-galactosidase fusion protein. 1-his protein was then used to prepare two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which react with native dystrophin on frozen muscle sections and with denatured dystrophin on western blots but which do not cross-react with the distrophin-related protein, utrophin. Both mAbs recognized dystrophin in muscular dystrophy (MD) patients with deletions of exon 3, and further mapping with 11 overlapping synthetic peptides showed that they both recognize an epitope encoded by the muscle-specific exon 1. Neither mAb recognizes the brain dystrophin isoform, confirming the prediction from mRNA data that this has a different N-terminus. One Becker MD patient with a frameshift deletion of exons 3-7 is shown to produce dystrophin which reacts with the N-terminal mAbs, as well as with mAbs which bind on the C-terminal side of the deletion. The data suggest that transcription begins at the normal muscle dystrophin promoter and that the normal reading frame is restored after the deletion. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for restoration of the reading frame after deletion of exons 3-7, but those which predict dystrophin with an abnormal N-terminus do not appear to be major mechanisms in this patient. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Molecular analysis of contiguous exons of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene: identification of a new PKU mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, I; Camaschella, C; Saglio, G; Ferrero, G B; Ramus, S; Ponzone, A; Cotton, R G

    1993-01-01

    A modified application of the chemical cleavage of mismatch (CCM) method has been used to screen three contiguous exons (exons 9, 10, and 11) of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in 17 Italian PKU patients. A new nonsense heterozygous C-->G transversion within exon 11 (S359X) was identified in a single patient. Only one of the four mutations previously reported in this DNA region in Caucasians was found. This lesion, IVS X-546, was detected in five of the 34 PKU alleles examined. Our results underline the versatility of the CCM method for scanning a gene for multiple mutations. Images PMID:8097261

  5. Identification of a new complex rearrangement affecting exon 20 of BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Jesús; Campos, Olga; Velasco, Angela; Darder, Esther; Menéndez, Mireia; Feliubadaló, Lídia; Tornero, Eva; Blanco, Ignacio; Izquierdo, Angel; Brunet, Joan; Capellá, Gabriel; Lázaro, Conxi

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we present a novel complex rearrangement in the BRCA1 gene. The genomic rearrangement was identified using one of the two commercially available MLPA BRCA1 kits but was not confirmed with the other. In this report, we present the full characterization at the DNA and RNA levels of a new partial deletion of exon 20 of BRCA1. This is a complex deletion with four breakpoints which promotes aberrant splicing with partial deletion of exon 20 plus the insertion of a cryptic exon corresponding to a fragment of intron 20. The aberrant splicing generates an abnormal transcript with a frameshift that will result in a truncated BRCA1 protein.

  6. Molecular analysis of contiguous exons of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene: identification of a new PKU mutation.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, I; Camaschella, C; Saglio, G; Ferrero, G B; Ramus, S; Ponzone, A; Cotton, R G

    1993-03-01

    A modified application of the chemical cleavage of mismatch (CCM) method has been used to screen three contiguous exons (exons 9, 10, and 11) of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in 17 Italian PKU patients. A new nonsense heterozygous C-->G transversion within exon 11 (S359X) was identified in a single patient. Only one of the four mutations previously reported in this DNA region in Caucasians was found. This lesion, IVS X-546, was detected in five of the 34 PKU alleles examined. Our results underline the versatility of the CCM method for scanning a gene for multiple mutations.

  7. Dipole entropy based techniques for segmentation of introns and exons in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Nithya; Bose, R.

    2012-08-01

    We have used superinformation, which is a measure of the disorder of the entropy content of different portions of a sequence, to analyze the structural variations of the introns and exons in DNA. We have computed superinformation for the angles of the dipole moments of the base-pairs and nucleotides in the double and single-stranded forms of DNA, respectively. We show that the computed dipole-angular superinformation of the introns are significantly higher than those of the exons and that these techniques could be used for intron-exon segmentation. They also yield more accurate and computationally faster results than the previously reported methods.

  8. p53 exon 7 mutations as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, P; Vega, F J; Caldés, T; Massa, M; de Juan, C; Cerdán, F J; Sánchez, A; López, J A; Torres, A J; Balibrea, J L; Benito, M

    1998-08-14

    We have studied 61 resected colorectal adenocarcinomas in order to investigate p53 mutations as a prognostic factor for this pathology. Mutations in exons 5-9 of the p53 gene were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique followed by sequencing. Our data indicate that p53 exon 7 mutations were prevalent in the latest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and patients bearing this alteration had the worst prognosis. Therefore, according to our results, mutations affecting exon 7 of the p53 gene could be considered as a useful marker of biological aggressiveness for colorectal cancer.

  9. Rare EGFR exon 18 and exon 20 mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer on 10 117 patients: a multicentre observational study by the French ERMETIC-IFCT network

    PubMed Central

    Beau-Faller, M.; Prim, N.; Ruppert, A.-M.; Nanni-Metéllus, I.; Lacave, R.; Lacroix, L.; Escande, F.; Lizard, S.; Pretet, J.-L.; Rouquette, I.; de Crémoux, P.; Solassol, J.; de Fraipont, F.; Bièche, I.; Cayre, A.; Favre-Guillevin, E.; Tomasini, P.; Wislez, M.; Besse, B.; Legrain, M.; Voegeli, A.-C.; Baudrin, L.; Morin, F.; Zalcman, G.; Quoix, E.; Blons, H.; Cadranel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is scarce data available about epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations other than common exon 19 deletions and exon 21 (L858R) mutations. Patients and methods EGFR exon 18 and/or exon 20 mutations were collected from 10 117 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples analysed at 15 French National Cancer Institute (INCa)-platforms of the ERMETIC-IFCT network. Results Between 2008 and 2011, 1047 (10%) samples were EGFR-mutated, 102 (10%) with rare mutations: 41 (4%) in exon 18, 49 (5%) in exon 20, and 12 (1%) with other EGFR mutations. Exon 20 mutations were related to never-smoker status, when compared with exon 18 mutations (P < 0.001). Median overall survival (OS) of metastatic disease was 21 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12–24], worse in smokers than in non-smoker patients with exon 20 mutations (12 versus 21 months; hazard ratio [HR] for death 0.27, 95% CI 0.08–0.87, P = 0.03). Under EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), median OS was 14 months (95% CI 6–21); disease control rate was better for complex mutations (6 of 7, 86%) than for single mutations (16 of 40, 40%) (P = 0.03). Conclusions Rare EGFR-mutated NSCLCs are heterogeneous, with resistance of distal exon 20 insertions and better sensitivity of exon 18 or complex mutations to EGFR-TKIs, probably requiring individual assessment. PMID:24285021

  10. A novel intronic cis element, ISE/ISS-3, regulates rat fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 splicing through activation of an upstream exon and repression of a downstream exon containing a noncanonical branch point sequence.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Ruben H; Carstens, Russ P

    2005-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) exons IIIb and IIIc yields two receptor isoforms, FGFR2-IIIb and -IIIc, with distinctly different ligand binding properties. Several RNA cis elements in the intron (intron 8) separating these exons have been described that are required for splicing regulation. Using a heterologous splicing reporter, we have identified a new regulatory element in this intron that confers cell-type-specific inclusion of an unrelated exon that mirrors its ability to promote cell-type-specific inclusion of exon IIIb. This element promoted inclusion of exon IIIb while at the same time silencing exon IIIc inclusion in cells expressing FGFR2-IIIb; hence, we have termed this element ISE/ISS-3 (for "intronic splicing enhancer-intronic splicing silencer 3"). Silencing of exon IIIc splicing by ISE/ISS-3 was shown to require a branch point sequence (BPS) using G as the primary branch nucleotide. Replacing a consensus BPS with A as the primary branch nucleotide resulted in constitutive splicing of exon IIIc. Our results suggest that the branch point sequence constitutes an important component that can contribute to the efficiency of exon definition of alternatively spliced cassette exons. Noncanonical branch points may thus facilitate cell-type-specific silencing of regulated exons by flanking cis elements.

  11. Self-Reported Sexual Behavioral Interests and Polymorphisms in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) Exon III VNTR in Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Halley, Andrew C; Boretsky, Melanie; Puts, David A; Shriver, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) have previously been shown to associate with a variety of human behavioral phenotypes, including ADHD pathology, alcohol and tobacco craving, financial risk-taking in males, and broader personality traits such as novelty seeking. Recent research has linked the presence of a 7-repeat (7R) allele in a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) along exon III of DRD4 to age at first sexual intercourse, sexual desire, arousal and function, and infidelity and promiscuity. We hypothesized that carriers of longer DRD4 alleles may report interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors and experiences than noncarriers. Participants completed a 37-item questionnaire measuring sexual interests as well as Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and were genotyped for the 48-bp VNTR on exon III of DRD4. Based on our final genotyped sample of female (n = 139) and male (n = 115) participants, we found that 7R carriers reported interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors (r = 0.16) within a young adult heterosexual sample of European descent. To our knowledge, this is the first reported association between DRD4 exon III VNTR genotype and interest in a variety of sexual behaviors. We discuss these findings within the context of DRD4 research and broader trends in human evolutionary history.

  12. cDNA structure, alternative splicing and exon-intron organization of the predisposing tuberous sclerosis (Tsc2) gene of the Eker rat model.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, T; Nishizawa, M; Hirayama, Y; Kobayashi, E; Hino, O

    1995-01-01

    The Eker rat hereditary renal carcinoma (RC) is an excellent example of a Mendelian dominant predisposition to a specific cancer in an experimental animal. We recently reported that a germline insertion in the rat homologue of the human tuberous sclerosis gene (TSC2) gives rise to the dominantly inherited cancer in the Eker rat model. We now describe the entire cDNA (5375 bp without exons 25 and 31) and genomic structure of the rat Tsc2 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence (1743 amino acids) shows 92% identity to the human counterpart. Surprisingly, there are a great many (> or = 41) coding exons with small sized introns spanning only approximately 35 kb of genomic DNA. Two alternative splicing events [involving exons 25 (129 bp) and 31 (69 bp)] make for a complex diversity of the Tsc2 product. The present determination of the Tsc2 gene and establishment of strong conservation between the rat and man provide clues for assessing unknown gene functions apart from that already predicted from the GTPase activating proteins (GAP3) homologous domain and for future analysis of intragenic mutations in tumors using methods such as PCR-SSCP and for insights into diverse phenotypes between species. Images PMID:7651821

  13. Two N-myc polypeptides with distinct amino termini encoded by the second and third exons of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, T P; Saksela, K; Alitalo, K

    1989-01-01

    The N-myc and c-myc genes encode closely related nuclear phosphoproteins. We found that the N-myc protein from human tumor cell lines appears as four closely migrating polypeptide bands (p58 to p64) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This and the recent finding that the c-myc protein is synthesized from two translational initiation sites located in the first and second exons of the gene (S. R. Hann, M. W. King, D. L. Bentley, C. W. Anderson, and R. N. Eisenman, Cell 52:185-195, 1988) prompted us to study the molecular basis of the N-myc protein heterogeneity. Dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase reduced the four polypeptide bands to a doublet with an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to the two faster-migrating N-myc polypeptides (p58 and p60). When expressed transiently in COS cells, an N-myc deletion construct lacking the first exon produced polypeptides similar to the wild-type N-myc protein, indicating that the first exon of the N-myc gene is noncoding. Furthermore, mutants deleted of up to two thirds of C-terminal coding domains still retained the capacity to produce a doublet of polypeptides, suggesting distinct amino termini for the two N-myc polypeptides. The amino-terminal primary structure of the N-myc protein was studied by site-specific point mutagenesis of the 5' end of the long open reading frame and by N-terminal radiosequencing of the two polypeptides. Our results show that the N-myc polypeptides are initiated from two alternative in-phase AUG codons located 24 base pairs apart at the 5' end of the second exon. Both of these polypeptides are phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus even when expressed separately. Interestingly, DNA rearrangements activating the c-myc gene are often found in the 1.7-kilobase-pair region between the two c-myc translational initiation sites and correlate with the loss of the longer c-myc polypeptide. Thus the close spacing of the two N-myc initiation codons could explain the relative resistance

  14. De novo exonic mutation in MYH7 gene leading to exon skipping in a patient with early onset muscular weakness and fiber-type disproportion.

    PubMed

    Pajusalu, Sander; Talvik, Inga; Noormets, Klari; Talvik, Tiina; Põder, Haide; Joost, Kairit; Puusepp, Sanna; Piirsoo, Andres; Stenzel, Werner; Goebel, Hans H; Nikopensius, Tiit; Annilo, Tarmo; Nõukas, Margit; Metspalu, Andres; Õunap, Katrin; Reimand, Tiia

    2016-03-01

    Here we report on a case of MYH7-related myopathy in a boy with early onset of muscular weakness and delayed motor development in infancy. His most affected muscles were neck extensors showing a dropped head sign, proximal muscles of lower limbs with positive Gower's sign, and trunk muscles. Brain and spinal cord MRI scans, echocardiography, and laboratory analyses including creatine kinase and lactate did not reveal any abnormalities. Muscle histopathology showed fiber-type disproportion. Whole exome sequencing of the parents-offspring trio revealed a novel de novo c.5655G>A p.(Ala1885=) synonymous substitution of the last nucleotide in exon 38 of the MYH7 gene. Further RNA investigations proved the skipping of exon 38 (p.1854_1885del). This is a first report of an exon-skipping mutation in the MYH7 gene causing myopathy. This report broadens both the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of MYH7-related myopathies.

  15. hnRNP L inhibits CD44 V10 exon splicing through interacting with its upstream intron.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tiing Jen; Cho, Sunghee; Moon, Heegyum; Jang, Ha Na; Williams, Darren Reece; Jung, Da-Woon; Kim, Il-Chul; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2015-06-01

    CD44 is a complex cell adhesion molecule that mediates communication and adhesion between adjacent cells as well as between cells and the extracellular matrix. CD44 pre-mRNA produces various mRNA isoforms through alternative splicing of 20 exons, among which exons 1-5 (C1-C5) and 16-20 (C6-C10) are constant exons, whereas exons 6-15 (V1-V10) are variant exons. CD44 V10 exon has important roles in breast tumor progression and Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we show that increased expression of hnRNP L inhibits V10 exon splicing of CD44 pre-mRNA, whereas reduced expression of hnRNP L promotes V10 exon splicing. In addition, hnRNP L also promotes V10 splicing of endogenous CD44 pre-mRNA. Through mutation analysis, we demonstrate that the effects of hnRNP L on V10 splicing are abolished when the CA-rich sequence on the upstream intron of V10 exon is disrupted. However, hnRNP L effects are stronger if more CA-repeats are provided. Furthermore, we show that hnRNP L directly contacts the CA-rich sequence. Importantly, we provide evidences that hnRNP L inhibits U2AF65 binding on the upstream Py tract of V10 exon. Our results reveal that hnRNP L is a new regulator for CD44 V10 exon splicing.

  16. Two exon-skipping mutations as the molecular basis of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (4-hydroxybutyric aciduria).

    PubMed Central

    Chambliss, K L; Hinson, D D; Trettel, F; Malaspina, P; Novelletto, A; Jakobs, C; Gibson, K M

    1998-01-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, a rare metabolic disorder of 4-aminobutyric acid degradation, has been identified in approximately 150 patients. Affected individuals accumulate large quantities of 4-hydroxybutyric acid, a compound with a wide range of neuropharmacological activities, in physiological fluids. As a first step in beginning an investigation of the molecular genetics of SSADH deficiency, we have utilized SSADH cDNA and genomic sequences to identify two point mutations in the SSADH genes derived from four patients. These mutations, identified by standard methods of reverse transcription, PCR, dideoxy-chain termination, and cycle sequencing, alter highly conserved sequences at intron/exon boundaries and prevent the RNA-splicing apparatus from properly recognizing the normal splice junction. Each family segregated a mutation in a different splice site, resulting in exon skipping and, in one case, a frameshift and premature termination and, in the other case, an in-frame deletion in the resulting protein. Family members, including parents and siblings of these patients, were shown to be heterozygotes for the splicing abnormality, providing additional evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Our results provide the first evidence that 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, resulting from SSADH deficiency, is the result of genetic defects in the human SSADH gene. PMID:9683595

  17. Restoring dystrophin expression in duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle progress in exon skipping and stop codon read through.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Eric P; Bronson, Abby; Levin, Arthur A; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Yokota, Toshifumi; Baudy, Andreas R; Connor, Edward M

    2011-07-01

    The identification of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene and protein in the late 1980s led to high hopes of rapid translation to molecular therapeutics. These hopes were fueled by early reports of delivering new functional genes to dystrophic muscle in mouse models using gene therapy and stem cell transplantation. However, significant barriers have thwarted translation of these approaches to true therapies, including insufficient therapeutic material (eg, cells and viral vectors), challenges in systemic delivery, and immunological hurdles. An alternative approach is to repair the patient's own gene. Two innovative small-molecule approaches have emerged as front-line molecular therapeutics: exon skipping and stop codon read through. Both approaches are in human clinical trials and aim to coax dystrophin protein production from otherwise inactive mutant genes. In the clinically severe dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the exon-skipping approach recently improved multiple functional outcomes. We discuss the status of these two methods aimed at inducing de novo dystrophin production from mutant genes and review implications for other disorders.

  18. Origin and evolution of a new exon of 14-3-3ξ in bees and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Leilei; Jiang, Chao

    2013-04-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing, one type of alternative splicing, involves selection of alternatively spliced exons arranged in tandem and creates protein products with substitution of one segment of the amino acid sequence for another. Previous studies revealed that exon 5 of 14-3-3ξ from Apis mellifera (western honeybee) had three mutually exclusive exons, while orthologous exon of Nasonia vitripennis (parasitic wasp) had only two, suggesting that cases of exon gain or loss might have happened during the evolution of hymenopteran species. In the current study, we annotated and analyzed the 14-3-3ξ genes from 20 hymenopteran species successfully, and the results of phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a new mutually exclusive exon in corbiculate bees. In addition, we found that duplication via staggered homologous recombination was responsible for the origin of the new exon.

  19. Classifying nucleic acid sub-sequences as introns or exons using genetic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, S.

    1995-12-31

    An evolutionary computation technique, genetic programming, created programs that classify messenger RNA sequences into one of two classes: (1) the sequence is expressed as (part of) a protein (an exon), or (2) not expressed as protein (an intron).

  20. Haploinsufficiency for Core Exon Junction Complex Components Disrupts Embryonic Neurogenesis and Causes p53-Mediated Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zefeng; Silver, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is an RNA binding complex comprised of the core components Magoh, Rbm8a, and Eif4a3. Human mutations in EJC components cause neurodevelopmental pathologies. Further, mice heterozygous for either Magoh or Rbm8a exhibit aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly. Yet despite the requirement of these genes for neurodevelopment, the pathogenic mechanisms linking EJC dysfunction to microcephaly remain poorly understood. Here we employ mouse genetics, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to demonstrate that haploinsufficiency for each of the 3 core EJC components causes microcephaly via converging regulation of p53 signaling. Using a new conditional allele, we first show that Eif4a3 haploinsufficiency phenocopies aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly of Magoh and Rbm8a mutant mice. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of embryonic brains at the onset of neurogenesis identifies common pathways altered in each of the 3 EJC mutants, including ribosome, proteasome, and p53 signaling components. We further demonstrate all 3 mutants exhibit defective splicing of RNA regulatory proteins, implying an EJC dependent RNA regulatory network that fine-tunes gene expression. Finally, we show that genetic ablation of one downstream pathway, p53, significantly rescues microcephaly of all 3 EJC mutants. This implicates p53 activation as a major node of neurodevelopmental pathogenesis following EJC impairment. Altogether our study reveals new mechanisms to help explain how EJC mutations influence neurogenesis and underlie neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:27618312

  1. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Smith, G D; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A

    2016-01-01

    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case–control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence. PMID:26239293

  2. Analysis of PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 mutations in breast cancers using PCR-HRM and PCR-ARMS: correlation with clinicopathological criteria.

    PubMed

    Harlé, Alexandre; Lion, Maëva; Lozano, Nicolas; Husson, Marie; Harter, Valentin; Genin, Pascal; Merlin, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K) are essential for cell signaling, proliferation, differentiation and survival. The catalytic subunit of PI3K, encoded by the PIK3CA oncogene, is mutated in 18-45% of breast carcinomas. These mutations, involved in tumorigenic processes, activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Resistance to anti‑human epidermal growth factor receptor, hormonal or anti-PI3K therapies have been described in breast carcinomas bearing activation of the PI3K signaling pathway. The present study reports the evaluation of PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 mutations in 149 invasive breast cancer cases using a validated PCR-high resolution melting assay (PCR-HRM). An amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS) using allele-specific scorpion primers was used to detect hotspot mutations in exons 9 (c.1624G→A and c.1633G→A) and 20 (c.3140A→G and c.3140A→T) in 118 tumor specimens. No correlation was observed with age at diagnosis, histological type, hormone receptor and HER2 status. PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 mutations were found to be related to Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade with a lower rate of mutations and a higher frequency of exon 9 mutations in SBRI and exon 20 mutations in SBRII/III tumors. No difference was observed in the incidence rates of the two different mutations screened for each exon in any subcategory. A statistically significant correlation was found between PCR-HRM and PCR-ARMS (κ=0.845; P<0.001). PCR-ARMS was found to be more sensitive than PCR-HRM (sensitivity 0.5 and 5-10% of mutated DNA, respectively). We propose that PCR-HRM and PCR-ARMS can be combined for the cost-effective routine clinical identification of PIK3CA mutations for the purpose of personalizing therapy for invasive breast cancers.

  3. Plant Proteins Are Smaller Because They Are Encoded by Fewer Exons than Animal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Obed; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Delaye, Luis; Tiessen, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Protein size is an important biochemical feature since longer proteins can harbor more domains and therefore can display more biological functionalities than shorter proteins. We found remarkable differences in protein length, exon structure, and domain count among different phylogenetic lineages. While eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 amino acid residues (aa), average protein sizes in plant genomes are smaller than those of animals and fungi. Proteins unique to plants are ∼81aa shorter than plant proteins conserved among other eukaryotic lineages. The smaller average size of plant proteins could neither be explained by endosymbiosis nor subcellular compartmentation nor exon size, but rather due to exon number. Metazoan proteins are encoded on average by ∼10 exons of small size [∼176 nucleotides (nt)]. Streptophyta have on average only ∼5.7 exons of medium size (∼230nt). Multicellular species code for large proteins by increasing the exon number, while most unicellular organisms employ rather larger exons (>400nt). Among subcellular compartments, membrane proteins are the largest (∼520aa), whereas the smallest proteins correspond to the gene ontology group of ribosome (∼240aa). Plant genes are encoded by half the number of exons and also contain fewer domains than animal proteins on average. Interestingly, endosymbiotic proteins that migrated to the plant nucleus became larger than their cyanobacterial orthologs. We thus conclude that plants have proteins larger than bacteria but smaller than animals or fungi. Compared to the average of eukaryotic species, plants have ∼34% more but ∼20% smaller proteins. This suggests that photosynthetic organisms are unique and deserve therefore special attention with regard to the evolutionary forces acting on their genomes and proteomes.

  4. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations in lung adenocarcinomas: prevalence, molecular heterogeneity, and clinicopathologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Arcila, Maria E; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chaft, Jamie E; Rekhtman, Natasha; Lau, Christopher; Reva, Boris A; Zakowski, Maureen F; Kris, Mark G; Ladanyi, Marc

    2013-02-01

    In contrast to other primary epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, insertions in exon 20 of EGFR have been generally associated with resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Their molecular spectrum, clinicopathologic characteristics, and prevalence are not well established. Tumors harboring EGFR exon 20 insertions were identified through an algorithmic screen of 1,500 lung adenocarcinomas. Cases were first tested for common mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and KRAS (exon 2) and, if negative, further analyzed for EGFR exon 20 insertions. All samples underwent extended genotyping for other driver mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2/HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, and AKT by mass spectrometry; a subset was evaluated for ALK rearrangements. We identified 33 EGFR exon 20 insertion cases [2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-3.1], all mutually exclusive with mutations in the other genes tested (except PIK3CA). They were more common among never-smokers (P < 0.0001). There was no association with age, sex, race, or stage. Morphologically, tumors were similar to those with common EGFR mutations but with frequent solid histology. Insertions were highly variable in position and size, ranging from 3 to 12 bp, resulting in 13 different insertions, which, by molecular modeling, are predicted to have potentially different effects on erlotinib binding. EGFR exon 20 insertion testing identifies a distinct subset of lung adenocarcinomas, accounting for at least 9% of all EGFR-mutated cases, representing the third most common type of EGFR mutation after exon 19 deletions and L858R. Insertions are structurally heterogeneous with potential implications for response to EGFR inhibitors.

  5. The association of ICAM-1 Exon 6 (E469K) but not of ICAM-1 Exon 4 (G241R) and PECAM-1 Exon 3 (L125V) polymorphisms with the development of differentiation syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dore, Adriana I; Santana-Lemos, Barbara A A; Coser, Virginia M; Santos, Flávia L S; Dalmazzo, Leandro F; Lima, Ana S G; Jacomo, Rafael H; Elias, Jorge; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Pereira, Waldir V; Rego, Eduardo M

    2007-11-01

    The use of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is the basis of treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and represents the paradigm of differentiation therapy. In general, ATRA is well-tolerated but may be associated with a potentially lethal side-effect, referred to as retinoic acid or differentiation syndrome (DS). The cellular and molecular mechanisms of DS are poorly understood and involve changes in the adhesive qualities and cytokine secretion of leukemic cells during ATRA-induced differentiation. As leukocyte extravasation is a key event in DS pathogenesis, we analyzed the association between the polymorphisms at Exon 4 (G241R) and Exon 6 (E469K) of ICAM-1 and Exon 3 (L125V) of PECAM-1 genes with DS development in APL patients treated with ATRA and anthracyclines. DS was diagnosed in 23/127 (18.1%) APL patients at an average of 11.5 days after the start of ATRA. All patients presented respiratory distress associated with increased ground-glass opacity in chest radiographies. Other accompanying symptoms were: fever not attributable to infection (65.2%), generalized edema (37.5%), weight gain (37.5%), and impairment of renal function (8.6%). We detected an association between development of DS and the AA genotype at Codon 469 of ICAM-1 (odds ratio of 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-10.2). Conversely, no significant association was detected between G241R or L125V polymorphisms at Exon 4 of ICAM-1 and Exon 3 of PECAM-1, respectively. Our results suggest that susceptibility to DS in APL patients may be influenced by genetic variation in adhesion molecule loci.

  6. An Affymetrix Microarray Design for Microbial Genotyping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum APRT Okra 5 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 5 Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 40 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B 5...Clostridium botulinum SNP B1 str. Okra plasmid pCLD 20 Clostridium botulinum B1 str. Okra plasmid pCLD 5 Clostridium botulinum Bf 5 Clostridium...botulinum HPT Eklund 17B 10 Clostridium botulinum HPT Loch Maree 20 Clostridium botulinum HPT Okra 5 Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree 5

  7. Non-Ambulant Duchenne Patients Theoretically Treatable by Exon 53 Skipping have Severe Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Servais, Laurent; Montus, Marie; Guiner, Caroline Le; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Annoussamy, Mélanie; Moraux, Amélie; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Seferian, Andreea M.; Zehrouni, Karima; Le Moing, Anne-Gaëlle; Gidaro, Teresa; Vanhulle, Catherine; Laugel, Vincent; Butoianu, Nina; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Sabouraud, Pascal; Cances, Claude; Klein, Andrea; Leturcq, France; Moullier, Philippe; Voit, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Exon skipping therapy is an emerging approach in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Antisense oligonucleotides that induce skipping of exon 51, 44, 45, or 53 are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. These trials were designed on the basis of data available in general DMD population. Objectives: Our objective was to compare the clinical and functional statuses of non-ambulant DMD patients theoretically treatable by exon 53 skipping and of DMD patients with other mutations. Methods: We first compared fifteen non-ambulant DMD patients carrying deletions theoretically treatable by exon 53 skipping (DMD-53) with fifteen closely age-matched DMD patients with mutations not treatable by exon 53 skipping (DMD-all-non-53) then with fifteen DMD patients carrying deletions not treatable by exon 53 skipping (DMD-del-non-53). Results: We found that DMD-53 patients had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, more contractures and they tend to have weaker grips and pinch strengths than other DMD patients. DMD-53 patients lost ambulation significantly younger than other DMD patients. This result was confirmed by comparing ages at loss of ambulation in all non-ambulant DMD patients of the DMD cohort identified in a molecular diagnostic lab. Conclusions: These prospective and retrospective data demonstrate that DMD-53 patients have clinically more severe phenotypes than other DMD patients. PMID:27858743

  8. Single exon-resolution targeted chromosomal microarray analysis of known and candidate intellectual disability genes

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tracy; Zahir, Farah R; Griffith, Malachi; Delaney, Allen; Chai, David; Tsang, Erica; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Marra, Marco; Eydoux, Patrice; Langlois, Sylvie; Hamdan, Fadi F; Michaud, Jacques L; Friedman, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects about 3% of individuals globally, with∼50% idiopathic. We designed an exonic-resolution array targeting all known submicroscopic chromosomal intellectual disability syndrome loci, causative genes for intellectual disability, and potential candidate genes, all genes encoding glutamate receptors and epigenetic regulators. Using this platform, we performed chromosomal microarray analysis on 165 intellectual disability trios (affected child and both normal parents). We identified and independently validated 36 de novo copy-number changes in 32 trios. In all, 67% of the validated events were intragenic, involving only exon 1 (which includes the promoter sequence according to our design), exon 1 and adjacent exons, or one or more exons excluding exon 1. Seventeen of the 36 copy-number variants involve genes known to cause intellectual disability. Eleven of these, including seven intragenic variants, are clearly pathogenic (involving STXBP1, SHANK3 (3 patients), IL1RAPL1, UBE2A, NRXN1, MEF2C, CHD7, 15q24 and 9p24 microdeletion), two are likely pathogenic (PI4KA, DCX), two are unlikely to be pathogenic (GRIK2, FREM2), and two are unclear (ARID1B, 15q22 microdeletion). Twelve individuals with genomic imbalances identified by our array were tested with a clinical microarray, and six had a normal result. We identified de novo copy-number variants within genes not previously implicated in intellectual disability and uncovered pathogenic variation of known intellectual disability genes below the detection limit of standard clinical diagnostic chromosomal microarray analysis. PMID:24253858

  9. Single exon-resolution targeted chromosomal microarray analysis of known and candidate intellectual disability genes.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Tracy; Zahir, Farah R; Griffith, Malachi; Delaney, Allen; Chai, David; Tsang, Erica; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Marra, Marco; Eydoux, Patrice; Langlois, Sylvie; Hamdan, Fadi F; Michaud, Jacques L; Friedman, Jan M

    2014-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects about 3% of individuals globally, with∼50% idiopathic. We designed an exonic-resolution array targeting all known submicroscopic chromosomal intellectual disability syndrome loci, causative genes for intellectual disability, and potential candidate genes, all genes encoding glutamate receptors and epigenetic regulators. Using this platform, we performed chromosomal microarray analysis on 165 intellectual disability trios (affected child and both normal parents). We identified and independently validated 36 de novo copy-number changes in 32 trios. In all, 67% of the validated events were intragenic, involving only exon 1 (which includes the promoter sequence according to our design), exon 1 and adjacent exons, or one or more exons excluding exon 1. Seventeen of the 36 copy-number variants involve genes known to cause intellectual disability. Eleven of these, including seven intragenic variants, are clearly pathogenic (involving STXBP1, SHANK3 (3 patients), IL1RAPL1, UBE2A, NRXN1, MEF2C, CHD7, 15q24 and 9p24 microdeletion), two are likely pathogenic (PI4KA, DCX), two are unlikely to be pathogenic (GRIK2, FREM2), and two are unclear (ARID1B, 15q22 microdeletion). Twelve individuals with genomic imbalances identified by our array were tested with a clinical microarray, and six had a normal result. We identified de novo copy-number variants within genes not previously implicated in intellectual disability and uncovered pathogenic variation of known intellectual disability genes below the detection limit of standard clinical diagnostic chromosomal microarray analysis.

  10. Global regulatory mechanism underlying the activation of an exon network required for neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Bushra; Irimia, Manuel; Braunschweig, Ulrich; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; O’Hanlon, Dave; Yuan-Lin, Zhen; Chen, Ginny I.; Easton, Laura; Ule, Jernej; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Eyras, Eduardo; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The vertebrate and neural-specific SR-related protein nSR100/SRRM4 regulates an extensive program of alternative splicing with critical roles in nervous system development. However, the mechanism by which nSR100 controls its target exons is poorly understood. We demonstrate that nSR100-dependent neural exons are associated with a unique configuration of intronic cis-elements that promote rapid switch-like regulation during neurogenesis. A key feature of this configuration is the insertion of specialized intronic enhancers between polypyrimidine tracts and acceptor sites that bind nSR100 to potently activate exon inclusion in neural cells, while weakening 3′ splice site recognition and contributing to exon skipping in non-neural cells. nSR100 further operates by forming multiple interactions with early spliceosome components bound proximal to 3′ splice sites. These multifaceted interactions achieve dominance over neural exon silencing mediated by the splicing regulator PTBP1. The results thus illuminate a widespread mechanism by which a critical neural exon network is activated during neurogenesis. PMID:25219497

  11. Signal-exon trap: a novel method for the identification of signal sequences from genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Péterfy, Miklós; Gyuris, Tibor; Takács, László

    2000-01-01

    We describe a genomic DNA-based signal sequence trap method, signal-exon trap (SET), for the identification of genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins. SET is based on the coupling of an exon trap to the translation of captured exons, which allows screening of the exon-encoded polypeptides for signal peptide function. Since most signal sequences are expected to be located in the 5′-terminal exons of genes, we first demonstrate that trapping of these exons is feasible. To test the applicability of SET for the screening of complex genomic DNA, we evaluated two critical features of the method. Specificity was assessed by the analysis of random genomic DNA and efficiency was demonstrated by screening a 425 kb YAC known to contain the genes of four secretory or membrane-bound proteins. All trapped clones contained a translation initiation signal followed by a hydrophobic stretch of amino acids representing either a known signal peptide, transmembrane domain or novel sequence. Our results suggest that SET is a potentially useful method for the isolation of signal sequence-containing genes and may find application in the discovery of novel members of known secretory gene clusters, as well as in other positional cloning approaches. PMID:10710443

  12. BRAF exon 15 mutations in pediatric renal stromal tumors: prevalence in metanephric stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Lily; Jennings, Lawrence J; Gadd, Samantha; Yu, Min; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Cajaiba, Mariana M

    2017-02-01

    Metanephric stromal tumors (MSTs) are rare renal stromal tumors that predominantly affect children. They belong to the metanephric family of tumors, along with metanephric adenofibroma and metanephric adenoma. The previous documentation of BRAF exon 15 mutations in 88% of metanephric adenomas and in isolated cases of metanephric adenofibroma prompted us to investigate the prevalence of these mutations in MSTs and in other pediatric renal stromal tumors. In this study, 17 MSTs, 22 congenital mesoblastic nephromas, and 6 ossifying renal tumors of infancy were selected for BRAF exon 15 testing. Tumor genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger dideoxy sequencing with primers flanking the BRAF exon 15 gene. BRAF exon 15 mutations were found in 11 (65%) of the 17 cases of MST, all corresponding to a thymidine-to-adenine substitution at codon 600 (BRAF V600E). All other renal stromal tumors tested were negative for BRAF exon 15 mutations. In conclusion, BRAF V600E mutations are encountered in most MSTs, supporting a link with other metanephric tumors and suggesting a clonal event possibly affecting primordial renal cells. In addition, BRAF V600E mutations have been associated with oncogene-induced senescence in other benign tumors, providing clues to the pathogenesis of metanephric neoplasms in keeping with their overall benign behavior. Our results also suggest a potential diagnostic use for BRAF exon 15 mutations in differentiating MSTs from other pediatric renal stromal tumors, particularly in limited samples.

  13. Splicing of COB intron 5 requires pairing between the internal guide sequence and both flanking exons.

    PubMed

    Partono, S; Lewin, A S

    1990-11-01

    Group I introns are characterized by a set of conserved sequence elements and secondary structures. Evidence supporting the pairing of certain of these sequences has come from the comparison of intron sequences and from the analysis of mutations that disrupt splicing by interfering with pairing. One of the structures proposed for all group I introns is an internal guide sequence that base pairs with the upstream and the downstream exons, bringing them into alignment for ligation. We made specific mutations in the internal guide sequence and the flanking exons of the fifth intron in the yeast mitochondrial gene for apocytochrome b (COB). Mutations that disrupted the pairing between the internal guide sequence and the upstream exon (the P1 pairing) blocked addition of guanosine to the 5' end of the intron during autocatalytic reactions and prevented formation of the full-length circular intron. In contrast, transcripts containing mutations that disrupted the pairing between the guide sequence and the downstream exon (the P10 helix) initiated splicing but failed to ligate exons. Compensatory mutations that restored helices of normal stability mitigated the effects of the original mutations. These data provide direct evidence for the importance of the base pairing between the internal guide sequence and the downstream exon in the splicing of a wild-type group I intron.

  14. A multiplexed fragment analysis-based assay for detection of JAK2 exon 12 mutations.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Larissa V; Weigelin, Helmut C; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Betz, Bryan L

    2013-09-01

    Mutations within exon 12 of the JAK2 gene occur in most cases of JAK2 V617F-mutation negative polycythemia vera. Several methods have been developed to identify exon 12 mutations, with both Sanger sequencing and high resolution melting (HRM) being widely used. However, mutations can occur at allelic levels lower than 15%, which may hamper detection by these methods. We developed a novel fragment analysis-based assay capable of detecting nearly all JAK2 exon 12 mutations associated with polycythemia vera down to a sensitivity of 2% mutant allele. Test results were reviewed from a set of 20 reference cases and 1731 consecutive specimens that were referred to our laboratory for testing. Assay performance was compared to sequencing and HRM across a series of 27 specimens with JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Positive cases consisted of 22 with deletion mutations, four with duplications, and one with K539L. Nine cases had mutation levels between 6% and 15% that may not be reliably detected by sequencing or HRM. All cases were easily interpreted in the fragment analysis assay. Sequencing, HRM, and fragment analysis each represent viable platforms for detection of JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Our method performed favorably by providing a simple, robust, and highly sensitive solution for JAK2 exon 12 mutation testing.

  15. NF1 single and multi-exons copy number variations in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Imbard, Apolline; Pasmant, Eric; Sabbagh, Audrey; Luscan, Armelle; Soares, Magali; Goussard, Philippe; Blanché, Hélène; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Ferkal, Salah; Vidaud, Michel; Pinson, Stéphane; Bellanne-Chantelot, Christine; Vidaud, Dominique; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Parfait, Béatrice

    2015-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations of the tumor suppressor NF1 containing 57 constitutive coding exons. A huge number of different pathogenic NF1 alterations has been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) approach in NF1 patients to detect single and multi-exon NF1 gene copy number variations. A genotype-phenotype correlation was then performed in NF1 patients carrying these types of genetic alterations. Among 565 NF1 index cases from the French NF1 cohort, single and multi-exon deletions/duplications screening identified NF1 partial deletions/duplications in 22 patients (~4%) using MLPA analysis. Eight single exon deletions, 11 multiple exons deletions, 1 complex rearrangement and 2 duplications were identified. All results were confirmed using a custom array-CGH. MLPA and custom array-CGH allowed the identification of rearrangements that were missed by cDNA/DNA sequencing or microsatellite analysis. We then performed a targeted next-generation sequencing of NF1 that allowed confirmation of all 22 rearrangements. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found for the most clinically significant disease features of NF1 in patients with single and multi-exons NF1 gene copy number changes.

  16. Competing RNA secondary structures are required for mutually exclusive splicing of the Dscam exon 6 cluster.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Olson, Sara; McManus, C Joel; Graveley, Brenton R

    2011-02-01

    Alternative splicing of eukaryotic pre-mRNAs is an important mechanism for generating proteome diversity and regulating gene expression. The Drosophila melanogaster Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam) gene is an extreme example of mutually exclusive splicing. Dscam contains 95 alternatively spliced exons that potentially encode 38,016 distinct mRNA and protein isoforms. We previously identified two sets of conserved sequence elements, the docking site and selector sequences in the Dscam exon 6 cluster, which contains 48 mutually exclusive exons. These elements were proposed to engage in competing RNA secondary structures required for mutually exclusive splicing, though this model has not yet been experimentally tested. Here we describe a new system that allowed us to demonstrate that the docking site and selector sequences are indeed required for exon 6 mutually exclusive splicing and that the strength of these RNA structures determines the frequency of exon 6 inclusion. We also show that the function of the docking site has been conserved for ~500 million years of evolution. This work demonstrates that conserved intronic sequences play a functional role in mutually exclusive splicing of the Dscam exon 6 cluster.

  17. Disruption of the splicing enhancer sequence within exon 27 of the dystrophin gene by a nonsense mutation induces partial skipping of the exon and is responsible for Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, N; Takeshima, Y; Sakamoto, H; Inoue, K; Yokota, Y; Yokoyama, M; Matsuo, M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of exon skipping induced by nonsense mutations has not been well elucidated. We now report results of in vitro splicing studies which disclosed that a particular example of exon skipping is due to disruption of a splicing enhancer sequence located within the exon. A nonsense mutation (E1211X) due to a G to T transversion at the 28th nucleotide of exon 27 (G3839T) was identified in the dystrophin gene of a Japanese Becker muscular dystrophy case. Partial skipping of the exon resulted in the production of truncated dystrophin mRNA, although the consensus sequences for splicing at both ends of exon 27 were unaltered. To determine how E1211X induced exon 27 skipping, the splicing enhancer activity of purine-rich region within exon 27 was examined in an in vitro splicing system using chimeric doublesex gene pre-mRNA. The mutant sequence containing G3839T abolished splicing enhancer activity of the wild-type purine-rich sequence for the upstream intron in this chimeric pre-mRNA. An artificial polypurine oligonucleotide mimicking the purine-rich sequence of exon 27 also showed enhancer activity that was suppressed by the introduction of a T nucleotide. Furthermore, the splicing enhancer activity was more markedly inhibited when a nonsense codon was created by the inserted T residue. This is the first evidence that partial skipping of an exon harboring a nonsense mutation is due to disruption of a splicing enhancer sequence. PMID:9410897

  18. Evolution of the Exon-Intron Structure in Ciliate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    A typical eukaryotic gene is comprised of alternating stretches of regions, exons and introns, retained in and spliced out a mature mRNA, respectively. Although the length of introns may vary substantially among organisms, a large fraction of genes contains short introns in many species. Notably, some Ciliates (Paramecium and Nyctotherus) possess only ultra-short introns, around 25 bp long. In Paramecium, ultra-short introns with length divisible by three (3n) are under strong evolutionary pressure and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons, which, in the case of intron retention, cause premature termination of mRNA translation and consequent degradation of the mis-spliced mRNA by the nonsense-mediated decay mechanism. Here, we analyzed introns in five genera of Ciliates, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Ichthyophthirius, Oxytricha, and Stylonychia. Introns can be classified into two length classes in Tetrahymena and Ichthyophthirius (with means 48 bp, 69 bp, and 55 bp, 64 bp, respectively), but, surprisingly, comprise three distinct length classes in Oxytricha and Stylonychia (with means 33–35 bp, 47–51 bp, and 78–80 bp). In most ranges of the intron lengths, 3n introns are underrepresented and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons in all studied species. Introns of Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Ichthyophthirius are preferentially located at the 5' and 3' ends of genes, whereas introns of Oxytricha and Stylonychia are strongly skewed towards the 5' end. Analysis of evolutionary conservation shows that, in each studied genome, a significant fraction of intron positions is conserved between the orthologs, but intron lengths are not correlated between the species. In summary, our study provides a detailed characterization of introns in several genera of Ciliates and highlights some of their distinctive properties, which, together, indicate that splicing spellchecking is a universal and evolutionarily conserved process in the biogenesis of short introns in

  19. Two closely linked but separable promoters for human neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, J; Roddy, P; Rife, T K; Murad, F; Young, A P

    1995-01-01

    In this report we demonstrate that the human cerebellum contains neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNAs with two distinct 5'-untranslated regions that are encoded through use of closely linked but separate promoters. nNOS cDNA clones were shown to contain different 5' terminal exons spliced to a common exon 2. Genomic cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate that the unique exons are positioned within 300 bp of each other but separated from exon 2 by an intron that is at least 20 kb in length. A CpG island engulfs the downstream 5'-terminal exon. In contrast, most of the upstream exon resides outside of this CpG island. Interestingly, the upstream exon includes a GT dinucleotide repeat. A fusion gene with a 414-bp nNOS genomic fragment that includes a portion of the upstream 5'-terminal exon and its immediate 5'-flanking DNA is expressed in transfected HeLa cells. Also expressed is a fusion gene that contains the luciferase reporter under transcriptional control by a 308-bp genomic fragment that includes the region separating both 5'-terminal exons. These results indicate that expression of these exons is subject to transcriptional control by separate promoters. However, the proximity of these promoters raise the possibility that complex interactions may be involved in regulating nNOS gene expression at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7532307

  20. Systematic Dissection of Coding Exons at Single Nucleotide Resolution Supports an Additional Role in Cell-Specific Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee J.; Findlay, Gregory M.; Martin, Beth; Zhao, Jingjing; Bell, Robert J. A.; Smith, Robin P.; Ku, Angel A.; Shendure, Jay; Ahituv, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6) at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types. PMID:25340400

  1. Deciphering the impact of somatic mutations in exon 20 and exon 9 of PIK3CA gene in breast tumors among Indian women through molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, N; Priya Doss, C George; Thirumal Kumar, D; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Anand, Kushi; Suresh, M

    2016-01-01

    We examined 25 breast tumor samples for somatic mutations in exon 20 and exon 9 of PIK3CA gene in South Indian population. Genomic DNA was isolated and amplified for PIK3CA gene, followed by direct sequencing of purified polymerase chain reaction products. We identified PI3K3CA mutations in 5 of 25 (20%), including four of the mutations in p.H1047R and one in p.H1047L. Nucleotide base substitution A to G (c.3140A > G) and A to T (c.3140A > T) results in p.H1047R and p.H1047L mutation in exon 20 of PIK3CA gene. We did not observe any mutation in exon 9 of PIK3CA gene. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of mutations on protein structure and function by the combination of sequence and structure-based in silico prediction methods. This determined the underlying relationship between the mutation and its phenotypic effects. Next step, we complemented by molecular dynamics simulation analysis (30 ns) of native and mutant structures that measured the effect of mutation on protein structure. The obtained results support that the application of computational methods helps predict the biological significance of mutations.

  2. JAK2 Exon 14 Deletion in Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wanlong; Kantarjian, Hagop; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiuqiang; Zhang, Zhong; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung; O'Brien, Susan; Giles, Francis; Bruey, Jean Marie; Albitar, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Background The JAK2 V617F mutation in exon 14 is the most common mutation in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs); deletion of the entire exon 14 is rarely detected. In our previous study of >10,000 samples from patients with suspected MPNs tested for JAK2 mutations by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with direct sequencing, complete deletion of exon 14 (Δexon14) constituted <1% of JAK2 mutations. This appears to be an alternative splicing mutation, not detectable with DNA-based testing. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the possibility that MPN patients may express the JAK2 Δexon14 at low levels (<15% of total transcript) not routinely detectable by RT-PCR with direct sequencing. Using a sensitive RT-PCR–based fluorescent fragment analysis method to quantify JAK2 Δexon14 mRNA expression relative to wild-type, we tested 61 patients with confirmed MPNs, 183 with suspected MPNs (93 V617F-positive, 90 V617F-negative), and 46 healthy control subjects. The Δexon14 variant was detected in 9 of the 61 (15%) confirmed MPN patients, accounting for 3.96% to 33.85% (mean  = 12.04%) of total JAK2 transcript. This variant was also detected in 51 of the 183 patients with suspected MPNs (27%), including 20 of the 93 (22%) with V617F (mean [range] expression  = 5.41% [2.13%–26.22%]) and 31 of the 90 (34%) without V617F (mean [range] expression  = 3.88% [2.08%–12.22%]). Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that patients expressing Δexon14 mRNA expressed a corresponding truncated JAK2 protein. The Δexon14 variant was not detected in the 46 control subjects. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that expression of the JAK2 Δexon14 splice variant, leading to a truncated JAK2 protein, is common in patients with MPNs. This alternatively spliced transcript appears to be more frequent in MPN patients without V617F mutation, in whom it might contribute to leukemogenesis. This mutation is missed if DNA rather than RNA is used for

  3. Mutation Screening of Exons 7 and 13 of the TMC1 Gene in Autosomal Recessive Non-syndromic Hearing Loss (ARNSHL) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradipour, Negar; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam; Heibati, Fatemeh; Parchami-Barjui, Shahrbanuo; Abolhasani, Marziyeh; Rashki, Ahmad; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is the most common birth defect and occurs in approximately 1/1,000 newborns. NSHL is a heterogeneous trait and can arise due to both genetic and environmental factors. Mutations of the transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) gene cause non-syndromic deafness in humans and mice. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of TMC1 gene mutations of the locus DFNB7/11 in exons 7 and 13 in a cohort of 100 patients with hearing loss in Iran using polymerase chain reaction–single-stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), heteroduplex analysis (HA), and DNA sequencing. Patients and Methods: In this experimental study, the blood samples of 100 NSHL patients were collected from 10 provinces in Iran. These patients had a mean age of 16.5 ± 2.01 years and 74.15% of their parents had consanguinity. DNA was extracted from specimens and mutations of exons 7 and 13 of the TMC1 gene were investigated using PCR-SSCP. All samples were checked via HA reaction and suspected specimens with shift bands were subjected to DNA sequencing for investigation of any gene variation. Results: In this study, no mutation was found in the two exons of TMC1 gene. It was concluded from these results that mutations of the TMC1 gene’s special exons 7 and 13 have a low contribution in patients and are not great of clinical importance in these Iranian provinces. Conclusions: More studies are needed to investigate the relationship between other parts of this gene with hearing loss in different populations through the country. More research could clarify the role of this gene and its relation with deafness and provide essential information for the prevention and management of auditory disorders caused by genetic factors in the Iranian population. PMID:27247785

  4. Novel antigen identification method for discovery of protective malaria antigens by rapid testing of DNA vaccines encoding exons from the parasite genome.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Diana; Bilcikova, Erika; Witney, Adam A; Carlton, Jane M; White, Charles E; Blair, Peter L; Chattopadhyay, Rana; Russell, Joshua; Abot, Esteban; Charoenvit, Yupin; Aguiar, Joao C; Carucci, Daniel J; Weiss, Walter R

    2004-03-01

    We describe a novel approach for identifying target antigens for preerythrocytic malaria vaccines. Our strategy is to rapidly test hundreds of DNA vaccines encoding exons from the Plasmodium yoelii yoelii genomic sequence. In this antigen identification method, we measure reduction in parasite burden in the liver after sporozoite challenge in mice. Orthologs of protective P. y. yoelii genes can then be identified in the genomic databases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and investigated as candidate antigens for a human vaccine. A pilot study to develop the antigen identification method approach used 192 P. y. yoelii exons from genes expressed during the sporozoite stage of the life cycle. A total of 182 (94%) exons were successfully cloned into a DNA immunization vector with the Gateway cloning technology. To assess immunization strategies, mice were vaccinated with 19 of the new DNA plasmids in addition to the well-characterized protective plasmid encoding P. y. yoelii circumsporozoite protein. Single plasmid immunization by gene gun identified a novel vaccine target antigen which decreased liver parasite burden by 95% and which has orthologs in P. vivax and P. knowlesi but not P. falciparum. Intramuscular injection of DNA plasmids produced a different pattern of protective responses from those seen with gene gun immunization. Intramuscular immunization with plasmid pools could reduce liver parasite burden in mice despite the fact that none of the plasmids was protective when given individually. We conclude that high-throughput cloning of exons into DNA vaccines and their screening is feasible and can rapidly identify new malaria vaccine candidate antigens.

  5. A TALEN-Exon Skipping Design for a Bethlem Myopathy Model in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Elipot, Yannick; Bretaud, Sandrine; Arnould, Sylvain; Duchateau, Philippe; Ruggiero, Florence; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Sohm, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Presently, human collagen VI-related diseases such as Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) remain incurable, emphasizing the need to unravel their etiology and improve their treatments. In UCMD, symptom onset occurs early, and both diseases aggravate with ageing. In zebrafish fry, morpholinos reproduced early UCMD and BM symptoms but did not allow to study the late phenotype. Here, we produced the first zebrafish line with the human mutation frequently found in collagen VI-related disorders such as UCMD and BM. We used a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to design the col6a1ama605003-line with a mutation within an essential splice donor site, in intron 14 of the col6a1 gene, which provoke an in-frame skipping of exon 14 in the processed mRNA. This mutation at a splice donor site is the first example of a template-independent modification of splicing induced in zebrafish using a targetable nuclease. This technique is readily expandable to other organisms and can be instrumental in other disease studies. Histological and ultrastructural analyzes of homozygous and heterozygous mutant fry and 3 months post-fertilization (mpf) fish revealed co-dominantly inherited abnormal myofibers with disorganized myofibrils, enlarged sarcoplasmic reticulum, altered mitochondria and misaligned sarcomeres. Locomotion analyzes showed hypoxia-response behavior in 9 mpf col6a1 mutant unseen in 3 mpf fish. These symptoms worsened with ageing as described in patients with collagen VI deficiency. Thus, the col6a1ama605003-line is the first adult zebrafish model of collagen VI-related diseases; it will be instrumental both for basic research and drug discovery assays focusing on this type of disorders. PMID:26221953

  6. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies.

  7. Exon capture analysis of G protein-coupled receptors identifies activating mutations in GRM3 in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Todd D; Wei, Xiaomu; Cardenas-Navia, Isabel; Teer, Jamie K; Lin, Jimmy C; Walia, Vijay; Gartner, Jared; Jiang, Jiji; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Molinolo, Alfredo; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Rosenberg, Steven A; Margulies, Elliott H; Samuels, Yardena

    2011-09-25

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest human gene family, are important regulators of signaling pathways. However, knowledge of their genetic alterations is limited. In this study, we used exon capture and massively parallel sequencing methods to analyze the mutational status of 734 GPCRs in melanoma. This investigation revealed that one family member, GRM3, was frequently mutated and that one of its mutations clustered within one position. Biochemical analysis of GRM3 alterations revealed that mutant GRM3 selectively regulated the phosphorylation of MEK, leading to increased anchorage-independent growth and migration. Melanoma cells expressing mutant GRM3 had reduced cell growth and cellular migration after short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of GRM3 or treatment with a selective MEK inhibitor, AZD-6244, which is currently being used in phase 2 clinical trials. Our study yields the most comprehensive map of genetic alterations in the GPCR gene family.

  8. Widespread exon skipping triggers degradation by nuclear RNA surveillance in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Danny A; Atkinson, Sophie R; Rallis, Charalampos; Smith, Graeme C; Ellis, David A; Chen, Yuan Y C; Malecki, Michal; Codlin, Sandra; Lemay, Jean-François; Cotobal, Cristina; Bachand, François; Marguerat, Samuel; Mata, Juan; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-06-01

    Exon skipping is considered a principal mechanism by which eukaryotic cells expand their transcriptome and proteome repertoires, creating different splice variants with distinct cellular functions. Here we analyze RNA-seq data from 116 transcriptomes in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), covering multiple physiological conditions as well as transcriptional and RNA processing mutants. We applied brute-force algorithms to detect all possible exon-skipping events, which were widespread but rare compared to normal splicing events. Exon-skipping events increased in cells deficient for the nuclear exosome or the 5'-3' exonuclease Dhp1, and also at late stages of meiotic differentiation when nuclear-exosome transcripts decreased. The pervasive exon-skipping transcripts were stochastic, did not increase in specific physiological conditions, and were mostly present at less than one copy per cell, even in the absence of nuclear RNA surveillance and during late meiosis. These exon-skipping transcripts are therefore unlikely to be functional and may reflect splicing errors that are actively removed by nuclear RNA surveillance. The average splicing rate by exon skipping was ∼ 0.24% in wild type and ∼ 1.75% in nuclear exonuclease mutants. We also detected approximately 250 circular RNAs derived from single or multiple exons. These circular RNAs were rare and stochastic, although a few became stabilized during quiescence and in splicing mutants. Using an exhaustive search algorithm, we also uncovered thousands of previously unknown splice sites, indicating pervasive splicing; yet most of these splicing variants were cryptic and increased in nuclear degradation mutants. This study highlights widespread but low frequency alternative or aberrant splicing events that are targeted by nuclear RNA surveillance.

  9. Implications of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CD44 exon 2 for risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juhua; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Jiajia; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2011-09-01

    CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in many cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis and tumor metastasis, suggesting that CD44 may play an important role in breast cancer development. In this study, we examined whether CD44 exon 2 polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms were present in the CD44 exon 2 coding region in female patients with breast cancer. There was no significant difference in the frequency of any one single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD44 exon 2 coding region between patients with breast cancer and normal donors. However, CD44 polymorphisms in the CD44 exon 2 coding region were identified in approximately 40% of patients with breast cancer, which was significantly higher than in normal donors (odds ratio, 9.34; 95% confidence interval = 2.58-33.82; P < 0.0001). The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test analysis showed that the patients with the CD44 polymorphisms in CD44 exon 2 coding sequence had breast cancer at earlier ages, 49 ± 3 versus 62 ± 2 years (P < 0.0005), and larger tumor burdens (4.9 ± 1.22 vs. 1.6 ± 0.15 mm, P < 0.01) at the time of diagnosis. Interestingly, African-American female patients having the CD44 polymorphisms in CD44 exon 2 coding sequence were diagnosed with breast cancer at very young age (41 ± 2 years). Our results show that CD44 exon 2 polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer development, and such analysis may be effectively used in the evaluation of risk, prediction of cancer, prevention, diagnosis, and epidemiological studies of breast cancer.

  10. hnRNP F directs formation of an exon 4 minus variant of tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Kane, Vanessa D; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2011-11-01

    HUVEC or mouse 3T3 cells infected with SV-40 generate within 3 to 5 days post-infection an ENOX2 species corresponding to the exon-4 minus splice variant of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2 or tNOX) expressed at the cancer cell surface. This study was to seek evidence for splicing factors that might direct formation of the exon 4 minus ENOX2 splice variant. To determine if silencing of ENOX2 exon 4 occurs because of motifs located in exon 4, transfections were performed on MCF-10A (mammary non-cancer), BT-20 (mammary cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells using a GFP minigene construct containing either a constitutively spliced exon (albumin exon 2) or the alternatively spliced ENOX2 exon 4 between the two GFP halves. Removal of exon 4 from the processed RNA of the GFP minigene construct occurred with HeLa and to a lesser extent with BT-20 but not in non-cancer MCF-10A cells. The Splicing Rainbow Program was used to identify all of the possible hnRNPs binding sites of exon 4 of ENOX2. There are 8 Exonic Splicing Silencers (ESSs) for hnRNP binding in the exon 4 sequences. Each of these sites were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis to test if any were responsible for the splicing skip. Results showed MutG75 ESS mutation changed the GFP expression which is a sign of splicing silence, while other mutations did not. As MutG75 changed the ESS binding site for hnRNP F, this result suggests that hnRNP F directs formation of the exon 4 minus variant of ENOX2.

  11. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  12. Therapeutic NOTCH3 cysteine correction in CADASIL using exon skipping: in vitro proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Julie W; Dauwerse, Hans G; Peters, Dorien J M; Goldfarb, Andrew; Venselaar, Hanka; Haffner, Christof; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M; Lesnik Oberstein, Saskia A J

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, is a hereditary cerebral small vessel disease caused by characteristic cysteine altering missense mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. NOTCH3 mutations in CADASIL result in an uneven number of cysteine residues in one of the 34 epidermal growth factor like-repeat (EGFr) domains of the NOTCH3 protein. The consequence of an unpaired cysteine residue in an EGFr domain is an increased multimerization tendency of mutant NOTCH3, leading to toxic accumulation of the protein in the (cerebro)vasculature, and ultimately reduced cerebral blood flow, recurrent stroke and vascular dementia. There is no therapy to delay or alleviate symptoms in CADASIL. We hypothesized that exclusion of the mutant EGFr domain from NOTCH3 would abolish the detrimental effect of the unpaired cysteine and thus prevent toxic NOTCH3 accumulation and the negative cascade of events leading to CADASIL. To accomplish this NOTCH3 cysteine correction by EGFr domain exclusion, we used pre-mRNA antisense-mediated skipping of specific NOTCH3 exons. Selection of these exons was achieved using in silico studies and based on the criterion that skipping of a particular exon or exon pair would modulate the protein in such a way that the mutant EGFr domain is eliminated, without otherwise corrupting NOTCH3 structure and function. Remarkably, we found that this strategy closely mimics evolutionary events, where the elimination and fusion of NOTCH EGFr domains led to the generation of four functional NOTCH homologues. We modelled a selection of exon skip strategies using cDNA constructs and show that the skip proteins retain normal protein processing, can bind ligand and be activated by ligand. We then determined the technical feasibility of targeted NOTCH3 exon skipping, by designing antisense oligonucleotides targeting exons 2-3, 4-5 and 6, which together harbour the majority of distinct CADASIL-causing mutations

  13. Cellular Localization and Processing of Primary Transcripts of Exonic MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Kluiver, Joost; de Jong, Debora; Kortman, Gertrud; Halsema, Nancy; Poppema, Sibrand; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Processing of miRNAs occurs simultaneous with the transcription and splicing of their primary transcripts. For the small subset of exonic miRNAs it is unclear if the unspliced and/or spliced transcripts are used for miRNA biogenesis. We assessed endogenous levels and cellular location of primary transcripts of three exonic miRNAs. The ratio between unspliced and spliced transcripts varied markedly, i.e. >1 for BIC, <1 for pri-miR-146a and variable for pri-miR-22. Endogenous unspliced transcripts were located almost exclusively in the nucleus and thus available for miRNA processing for all three miRNAs. Endogenous spliced pri-miRNA transcripts were present both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm and thus only partly available for miRNA processing. Overexpression of constructs containing the 5’ upstream exonic or intronic sequence flanking pre-miR-155 resulted in strongly enhanced miR-155 levels, indicating that the flanking sequence does not affect processing efficiency. Exogenously overexpressed full-length spliced BIC transcripts were present both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, were bound by the Microprocessor complex and resulted in enhanced miR-155 levels. We conclude that both unspliced and spliced transcripts of exonic miRNAs can be used for pre-miRNA cleavage. Splicing and cytoplasmic transport of spliced transcripts may present a mechanism to regulate levels of exonic microRNAs. PMID:24073292

  14. A computational and experimental approach toward a priori identification of alternatively spliced exons

    PubMed Central

    PHILIPPS, DANA L.; PARK, JUNG W.; GRAVELEY, BRENTON R.

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of regulating gene expression and enhancing protein diversity. In fact, the majority of metazoan genes encode pre-mRNAs that are alternatively spliced to produce anywhere from two to tens of thousands of mRNA isoforms. Thus, an important part of determining the complete proteome of an organism is developing a catalog of all mRNA isoforms. Alternatively spliced exons are typically identified by aligning EST clusters to reference mRNAs or genomic DNA. However, this approach is not useful for genomes that lack robust EST coverage, and tools that enable accurate prediction of alternatively spliced exons would be extraordinarily useful. Here, we use comparative genomics to identify, and experimentally verify, potential alternative exons based solely on their high degree of conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. At least 40% of the exons that fit our prediction criteria are in fact alternatively spliced. Thus, comparative genomics can be used to accurately predict certain classes of alternative exons without relying on EST data. PMID:15525709

  15. Huntingtin exon 1 fibrils feature an interdigitated β-hairpin-based polyglutamine core.

    PubMed

    Hoop, Cody L; Lin, Hsiang-Kai; Kar, Karunakar; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Lamley, Jonathan M; Boatz, Jennifer C; Mandal, Abhishek; Lewandowski, Józef R; Wetzel, Ronald; van der Wel, Patrick C A

    2016-02-09

    Polyglutamine expansion within the exon1 of huntingtin leads to protein misfolding, aggregation, and cytotoxicity in Huntington's disease. This incurable neurodegenerative disease is the most prevalent member of a family of CAG repeat expansion disorders. Although mature exon1 fibrils are viable candidates for the toxic species, their molecular structure and how they form have remained poorly understood. Using advanced magic angle spinning solid-state NMR, we directly probe the structure of the rigid core that is at the heart of huntingtin exon1 fibrils and other polyglutamine aggregates, via measurements of long-range intramolecular and intermolecular contacts, backbone and side-chain torsion angles, relaxation measurements, and calculations of chemical shifts. These experiments reveal the presence of β-hairpin-containing β-sheets that are connected through interdigitating extended side chains. Despite dramatic differences in aggregation behavior, huntingtin exon1 fibrils and other polyglutamine-based aggregates contain identical β-strand-based cores. Prior structural models, derived from X-ray fiber diffraction and computational analyses, are shown to be inconsistent with the solid-state NMR results. Internally, the polyglutamine amyloid fibrils are coassembled from differently structured monomers, which we describe as a type of "intrinsic" polymorphism. A stochastic polyglutamine-specific aggregation mechanism is introduced to explain this phenomenon. We show that the aggregation of mutant huntingtin exon1 proceeds via an intramolecular collapse of the expanded polyglutamine domain and discuss the implications of this observation for our understanding of its misfolding and aggregation mechanisms.

  16. TIA1 prevents skipping of a critical exon associated with spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Natalia N; Seo, Joonbae; Ottesen, Eric W; Shishimorova, Maria; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Singh, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    Prevention of skipping of exon 7 during pre-mRNA splicing of Survival Motor Neuron 2 (SMN2) holds the promise for cure of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Here, we report T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) and TIA1-related (TIAR) proteins as intron-associated positive regulators of SMN2 exon 7 splicing. We show that TIA1/TIAR stimulate exon recognition in an entirely novel context in which intronic U-rich motifs are separated from the 5' splice site by overlapping inhibitory elements. TIA1 and TIAR are modular proteins with three N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal glutamine-rich (Q-rich) domain. Our results reveal that any one RRM in combination with a Q domain is necessary and sufficient for TIA1-associated regulation of SMN2 exon 7 splicing in vivo. We also show that increased expression of TIA1 counteracts the inhibitory effect of polypyrimidine tract binding protein, a ubiquitously expressed factor recently implicated in regulation of SMN exon 7 splicing. Our findings expand the scope of TIA1/TIAR in genome-wide regulation of alternative splicing under normal and pathological conditions.

  17. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  18. [Exon skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy by using antisense Morpholino].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2009-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the lack of dystrophin protein at the sarcolemma. Exon skipping by antisense oligonucleotides is a novel method to restore the reading frame of the mutated DMD gene, and rescue dystrophin production. We recently reported that systemic delivery of Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting exon 6 and 8 of the canine DMD gene, efficiently recovered functional dystrophin proteins at the sarcolamma of dystrophic dogs, and improved performance of affected dogs without serious side effects (Yokota et al., Ann Neurol. 65 (6): 667-676, 2009). To optimize therapeutic antisense Morpholinos for more frequent mutations of the DMD gene, we designed antisense Morpholinos targeting exon 51 of the mouse DMD gene, and injected them separately or in combination into the muscles of mdx52 mice, in which exon 52 has been deleted by a gene targeting technique (Araki et al., 1997). We also tried systemic delivery of antisense Morpholino to skip exon 51 in mdx52 mice. It is important to verify the effectiveness and side effects of antisense Morpholino in experimental animal models such as dystrophic dogs or mdx52 mice, before clinical trials in DMD patients.

  19. KIT exon 11 deletion-inversions represent complex mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Lasota, Jerzy; Miettinen, Markku

    2007-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. KIT expression and mutational KIT activation have been documented in a majority of GISTs. Most mutations have been found in KIT juxtamembrane domain encoded by exon 11. Recently, we have identified three, complex KIT exon 11 mutations previously unreported in GISTs. These mutations consisted of several nucleotide deletions accompanied by insertions of inverted complementary DNA strand sequences. All three mutations were found in the 5' part of KIT exon 11. At the protein level, these mutations lead to the same end result: in-frame loss and insertion of a number of amino acids and could be considered examples of deletion-insertion. Although proper description of these mutations at the genomic level is a complex task and requires an individual approach, the uniform name deletion-inversion is suggested for this type of mutation, based on the present study. The frequency of deletion-inversions among KIT exon 11 mutant GISTs was estimated to be <0.5%, based on evaluation of 700 KIT exon 11 mutants. Molecular events leading to formation of deletion-inversions remain elusive and should be studied further.

  20. High sequence similarity within ras exons 1 and 2 in different mammalian species and phylogenetic divergence of the ras gene family.

    PubMed

    Watzinger, F; Mayr, B; Haring, E; Lion, T

    1998-03-01

    We have determined the canine and feline N-, K-, and H-ras gene sequences from position +23 to +270 covering exons I and II which contain the mutational hot spot codons 12, 13, and 61. The results were used to assess the degree of similarity between ras gene DNA regions containing the critical domains affected in neoplastic disorders in different mammalian species. The comparative analyses performed included human, canine, feline, murine, rattine, and, whenever possible, bovine, leporine (rabbit), porcelline (guinea pig), and mesocricetine (hamster) ras gene sequences within the region of interest. Comparison of feline and canine nucleotide sequences with the corresponding regions in human DNA revealed a sequence similarity greater than 85% to the human sequence. Contemporaneous analysis of previously published ras DNA sequences from other mammalian species showed a similar degree of homology to human DNA. Most nucleotide differences observed represented synonymous changes without effect on the amino acid sequence of the respective proteins. For assessment of the phylogenetic evolution of ras gene family, a maximum parsimony dendrogram based on multiple sequence alignment of the common region of exons I and II in the N-, K-, and H-ras genes was constructed. Interestingly, a higher substitution rate among the H-ras genes became apparent, indicating accelerated sequence evolution within this particular clade. The most parsimonious tree clearly shows that the duplications giving rise to the three ras genes must have occurred before the mammalian radiation.

  1. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  2. Correlation between exon 3 polymorphism of growth hormone receptor gene and the responses to rhGH therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ying; Zheng, Rongxiu; Zhou, Yuhui; Wang, Jing; Bao, Pengli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the exon 3 polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene and the responses to the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in children with short stature. Methods: Forty-five growth hormone deficiency (GHD) children (male: 30, female: 15, aged 10.39±2.73 yrs) and twenty-five idiopathic short stature (ISS) children (male: 15, female: 10, aged 10.58±2.56 yrs) admitted to our hospital were included. The polymorphism of exon 3 of GHR gene was determined using multiple PCR amplification. Treatment duration for each subject was at least 12 months. On this basis, we evaluated the correlation between treatment efficiency of rhGH therapy and GHR exon 3 polymorphism, GHD, and treatment duration. Results: Significant difference was noted in the growth velocity (GV) of GHD children with a genotype of GHRfl compared with those with a genotype of GHRd3 (9.44±2.35 vs. 11.36±2.49, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the GV of ISS patients with a genotype of GHRfl were remarkably decreased compared with those with a genotype of GHRd3 (8.74±2.36 vs. 11.18±2.44, P < 0.05). For the children with peak GH response of less than 5 ng/ml, statistical difference was noted in the GV of children with a genotype of GHRfl compared with those with a genotype of GHRd3 (9.55±2.76 vs. 10.84±1.53, P < 0.05). For the patients with peak GH response to clonidine or pyridostigmine bromide of > 5 ng/ml, a satisfactory response to rhGH therapy was noted in children with a genotype of GHRd3 compared with those of GHRfl (P < 0.05). Conclusions: GHRd3 was correlated with the response to rhGH therapy in children with short stature. For the patients with the same genotype, GHD caused no obvious effects on the final height. However, for the patients with peak GH response of > 5 ng/ml, a satisfactory response to rhGH therapy was noted in children with a genotype of GHRd3 compared with those of GHRfl (P < 0.05). A higher treatment efficiency was obtained in

  3. Unclassified renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological, comparative genomic hybridization, and whole-genome exon sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhen-Yan; Pang, Li-Juan; Qi, Yan; Kang, Xue-Ling; Hu, Jian-Ming; Wang, Lianghai; Liu, Kun-Peng; Ren, Yuan; Cui, Mei; Song, Li-Li; Li, Hong-An; Zou, Hong; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Unclassified renal cell carcinoma (URCC) is a rare variant of RCC, accounting for only 3-5% of all cases. Studies on the molecular genetics of URCC are limited, and hence, we report on 2 cases of URCC analyzed using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and the genome-wide human exon GeneChip technique to identify the genomic alterations of URCC. Both URCC patients (mean age, 72 years) presented at an advanced stage and died within 30 months post-surgery. Histologically, the URCCs were composed of undifferentiated, multinucleated, giant cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunostaining revealed that both URCC cases had strong p53 protein expression and partial expression of cluster of differentiation-10 and cytokeratin. The CGH profiles showed chromosomal imbalances in both URCC cases: gains were observed in chromosomes 1p11-12, 1q12-13, 2q20-23, 3q22-23, 8p12, and 16q11-15, whereas losses were detected on chromosomes 1q22-23, 3p12-22, 5p30-ter, 6p, 11q, 16q18-22, 17p12-14, and 20p. Compared with 18 normal renal tissues, 40 mutated genes were detected in the URCC tissues, including 32 missense and 8 silent mutations. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the missense mutation genes were involved in 11 different biological processes and pathways, including cell cycle regulation, lipid localization and transport, neuropeptide signaling, organic ether metabolism, and ATP-binding cassette transporter signaling. Our findings indicate that URCC may be a highly aggressive cancer, and the genetic alterations identified herein may provide clues regarding the tumorigenesis of URCC and serve as a basis for the development of targeted therapies against URCC in the future. PMID:25120763

  4. Abnormal Methylation Status of the GNAS Exon 1A Region in Pseudohypohyperparathyroidism Combined With Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Dong; Ren, An; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Dongliang; Wei, Jun; Yu, Ning; Xing, Xuenong; Ye, Shandong

    2015-12-01

    Pseudohypohyperparathyroidism (PHHP) is a rare type of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), which seems to have a normal skeletal response to parathyroid hormone but shows renal resistance. Almost all patients with PHHP have PHP Ib, a subtype of PHP that is usually caused by GNAS methylation defects, often in exon 1A. Some features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy can occasionally be found in patients with PHHP, but these features are also common in Turner syndrome. The authors report on an extremely rare case of a patient with PHHP and Turner syndrome, a 47-year-old woman who sought medical attention for hypocalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone. She had no family history of hypocalcemia and no STX16 gene deletions. She had a mosaic karyotype of 46, X, del(X)(p11.4)/45, XO. Pyrosequencing was performed to determine the GNAS exon 1A methylation. The degree of methylation found in exon 1A of the patient was lower than her unaffected relatives.

  5. Exon 32 Skipping of Dysferlin Rescues Membrane Repair in Patients’ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barthélémy, Florian; Blouin, Cédric; Wein, Nicolas; Mouly, Vincent; Courrier, Sébastien; Dionnet, Eugénie; Kergourlay, Virginie; Mathieu, Yves; Garcia, Luis; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Lamaze, Christophe; Lévy, Nicolas; Krahn, Martin; Bartoli, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dysferlinopathies are a family of disabling muscular dystrophies with LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy as the main phenotypes. They are associated with molecular defects in DYSF, which encodes dysferlin, a key player in sarcolemmal homeostasis. Previous investigations have suggested that exon skipping may be a promising therapy for a subset of patients with dysferlinopathies. Such an approach aims to rescue functional proteins when targeting modular proteins and specific tissues. We sought to evaluate the dysferlin functional recovery following exon 32 skipping in the cells of affected patients. Exon skipping efficacy was characterized at several levels by use of in vitro myotube formation assays and quantitative membrane repair and recovery tests. Data obtained from these assessments confirmed that dysferlin function is rescued by quasi-dysferlin expression in treated patient cells, supporting the case for a therapeutic antisense-based trial in a subset of dysferlin-deficient patients. PMID:27858744

  6. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-09-03

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (dS) and non-synonymous (dN) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (dN = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens.

  7. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  8. The stop mutation R553X in the CFTR gene results in exon skipping

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.; Shackleton, S.; Harris, A. )

    1994-01-15

    Stop or nonsense mutations are known to disrupt gene function in a number of different ways. The authors have studied the effects of the stop mutation R553X in exon 11 of the CFTR gene by analyzing mRNA extracted from nasal epithelial cells harvested from patients with cystic fibrosis. Four patients who were compound heterozygotes for the R553X mutation were studied. Ten non-CF control subjects were also studied. In all four patients, full-length CFTR mRNA was identified, but only a very small proportion of this was derived from the R553X allele. A smaller transcript, lacking exon 11, was also seen in the R553X patients but not in the controls. Most of this transcript was derived from the R553X allele. These results suggest that the R553X mutation results in skipping of the exon in which it is located. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Suprasellar Immature Teratoma : Mutation of Exon 4 P53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Udin, Nujaimin; Ahmad, Ku Asmarina Ku; Ahmad, Farizan; Omar, Effat; Aziz, Mohd Ezanee; Kumar, Raj; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2008-01-01

    We described an intracranial immature teratoma in a 13 year old Malay boy who presented with history of chronic headache and blurring of vision. Physical findings revealed bilateral papilloedema but no other localizing sign. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain revealed a suprasellar well defined lobulated midline heterogenous mass which was intraoperatively described as mainly solid tumour with multiple small cystic component filled with yellowish jelly like material. Histopathological finding confirmed the case as immature teratoma. Molecular genetic analysis of p53 and p27 genes revealed substitution of nucleotide G to C at location nucleotide 12139, exon 4 of gene p53. No alteration was detected at exon 5–6 and 8 of p53 gene and exon 1 and 2 of p27 gene. This is the first case report of an intracranial immature teratoma with genetic mutation occuring in a Malay boy. PMID:22589625

  10. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  11. Computational Identification of Tissue-Specific Splicing Regulatory Elements in Human Genes from RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Eman; ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Heath, Lenwood S.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a vital process for regulating gene expression and promoting proteomic diversity. It plays a key role in tissue-specific expressed genes. This specificity is mainly regulated by splicing factors that bind to specific sequences called splicing regulatory elements (SREs). Here, we report a genome-wide analysis to study alternative splicing on multiple tissues, including brain, heart, liver, and muscle. We propose a pipeline to identify differential exons across tissues and hence tissue-specific SREs. In our pipeline, we utilize the DEXSeq package along with our previously reported algorithms. Utilizing the publicly available RNA-Seq data set from the Human BodyMap project, we identified 28,100 differentially used exons across the four tissues. We identified tissue-specific exonic splicing enhancers that overlap with various previously published experimental and computational databases. A complicated exonic enhancer regulatory network was revealed, where multiple exonic enhancers were found across multiple tissues while some were found only in specific tissues. Putative combinatorial exonic enhancers and silencers were discovered as well, which may be responsible for exon inclusion or exclusion across tissues. Some of the exonic enhancers are found to be co-occurring with multiple exonic silencers and vice versa, which demonstrates a complicated relationship between tissue-specific exonic enhancers and silencers. PMID:27861625

  12. Zebrafish immunoglobulin IgD: unusual exon usage and quantitative expression profiles with IgM and IgZ/T heavy chain isotypes.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Anastasia M; Moustafa, Farah M; Romanowski, Kryzstof E; Steiner, Lisa A

    2011-09-01

    The zebrafish is an emerging model for comparative immunology and biomedical research. In contrast to the five heavy chain isotype system of mice and human (IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE), zebrafish harbor gene segments for IgD, IgM, and novel heavy chain isotype called IgZ/T which appears restricted to bony fishes. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a suite of quantitative real time RT-PCR protocols to measure IgH expression in a vertebrate model which has considerable promise for modeling both pathogenic infection and chronic conditions leading to immune dysfunction. Specific primers were designed and following verification of their specificty, relative expression levels of IgD, IgM, and IgZ/T were measured in triplicate for zebrafish raised under standard laboratory conditions. During embryonic stages, low levels of each heavy chain isotype (IgH) were detected with each increasing steadily between 2 and 17 weeks post fertilization. Overall IgM>IgZ>IgD throughout zebrafish development with the copy number of IgM being several fold higher than that of IgD or IgZ/T. IgD exon usage was also characterized, as its extremely long size and presence of a stop codon in the second IgD exon in zebrafish, raised questions as to how this antibody might be expressed. Zebrafish IgD was found to be a chimeric immunoglobulin, with the third IgD exon spliced to the first IgM constant exon thereby circumventing the first and second IgD exons. Collectively, the qRT-PCR results represent the first comparative profile of IgD, IgM, IgZ/T expression over the lifespan of any fish species and the primers and assay parameters reported should prove useful in enabling researchers to rapidly quantify changes in IgH expression in zebrafish models of disease where altered IgH expression is manifested.

  13. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events conserved in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gene W.; Van Nostrand, Eric; Holste, Dirk; Poggio, Tomaso; Burge, Christopher B.

    2005-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing affects a majority of human genes and plays important roles in development and disease. Alternative splicing (AS) events conserved since the divergence of human and mouse are likely of primary biological importance, but relatively few of such events are known. Here we describe sequence features that distinguish exons subject to evolutionarily conserved AS, which we call alternative conserved exons (ACEs), from other orthologous human/mouse exons and integrate these features into an exon classification algorithm, acescan. Genome-wide analysis of annotated orthologous human–mouse exon pairs identified ≈2,000 predicted ACEs. Alternative splicing was verified in both human and mouse tissues by using an RT-PCR-sequencing protocol for 21 of 30 (70%) predicted ACEs tested, supporting the validity of a majority of acescan predictions. By contrast, AS was observed in mouse tissues for only 2 of 15 (13%) tested exons that had EST or cDNA evidence of AS in human but were not predicted ACEs, and AS was never observed for 11 negative control exons in human or mouse tissues. Predicted ACEs were much more likely to preserve the reading frame and less likely to disrupt protein domains than other AS events and were enriched in genes expressed in the brain and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, and development. Our results also imply that the vast majority of AS events represented in the human EST database are not conserved in mouse. PMID:15708978

  14. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed. PMID:26076463

  15. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed.

  16. Viral diversity and diversification of major non-structural genes vif, vpr, vpu, tat exon 1 and rev exon 1 during primary HIV-1 subtype C infection.

    PubMed

    Rossenkhan, Raabya; Novitsky, Vladimir; Sebunya, Theresa K; Musonda, Rosemary; Gashe, Berhanu A; Essex, M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the level of intra-patient diversity and evolution of HIV-1C non-structural genes in primary infection, viral quasispecies obtained by single genome amplification (SGA) at multiple sampling timepoints up to 500 days post-seroconversion (p/s) were analyzed. The mean intra-patient diversity was 0.11% (95% CI; 0.02 to 0.20) for vif, 0.23% (95% CI; 0.08 to 0.38) for vpr, 0.35% (95% CI; -0.05 to 0.75) for vpu, 0.18% (95% CI; 0.01 to 0.35) for tat exon 1 and 0.30% (95% CI; 0.02 to 0.58) for rev exon 1 during the time period 0 to 90 days p/s. The intra-patient diversity increased gradually in all non-structural genes over the first year of HIV-1 infection, which was evident from the vif mean intra-patient diversity of 0.46% (95% CI; 0.28 to 0.64), vpr 0.44% (95% CI; 0.24 to 0.64), vpu 0.84% (95% CI; 0.55 to 1.13), tat exon 1 0.35% (95% CI; 0.14 to 0.56 ) and rev exon 1 0.42% (95% CI; 0.18 to 0.66) during the time period of 181 to 500 days p/s. There was a statistically significant increase in viral diversity for vif (p = 0.013) and vpu (p = 0.002). No associations between levels of viral diversity within the non-structural genes and HIV-1 RNA load during primary infection were found. The study details the dynamics of the non-structural viral genes during the early stages of HIV-1C infection.

  17. Welcome to the splice age: antisense oligonucleotide–mediated exon skipping gains wider applicability

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Elizabeth M.; Wyatt, Eugene J.

    2016-01-01

    Exon skipping uses antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to alter transcript splicing for the purpose of rescuing or modulating protein expression. In this issue of the JCI, Lee and colleagues developed and evaluated an ASO-dependent method for treating certain molecularly defined diseases associated with alterations in lamin A/C (LMNA) splicing. Exon skipping by ASOs is gaining traction as a therapeutic strategy, and the use of ASOs is now being applied to bypass mutations and generate modified but functional proteins for an array of genetic disorders. PMID:26999602

  18. Exon duplications in the ATP7A gene: Frequency and Transcriptional Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism, caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. Thirty-three Menkes patients in whom no mutation had been detected with standard diagnostic tools were screened for exon duplications in the ATP7A gene. Methods The ATP7A gene was screened for exon duplications using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The expression level of ATP7A was investigated by real-time PCR and detailed analysis of the ATP7A mRNA was performed by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. In order to investigate whether the identified duplicated fragments originated from a single or from two different X-chromosomes, polymorphic markers located in the duplicated fragments were analyzed. Results Partial ATP7A gene duplication was identified in 20 unrelated patients including one patient with Occipital Horn Syndrome (OHS). Duplications in the ATP7A gene are estimated from our material to be the disease causing mutation in 4% of the Menkes disease patients. The duplicated regions consist of between 2 and 15 exons. In at least one of the cases, the duplication was due to an intra-chromosomal event. Characterization of the ATP7A mRNA transcripts in 11 patients revealed that the duplications were organized in tandem, in a head to tail direction. The reading frame was disrupted in all 11 cases. Small amounts of wild-type transcript were found in all patients as a result of exon-skipping events occurring in the duplicated regions. In the OHS patient with a duplication of exon 3 and 4, the duplicated out-of-frame transcript coexists with an almost equally represented wild-type transcript, presumably leading to the milder phenotype. Conclusions In general, patients with duplication of only 2 exons exhibit a milder phenotype as compared to patients with duplication of more than 2 exons. This study provides insight into exon duplications in the ATP7A gene. PMID:22074552

  19. Imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome detected by Southern blotting using a probe containing exon {alpha} of SNRPN

    SciTech Connect

    Beuten, J.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy (UPD), or other mutations. The SNRPN gene maps in this region, is paternally expressed, and is a candidate gene for PWS. Southern blotting using methylation-sensitive enzymes and a genomic DNA probe from the CpG island containing exon {alpha} of the SNRPN gene reveals methylation specific for the maternal allele. In cases of the usual deletions or UPD, the probe detects absence of an unmethylated allele in PWS and absence of a methylated allele in AS. We have analyzed 21 nondeletion/nonUPD AS patients with this probe and found evidence for an imprinting mutation (absence of a methylated allele) in 3 patients. Southern blotting with methylation-sensitive enzymes using the exon {alpha} probe, like use of the PW71 probe, should detect abnormalities in all known PWS cases and in 3 of the 4 forms of AS: deletion, UPD and imprinting mutations. This analysis provides a valuable diagnostic approach for PWS and AS. In efforts to localize the imprinting mutations in AS, one patient was found with failure to inherit a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism near probe 189-1 (D15S13). Analysis of this locus in AS families and CEPH families demonstrates a polymorphism that impairs amplification and a different polymorphism involving absence of hybridization to the 189-1 probe. The functional significance, if any, of deletion of the 189-1 region is unclear.

  20. A modified group I intron can function as both a ribozyme and a 5' exon in a trans-exon ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tasiouka, K I; Burke, J M

    1994-06-24

    Here, we show that a single RNA molecule derived from a group-I intron can provide the catalytic activity, the substrate recognition domain and the attacking nucleophile in a reaction that mimics the exon ligation step of splicing. To accomplish this reaction, we have linked a 5' exon sequence to the 3' end of an attenuated form of the self-splicing Tetrahymena rRNA intron. The ribozyme (I-E1) attacks an oligoribonucleotide analog of the 3' splice site (I'-E2) to generate a product containing ligated exons (I-E1-E2) and a small intron fragment (I'). Two modified introns were constructed and tested for activity. A construct designed to interact with the 3' splice site through intermolecular P9.0 and P10 helices was found to be inactive due to failure to form a stable ribozyme-substrate complex. A second modified intron and substrate combination was engineered, in which the complex was further stabilized by an intermolecular P9.2 helix. In this case, stable complexes and reaction products were identified. The reaction efficiency was low compared to splicing of the unmodified intron-containing precursor, and will be optimized in future experiments. Following optimization, we believe that this system may be exploited to examine the functional consequences of a wide variety of 3' splice-site modifications, and may provide the basis for development of highly selective trans-acting ribozymes.

  1. Direct Competition between hnRNP C and U2AF65 Protects the Transcriptome from the Exonization of Alu Elements

    PubMed Central

    Zarnack, Kathi; König, Julian; Tajnik, Mojca; Martincorena, Iñigo; Eustermann, Sebastian; Stévant, Isabelle; Reyes, Alejandro; Anders, Simon; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Ule, Jernej

    2013-01-01

    Summary There are ∼650,000 Alu elements in transcribed regions of the human genome. These elements contain cryptic splice sites, so they are in constant danger of aberrant incorporation into mature transcripts. Despite posing a major threat to transcriptome integrity, little is known about the molecular mechanisms preventing their inclusion. Here, we present a mechanism for protecting the human transcriptome from the aberrant exonization of transposable elements. Quantitative iCLIP data show that the RNA-binding protein hnRNP C competes with the splicing factor U2AF65 at many genuine and cryptic splice sites. Loss of hnRNP C leads to formation of previously suppressed Alu exons, which severely disrupt transcript function. Minigene experiments explain disease-associated mutations in Alu elements that hamper hnRNP C binding. Thus, by preventing U2AF65 binding to Alu elements, hnRNP C plays a critical role as a genome-wide sentinel protecting the transcriptome. The findings have important implications for human evolution and disease. PMID:23374342

  2. Polymorphism in the Alternative Donor Site of the Cryptic Exon of LHCGR: Functional Consequences and Associations with Testosterone Level

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Han, Bing; Zhu, Wenjiao; Cheng, Tong; Fan, Mengxia; Wu, Jiajun; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Hui; Si, Jiqiang; Lyu, Qifeng; Chai, Weiran; Zhao, Shuangxia; Song, Huaidong; Kuang, Yanping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Selective splicing is a feature of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR). A cryptic exon (LHCGR-exon 6A) was found to be derived from alternative splicing in intron 6 of the LHCGR gene, which including two transcripts LHCGR-exon 6A-long and LHCGR-exon 6A-short. We addressed the functional consequences of SNP rs68073206, located at the +5 position of an alternative 5′ splice donor site, and observed its association with male infertility in the subjects with azoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and normozoospermia. The translation product of splicing variant LHCGR-exon 6A was expressed in the cytoplasm and exhibited no affinity with [125I]-hCG. No dominant negative effect was observed in cells co-expressed with LHCGR-exon 6A and wild-type LHCGR. The long transcript (LHCGR-exon 6A-long) was significantly elevated in the granulosa cells with G/G genotypes, which could be reproduced in vitro by mini-gene construct transfection. Genotyping analysis showed no association between rs68073206 and male infertility. However, this polymorphism was significantly associated with testosterone levels in normozoospermic subjects (n = 210). In conclusion, SNP rs68073206 in the splicing site of the cryptic exon 6A of the LHCGR gene affect the splicing pattern in the gene, which may play a role in the modulation of the LHCGR sensitivity in the gonads. PMID:28367994

  3. Oxidative stress controls the choice of alternative last exons via a Brahma-BRCA1-CstF pathway.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Gabriele A; Rigamonti, Aurora; Lenzken, Silvia C; Filosa, Giuseppe; Alvarez, Reinaldo; Calogero, Raffaele; Bianchi, Marco E; Barabino, Silvia M L

    2017-01-25

    Alternative splicing of terminal exons increases transcript and protein diversity. How physiological and pathological stimuli regulate the choice between alternative terminal exons is, however, largely unknown. Here, we show that Brahma (BRM), the ATPase subunit of the hSWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex interacts with BRCA1/BARD1, which ubiquitinates the 50 kDa subunit of the 3' end processing factor CstF. This results in the inhibition of transcript cleavage at the proximal poly(A) site and a shift towards inclusion of the distal terminal exon. Upon oxidative stress, BRM is depleted, cleavage inhibition is released, and inclusion of the proximal last exon is favoored. Our findings elucidate a novel regulatory mechanism, distinct from the modulation of transcription elongation by BRM that controls alternative splicing of internal exons.

  4. Oxidative stress controls the choice of alternative last exons via a Brahma–BRCA1–CstF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Gabriele A.; Rigamonti, Aurora; Lenzken, Silvia C.; Filosa, Giuseppe; Alvarez, Reinaldo; Calogero, Raffaele; Bianchi, Marco E.; Barabino, Silvia M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing of terminal exons increases transcript and protein diversity. How physiological and pathological stimuli regulate the choice between alternative terminal exons is, however, largely unknown. Here, we show that Brahma (BRM), the ATPase subunit of the hSWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex interacts with BRCA1/BARD1, which ubiquitinates the 50 kDa subunit of the 3′ end processing factor CstF. This results in the inhibition of transcript cleavage at the proximal poly(A) site and a shift towards inclusion of the distal terminal exon. Upon oxidative stress, BRM is depleted, cleavage inhibition is released, and inclusion of the proximal last exon is favoored. Our findings elucidate a novel regulatory mechanism, distinct from the modulation of transcription elongation by BRM that controls alternative splicing of internal exons. PMID:27591253

  5. Abnormal splicing switch of DMD's penultimate exon compromises muscle fibre maintenance in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S.; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1. PMID:26018658

  6. Exonic microdeletions of the gephyrin gene impair GABAergic synaptic inhibition in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dejanovic, Borislav; Lal, Dennis; Catarino, Claudia B; Arjune, Sita; Belaidi, Abdel A; Trucks, Holger; Vollmar, Christian; Surges, Rainer; Kunz, Wolfram S; Motameny, Susanne; Altmüller, Janine; Köhler, Anna; Neubauer, Bernd A; Epicure Consortium; Nürnberg, Peter; Noachtar, Soheyl; Schwarz, Günter; Sander, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Gephyrin is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, essential for the clustering of glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) at inhibitory synapses. An impairment of GABAergic synaptic inhibition represents a key pathway of epileptogenesis. Recently, exonic microdeletions in the gephyrin (GPHN) gene have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia and epileptic seizures. Here we report the identification of novel exonic GPHN microdeletions in two patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), representing the most common group of genetically determined epilepsies. The identified GPHN microdeletions involve exons 5-9 (Δ5-9) and 2-3 (Δ2-3), both affecting the gephyrin G-domain. Molecular characterization of the GPHN Δ5-9 variant demonstrated that it perturbs the clustering of regular gephyrin at inhibitory synapses in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons in a dominant-negative manner, resulting in a significant loss of γ2-subunit containing GABAARs. GPHN Δ2-3 causes a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon (p.V22Gfs*7) leading to haplo-insufficiency of the gene. Our results demonstrate that structural exonic microdeletions affecting the GPHN gene constitute a rare genetic risk factor for IGE and other neuropsychiatric disorders by an impairment of the GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission.

  7. Defining the ends of Parkin exon 4 deletions in two different families with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Clarimon, Jordi; Johnson, Janel; Dogu, Okan; Horta, Wagner; Khan, Naheed; Lees, Andrew J; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew

    2005-02-05

    Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP, PARK2) is characterized by an early onset parkinsonism, often presenting with dystonia as an early feature. Mutations in Parkin are a relatively common cause of AR-JP and are estimated to be present in approximately 30% of familial young onset Parkinson disease (PD) [Abbas et al. (1999); Hum Mol Genet 8:567-574]. These mutations include exon rearrangements (deletions and duplications), point mutations, and small deletions. Similar genomic mutations have been described in unrelated patients, thereby indicating independent mutational events or ancient founder effects. We have identified homozygous deletion mutations of exon 4 in Parkin in two unrelated families, one from Brazil and the other from Turkey [Dogu et al. (2004); Mov Dis 9:812-816; Khan et al., Mov Dis, in press]. We have performed molecular analysis of the deletion breakpoints and this data indicates these mutations originated independently. We present here data demonstrating that the mutation responsible for disease in the Brazilian kindred consists of two separate deletions (1,069 and 1,750 bp) surrounding and including exon 4. The deletion removing parkin exon 4 identified in the Turkish family extended 156,203 bp. In addition to demonstrating that disease in these families is not caused by a single founder mutation, these data show that there is no common fragile site between these mutational events.

  8. MBNL1 and PTB cooperate to repress splicing of Tpm1 exon 3

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Clare; Edge, Christopher; Lorenz, Mike; Coelho, Miguel B.; Winters, Mikael; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Cherny, Dmitry; Eperon, Ian C.; Smith, Christopher W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Exon 3 of the rat α-tropomyosin (Tpm1) gene is repressed in smooth muscle cells, allowing inclusion of the mutually exclusive partner exon 2. Two key types of elements affect repression of exon 3 splicing: binding sites for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and additional negative regulatory elements consisting of clusters of UGC or CUG motifs. Here, we show that the UGC clusters are bound by muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL), which act as repressors of Tpm1 exon 3. We show that the N-terminal region of MBNL1, containing its four CCCH zinc-finger domains, is sufficient to mediate repression. The same region of MBNL1 can make a direct protein-to-protein interaction with PTB, and RNA binding by MBNL promotes this interaction, apparently by inducing a conformational change in MBNL. Moreover, single molecule analysis showed that MBNL-binding sites increase the binding of PTB to its own sites. Our data suggest that the smooth muscle splicing of Tpm1 is mediated by allosteric assembly of an RNA–protein complex minimally comprising PTB, MBNL and their cognate RNA-binding sites. PMID:23511971

  9. The deletion of exon 3 in the cardiac ryanodine receptor is rescued by β strand switching.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Paolo A; Kimlicka, Lynn; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip

    2011-06-08

    Mutations in the cardiac Ryanodine Receptor (RYR2) are linked to triggered arrhythmias. Removal of exon 3 results in a severe form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). This exon encodes secondary structure elements that are crucial for folding of the N-terminal domain (NTD), raising the question of why the deletion is neither lethal nor confers a loss of function. We determined the 2.3 Å crystal structure of the NTD lacking exon 3. The removal causes a structural rescue whereby a flexible loop inserts itself into the β trefoil domain and increases thermal stability. The exon 3 deletion is not tolerated in the corresponding RYR1 domain. The rescue shows a novel mechanism by which RYR2 channels can adjust their Ca²⁺ release properties through altering the structure of the NTD. Despite the rescue, the deletion affects interfaces with other RYR2 domains. We propose that relative movement of the NTD is allosterically coupled to the pore region.

  10. Mutations in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Attie, T.; Eng, C.; Mulligan, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR) is a frequent congenital malformation ascribed to the absence of autonomic ganglion cells in the terminal hindgut. Recently, we have identified mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in HSCR families. Mutations of the RET gene have also been reported in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). While RET mutations in HSCR are scattered on the whole coding sequence, MEN 2A and FMTC mutations are clustered in 5 cystein codons of exons 10 and 11. Here, we report on HSCR families carrying mutations in exon 10 of the RET gene, one of them involving a cystein codon. Germ-line mutations in exon 10 of the RET gene may contribute to either an early development defect (HSCR) or inherited predisposition to cancer (MEN 2A and FMTC), probable depending on the nature and location of the mutation. These data also suggest that HSCR patients with mutations in exon 10 might subsequently prove to be at risk for MEN 2A or FMTC since several MEN 2A/HSCR associations have been reported.

  11. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping as a strategy to reduce proteolytic cleavage of ataxin-3

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Lodewijk J. A.; Schmidt, Iris; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; van Attikum, Haico; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 protein. Cleavage of mutant ataxin-3 by proteolytic enzymes yields ataxin-3 fragments containing the polyglutamine stretch. These shorter ataxin-3 fragments are thought to be involved in SCA3 pathogenesis due to their increased cellular toxicity and their involvement in formation of the characteristic neuronal aggregates. As a strategy to prevent formation of toxic cleavage fragments, we investigated an antisense oligonucleotide-mediated modification of the ataxin-3 pre-mRNA through exon skipping of exon 8 and 9, resulting in the removal of a central 88 amino acid region of the ataxin-3 protein. This removed protein region contains several predicted cleavage sites and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs. In contrast to unmodified mutant ataxin-3, the internally truncated ataxin-3 protein did not give rise to potentially toxic cleavage fragments when incubated with caspases. In vitro experiments did not show cellular toxicity of the modified ataxin-3 protein. However, the modified protein was incapable of binding poly-ubiquitin chains, which may interfere with its normal deubiquitinating function. Low exon skipping efficiencies combined with reduction in important ataxin-3 protein functions suggest that skipping of exon 8 and 9 is not a viable therapeutic option for SCA3. PMID:27731380

  12. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping as a strategy to reduce proteolytic cleavage of ataxin-3.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Lodewijk J A; Schmidt, Iris; Luijsterburg, Martijn S; van Attikum, Haico; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C

    2016-10-12

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 protein. Cleavage of mutant ataxin-3 by proteolytic enzymes yields ataxin-3 fragments containing the polyglutamine stretch. These shorter ataxin-3 fragments are thought to be involved in SCA3 pathogenesis due to their increased cellular toxicity and their involvement in formation of the characteristic neuronal aggregates. As a strategy to prevent formation of toxic cleavage fragments, we investigated an antisense oligonucleotide-mediated modification of the ataxin-3 pre-mRNA through exon skipping of exon 8 and 9, resulting in the removal of a central 88 amino acid region of the ataxin-3 protein. This removed protein region contains several predicted cleavage sites and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs. In contrast to unmodified mutant ataxin-3, the internally truncated ataxin-3 protein did not give rise to potentially toxic cleavage fragments when incubated with caspases. In vitro experiments did not show cellular toxicity of the modified ataxin-3 protein. However, the modified protein was incapable of binding poly-ubiquitin chains, which may interfere with its normal deubiquitinating function. Low exon skipping efficiencies combined with reduction in important ataxin-3 protein functions suggest that skipping of exon 8 and 9 is not a viable therapeutic option for SCA3.

  13. A novel first exon directs hormone-sensitive transcription of the pig prolactin receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine prolactin (PRL) acts through its receptor (PRLR) to confer a wide range of biological functions, including its established role during lactation.We have identified a novel first exon of the porcine PRLR that gives rise to three different mRNA transcripts. Transcri...

  14. Detection EGFR exon 19 status of lung cancer patients by DNA electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiong-Wei; Weng, Xiu-Hua; Wang, Chang-Lian; Lin, Wei-Wei; Liu, Ai-Lin; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xin-Hua

    2016-06-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 mutation status is a very important prediction index for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy. In this paper, we constructed a superior selective sandwich-type electrochemical biosensor to detect in-frame deletions in exon 19 of EGFR in real samples of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Based on the characteristics of different hybridization efficiency in different hybridization phase conditions, different region around EGFR exon 19 deletion hotspots was selected to design DNA probes to improve biosensor performance. The results confirm that alteration of deletion location in target deliberately according to different hybridization phase is able to improve selectivity of sandwich-type DNA biosensor. Satisfactory discrimination ability can be achieved when the deletions are located in the capture probe interaction region. In order to improve efficiency of ssDNA generation from dsDNA, we introduce Lambda exonuclease (λ-exo) to sandwich-type biosensor system. EGFR exon 19 statuses of clinical real samples from lung cancer patients can be discriminated successfully by the proposed method. Our research would make the electrochemical biosensor be an excellent candidate for EGFR detection for lung cancer patients.

  15. A novel point mutation in exon 20 of EGFR showed sensitivity to erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Xing, Kailin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Xinmin; Sun, Si; Luo, Zhiguo; Wang, Huijie; Yu, Hui; Wang, Jialei; Chang, Jianhua; Wu, Xianghua; Hu, Aiqun

    2014-07-01

    Mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are good predictors of response to treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is well established that classic mutations, such as in-frame deletions in exon 19 and the point mutation L858R in exon 21, are associated with high sensitivity to EGFR TKIs. Though mutations in exon 20 are almost correlated with EGFR-TKIs resistance, the awareness that they might confer sensitivity to TKI treatment should be emphasized. Herein, we describe a novel mutation in exon 20 of EGFR in a Chinese male non-smoker, who was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and characterized by the codon 769 point mutation GTG>GCG, which translates into alanine instead of valine (p.V769A). In this case, the patient showed a good clinical response to erlotinib after paclitaxel/cisplatin first-line and docetaxel second-line chemotherapies. Therefore, we suggest that this rare mutation (p.V769A) may be a sensitive EGFR mutation in NSCLC. The identification of novel EGFR mutations provides new predictive biomarkers for TKI treatment and is essential to the successful use of targeted therapies.

  16. EGFR Exon 20 Insertion/Duplication Mutations Characterize Fibrous Hamartoma of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason Y; Cohen, Cynthia; Lopez, Dania; Ramos, Erica; Wagenfuehr, Jennifer; Rakheja, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    Fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI) is a benign mesenchymal tumor histologically characterized by a mixture of intersecting fascicles of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts in collagenous stroma, nests of primitive oval or stellate cells in basophilic mucoid stroma, and mature adipose tissue. We hypothesized that FHI, because of histologic overlap with mesenchymal overgrowth tumors seen in CLOVES (Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth with Vascular, Epidermal, Skeletal anomalies) and Proteus syndromes, may harbor mutations in signaling pathways associated with cellular proliferation. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material from a discovery set of 4 cases of FHI was investigated by targeted next-generation sequencing of a panel of cancer-associated genes. The results were confirmed by targeted Sanger sequencing of EGFR exon 20. A validation set of 8 cases of FHI and 10 cases of other pediatric fatty tumors were investigated by targeted Sanger sequencing of EGFR exon 20. All 12 cases of FHI, and none of the 10 control tumors, showed EGFR exon 20 insertion/duplication mutations. This is the first report of molecular aberrations in FHI. The consistent occurrence of EGFR exon 20 insertion/duplication mutations in 100% of cases of FHI studied suggests that they must play a principal role in the pathogenesis of FHI, likely by conferring a potential for growth and local infiltration. Although surgical treatment will remain the mainstay of FHI treatment, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may have an adjunctive role in cases that are difficult to resect.

  17. A T3 allele in the CFTR gene exacerbates exon 9 skipping in vas deferens and epididymal cell lines and is associated with Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens (CBAVD).

    PubMed

    Disset, Antoine; Michot, Carine; Harris, Ann; Buratti, Emanuele; Claustres, Mireille; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    The different alleles at the (TG)m(T)n polymorphic loci at the 3' end of the human CFTR intron 8 determine the efficiency by which exon 9 is spliced. We identified a novel TG12T3 allele in a congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) patient who carries a [TG11T7; p.Phe508Cys; p.Met470Val] haplotype on the other chromosome. To better understand the complex regulation of exon 9 splicing, we analyzed the levels of correctly spliced CFTR transcripts in six CFTR-expressing epithelial cell lines derived from lung, colon, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis transiently transfected with four CFTR minigenes (pTG11T7, pTG12T7, pTG12T5, and pTG12T3). In this work, we show that a decrease in the Ts at the polymorphic locus in a TG12 background determines a cell-type dependent reduction in exon 9+ transcripts that is not related to the basal splicing efficiency in the cell line. These data emphasize the role of the T5 allele in CBAVD and identify the T3 allele as a severe cystic fibrosis (CF) disease-causing mutation. Finally, UV cross-linking experiments demonstrated that tissue-specific trans-acting splicing factors do not contribute to the different patterns of exon 9 splicing found between the cell lines. However, we observed that lower numbers of Ts can alter the binding of TDP-43 (TDP43 or TARDBP) to its specific target ug12 in a tissue-specific manner. Our results support the idea that the ratio of general splicing factors plays a role in the tissue variability of exon 9 alternative splicing.

  18. Binding of hnRNP H and U2AF65 to Respective G-codes and a Poly-Uridine Tract Collaborate in the N50-5'ss Selection of the REST N Exon in H69 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Galindo-Rosales, José Manuel; Calderón-Salinas, José Victor; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The splicing of the N exon in the pre-mRNA coding for the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) results in a truncated protein that modifies the expression pattern of some of its target genes. A weak 3'ss, three alternative 5'ss (N4-, N50-, and N62-5'ss) and a variety of putative target sites for splicing regulatory proteins are found around the N exon; two GGGG codes (G2-G3) and a poly-Uridine tract (N-PU) are found in front of the N50-5'ss. In this work we analyzed some of the regulatory factors and elements involved in the preferred selection of the N50-5'ss (N50 activation) in the small cell lung cancer cell line H69. Wild type and mutant N exon/β-globin minigenes recapitulated N50 exon splicing in H69 cells, and showed that the N-PU and the G2-G3 elements are required for N50 exon splicing. Biochemical and knockdown experiments identified these elements as U2AF65 and hnRNP H targets, respectively, and that they are also required for N50 exon activation. Compared to normal MRC5 cells, and in keeping with N50 exon activation, U2AF65, hnRNP H and other splicing factors were highly expressed in H69 cells. CLIP experiments revealed that hnRNP H RNA-binding occurs first and is a prerequisite for U2AF65 RNA binding, and EMSA and CLIP experiments suggest that U2AF65-RNA recognition displaces hnRNP H and helps to recruit other splicing factors (at least U1 70K) to the N50-5'ss. Our results evidenced novel hnRNP H and U2AF65 functions: respectively, U2AF65-recruiting to a 5'ss in humans and the hnRNP H-displacing function from two juxtaposed GGGG codes. PMID:22792276

  19. Differentially expressed three non-coding alternate exons at 5' UTR of regulatory type I beta subunit gene of mouse.

    PubMed

    Banday, Abdul Rouf; Azim, Shafquat; Tabish, Mohammad

    2012-04-01

    Prkar1b gene encodes regulatory type I, beta subunit (RIβ) of cAMP dependent protein kinase A in mouse. Among the various isoforms of regulatory and catalytic subunits that comprise mammalian PKA, RIβ subunit is considered to be one of the important subunits for neuronal functions. This is involved in multiple forms of synaptic plasticity, and influences memory and learning by maintaining hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Deficient expression of this gene has been implicated in autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have identified two novel non-coding exons of the Prkar1b gene (designated as exon 1A and exon 1B), which are spliced to the canonical exon 2 and constitute the 5' untranslated region giving rise to three alternative transcript isoforms. We have also confirmed the expression of the previously known first exon (designated as exon 1C) with known transcript published earlier. The transcripts containing exons 1A, 1B and 1C are differentially regulated during the development and tissue types. In silico study of more than 20 kb nucleotide sequence upstream of known translational initiation codon revealed three distinct promoter regions named as PA, PB, and PC upstream of the exon 1A, exon 1B and exon 1C respectively. PB is non-CpG related promoter but PA and PC are CpG related promoters, however all three promoters are TATA less. Further analysis showed that these promoters possess potential signature sequences for common as well as different transcription factors suggesting complex regulation of Prkar1b gene.

  20. LncRNA expression profiles of EGFR exon 19 deletions in lung adenocarcinoma ascertained by using microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jie; Pan, Qinshi; Pan, Jingye

    2014-09-01

    Studies showed that long chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in the development and progression of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms of EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma were unclear. Lung adenocarcinoma was divided into EGFR exon 19 deletion group and EGFR wild-type group. We studied the differential expression profiles of lncRNAs in EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma by high-throughput microarray. Using abundant and varied probes, we were able to assess 30,586 lncRNAs and 26,109 mRNAs in our microarray. Compared with the wild-type EGFR, we found that 1,533 lncRNAs and 1,406 mRNAs were differentially expressed (≥ twofold change) in EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma, indicating that many lncRNAs were significantly upregulated or downregulated in EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma. The 10 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma compared with wild-type EGFR group validated by real-time RT-PCR. Among these, RP11-325I22.2 and LOC440905 were the most aberrantly expressed in 20 cases of EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma samples by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed lncRNAs expression pattern in EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma by microarray. RP11-325I22.2 and LOC440905 might play an important role in the mechanism of EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma. The study may provide a new mechanism of EGFR exon 19 deletion in lung adenocarcinoma.

  1. Use of epitope libraries to identify exon-specific monoclonal antibodies for characterization of altered dystrophins in muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen thi Man; Morris, G.E. )

    1993-06-01

    The majority of mutations in Xp21-linked muscular dystrophy (MD) can be identified by PCR or Southern blotting, as deletions or duplications of groups of exons in the dystrophin gene, but it is not always possible to predict how much altered dystrophin, if any, will be produced. Use of exon-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on muscle biopsies from MD patients can, in principle, provide information on both the amount of altered dystrophin produced and, when dystrophin is present, the nature of the genetic deletion or point mutation. For this purpose, mAbs which recognize regions of dystrophin encoded by known exons and whose binding is unaffected by the absence of adjacent exons are required. To map mAbs to specific exons, random [open quotes]libraries[close quotes] of expressed dystrophin fragments were created by cloning DNAseI digestion fragments of a 4.3-kb dystrophin cDNA into a pTEX expression vector. The libraries were then used to locate the epitopes recognized by 48 mAbs to fragments of 25--60 amino acids within the 1,434-amino-acid dystrophin fragment used to produce the antibodies. This is sufficiently detailed to allow further refinement by using synthetic peptides and, in many cases, to identify the exon in the DMD (Duchenne MD) gene which encodes the epitope. To illustrate their use in dystrophin analysis, a Duchenne patient with a frameshift deletion of exons 42 and 43 makes a truncated dystrophin encoded by exons 1--41, and the authors now show that this can be detected in the sarcolemma by mAbs up to and including those specific for exon 41 epitopes but not by mAbs specific for exon 43 or later epitopes. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Folding Landscape of Mutant Huntingtin Exon1: Diffusible Multimers, Oligomers and Fibrils, and No Detectable Monomer

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Bankanidhi; Arduini, Irene; Drombosky, Kenneth W.; Kodali, Ravindra; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Wetzel, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) track of the Huntingtin (HTT) protein above 36 is associated with a sharply enhanced risk of Huntington’s disease (HD). Although there is general agreement that HTT toxicity resides primarily in N-terminal fragments such as the HTT exon1 protein, there is no consensus on the nature of the physical states of HTT exon1 that are induced by polyQ expansion, nor on which of these states might be responsible for toxicity. One hypothesis is that polyQ expansion induces an alternative, toxic conformation in the HTT exon1 monomer. Alternative hypotheses posit that the toxic species is one of several possible aggregated states. Defining the nature of the toxic species is particularly challenging because of facile interconversion between physical states as well as challenges to identifying these states, especially in vivo. Here we describe the use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to characterize the detailed time and repeat length dependent self-association of HTT exon1-like fragments both with chemically synthesized peptides in vitro and with cell-produced proteins in extracts and in living cells. We find that, in vitro, mutant HTT exon1 peptides engage in polyQ repeat length dependent dimer and tetramer formation, followed by time dependent formation of diffusible spherical and fibrillar oligomers and finally by larger, sedimentable amyloid fibrils. For expanded polyQ HTT exon1 expressed in PC12 cells, monomers are absent, with tetramers being the smallest molecular form detected, followed in the incubation time course by small, diffusible aggregates at 6–9 hours and larger, sedimentable aggregates that begin to build up at 12 hrs. In these cell cultures, significant nuclear DNA damage appears by 6 hours, followed at later times by caspase 3 induction, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death. Our data thus defines limits on the sizes and concentrations of different physical states of HTT exon1 along the reaction

  3. Exonic deletions of mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MSH2 correlate with prognosis and protein expression levels in malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Korabiowska, Monika; Brinck, Ulrich; Stachura, Jerzy; Jawien, Jacek; Hasse, Frank Michael; Cordon-Cardos, Carlos; Fischer, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The mutations of MLH1 and MSH2 have been reported to be responsible for malignant transformation and tumour progression in several sporadic tumours. Eighty-six primary malignant melanomas with known follow-up were investigated. Point mutations of DNA mismatch repair MLH1 and MSH2 in malignant melanomas were not found. Exon 12 (MSH2) was not present in 26 out of the 86 melanomas and exon 13 (MSH2) was lost in 25 of the tumours. The loss of exon 15 (MLH1) was observed in 22 out of the 86 tumours and the loss of exon 16 (MLH1) in 24 melanomas. The loss of exons correlated strongly with the loss of MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression. In multivariate analysis, including all 4 exons and expressions of MLH1 and MSH2, prognostic significance was found only for loss of exon 12 (MSH2) and loss of exon 15 (MLH1).

  4. SNP discovery in candidate adaptive genes using exon capture in a free-ranging alpine ungulate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Amish, Stephen J.; Smith, Seth; Cosart, Ted F.; Kardos, Marty; Schwartz, Michael K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genes underlying genomic signatures of natural selection is key to understanding adaptation to local conditions. We used targeted resequencing to identify SNP markers in 5321 candidate adaptive genes associated with known immunological, metabolic and growth functions in ovids and other ungulates. We selectively targeted 8161 exons in protein-coding and nearby 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of chosen candidate genes. Targeted sequences were taken from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) exon capture data and directly from the domestic sheep genome (Ovis aries v. 3; oviAri3). The bighorn sheep sequences used in the Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) exon capture aligned to 2350 genes on the oviAri3 genome with an average of 2 exons each. We developed a microfluidic qPCR-based SNP chip to genotype 476 Dall's sheep from locations across their range and test for patterns of selection. Using multiple corroborating approaches (lositan and bayescan), we detected 28 SNP loci potentially under selection. We additionally identified candidate loci significantly associated with latitude, longitude, precipitation and temperature, suggesting local environmental adaptation. The three methods demonstrated consistent support for natural selection on nine genes with immune and disease-regulating functions (e.g. Ovar-DRA, APC, BATF2, MAGEB18), cell regulation signalling pathways (e.g. KRIT1, PI3K, ORRC3), and respiratory health (CYSLTR1). Characterizing adaptive allele distributions from novel genetic techniques will facilitate investigation of the influence of environmental variation on local adaptation of a northern alpine ungulate throughout its range. This research demonstrated the utility of exon capture for gene-targeted SNP discovery and subsequent SNP chip genotyping using low-quality samples in a nonmodel species.

  5. Aggregation Behavior of Chemically Synthesized, Full-Length Huntingtin Exon1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Repeat length disease thresholds vary among the 10 expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat diseases, from about 20 to about 50 glutamine residues. The unique amino acid sequences flanking the polyQ segment are thought to contribute to these repeat length thresholds. The specific portions of the flanking sequences that modulate polyQ properties are not always clear, however. This ambiguity may be important in Huntington’s disease (HD), for example, where in vitro studies of aggregation mechanisms have led to distinctly different mechanistic models. Most in vitro studies of the aggregation of the huntingtin (HTT) exon1 fragment implicated in the HD mechanism have been conducted on inexact molecules that are imprecise either on the N-terminus (recombinantly produced peptides) or on the C-terminus (chemically synthesized peptides). In this paper, we investigate the aggregation properties of chemically synthesized HTT exon1 peptides that are full-length and complete, containing both normal and expanded polyQ repeat lengths, and compare the results directly to previously investigated molecules containing truncated C-termini. The results on the full-length peptides are consistent with a two-step aggregation mechanism originally developed based on studies of the C-terminally truncated analogues. Thus, we observe relatively rapid formation of spherical oligomers containing from 100 to 600 HTT exon1 molecules and intermediate formation of short protofibril-like structures containing from 500 to 2600 molecules. In contrast to this relatively rapid assembly, mature HTT exon1 amyloid requires about one month to dissociate in vitro, which is similar to the time required for neuronal HTT exon1 aggregates to disappear in vivo after HTT production is discontinued. PMID:24921664

  6. Genetic and physical mapping of 2q35 in the region of NRAMP and IL8R genes: Identification of a polymorphic repeat in exon 2 of NRAMP

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.K.; Shaw, M.A.; Barton, C.H.

    1994-11-15

    Recent interest has focused on the region of conserved synteny between mouse chromosome 1 and human 2q33-q37, particularly over the region encoding the murine macrophage resistance gene Ity/Lsh/Bcg (candidate Nramp) and members of the Il8r interleukin-8 (IL8) receptor gene cluster. In this paper, identification of a restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Il8RB gene in 35 pedigrees previously typed for markers in the 2q33-37 interval provided evidence (lod scores > 3) for linkage between Il8RB and the 2q34-135 markers FN1, TNP1, VIL1, and DES. Physical mapping, using yeast artificial chromosomes isolated with VIL1, confirmed that IL8RA, IL8RB and the IL8RB pseudogene map within the NRAMP-VIL1 interval, with the physical distance (155 kb) from 5{prime} LSH to 3{prime} VIL1 representing {approx}3-fold that observed in the mouse. Partial sequencing of NRAMP confirmed the presence of the N-terminal proline/serine-rich putative SH3 binding domain in exon 2 of the human gene. Further analysis of Brazilian leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis pedigrees identified a rare second allele varying in a 9-nucleotide repeat motif of the exon 2 sequence but segregating independently of the disease phenotype. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Functional characterization of the ABCG2 5' non-coding exon variants: Stem cell specificity, translation efficiency and the influence of drug selection.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Sára; Jordanidisz, Theodora; Schamberger, Anita; Várady, György; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs; Orbán, Tamás I

    2016-07-01

    ABCG2 is a multidrug transporter with wide substrate specificity, and is believed to protect several cell types from various xenobiotics and endobiotics. This "guardian" function is important in numerous cell types and tissue barriers but becomes disadvantageous by being responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype in certain tumor cells. ABCG2 regulation at the protein level has already been extensively studied, however, regulation at the mRNA level, especially the functional role of the various 5' untranslated exon variants (5' UTRs) has been elusive. In the present work, we describe a comprehensive characterization of four ABCG2 mRNA variants with different exon 1 sequences, investigate drug inducibility, stem cell specificity, mRNA stability, and translation efficiency. Although certain variants (E1B and E1C) are considered as "constitutive" mRNA isoforms, we show that chemotoxic drugs significantly alter the expression pattern of distinct ABCG2 mRNA isoforms. When examining human embryonic stem cell lines, we provide evidence that variant E1A has an expression pattern coupled to undifferentiated stem cell stage, as its transcript level is regulated parallel to mRNAs of Oct4 and Nanog pluripotency marker genes. When characterizing the four exon 1 variants we found no significant differences in terms of mRNA stabilities and half-lives of the isoforms. In contrast, variant E1U showed markedly lower translation efficiency both at the total protein level or regarding the functional presence in the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results indicate that the different 5' UTR variants play an important role in cell type specific regulation and fine tuning of ABCG2 expression.

  8. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    SciTech Connect

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  9. TET2 exon 2 skipping is an independent favorable prognostic factor for cytogenetically normal acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): TET2 exon 2 skipping in AML.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Aminetou Mint; Balsat, Marie; Koering, Catherine; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Boissel, Nicolas; Payen-Gay, Lea; Cheok, Meyling; Mortada, Hussein; Auboeuf, Didier; Pinatel, Christiane; El-Hamri, Mohamed; Tigaud, Isabelle; Hayette, Sandrine; Dumontet, Charles; Cros, Emeline; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Nibourel, Olivier; Preudhomme, Claude; Thomas, Xavier; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Solly, Françoise; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia; Michallet, Mauricette; Ceraulo, Antony; Mortreux, Franck; Wattel, Eric

    2017-01-16

    In AML, approximately one-third of expressed genes are abnormally spliced, including aberrant TET2 exon 2 expression. In a discovery cohort (n=99), TET2 exon 2 skipping (TET2E2S) was found positively associated with a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Age, cytogenetics, and TET2E2S were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS), and favorable effects on outcomes predominated in cytogenetic normal (CN)-AML and younger patients. Using the same cutoff in a validation cohort of 86 CN-AML patients, TET2E2S(high) patients were found to be younger than TET2(low) patients without a difference in the rate of complete remission. However, TET2E2S(high) patients exhibited a significantly lower CIR (p<10(-4)). TET2E2S and FLT3-ITD, but not age or NPM1 mutation status were independent prognostic factors for DFS and event-free survival (EFS), while TET2E2S was the sole prognostic factor that we identified for overall survival (OS). In both the intermediate-1 and favorable ELN genetic categories, TET2E2S remained significantly associated with prolonged survival. There was no correlation between TET2E2S status and outcomes in 34 additional AML patients who were unfit for IC. Therefore our results suggest that assessments of TET2 exon 2 splicing status might improve risk stratification in CN-AML patients treated with IC.

  10. Sequencing of Candidate Genes in Dominican Families Implicates Both Rare Exonic and Common Non-Exonic Variants for Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyong; Beecham, Ashley; Dueker, Nicole; Blanton, Susan H.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Through linkage and tagSNP-based association studies in 100 Dominican Republic (DR) families, we previously identified ANLN and AOAH (7p14.3) as candidate genes for carotid intima-media thickness at bifurcation (bIMT). Methods and Results Introns, exons and flanking regions of ANLN and AOAH were re-sequenced in 151 individuals from 9 families with evidence for linkage at 7p14.3. For common variants [CV, minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 5%], single variant-based analysis was performed. For rare variants (RV, MAF<5%), gene-based analysis aggregating all RVs within a gene was performed. CV analysis revealed the strongest signal at rs3815483 (P=0.0003) in ANLN and rs60023210 (P=0.00005) in AOAH. In ANLN, RV analysis found suggestive evidence for association with exonic RVs (P=0.08), and in particular non-synonymous RVs (P=0.04) but not with all RVs (P=0.15). The variant alleles of all non-synonymous RVs segregated with the major allele of rs3815483 and were associated with lower bIMT while a novel synonymous RV segregated with the minor allele of rs3815483 and was associated with greater bIMT. Additional analysis in 561 DR individuals found suggestive evidence for association with all ANLN non-synonymous RVs (P=0.08). In AOAH, no evidence for association with RVs was detected. Instead, conditional analysis revealed that multiple independent intronic CVs are associated with bIMT in addition to rs60023210. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of using family-based studies to evaluate the contribution of RVs. Our data suggest two modes of genetic architecture underlying the linkage and association at ANLN (multiple exonic RVs) and AOAH (multiple intronic CVs with uncharacterized functions). PMID:26319989

  11. The role of germline promoters and I exons in cytokine-induced gene-specific class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, Wesley A; Shi, Jian; Holden, Victoria; Fontaine, Clinton; Collins, John T

    2011-01-01

    Germline transcription precedes class switch recombination (CSR). The promoter regions and I exons of these germline transcripts include binding sites for activation- and cytokine-induced transcription factors, and the promoter regions/I exons are essential for CSR. Therefore, it is a strong hypothesis that the promoter/I exons regions are responsible for much of cytokine-regulated, gene-specific CSR. We tested this hypothesis by swapping the germline promoter and I exons for the murine γ1 and γ2a H chain genes in a transgene of the entire H chain C-region locus. We found that the promoter/I exon for γ1 germline transcripts can direct robust IL-4-induced recombination to the γ2a gene. In contrast, the promoter/I exon for the γ2a germline transcripts works poorly in the context of the γ1 H chain gene, resulting in expression of γ1 H chains that is <1% the wild-type level. Nevertheless, the small amount of recombination to the chimeric γ1 gene is induced by IFN-γ. These results suggest that cytokine regulation of CSR, but not the magnitude of CSR, is regulated by the promoter/I exons.

  12. EGFR Exon-Level Biomarkers of the Response to Bevacizumab/Erlotinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baty, Florent; Rothschild, Sacha; Früh, Martin; Betticher, Daniel; Dröge, Cornelia; Cathomas, Richard; Rauch, Daniel; Gautschi, Oliver; Bubendorf, Lukas; Crowe, Susanne; Zappa, Francesco; Pless, Miklos; Brutsche, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are recognized biomarkers for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). EGFR TKIs can also have activity against NSCLC without EGFR mutations, requiring the identification of additional relevant biomarkers. Previous studies on tumor EGFR protein levels and EGFR gene copy number revealed inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers of the response to TKIs in NSCLC by investigating whole genome expression at the exon-level. We used exon arrays and clinical samples from a previous trial (SAKK19/05) to investigate the expression variations at the exon-level of 3 genes potentially playing a key role in modulating treatment response: EGFR, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA). We identified the expression of EGFR exon 18 as a new predictive marker for patients with untreated metastatic NSCLC treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib in the first line setting. The overexpression of EGFR exon 18 in tumor was significantly associated with tumor shrinkage, independently of EGFR mutation status. A similar significant association could be found in blood samples. In conclusion, exonic EGFR expression particularly in exon 18 was found to be a relevant predictive biomarker for response to bevacizumab and erlotinib. Based on these results, we propose a new model of EGFR testing in tumor and blood. PMID:24039832

  13. RBFOX2 Promotes Protein 4.1R Exon 16 Selection via U1 snRNP Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Alexander C.; Park, Jennie; Yu, Faye; Yu, Brian; Lee, Angela; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Anyu; Benz, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The erythroid differentiation-specific splicing switch of protein 4.1R exon 16, which encodes a spectrin/actin-binding peptide critical for erythrocyte membrane stability, is modulated by the differentiation-induced splicing factor RBFOX2. We have now characterized the mechanism by which RBFOX2 regulates exon 16 splicing through the downstream intronic element UGCAUG. Exon 16 possesses a weak 5′ splice site (GAG/GTTTGT), which when strengthened to a consensus sequence (GAG/GTAAGT) leads to near-total exon 16 inclusion. Impaired RBFOX2 binding reduces exon 16 inclusion in the context of the native weak 5′ splice site, but not the engineered strong 5′ splice site, implying that RBFOX2 achieves its effect by promoting utilization of the weak 5′ splice site. We further demonstrate that RBFOX2 increases U1 snRNP recruitment to the weak 5′ splice site through direct interaction between its C-terminal domain (CTD) and the zinc finger region of U1C and that the CTD is required for the effect of RBFOX2 on exon 16 splicing. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for exon 16 5′ splice site activation in which the binding of RBFOX2 to downstream intronic splicing enhancers stabilizes the pre-mRNA–U1 snRNP complex through interactions with U1C. PMID:22083953

  14. 2′-O-Methyl RNA/Ethylene-Bridged Nucleic Acid Chimera Antisense Oligonucleotides to Induce Dystrophin Exon 45 Skipping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tomoko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Mariko; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Goda, Ryoya; Koizumi, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle-wasting disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping targets restoration of the dystrophin reading frame to allow production of an internally deleted dystrophin protein with functional benefit for DMD patients who have out-of-frame deletions. After accelerated US approval of eteplirsen (Exondys 51), which targets dystrophin exon 51 for skipping, efforts are now focused on targeting other exons. For improved clinical benefits, this strategy requires more studies of the delivery method and modification of nucleic acids. We studied a nucleotide with a 2′-O,4′-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA), which shows high nuclease resistance and high affinity for complementary RNA strands. Here, we describe the process of developing a 2′-O-methyl RNA(2′-OMeRNA)/ENA chimera AO to induce dystrophin exon 45 skipping. One 18-mer 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera (AO85) had the most potent activity for inducing exon 45 skipping in cultured myotubes. AO85 was administered to mdx mice without significant side effects. AO85 transfection into cultured myotubes from 13 DMD patients induced exon 45 skipping in all samples at different levels and dystrophin expression in 11 patients. These results suggest the possible efficacy of AO-mediated exon skipping changes in individual patients and highlight the 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO as a potential fundamental treatment for DMD. PMID:28208626

  15. First report of a pathogenic mutation on exon 24 of the NOTCH3 gene in a CADASIL family.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Raffaella; Bianchi, Silvia; Pescini, Francesca; D'Eramo, Camilla; Inzitari, Domenico; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a genetically transmitted small vessel disease clinically characterized by migraine, recurrent subcortical strokes, and cognitive and mood disorders. Pathogenic mutations are located on any of the exons of the NOTCH3 gene coding for epidermal-growth factor (EGF)-like repeats of the extracellular domain of the NOTCH3 receptor. Because the gene is large and the mutations cluster on some exons, many laboratories restrict the analysis to these exons. We report the first missense mutation involving exon 24 and causing CADASIL in a 64-year-old man. The patient was admitted to the hospital for a loss of consciousness accompanied by profuse sweating. On examination, some parkinsonian features were present. Over the last 4 years, he had developed postural instability and gait disturbances with repeated falls, behavioral disorders, and cognitive impairment. A diagnostic hypothesis of atypical parkinsonism had been advanced. The presence of multiple subcortical lacunar infarcts and leukoencephalopathy extended to the external capsule on cerebral MRI suggested the presence of CADASIL. The diagnosis was confirmed by finding a heterozygous mutation leading to a cysteine substitution on exon 24 of the NOTCH3 gene. One proband's brother, who had progressive gait disturbances, unilateral action tremor and bradykinesia, and an asymptomatic niece also resulted affected. This report underlines that when CADASIL is suspected the genetic analysis should be performed on all the NOTCH3 exons coding for EGF-like repeats including exon 24 and confirms that CADASIL may have heterogeneous phenotypes.

  16. Delineation of the Marfan phenotype associated with mutations in exons 23-32 of the FBN1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, E.A.; Cho, M.; Milewicz, D.M.

    1996-03-29

    Marfan syndrome is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder with a wide range of phenotypic severity. The condition is the result of mutations in FBN1, a large gene composed of 65 exons encoding the fibrillin-1 protein. While mutations causing classic manifestations of Marfan syndrome have been identified throughout the FBN1 gene, the six previously characterized mutations resulting in the severe, perinatal lethal form of Marfan syndrome have clustered in exons 24-32 of the gene. We screened 8 patients with either neonatal Marfan syndrome or severe cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome for mutations in this region of the gene. Using intron-based exon-specific primers, we amplified exons 23-32 from genomic DNAs, screened these fragments by single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis, and sequenced indicated exons. This analysis documented mutations in exons 25-27 of the FBN1 mutations in 6 of these patients. These results, taken together with previously published FBN1 mutations in this region, further define the phenotype associated with mutations in exons 24-32 of the FBN1 gene, information important for the development of possible diagnostic tests and genetic counseling. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3′ UTR regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shengdong; Alemu, Endalkachew A.; Mertens, Claudia; Gantman, Emily Conn; Fak, John J.; Mele, Aldo; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Moore, Michael J.; Park, Christopher Y.; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Kusśnierczyk, Anna; Klungland, Arne; Darnell, James E.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m6A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3′-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150–400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m6A and >40% of all m6A in mRNA are present in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs); contrary to earlier suggestions, there is no preference for location of m6A sites around stop codons. Moreover, m6A is significantly higher in noncoding last exons than in next-to-last exons harboring stop codons. We found that m6A density peaks early in the 3′ UTR and that, among transcripts with alternative polyA (APA) usage in both the brain and the liver, brain transcripts preferentially use distal polyA sites, as reported, and also show higher proximal m6A density in the last exons. Furthermore, when we reduced m6A methylation by knocking down components of the methylase complex and then examined 661 transcripts with proximal m6A peaks in last exons, we identified a set of 111 transcripts with altered (approximately two-thirds increased proximal) APA use. Taken together, these observations suggest a role of m6A modification in regulating proximal alternative polyA choice. PMID:26404942

  18. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer: preclinical data and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Susumu; Costa, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations defined a new, molecularly classified subgroup of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Classic EGFR activating mutations, such as inframe deletions in exon 19 or the Leu858Arg (L858R) point mutation in exon 21 are associated with sensitivity to first generation quinazoline reversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations, which are typically located after the C-helix of the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, may account for up to 4% of all EGFR mutations. Preclinical models have shown that the most prevalent EGFR exon 20 insertion mutated proteins are resistant to clinically achievable doses of reversible (gefitinib, erlotinib) and irreversible (neratinib, afatinib, PF00299804) EGFR TKIs. Growing clinical experience with patients whose tumours harbour EGFR exon 20 insertions corresponds with the preclinical data; very few patients have had responses to EGFR TKIs. Despite the prevalence and biological importance of EEGFR exon 20 insertions, few reports have summarised all preclinical and clinical data on these mutations. Here, we review the literature and provide an update with an emphasis on the structural, molecular, and clinical implications of EGFR exon 20 insertions.

  19. Analysis of mutations of MDR3 exons 9 and 23 in infants with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIU-FANG; LIU, GUO-SHENG; LI, MIN-XU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate mutations of multidrug resistance 3 (MDR3) exons 9 and 23 in infants with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). A total of 41 infants with PNAC were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral venous blood leukocytes of each patient and MDR3 exons 9 and 23 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. One patient was identified who carried a frameshift mutation in MDR3 exon 23 (C.2793) that was caused by the insertion of a single adenine residue, while mutations were not found in MDR3 exon 23 in the other 40 patients. The clinical features of the patient with the MDR3 exon 23 frameshift mutation included high serum γ-glutamyl transferase levels, the absence of biliary dilatation and deformity in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and abnormal electrical capacitance tomography imaging of the liver. No mutations in MDR3 exon 9 were identified in any of the patients. All 41 PNAC patients recovered following oral ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. The C.2793 frameshift mutation in MDR3 exon 23 is potentially associated with the development of PNAC in infants. PMID:26668642

  20. PIK3CA mutations in the kinase domain (exon 20) of uterine endometrial adenocarcinomas are associated with adverse prognostic parameters.

    PubMed

    Catasus, Lluis; Gallardo, Alberto; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Prat, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    Mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA occur frequently in endometrial carcinomas, but their prognostic significance is unclear. To determine the clinicopathological and molecular implications of these mutations, PIK3CA status was investigated in 109 endometrial (102 endometrioid and 7 mixed) carcinomas and the results were compared with clinicopathological parameters associated with prognosis. Tumors were also investigated for microsatellite instability and PTEN, beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1), K-RAS, and B-RAF mutations. We found 35 PIK3CA somatic missense mutations in 32 (29%) endometrial carcinomas. Eighteen mutations occurred in exon 20 (kinase domain), and 17 in exon 9 (helical domain). Almost all mutated tumors were pure endometrioid adenocarcinomas. All tumors with PIK3CA mutations exhibited myometrial invasion (P=0.032). Lymphovascular invasion was found more frequently in mutated (28%) than nonmutated carcinomas (18%). Histological grade varied significantly according to the location of the PIK3CA mutations whether in exon 9 or exon 20 (P=0.033). The frequency of exon 9 mutations was higher in grade 1 carcinomas (57%) than in grade 2 (29%) or grade 3 (14%) tumors. Conversely, mutations in exon 20 were more common in grade 3 (60%) than in grade 2 (20%) or grade 1 (20%) carcinomas. None of the tumors confined to the endometrium (stage IA) had PIK3CA mutations. Furthermore, whereas 64% of adenocarcinomas with exon 9 mutations had invaded < or =(1/2) of the myometrial thickness (stage IB), 73% of tumors with exon 20 mutations had either deeper myometrial invasion (stage IC) or cervical involvement (stage II) (P=0.045). PIK3CA mutations coexisted with microsatellite instability and mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, K-RAS, and B-RAF genes. These results favor that PIK3CA mutations are associated with myometrial invasion and, moreover, that tumors harboring PIK3CA mutations in exon 20 are frequently high-grade, deeply invasive endometrial carcinomas that tend to exhibit

  1. Identification of Human Herpesvirus 6 Latency-Associated Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Kazuya; Sashihara, Junji; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    Four kinds of latency-associated transcripts of human herpesvirus 6 were identified which were detected only in latently infected cells. Although they were oriented in the same direction as the immediate-early 1 and 2 (IE1/IE2) genes and shared their protein-coding region with IE1/IE2, their transcription start sites and exon(s) were latency associated. PMID:11907257

  2. Response to MET inhibitors in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas harboring MET mutations causing exon 14 skipping

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Paul K.; Drilon, Alexander; Fan, Pang-Dian; Yu, Helena; Rekhtman, Natasha; Ginsberg, Michelle S.; Borsu, Laetitia; Schultz, Nikolaus; Berger, Michael F.; Rudin, Charles M.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the MET exon 14 RNA splice acceptor and donor sites, which lead to exon skipping, deletion of the juxtamembrane domain containing the Cbl E3-ubiquitin ligase binding site, and decreased turnover of the resultant aberrant MET protein, were previously reported to be oncogenic in preclinical models. We now report responses to the MET inhibitors crizotinib and cabozantinib in four patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas harboring mutations leading to MET exon 14 skipping, highlighting a new therapeutic strategy for the 4% of lung adenocarcinoma patients whose tumors harbor this previously underappreciated genetic alteration. PMID:25971939

  3. Skipping of Exons by Premature Termination of Transcription and Alternative Splicing within Intron-5 of the Sheep SCF Gene: A Novel Splice Variant

    PubMed Central

    Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Pediconi, Dario; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor, essential for haemopoiesis, mast cell development and melanogenesis. In the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM), SCF is produced either as a membrane-bound (−) or soluble (+) forms. Skin expression of SCF stimulates melanocyte migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We report for the first time, a novel mRNA splice variant of SCF from the skin of white merino sheep via cloning and sequencing. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and molecular prediction revealed two different cDNA products of SCF. Full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). Nucleotide sequencing and molecular prediction revealed that the primary 1519 base pair (bp) cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 274 amino acids (aa), commonly known as ‘soluble’ isoform. In contrast, the shorter (835 and/or 725 bp) cDNA was found to be a ‘novel’ mRNA splice variant. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) corresponding to a truncated protein of 181 aa (vs 245 aa) with an unique C-terminus lacking the primary proteolytic segment (28 aa) right after the D175G site which is necessary to produce ‘soluble’ form of SCF. This alternative splice (AS) variant was explained by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering exon 5-intron (5)-exon 6 (948 bp) with a premature termination codon (PTC) whereby exons 6 to 9/10 are skipped (Cassette Exon, CE 6–9/10). We also demonstrated that the Northern blot analysis at transcript level is mediated via an intron-5 splicing event. Our data refine the structure of SCF gene; clarify the presence (+) and/or absence (−) of primary proteolytic-cleavage site specific SCF splice variants. This work provides a basis for understanding the functional role and regulation of SCF in hair follicle melanogenesis in sheep beyond what was known in mice, humans and other mammals. PMID:22719917

  4. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy; Meng, Yuhuan; Ouyang, Limei; Ren, Jingjing; Mailund, Thomas; Sun, Fei; Sun, Liangdan; Shen, Juan; Zhuo, Min; Song, Li; Wang, Jufang; Ling, Fei; Zhu, Yuqi; Hvilsom, Christina; Siegismund, Hans; Liu, Xiaoming; Gong, Zhuolin; Ji, Fang; Wang, Xinzhong; Liu, Boqing; Zhang, Yu; Hou, Jianguo; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Yanyi; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuejun; Schierup, Mikkel H; Du, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3%) of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.

  5. Astute Clinician Report: A Novel 10 bp Frameshift Deletion in Exon 2 of ICOS Causes a Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with an Enteritis and Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nic; Engelhardt, Karin R; Morgan, Neil V; Barge, Dawn; Cant, Andrew J; Hughes, Stephen M; Abinun, Mario; Xu, Yaobo; Koref, Mauro Santibanez; Arkwright, Peter D; Hambleton, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    ICOS encodes the Inducible T-cell Co-Stimulator (ICOS). Deficiency of this receptor in humans causes a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) characterised by an absence of class-switched memory B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. Three pathogenic mutations in ICOS have been described to date in a total of 13 cases. Here we report a novel homozygous 10 base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 discovered by whole exome sequencing of two siblings from a family of Pakistani origin. Both patients presented in early childhood with diarrhea, colitis and transaminitis and one showed defective handling of human herpesvirus 6. Activated patient CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocytes demonstrated a complete absence of ICOS expression and, consistent with previous reports, we detected a reduction in circulating T follicular helper cells. Findings in this kindred emphasise the phenotypic variability of ICOS deficiency and, in particular, the variably impaired antiviral immunity that is a poorly understood facet of this rare disorder.

  6. Organization of the human lipoprotein lipase gene and evolution of the lipase gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, T G; Chuat, J C; Heinzmann, C; Etienne, J; Guilhot, S; Svenson, K; Ameis, D; Pilon, C; d'Auriol, L; Andalibi, A

    1989-01-01

    The human lipoprotein lipase gene was cloned and characterized. It is composed of 10 exons spanning approximately equal to 30 kilobases. The first exon encodes the 5'-untranslated region, the signal peptide plus the first two amino acids of the mature protein. The next eight exons encode the remaining 446 amino acids, and the tenth exon encodes the long 3'-untranslated region of 1948 nucleotides. The lipoprotein lipase transcription start site and the sequence of the 5'-flanking region were also determined. We compared the organization of genes for lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, pancreatic lipase, and Drosophila yolk protein 1, which are members of a family of related genes. A model for the evolution of the lipase gene family is presented that involves multiple rounds of gene duplication plus exon-shuffling and intron-loss events. Images PMID:2602366

  7. Exonic deletions of AUTS2 in Chinese patients with developmental delay and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanjie; Qiu, Wenjuan; Wang, Lili; Gu, Xuefan; Yu, Yongguo

    2016-02-01

    Genomic rearrangements involving dosage change of genes have been implicated in a range of developmental disorders. Increasing evidences suggest copy number variations (CNVs) of autism susceptibility candidate gene 2 (AUTS2) are associated with a syndromic form of developmental delay and intellectual disability. However, the genetic and clinical profiles involving AUTS2 variations have not been fully characterized in Asian patients yet, and the outcome of treatments has not been reported. Here we report de novo exonic deletions of AUTS2 detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in three Chinese children referred to the clinic for developmental delay, including two deletions involving only exon 6 (98.4 and 262 kb, respectively) and one deletion involving the C-terminal of AUTS2 (2147 kb). The phenotypic presentations of these three patients were described and compared with previous cases in literature. In addition, we presented the outcome of hormonal treatment for short stature in one patient.

  8. Hexose enhances oligonucleotide delivery and exon skipping in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gang; Gu, Ben; Cao, Limin; Gao, Xianjun; Wang, Qingsong; Seow, Yiqi; Zhang, Ning; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate-based infusion solutions are widely used in the clinic. Here we show that co-administration of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) with glucose enhances exon-skipping activity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mdx mice. We identify a glucose–fructose (GF) formulation that potentiates PMO activity, completely corrects aberrant Dmd transcripts, restores dystrophin levels in skeletal muscles and achieves functional rescue without detectable toxicity. This activity is attributed to enhancement of GF-mediated PMO uptake in the muscle. We demonstrate that PMO cellular uptake is energy dependent, and that ATP from GF metabolism contributes to enhanced cellular uptake of PMO in the muscle. Collectively, we show that GF potentiates PMO activity by replenishing cellular energy stores under energy-deficient conditions in mdx mice. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into hexose-mediated oligonucleotide delivery and have important implications for the development of DMD exon-skipping therapy. PMID:26964641

  9. Large exonic deletions in POLR3B gene cause POLR3-related leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mariana; Thiffault, Isabelle; Guerrero, Kether; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Tran, Luan T; Benko, William; van der Knaap, Marjo S; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Wolf, Nicole I; Bernard, Geneviève

    2015-06-05

    POLR3-related (or 4H) leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B and is characterized by neurological and non-neurological features. In a small proportion of patients, no mutation in either gene or only one mutation is found. Analysis of the POLR3B cDNA revealed a large deletion of exons 21-22 in one case and of exons 26-27 in another case. These are the first reports of long deletions causing POLR3-related leukodystrophy, suggesting that deletions and duplications in POLR3A or POLR3B should be investigated in patients with a compatible phenotype, especially if one pathogenic variant has been identified.

  10. A 5' Noncoding Exon Containing Engineered Intron Enhances Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV Vectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiamiao; Williams, James A; Luke, Jeremy; Zhang, Feijie; Chu, Kirk; Kay, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) expression system in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within a universal 5' UTR noncoding exon. Like minicircle DNA plasmids (devoid of bacterial backbone sequences), MIP plasmids overcome transcriptional silencing of the transgene. However, in addition MIP plasmids increase transgene expression by 2 and often >10 times higher than minicircle vectors in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of the MIP intronic sequences in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector system. Recombinant AAV vectors containing an intron with a bacterial replication origin and bacterial selectable marker increased transgene expression by 40 to 100 times in vivo when compared with conventional AAV vectors. Therefore, inclusion of this noncoding exon/intron sequence upstream of the coding region can substantially enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in vivo.

  11. EXONIC SINE INSERTION IN STK38L CAUSES CANINE EARLY RETINAL DEGENERATION (erd)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N-terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob Proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations. PMID:20887780

  12. Exonic SINE insertion in STK38L causes canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2010-12-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations.

  13. Mutation in exon 7 of PTCH deregulates SHH/PTCH/SMO signaling: possible linkage to WNT.

    PubMed

    Musani, Vesna; Gorry, Philippe; Basta-Juzbasic, Aleksandra; Stipic, Tonci; Miklic, Pavle; Levanat, Sonja

    2006-05-01

    The novel PTCH mutation and clinical manifestations within Gorlin syndrome family links PTCH haploinsufficiency and aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway. We report a family case with Gorlin syndrome, characterized by the usual phenotype features such as widespread basocellular tumors and craniofacial and bone malformations, but also including a less common appearance of craniopharyngioma. These clinical manifestations might be associated with a novel constitutional mutation of the PTCH gene, 1047insAGAA, which we found in exon 7. It changes the normal amino acid sequence leading to termination of the PTCH protein at exon 9. The analyzed tumors of the family show extensive loss of heterozygosity in the PTCH region, both basocellular and in particular craniopharyngioma, and in the latter a high expression of beta-catenin was detected. Our findings suggest involvement of the SHH/PTCH/SMO pathway in pathogenesis of the analyzed disorders, including its possible contribution to aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway in craniopharyngioma.

  14. Gene duplication followed by exon structure divergence substitutes for alternative splicing in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Matthew J; Olsen, Kyle G; Cooper, Cynthia D

    2014-08-10

    In this study we report novel findings regarding the evolutionary relationship between gene duplication and alternative splicing, two processes that increase proteomic diversity. By studying teleost fish, we find that gene duplication followed by exon structure divergence between paralogs, but not gene duplication alone, leads to a significant reduction in alternative splicing, as measured by both the proportion of genes that undergo alternative splicing as well as mean number of transcripts per gene. Additionally, we show that this effect is independent of gene family size and gene function. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the reduction in alternative splicing may be due to the partitioning of ancestral splice forms among the duplicate genes - a form of subfunctionalization. Taken together these results indicate that exon structure evolution subsequent to gene duplication may be a common substitute for alternative splicing.

  15. The mouse formin (Fmn) gene: Genomic structure, novel exons, and genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.; Chan, D.C.; Leder, P.

    1997-02-01

    Mutations in the mouse formin (Fmn) gene, formerly known as the limb deformity (ld) gene, give rise to recessively inherited limb deformities and renal malformations or aplasia. The Fmn gene encodes many differentially processed transcripts that are expressed in both adult and embryonic tissues. To study the genomic organization of the Fmn locus, we have used Fmn probes to isolate and characterize genomic clones spanning 500 kb. Our analysis of these clones shows that the Fmn gene is composed of at least 24 exons and spans 400 kb. We have identified two novel exons that are expressed in the developing embryonic limb bud as well as adult tissues such as brain and kidney. We have also used a microsatellite polymorphism from within the Fmn gene to map it genetically to a 2.2-cM interval between D2Mit58 and D2Mit103. 36 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Four novel mutations in mucopolysaccharidosis type VII including a unique base substitution in exon 10 of the beta-glucuronidase gene that creates a novel 5'-splice site.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Tomatsu, S; Sly, W S; Islam, R; Wenger, D A; Fukuda, S; Sukegawa, K; Orii, T

    1995-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), or Sly syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Various clinical phenotypes of this autosomal recessively inherited disease have been described. Recent isolation and characterization of human beta-glucuronidase cDNA and the genomic sequences facilitate analysis of molecular defects underlying the different phenotypes, and eight mutations in the beta-glucuronidase gene have been described. This report summarizes studies characterizing four new mutations in two Caucasian patients with a severe form of MPS VII. Three are point mutations, resulting in two missense and one nonsense change, and one is a 38 bp deletion. The first patient was a compound heterozygote having P148S and Y495C alleles. The second patient was a compound heterozygote of W507X and a 38 bp deletion at position 1642-1679 in exon 10(1642 delta 38nt). The 38 bp deletion was caused by a single base change mutation in exon 10 that generates a new, premature 5' splice site. Expression of mutant cDNAs encoding each of the four mutations showed that all four resulted in a severe reduction of beta-glucuronidase activity, indicating that these mutations are responsible for the reduced enzyme activity in patient cells. These four previously undescribed mutations provide further evidence for the broad molecular heterogeneity in Sly syndrome.

  17. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Richard P.; Monakhov, Mikhail V.; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-01-01

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal–conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified. PMID:26246555

  18. Characterization of the fundamental properties of the N-terminal truncation (Δ exon 1) variant of estrogen receptor α in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yujiro; Ishii, Hirotaka; Morita, Akio; Sakuma, Yasuo; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2015-10-15

    The estrogen receptor α (ERα) directs transactivation of target genes, and splice variants have been shown to exhibit altered activation properties. We previously documented the complicated alternative promoter usage and splicing patterns of the rat ERα gene; however, the information was restricted to a few specific organs. Therefore, we re-examined the rat mRNA profiles of ERα, including the generation of the exon 1-skipping, ERα46 transcript in a wider variety of rat organs and further characterized the fundamental functional properties of rat ERα46 variants. With the use of RT-PCR, we discovered unique distribution and splicing patterns for promoter-specific ERα isoforms, as well as the extensive expression of the Δ exon 1 variant in the rat. Similar to wild-type ERα, an immunocytochemical analysis showed a predominant localization of ERα46 proteins in the nuclei of transfected cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that ERα46 variants stimulated the transcriptional activity of an estrogen response element-driven promoter in response to estrogen. In addition, the variants exhibited distinct transactivation and reactivity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in different cell types. Although the alternative splicing patterns are species-specific, the profiles of the alternative use of promoters, and the fundamental properties of the rat ERα46 variant are similar to those of human and mouse homologs. Therefore, the present study provides fundamental and useful information for further research into the regulation and functions of ERα gene variants.

  19. The expression level of small non-coding RNAs derived from the first exon of protein-coding genes is predictive of cancer status.

    PubMed

    Zovoilis, Athanasios; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard; Varhol, Richard; Chu, Andy; Wong, Tina; Marra, Marco; Jones, Steven J M

    2014-04-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) are known to be significantly enriched near the transcriptional start sites of genes. However, the functional relevance of these smRNAs remains unclear, and they have not been associated with human disease. Within the cancer genome atlas project (TCGA), we have generated small RNA datasets for many tumor types. In prior cancer studies, these RNAs have been regarded as transcriptional "noise," due to their apparent chaotic distribution. In contrast, we demonstrate their striking potential to distinguish efficiently between cancer and normal tissues and classify patients with cancer to subgroups of distinct survival outcomes. This potential to predict cancer status is restricted to a subset of these smRNAs, which is encoded within the first exon of genes, highly enriched within CpG islands and negatively correlated with DNA methylation levels. Thus, our data show that genome-wide changes in the expression levels of small non-coding RNAs within first exons are associated with cancer.

  20. Luminal expression of cubilin is impaired in Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome with compound AMN mutations in intron 3 and exon 7

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Fares; Dobrovoljski, Gabriele; Chery, Celine; Audonnet, Sandra; Feillet, François; Sperl, Wolfgang; Gueant, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile megaloblastic anaemia 1 (OMIM # 261100) is a rare autosomic disorder characterized by selective cobalamin mal-absorption and inconstant proteinuria produced by mutations in either CUBN or AMN genes. Amnionless, the gene product of AMN, is a transmembrane protein that binds tightly to the N-terminal end of cubilin, the gene product of CUBN. Cubilin binds to intrinsic factor-cobalamin complex and is expressed in the distal intestine and the proximal renal tubule. We report a compound AMN heterozygosity with c.742C>T, p.Gln248X and c.208-2A>G mutations in 2 siblings that led to premature termination codon in exon 7 and exon 6, respectively. It produced a dramatic decrease in receptor activity in urine, despite absence of CUBN mutation and normal affinity of the receptor for intrinsic factor binding. Heterozygous carriers for c.742T and c.208-2G had no pathological signs. These results indicate that amnionless is essential for the correct luminal expression of cubilin in humans. PMID:21750092

  1. Luminal expression of cubilin is impaired in Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome with compound AMN mutations in intron 3 and exon 7.

    PubMed

    Namour, Fares; Dobrovoljski, Gabriele; Chery, Celine; Audonnet, Sandra; Feillet, François; Sperl, Wolfgang; Gueant, Jean-Louis

    2011-11-01

    Juvenile megaloblastic anaemia 1 (OMIM # 261100) is a rare autosomic disorder characterized by selective cobalamin mal-absorption and inconstant proteinuria produced by mutations in either CUBN or AMN genes. Amnionless, the gene product of AMN, is a transmembrane protein that binds tightly to the N-terminal end of cubilin, the gene product of CUBN. Cubilin binds to intrinsic factor-cobalamin complex and is expressed in the distal intestine and the proximal renal tubule. We report a compound AMN heterozygosity with c.742C>T, p.Gln248X and c.208-2A>G mutations in 2 siblings that led to premature termination codon in exon 7 and exon 6, respectively. It produced a dramatic decrease in receptor activity in urine, despite absence of CUBN mutation and normal affinity of the receptor for intrinsic factor binding. Heterozygous carriers for c.742T and c.208-2G had no pathological signs. These results indicate that amnionless is essential for the correct luminal expression of cubilin in humans.

  2. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Richard P; Monakhov, Mikhail V; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-08-22

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal-conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified.

  3. A homozygous deletion of exon 1 in WISP3 causes progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia in two siblings

    PubMed Central

    Neerinckx, Barbara; Thues, Cedric; Wouters, Carine; Lechner, Sarah; Westhovens, Rene; Van Esch, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that causes progressive joint stiffness and pain. It is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the WISP3 gene. We describe two sisters suffering from PPD in whom molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion of exon 1 and of the 5′UTR of the WISP3 gene. This is the first time that a gross deletion has been described as the causal mutation in PPD. PMID:27081554

  4. Selective Blockade of Periostin Exon 17 Preserves Cardiac Performance in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Yoshiaki; Katsuragi, Naruto; Sanada, Fumihiro; Azuma, Junya; Iekushi, Kazuma; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Okayama, Keita; Ikeda-Iwabu, Yuka; Muratsu, Jun; Otsu, Rei; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of full-length periostin, Pn-1, resulted in ventricular dilation with enhanced interstitial collagen deposition in a rat model. However, other reports have documented that the short-form splice variants Pn-2 (lacking exon 17) and Pn-4 (lacking exons 17 and 21) promoted cardiac repair by angiogenesis and prevented cardiac rupture after acute myocardial infarction. The apparently differing findings from those reports prompted us to use a neutralizing antibody to selectively inhibit Pn-1 by blockade of exon 17 in a rat acute myocardial infarction model. Administration of Pn neutralizing antibody resulted in a significant decrease in the infarcted and fibrotic areas of the myocardium, which prevented ventricular wall thinning and dilatation. The inhibition of fibrosis by Pn neutralizing antibody was associated with a significant decrease in gene expression of fibrotic markers, including collagen I, collagen III, and transforming growth factor-β1. Importantly, the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts was significantly reduced in the hearts of animals treated with Pn neutralizing antibody, whereas cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis were comparable in the IgG and neutralizing antibody groups. Moreover, the level of Pn-1 expression was significantly correlated with the severity of myocardial infarction. In addition, Pn-1, but not Pn-2 or Pn-4, inhibited fibroblast and myocyte attachment, which might account for the cell slippage observed during cardiac remodeling. Collectively, these results indicate that therapeutics that specifically inhibit Pn exon-17, via a neutralizing antibody or drug, without suppressing other periostin variants might offer a new class of medication for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction patients.

  5. Suppression of 5' splice-sites through multiple exonic motifs by hnRNP L.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tiing Jen; Choi, Namjeong; Moon, Heegyum; Jang, Ha Na; Liu, Yongchao; Zhou, Jianhua; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2017-03-01

    Selection of 5' splice-sites (5'SS) in alternative splicing plays an important role in gene regulation. Although regulatory mechanisms of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L), a well-known splicing regulatory protein, have been studied in a substantial level, its role in 5'SS selection is not thoroughly defined. By using a KLF6 pre-mRNA alternative splicing model, we demonstrate in this report that hnRNP L inhibits proximal 5'SS but promotes two consecutive distal 5'SS splicing, antagonizing SRSF1 roles in KLF6 pre-mRNA splicing. In addition, three consecutive CA-rich sequences in a CA cassette immediately upstream of the proximal 5'SS are all required for hnRNP L functions. Importantly, the CA-cassette locations on the proximal exon do not affect hnRNP L roles. We further show that the proximal 5'SS but not the two distal 5'SSs are essential for hnRNP L activities. Notably, in a Bcl-x pre-mRNA model that contains two alternative 5'SS but includes CA-rich elements at distal exon, we demonstrate that hnRNP L also suppresses nearby 5'SS activation. Taken together, we conclude that hnRNP L suppresses 5'SS selection through multiple exonic motifs.

  6. Detection of Clinically Relevant Exonic Copy-Number Changes by Array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Philip M.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Shaw, Chad A.; Eng, Patricia A.; Hixson, Patricia M.; Pursley, Amber N.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Yang, Yaping; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Nowakowska, Beata A.; Gaudio, Daniela del; Xia, Zhilian; Simpson-Patel, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna L.; Gibson, James B.; Tsai, Anne C.-H.; Bowers, Jennifer A.; Reimschisel, Tyler E.; Schaaf, Christian P.; Potocki, Lorraine; Scaglia, Fernando; Gambin, Tomasz; Sykulski, Maciej; Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwinska, Katarzyna; Wisniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Lalani, Seema R.; Probst, Frank J.; Bi, Weimin; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Patel, Ankita; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for the molecular elucidation and diagnosis of disorders resulting from genomic copy-number variation (CNV). However, intragenic deletions or duplications—those including genomic intervals of a size smaller than a gene—have remained beyond the detection limit of most clinical aCGH analyses. Increasing array probe number improves genomic resolution, although higher cost may limit implementation, and enhanced detection of benign CNV can confound clinical interpretation. We designed an array with exonic coverage of selected disease and candidate genes and used it clinically to identify losses or gains throughout the genome involving at least one exon and as small as several hundred base pairs in size. In some patients, the detected copy-number change occurs within a gene known to be causative of the observed clinical phenotype, demonstrating the ability of this array to detect clinically relevant CNVs with subkilobase resolution. In summary, we demonstrate the utility of a custom-designed, exon-targeted oligonucleotide array to detect intragenic copy-number changes in patients with various clinical phenotypes. PMID:20848651

  7. Subfunctionalization of duplicate mitf genes associated with differential degeneration of alternative exons in fish.

    PubMed Central

    Altschmied, Joachim; Delfgaauw, Jacqueline; Wilde, Brigitta; Duschl, Jutta; Bouneau, Laurence; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) exists in at least four isoforms. These are generated in higher vertebrates using alternative 5' exons and promoters from a single gene. Two separate genes (mitf-m and mitf-b), however, are present in different teleost fish species including the poeciliid Xiphophorus, the pufferfishes Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Fish proteins MITF-m and MITF-b correspond at both the structural and the expression levels to one particular bird/mammalian MITF isoform. In the teleost lineage subfunctionalization of mitf genes after duplication at least 100 million years ago is associated with the degeneration of alternative exons and, probably, regulatory elements and promoters. For example, a remnant of the first exon specific for MITF-m is detected within the pufferfish gene encoding MITF-b. Retracing the evolutionary history of mitf genes in vertebrates uncovered the differential recruitment of new introns specific for either the teleost or the bird/mammalian lineage. PMID:12019239

  8. NTR1 is required for transcription elongation checkpoints at alternative exons in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dolata, Jakub; Guo, Yanwu; Kołowerzo, Agnieszka; Smoliński, Dariusz; Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Jarmołowski, Artur; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The interconnection between transcription and splicing is a subject of intense study. We report that Arabidopsis homologue of spliceosome disassembly factor NTR1 is required for correct expression and splicing of DOG1, a regulator of seed dormancy. Global splicing analysis in atntr1 mutants revealed a bias for downstream 5′ and 3′ splice site selection and an enhanced rate of exon skipping. A local reduction in PolII occupancy at misspliced exons and introns in atntr1 mutants suggests that directionality in splice site selection is a manifestation of fast PolII elongation kinetics. In agreement with this model, we found AtNTR1 to bind target genes and co-localise with PolII. A minigene analysis further confirmed that strong alternative splice sites constitute an AtNTR1-dependent transcriptional roadblock. Plants deficient in PolII endonucleolytic cleavage showed opposite effects for splice site choice and PolII occupancy compared to atntr1 mutants, and inhibition of PolII elongation or endonucleolytic cleavage in atntr1 mutant resulted in partial reversal of splicing defects. We propose that AtNTR1 is part of a transcription elongation checkpoint at alternative exons in Arabidopsis. PMID:25568310

  9. RBM5/Luca-15/H37 regulates Fas alternative splice site pairing after exon definition.

    PubMed

    Bonnal, Sophie; Martínez, Concepción; Förch, Patrik; Bachi, Angela; Wilm, Matthias; Valcárcel, Juan

    2008-10-10

    RBM5/Luca-15/H37 is a gene frequently inactivated in lung cancers and overexpressed in breast tumors. Its protein product has been detected in prespliceosomal complexes and modulates cell proliferation and Fas-mediated apoptosis. We report that RBM5 is a component of complexes involved in 3' splice site recognition and regulates alternative splicing of apoptosis-relate