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Sample records for afghanistan australia bangladesh

  1. Development knowledge and experience--from Bangladesh to Afghanistan and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Aminul Alam, M.; Ahmed, Jalaluddin

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: In Afghanistan the challenges of development are daunting, mainly as a result of many years of conflict. The formation of a new government in 2001 paved the way for new initiatives from within and outside the country. BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), a Bangladeshi nongovernmental organization with a long history of successful work, extended its development model to Afghanistan in 2002. LOCAL SETTING: Provincial Afghanistan. APPROACH: BRAC has implemented programmes in Afghanistan in the areas of health, education, microfinance, women's empowerment, agriculture, capacity development and local government strengthening, and has taken many of these programmes to scale. RELEVANT CHANGES: With a total staff of over 3000 (94% Afghan and the rest Bangladeshis), BRAC now works in 21 of the country's 34 provinces. BRAC runs 629 non-formal primary schools with 18 155 students, mostly girls. In health, BRAC has trained 3589 community workers who work at the village level in preventive and curative care. BRAC runs the largest microfinance programme in the country with 97 130 borrowers who cumulatively borrowed over US$ 28 million with a repayment rate of 98%. LESSONS LEARNED: Initial research indicates significant improvement in access to health care. Over three years, much has been achieved and learned. This paper summarizes these experiences and concludes that collaboration between developing countries can work, with fine-tuning to suit local contexts and traditions. PMID:16917659

  2. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  3. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1983-05-01

    In this discussion of Afghanistan, attention focuses on: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Only recently has there been a population census in the country; consequently, there has been relatively little reliable demographic information available, especially in a historical context. Afghanistan's total population was officially estimated at nearly 16 million in late 1967. According to UN estimates, the population totaled 8.3 million in 1960 and increased to 9.8 and 12.3 million in the following 2 decades to over 14 million by 1975. The rate of population growth, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have increased from 1.6% during 1950-55 to 2.4% by the following decade, reaching 2.9% during 1970-75. The crude birthrate declined slightly from 50.4 births/1000 during 1950-55 to 49.2 during 1970-75. The crude death rate declined from 34.6/1000 to 23.4 deaths/1000 during the same period. Although the rate of population growth is considered to be fairly high, the government does not perceive this as presenting a population problem for the country as a whole since the overall population density is relatively low (approximately 20 persons per square kilometer). A national statistical information system has been developed in Afghanistan over the past decades. The government has no explicit population policy, and a clear association between population and development issues has not been expressed. Policies in the area of population distribution indicate the government's concern with settlement and resettlement of certain segments of the population in connection with the overall economic and social development of sparsely

  4. Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The population of Bangladesh was 104 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The country's infant mortality rate is 12.1%, and life expectancy stands at 54 years. The literacy rate is 29%. The work force of 34.1 million is distributed among agriculture (74%), industry (11%), and services (15%). The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$15.3 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 3.6% and a per capita GDP of $151. As one of the world's poorest and most densely populated countries, Bangladesh must struggle to produce domestically and import enough food to feed its rapidly increasing population. The country's transportation, communications, and power infrastructure is relatively poorly developed. Since 1971, an emphasis has been placed on developing new industrial capacity and rehabilitating the economy. The statist economic model, including nationalization of the key jute industry, had resulted in inefficiency and economic stagnation. At present, rapid population growth, inefficiency in the public sector, and restricted natural resources and capital continue to impede economic development. On the other hand, economic policies aimed at encouraging private enterprise and investment, denationalizing public industries, reinstating budgetary discipline, and mobilizing domestic resources are beginning to have an impact. Underemployment remains a serious problem, and there are growing concerns regarding the ability of the agricultural sector to absorb additional manpower. To reach the goal of 10% annual industrial growth for the 1986-89 period, the government is aggressively seeking foreign investment.

  5. Spotlight: Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Felt, J C

    1988-05-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country approximately the size of Texas with an estimated population of 14.5 million. The fertility level (6.7 children per women) is estimated to be very high, as is the mortality rate (183 infant deaths/1,000 live births). Demographic data sources are scarce, and current estimates are based on a 1972-1974 series of surveys and a 1979 census which enumerated only 55-60% of the population. The government of Afghanistan, a Marxist state, has asked for international aid to improve data collection and analysis. Compounding the problems of accurate data collection is the state of civil war that has existed in Afghanistan since the Marxist coup in in 1978 and Soviet occupation in 1979. The war impelled the emigration of 5 million refugees, who live in camps in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. Although the population decline that resulted from this emigration is significant, the repatriation of the refugees will play a role in determining the population dynamics for the next decade, as will the withdrawal of Soviet troops -- expected in 1990. Because of Afghanistan's central-Asia location, there is a unique ethnic and linguistic mixture of tribes. The largest group is the Pushtus, who make up 40% of the population. Afghan Persian and Pushtu are the dominant languages, and 98% of all Afghans are Moslem. The economy is largely agricultural and half the cultivated land must be irrigated. 85% of the population live in rural areas and another 2.5 million are nomads. The low status of women and female children, low levels of health care, and high fertility contribute to the lower life expectancy of females over males. Although the government supports contraceptive services, such services are inadequate, and sterilization is illegal. The withdrawal of Soviet troops and the possible end to civil war between the Kabul government and the rebel factions, and the effects of repatriation of refugees will determine the direction of Afghanistan's future

  6. BRAC in Afghanistan: Building South-South Partnerships in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mir Nazmul; Anwar, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Training paraprofessionals such as teachers is one of many significant challenges facing Afghanistan's educational system. This case study focuses on the innovations offered in that regard by BRAC, a large NGO based in Bangladesh that brought its many years of development experience to Afghanistan in 2002 and established itself there as the…

  7. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  8. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  9. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  10. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  11. Afghanistan: A Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.

    Afghanistan and its people are not well known or understood by the United States, yet many U.S. people now consider the U.S. and Afghanistan to be at war. How is it possible to know the enemy? This book offers a complete, but not exhaustive source of information about Afghanistan, the land and its people. The book is intended as a guide for anyone…

  12. Women's network in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Violence and discrimination against women have been part of the Afghan culture for thousands of years, but recently this situation has grown worse. In response, Afghan women have recently formed the Afghan Women's Network. The main objective of this organization is to work for peace and human rights in Afghanistan where the Taliban sect has been especially oppressive of women's rights. In a declaration issued late last year, the Network, which includes women in Pakistan as well as Afghanistan, requested international support for their work to guarantee the right of women to work outside the home, as well as their right to education and personal safety. PMID:12179739

  13. Afghanistan Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Save the Children, Westport, CT.

    This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

  14. Pistacia in Afghanistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Pistacia have been reported within Afghanistan: Pistacia vera L., P. Khinjuk Stocks, P.atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech. f., and P. integerrima (=P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. f.). Information on their identification is provided based on recent literat...

  15. Why Is Afghanistan Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    As a former Peace Corps volunteer, avid traveler, classroom geography teacher, and writer, the author has been interested in Afghanistan for decades. Sparked by her own travel experiences in Kabul in February 1970, she made certain that her ninth grade World History/Geography students in south Central Los Angeles not only knew where Afghanistan…

  16. Afghanistan Glacier Diminution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of melt water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with glacierized drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped glacier regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for glacier-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that glaciers, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many glaciers declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock glaciers, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of glacier location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest glaciers occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 glaciers from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 glacier-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated glacier forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent glacier-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and glacier retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary

  17. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  18. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balwanz; David

    2007-01-01

    From 1979 to 2002, Afghanistan was in a near constant state of war and exhibited some of the lowest levels of development in the world. While local conflicts and Taliban remnants continue to challenge Afghanistan's reconstruction and stabilization, significant progress has been made since the 2001 U.S. led invasion and subsequent fall of the…

  19. Consanguineous marriages in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Afghanistan populations. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 7140 from the following provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunduz, Samangan and Takhar. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The proportion of consanguineous marriages in the country was 46.2%, ranging from 38.2% in Kabul province to 51.2% in Bamyan province. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was 0.0277, and ranged from 0.0221 to 0.0293 in these two regions. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (p<0.001). First cousin marriages (27.8%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (6.9%), second cousin (5.8%), beyond second cousin (3.9%) and first cousin once removed (1.8%). There were significant differences between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (χ2=177.6, df=25, p<0.001). Tajiks (Soni) and Turkmens (also Pashtuns) showed the lowest (α=0.0250) and highest (α=0.0297) mean inbreeding coefficients, respectively, among the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The study shows that Afghanistan's populations, like other Islamic populations, have a high level of consanguinity.

  20. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  1. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  2. Book Development in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabbi, Fazle

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development of book production in Bangladesh and discusses the situation in Bangladesh with regard to the economics of publishing, the relationship between publishing and library development, book distribution, copyright and translation, and book experts. (Author/JL)

  3. USSR and Afghanistan mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shroder, J.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Afghanistan is a geological complex in which plentiful minerals and fuels were formed. Western geologists explored that country during the last 100 years and produced many reports and maps. Real progress in a systematic analysis, however, was not made until the intensive efforts of the Soviet Union during the past two decades. By diplomatic and economic maneuvers, the Soviets took control of Afghanistan's nascent hydrocarbon indusry during the 1960s. Following the 1973 coup, the Soviets and Afghan supporters replaced pro-Western technical advisors and hampered Western-linked development. Intensive field investgations led to the discovery of hundreds of mineral deposits and several good petroleum prospects. The current Russian military occupation is partially subsidized with Afghanistan resources. 83 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This publication describes the seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity and is intended for use in seismic hazard studies of that nation. Included are digital files with information on earthquakes that have been recorded in Afghanistan and vicinity through mid-December 2004. Chapter A provides an overview of the seismicity and tectonics of Afghanistan and defines the earthquake parameters included in the 'Summary Catalog' and the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects.' Chapter B summarizes compilation of the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' and documents their formats. The 'Summary Catalog' itself is presented as a comma-delimited ASCII file, the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects' is presented as an html file, and the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' are presented as flat ASCII files. Finally, this report includes as separate plates a digital image of a map of epicenters of earthquakes occurring since 1964 (Plate 1) and a representation of areas of damage or strong shaking from selected past earthquakes in Afghanistan and vicinity (Plate 2).

  5. Progress and Pain in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoepf, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Academics in Afghanistan, with help from abroad, are struggling to repair the damage done to the country's higher-education system by decades of occupation, civil war, and fundamentalist Taliban rule. However, sporadic foreign aid, a lack of basic resources, and overwhelming demand leave plenty of room for improvement in the otherwise remarkable…

  6. Loess failure in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Schettler, Megan Jensen; Weihs, Brandon J.

    Mass movements in northeastern Afghanistan include large-scale rockslides and complex slope failures, as well as failures in loess. The loess region in northeastern Afghanistan occurs in the Badakhshan and Takhar provinces and was likely created by dust blown to the east from the Karakum Desert and the alluvial plains of northern Afghanistan. This loessic dust was deposited against the Hindu Kush mountain range which rises up along the eastern half of Afghanistan as a result of transpressional tectonism. It overlies less permeable crystalline and sedimentary bedrocks such as Triassic granite, Proterozoic gneiss, and Miocene and Pliocene clastics in the area with the largest concentration of slope failures. Thirty-four loess slides and flows were mapped and analyzed using remote satellite imagery over digital elevation models on Google Earth™. This source enabled location, classification, and measurement of failures. Findings revealed that most failed slopes faced north, west, and northwest. This trend can be explained possibly as different moisture contents resulting from the primarily westerly wind direction, which may cause more precipitation to be deposited on west-facing slopes, and sun position during the hottest part of the day. Additionally, the easterly rising Hindu Kush range may cause more slope area to face west in the study region. Other contributing factors could be the very high seismicity of the area, which may cause rapid dry fluidized loess flows, and landscape modification by humans. Several loess slope failures appear to be generated by water concentration through irrigation ditches and possible rutted tire tracks, which can create tunneling between the loess and its less permeable bedrock. Causes and effects of loess failure in Afghanistan need to be investigated in more depth. Further study may lead to the adoption of more sustainable and safe farming practices and more informed housing locations, which may prevent loss of property, crop, and

  7. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Weihs, Brandon J.; Schettler, Megan Jensen

    Mass movements of nearly all types occur in Afghanistan but in the high relief, rugged Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, mass-movement threats to lives and property necessitated study to elucidate problems to development. Twenty-two different mass movements in bedrock in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan were studied for this paper, including large rock falls and rock slides, along with massive slope-failure complexes with many types and rates of movement. Where higher altitudes prevail in the region, ice-cemented and ice-cored rock glaciers are also common and overlie some of the other mass movements. Inasmuch as seismic energy sources in the Eastern Hindu Kush are maximal in southern Badakhshan, and relief, slope angles and precipitation all increase from west to east as well, the causes of the pervasive mass movement are plentiful enough, although direct cause and slope-failure effect are not known. Some weak sedimentary lithologies downfaulted into, or draped across crystalline rocks, also failed. Some intermixed tills also occur but are not easily differentiated, even with analysis on the ground. Using high resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation models, we assessed geomorphologic parameters to characterize spatial-organization structures related to zones of erosion, deposition and further hazard potential. Analyses indicate that many of the massive slope failures can be characterized and differentiated into various process domains and chronologic-development zones with their different impacts upon the landscape. Mass movements in Afghanistan can exhibit unique topographic signatures that can be used to better assess hazards in other mountain areas, especially where landslide-dam breakout floods threaten. Development of roads, bridges, buildings, and irrigation networks should be done with care in these regions of Afghanistan.

  8. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  9. Environmental management dilemma in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Amanullah, N.

    1995-11-01

    This article outlines the author`s views concerning the main issues regarding solid waste management in Kabul, Afghanistan, and is based on his experience as an environmental manager with the Kabul Environmental Engineering Department (EED) from 1978 to 1988, during the War for Freedom Resistance. Environmental policy and regulation in Afghanistan can be characterized as minimal to poor, even by developing countries` standards. Even before the war (pre-1978) which ravaged the country`s infrastructure, environmental policies and regulations were poor, without guidelines for implementation and without enforcement. There was no comprehensive monitoring of industrial effluents or discharges and no financial penalties or consequences for environmental pollution. This lack of policies was largely due to a widespread belief that any attempt to regulate industry might affect future industrial growth and economic activity. Unfortunately, a decade and a half of war further hindered any progress in the area of solid waste management. In fact, the situation deteriorated.

  10. Primary and Secondary Curriculum Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgescu, Dakmara

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes curriculum processes and products pertaining to the overall reconstruction of Afghanistan's education system after 2002. With the support of several international agencies, including UNESCO's International Bureau of Education (IBE), as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Afghanistan's Ministry of Education succeeded…

  11. The Afghanistan National Institute of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article, David Forrest probes Ahmad Sarmast (Founder and Director of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music, Ministry of Education, Afghanistan) about the development of the Institute, its sponsorship, the range of local musicians and music educators that work there, and the student population.

  12. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  13. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  14. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  15. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  16. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper. PMID:20190697

  17. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper.

  18. Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Ludington, Stephen; Orris, Greta J.; Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.; Rytuba, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines to assess the undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan between 2006 and 2007. This report presents the results of this work and contains chapters describing and assessing the mineral resources of Afghanistan. An accompanying Geographical Information System (GIS) is an accompanying disk that includes supporting data. Funding for this effort was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

  19. Quaternary deposits in southwestern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    Geologic evidence in the closed Seistan Basin of southwestern Afghanistan and adjacent parts of Iran and Pakistan indicates that a lake as much as 65,000 sq km in size occupied this closed depression during Pleistocene time. The deposits consist mostly of lacustrine silt and clay and have a maximum observed thickness of about 250 m. A layer of alluvial gravels overlies the sequence. The deposits are probably early or middle Pleistocene in age; they are old enough to have sustained nearly 300 m of erosion over large areas but are not faulted or detectably folded in the central part of the basin although they are upwarped along the west edge of the basin. Sand dunes cover extensive areas of the basin. Dune orientation shows that the strong surface winds enter the basin blowing toward the south-southeast and then are deflected to the east, apparently as a response to mountains bordering the basin on its south side. The Gawdezereh, a large deflation depression, may be a result of an augmented excavation ability of winds that oc urs where turbulence is created along a zone of deflection. ?? 1974.

  20. Afghanistan environmental profile. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Afghanistan's environment, already scarred by 12 years of conflict, is likely to undergo severe stress as external and internal refugees are resettled, according to this preliminary environmental profile. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 discusses the state of Afghanistan's environment in 1978 prior to the Soviet invasion, while Chapter 3 documents the environmental impacts of events since that time, including population relocation, deforestation, and locust and sunn-pest infestations. Chapter 4 examines major environmental areas (vegetation, wildlife, soil erosion, pesticides, public health, environmental infrastructure, energy, and air quality) with respect to both existing conditions and what is likely to occur when resettlement begins in earnest. Chapter 5 presents potential mitigation measures, including a set of environmental guidelines for the Government of Afghanistan. Chapter 6 discusses the Geographic Information System being developed under USAID's Agricultural Services Support Program; it discusses the extent to which GIS data can contribute to environmental studies, and vice versa.

  1. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  2. Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply.

  3. Himalayan Foothills, Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This remarkably clear, pre-monsoon view of the Himalayan foothills of Bangladesh (26.0N, 89.5E) shows the deforestation of the lower slopes for agriculture and pasture lands. The cleared lower slopes are generally used for tea cultivation. The intensity of agricultural land use, mostly in the form of small, family subsistance farms on the Ganges Plain is evident over most of the scene. Note also, the aircraft contrail and Tista River.

  4. [[Fertility in Bangladesh villages

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Igarashi, T; Tsubouchi, Y

    1990-12-01

    The authors analyze the high fertility in two Bangladesh villages based on survey and genealogical data. "Compared with nation-wide data, [the] two villages showed comparatively high fertility. There was a difference in fertility between the two villages, which appeared to result from a difference in mean age at first marriage. No other factors were identified.... As for the government's family planning program, neither village showed much effect." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    This report is USGS Afghanistan Project No. 155. This study was funded by an Interagency Agreement between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Geological Survey. Afghanistan is located in the geologically active part of the world where the northward-moving Indian plate is colliding with the southern part of the Eurasian plate at a rate of about 1.7 inches per year. This collision has created the world's highest mountains and causes slips on major faults that generate large, often devastating earthquakes. Every few years a powerful earthquake causes significant damage or fatalities. New construction needs to be designed to accommodate the hazards posed by strong earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a preliminary seismic-hazard map of Afghanistan. Although the map is generalized, it provides government officials, engineers, and private companies who are interested in participating in Afghanistan's growth with crucial information about the location and nature of seismic hazards.

  6. [Operational fatigue: debriefing from Kapisa, Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Houel, Jean-Guillaume; Vautier, Virginie; Gallineau, Cyrille; Papillault des Charbonneries, Laurent; Clervoy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The concept of operational fatigue, a term first used during the Second World War, was subsequently extended to encompass a vague series of psychological disorders. This article looks back at an overseas operation in Afghanistan, during the summer of 2011, where the tense background situation, casualties and fatalities resulted in some members of the commando parachute units suffering from such conditions. PMID:26564493

  7. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  8. Intermediate Dari for Peace Corps Volunteers. Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enteser, M. Ehsen

    This more advanced Dari text was designed for Peace Corps Volunteers in Afghanistan who desired to speak the language on higher levels, but it could also be used during the last part of the training programs in the United States. It follows the author's elementary text, "Farsi Reference Manual Basic Course," which has been used in all the Afghan…

  9. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Toby; Kolaczinski, Kate; Mohsen, Engineer; Mehboob, Najeebullah; Saleheen, Sarah; Khudonazarov, Juma; Freeman, Tim; Clements, Archie; Rowland, Mark; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission. Remote sensing enabled development of a risk map, thereby providing a valuable tool to help guide malaria control strategies. PMID:17176583

  10. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  11. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market.

  12. Strategic Planning for Literacy Education in Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Harrison J.; Henry, Doris A.

    1993-01-01

    After crisis conditions abated, directors of a U.S. Agency for International Development/University of Nebraska at Omaha joint project resolved to implement strategic planning for literacy education (including curriculum development, teacher education, and assessment) in Afghanistan. This article describes the rigors of educational planning in a…

  13. 76 FR 31470 - Taliban (Afghanistan) Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... control in Afghanistan to be used as a safe haven and base of operations for Usama bin Ladin and Al-Qaida..., 1999, the President issued Executive Order 13129 (64 FR 36759, July 7, 1999), invoking the authority of... 13219 (66 FR 2726, January 11, 2001). On September 23, 2001, the President issued Executive Order...

  14. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  15. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7703 Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  16. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7703 Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  17. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  18. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  20. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  1. [Managing an influx of casualties in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Planchet, Mathieu; Cazes, Nicolas; Pudupin, Alain; Leyral, Jarome; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-09-01

    Forward medical support is a fundamental principle of French army health service doctrine. During operations, the mission of army doctors and nurses is to treat casualties as high up the rescue chain as possible. This article describes the example of Afghanistan, in 2012, when the French army had to manage in a hostile environment an influx of casualties, sometimes massive and causing resources to become saturated. PMID:25464629

  2. [A demographic profile of Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    D'souza, S

    1985-01-01

    Population trends in Bangladesh are reviewed. Consideration is given to population density, food supply, and methods of resolving the country's population problems. The author concludes that programs designed to raise the status of women have the best chance of success.

  3. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  4. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  5. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  6. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  7. Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This interim report is an updating of the 1977 Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. The interim report reflects the significant changes in policies brought about by the Saur Revolution establishing the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978. A comprehensive revision of the report is expected when the new government's…

  8. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  9. At American U. of Afghanistan, Turmoil at the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Billed as the country's first independent university, the American University of Afghanistan was established in 2004 with financial support from the highest levels of the American and Afghan governments. But its development has been rockier than anticipated, even taking into account Afghanistan's growing instability. A number of current and former…

  10. Back to School in Afghanistan: Determinants of School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimbert, Stephane; Miwa, Keiko; Nguyen, Duc Thanh

    2008-01-01

    One of the first achievements of post-conflict Afghanistan was to bring almost 4 million children back to school. Issues remain daunting, however, with low primary enrollment especially for girls and in rural areas and very weak learning achievements. We review some key features of the education system in Afghanistan. By matching household and…

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan... Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. “Product from Afghanistan” and “service from Afghanistan,” as used...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan... Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. “Product from Afghanistan” and “service from Afghanistan,” as used...

  13. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-10-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry. PMID:22510847

  14. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry. PMID:22510847

  15. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in Southeastern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for all historical streamgaging stations that have available data in the southeastern Afghanistan provinces of Ghazni, Khost, Logar, Paktya, and Wardak, and a portion of Kabul Province are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgaging station include a station desciption, table of statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, table of monthly and annual flow duration, table of probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, table of probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, table of annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and table of monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  16. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter ... lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the ...

  17. Afghanistan, history and beyond - GIS based application tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Rahul Chidananda

    The emphasis of this tool is to provide an insight into the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a warring nation for decades; this tool provides a brief account of the reasons behind the importance of Afghanistan, which led to its invasion by Britain, Russia and USA. The timeline for this thesis was set from 1879 to 1990 which ranges from Barakzai Dynasty to the soviet invasion. Maps are used judiciously to show battles during the British invasion. Maps that show roads, rivers, lakes and provinces are incorporated into the tool to provide an overview of the present situation. The user has options to filter this data by using the timeline and a filtering tool. To quench the users thirst for more information, HTML pages are used judiciously. HTML pages are embedded in key events to provide detailed insight into these events with the help of pictures and videos. An intuitive slider is used to show the people who played a significant role in Afghanistan. The user interface was made intuitive and easy to use, keeping in mind the novice user. A help menu is provided to guide the user on the tool. Spending time researching about Afghanistan has helped me again a new perspective on Afghanistan and its people. With this tool, I hope I can provide a valuable channel for people to understand Afghanistan and gain a fresh perspective into this war ridden nation.

  18. Petroleum geology of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The easternmost part of the Bengal foredeep or Surma basin is the most prospective area for finding additional gas because the degree of folding diminishes markedly in a westward direction. The foothills of the Tripura-Chittagong area and the Bengal basin (sometimes called Bengal foredeep or Surma basin) are locations of the gas fields in Bangladesh. These areas have sometimes been called the Outer Molasse basin. Folding occurred in four phases. Gas discoveries are in the Chittagong foothills. Similar structural features to those of the Chittagong foothills appear to be present in the extreme eastern part of the Bay of Bengal. Compressional folding did not affect the central and western part of the Bay of Bengal. However, by comparison with other areas of deltaic deposition, rollover structures associated with growth faults may be significant. The Oligocene to Holocene rock sequences were deposited in environments that range from abyssal marine prodelta to subaerial delta plain. In productive areas onshore and offshore, hydrocarbon traps include asymmetric, elongate, faulted anticlines. Strategic traps and sedimentary growth structures are found in the Bengal basin. Miocene sandstones constitute the gas reservoirs; Eocene, Paleocene, and Oligocene carbonaceous shales and Miocene shales are the source rocks. Total recoverable gas reserves are 7 to 7.8 tcf. Total estimated gas reserves in place are 9.33 to 10.39 tcf and possibly 10 to 20 tcf of gas resources yet to be discovered.

  19. Petroleum geology and resources of Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.; Clarke, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    Afghanistan consists largely of a series of continental fragments that, moving northward, docked and accreted to the southern proto-Asia continent. The tectonization of the accreted terranes is generally severe and prospects are limited essentially to the 48, 000 mi{sup 2} (124,000 km{sup 2}) North Afghanistan basin. This basin represents the Afghan portion of the Turanian platform, plus the orogenic belt around its southern and eastern perimeter. Exploration to date is judged to be preliminary in character, with some 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas and 80 million barrels of oil being discovered by 1980. There are two types of traps: Mesozoic low-amplitude drapes or tilted fault blocks, and Neogene high-amplitude folds. Appreciable reservoirs are limited to three horizons - Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene - of which the lower Cretaceous is considered to be the best. Source rock is confined largely to the Lower and Middle Jurassic shales. Upper Jurassic evaporites form a barrier between the Jurassic source shales and the Lower Cretaceous reservoirs and Neogene folds. There appear to be five principal plays, and estimated total recoverable petroleum in them is 300 million barrels of oil, 9.6 TCF of gas, and 145 million barrels of condensate. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  1. Women in physics in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Shamima K.

    2013-03-01

    Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

  2. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends. PMID:12280834

  3. Leptospirosis during dengue outbreak, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    LaRocque, Regina C; Breiman, Robert F; Ari, Mary D; Morey, Roger E; Janan, Firdous Ara; Hayes, John Mosely; Hossain, M Anowar; Brooks, W Abdullah; Levett, Paul N

    2005-05-01

    We collected acute-phase serum samples from febrile patients at 2 major hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during an outbreak of dengue fever in 2001. A total of 18% of dengue-negative patients tested positive for leptospirosis. The case-fatality rate among leptospirosis patients (5%) was higher than among dengue fever patients (1.2%).

  4. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  5. 76 FR 66692 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... American Chamber of Commerce in Kabul in 2010. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan, situated in Kabul... public and private sector, learn about the market by participating in Embassy briefings, and...

  6. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... American Chamber of Commerce in Kabul in 2010. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan, situated in Kabul... leaders in the public and private sector, learn about the market by participating in Embassy...

  7. Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan, Version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an accompanying database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. Included is an accompanying Microsoft? Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan's energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards, currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,462) and unpublished (n = 174) references compiled through September, 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable, interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft? Access is required.

  8. Afghanistan: NGOs and Women in the Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    In conflict-torn Afghanistan, international nongovernmental organizations are attempting to build indigenous capacity for development. Strategies include support for women, involvement of local elders, and integration of internal and external value systems. (SK)

  9. Aeromagnetic Survey in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's geologic setting indicates significant natural resource potential While important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information of the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Due to the security situation and the large areas of the country of Afghanistan that has not been covered with geophysical exploration methods a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  10. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    Although some bauxite occurrences were sampled in the course of reconnaissance exploration by Soviet workers in the 1960s and 1970s, the bauxite areas in Afghanistan generally are underexplored. The Obatu Sheila area is a known field of bauxite deposits of Late Jurassic age that had been studied in more detail than other known bauxite deposits and occurrences in Afghanistan. Obatu Sheila has an estimated reserve of 7.2 million tons.

  11. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  12. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  13. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 AGENCY... the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to...

  14. Factors influencing contraceptive use among women in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Osmani, Ahmad Kamran; Reyer, Joshua A.; Osmani, Ahmad Reshad; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increase in contraceptive use in Afghanistan has been frustratingly slow from 7.0% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2012. Data on contraceptive use and influencing factors were obtained from Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012, which had been collected through interview-led questionnaire from 13,654 current married women aged 12–49 years. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contraceptive use were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When adjusted for age, residence, region, education, media, and wealth index, significant OR was obtained for parity (OR of 6 or more children relative to 1 child was 3.45, and the 95%CI 2.54–4.69), number of living sons (OR of 5 or more sons relative to no son was 2.48, and the 95%CI 1.86–3.29), wealth index (OR of the richest households relative to the poorest households was 2.14, and the 95%CI 1.72–2.67), antenatal care attendance (OR relative to no attendance was 2.13, and the 95%CI 1.74–2.62), education (OR of secondary education or above relative to no education was 1.62, and the 95%CI 1.26–2.08), media exposure (OR of at least some exposure to electronic media relative to no exposure was 1.15, and the 95%CI 1.01–1.30), and child mortality experience (OR was 0.88, and the 95%CI 0.77–0.99), as well as age, residence (rural/urban), and region. This secondary analysis based on AHS 2012 showed the findings similar to those from the previous studies in other developing countries. Although the unique situation in Afghanistan should be considered to promote contraceptive use, the background may be common among the areas with low contraceptive use. PMID:26663934

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Products or Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  16. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... support of operations in Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Trade Agreements 225.401-71 Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Afghanistan, if using a...

  17. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... support of operations in Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Trade Agreements 225.401-71 Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Afghanistan, if using a...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Products or Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) “Product...

  2. 31 CFR 545.311 - Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territory of Afghanistan controlled... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.311 Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) “Product...

  5. 48 CFR 252.232-7014 - Notification of Payment in Local Currency (Afghanistan).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Local Currency (Afghanistan). 252.232-7014 Section 252.232-7014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Currency (Afghanistan). As prescribed in 232.7202, use the following provision: NOTIFICATION OF PAYMENT IN LOCAL CURRENCY (AFGHANISTAN) (SEP 2014) (a) The contract resulting from this solicitation will be...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or...

  11. 31 CFR 545.407 - Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.407 Section 545.407 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 545.407 Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The prohibitions on transactions involving...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  13. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  14. Principles and practice: gender relations in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    Under the Taliban, which took control of Kabul in Afghanistan in October 1996, Shari's law has been interpreted strictly; women cannot work outside the home, cannot be educated, and must wear the burkha. Professional and educated women have moved to Pakistan. According to United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1995 figures, the literacy rate among women is 15%; among men it is 45%. This will only worsen if the education of girls is banned. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) report that interpretation of the law varies with district; girls under 10 years of age can attend school in some areas, and some Taliban commanders are more liberal than others. The 30,000 households headed by women will fall into poverty if the women cannot work and have no other means of support. Women's relationships outside the home will be determined entirely by men. Gender roles will change because men will now have to take over jobs women formerly performed outside the home: taking children to clinics, shopping, and collecting water. Women's support groups will collapse because visiting will be difficult and hospitality will be too expensive. International agencies have distributed food and provided work to women in their homes; men are used to communicate with the women. This has been done at risk. Oxfam UK/I, which cannot deliver quality humanitarian aid without working with both women and men, will attempt, through a witnessing and influencing strategy, to persuade the Taliban to become more moderate. PMID:12320968

  15. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms. PMID:25034914

  16. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  17. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  18. Imaging of pediatric pathology during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.

    PubMed

    Biko, David M; McQuillan, Brian F; Jesinger, Robert A; Sherman, Paul M; Borg, Bryson D; Lichtenberger, John P

    2015-03-01

    United States Armed Forces radiologists deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq in modern military conflicts may encounter pediatric patients as a casualty of war or when providing humanitarian assistance to the indigenous population. Pediatric patients account for 4-7% of admissions at U.S. military hospitals during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. It is pertinent for radiologists in the humanitarian care team to be familiar with imaging pediatric trauma patients, the pathology endemic to the local population, and delayed presentations of congenital and developmental disorders to adequately care for these patients. The radiological manifestations of various pediatric disorders seen in the setting of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts will be explored. PMID:24898394

  19. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  20. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  1. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  2. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  3. Indigenous Dirofilaria immitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Treiber, Moritz; Silbermayr, Katja; Baumann, Timo A; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

    2013-06-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is a parasite of domestic and wild canids and felids in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world. The canine heartworm (D. immitis) is the causative agent of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. This parasite is known to cause a zoonotic disease, namely human pulmonary dirofilariasis. D. immitis is known to be endemic in several South and Southeast Asian countries (e.g. India and Malaysia), but there has previously been no information about the presence of this pathogen in Bangladesh. We present a case of canine dirofilariasis caused by D. immitis in rural southeastern Bangladesh. A male filaroid nematode (95 mm in length and 1.94 mm in width) was identified in the heart of a dog. Species classification was performed by microscopy and molecular tools. Sequence analysis revealed a 100 % identity within the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) gene to two Chinese and one Australian D. immitis samples. Usually, dogs stay outside overnight with a high risk to get infected with D. immitis via nocturnal mosquito vectors, which may lead to high prevalences of this pathogen in the canine population and thus increase the risk of human infections with this neglected parasitic disease.

  4. Inequality in Disability in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tareque, Md. Ismail; Begum, Sharifa; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh. Methods The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability. Findings Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences. Conclusion In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly. PMID:25075513

  5. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    PubMed

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  6. Deploying the ODIS robot in Iraq and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Bill; Schoenherr, Edward; Andrusz, Henry; Gerhart, Grant

    2005-05-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have shown the importance of robotic technology as a force multiplier and a tool for moving soldiers out of harms way. Situations on the ground make soldiers performing checkpoint operations easy targets for snipers and suicide bombers. Robotics technology reduces risk to soldiers and other personnel at checkpoints. Early user involvement in innovative and aggressive development and acquisition strategies are the key to moving robotic and associated technology into the hands of the user. This paper updates activity associated with rapid development of the Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS) robot for under vehicle inspection and reports on our field experience with robotics in Iraq and Afghanistan. In February of 2004, two TARDEC Engineers departed for a mission to Iraq and Afghanistan with ten ODIS Robots. Six robots were deployed in the Green Zone in Baghdad. Two Robots were deployed at Kandahar Army Airfield and two were deployed at Bagram Army Airfield in Afghanistan. The TARDEC Engineers who performed this mission trained the soldiers and provided initial on site support. They also trained Exponent employees assigned to the Rapid Equipping Force in ODIS repair. We will discuss our initial deployment, lessons learned and future plans.

  7. Education for Demilitarizing Youth in Post-Conflict Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Yukitoshi

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the largely negative role that education has played historically in contributing to conflict in Afghanistan and the ways that education has been purposefully employed as a post-conflict strategy aimed at building peace and social cohesion. The growing attention among academics and policy makers to the role of youth in…

  8. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose of the Temporary Organization. The purpose of the PASO shall be to perform the specific project of.... diplomatic presence in both countries. Sec. 3. Functions of the Temporary Organization. In carrying out...

  9. Battlefield Documentation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John B; Smith, Michael P; Gross, Kirby R; Sauer, Samual W; Geracci, James J; Day, Charlie D; Kotwal, Russ S

    2016-01-01

    Performance improvement is reliant on information and data, as you cannot improve what you do not measure. The US military went to war in 2001 without an integrated trauma care system to collect and analyze combat casualty care data. By 2006, the conflict in Afghanistan began appreciating the capture and consolidation of hospital care documentation into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In contrast, a paucity of documentation has existed for prehospital or tactical combat casualty care (TCCC). Using the 75th Ranger casualty documentation model established in 2005, the Joint Trauma System developed a casualty data collection system for prehospital care using the TCCC Card, the TCCC After Action Report (AAR), and the Prehospital Trauma Registry. In 2013, this system was mandated for use by US forces in Afghanistan. The Joint Trauma System also created and deployed a prehospital team to be an integral part of the Joint Theater Trauma System in Afghanistan. This prehospital team provided prehospital training and facilitated prehospital data capture. Described and analyzed in this report are prehospital data captured in Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014 using the TCCC Card and the TCCC AAR. PMID:27215873

  10. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  11. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  12. Mesostigmatid mites of small mammals from the Hindu Kush (Afghanistan).

    PubMed

    Daniel, M

    1977-01-01

    During the First Czechoslovak mountaineering expedition to the Hindu Kush (1965) a material of mesostigmatid mites was collected from small mammals, yielding 16 species. Due to the fact that it is the first collection of these parasites studied in Afghanistan, a zoogeographic analysis, altitudinal stratification and epidemiological estimation are appended. PMID:342369

  13. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Home-Based Schools. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Years of conflict and instability have taken a heavy toll on education in Afghanistan. While the government rebuilds its public education system, formal schools fail to reach many of the country's children. Girls remain particularly underserved as a result of the looming effects of the Taliban's sanctions against educating women. Among the reasons…

  14. Teacher Training in Afghanistan: Intersections of Need and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husting, Sheila; Intili, Jo Ann; Kissam, Edward

    2008-01-01

    As post-Taliban Afghanistan moves toward the establishment of a viable educational system, key stakeholders and donors are faced with the formidable challenge of how to most rapidly implement teacher training within an environment of diverse, changing, and largely unassessed training needs. The current article explores the dilemmas inherent in…

  15. The Rehabilitation Paradox: Street-Working Children in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christopher; Yazdani, Farzaneh

    2009-01-01

    International humanitarian intervention in Afghanistan reflects a policy discourse of "rehabilitation," which is very evident in relation to nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects for street-working children. Through analysing national and international policy, professional perceptions of the children, and field visits to see how policy…

  16. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  17. The "Only" Solution: Education, Youth, and Social Change in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dana G.; Yousofi, Mohammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on practice theory to examine aspiring youths' pursuit of higher education in Afghanistan. It finds that plans and actions are mediated through youths' families, communities, and solidarity networks. As a result, the personal improvement and enhanced reputational status that aspiring youth seek is structurally…

  18. Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Govindasamy, Pav; Aqil, Anwer; Rutstein, Shea; Arnold, Fred; Noormal, Bashiruddin; Way, Ann; Brock, Susan; Shadoul, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in maternal and child mortality. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) provides important new information on the levels and trends in these indicators. The AMS estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 260-394) and 97 deaths before the age of five years for every 1000 children born. Decreases in these mortality rates are consistent with changes in key determinants of mortality, including an increasing age at marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, better immunisation coverage, improvements in the percentage of women delivering in health facilities and receiving antenatal and postnatal care, involvement of community health workers and increasing access to the Basic Package of Health Services. Despite the impressive gains in these areas, many challenges remain. Further improvements in health services in Afghanistan will require sustained efforts on the part of both the Government of Afghanistan and international donors.

  19. Paved with Good Intentions: Images of Textbook Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Yen Yen Joyceln; Simmons, Jacqueline Ann

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, the Afghanistan Ministry of Education adopted a new National Curriculum Framework, created to promote child-centred teaching and learning strategies for the next generation of Afghan schools. As is often the case in post-conflict education development, a cadre of international curriculum consultants was hired to facilitate the production…

  20. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  1. Australia's Political Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawer, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)

  2. Glacier Change Detection in the Hindu Kush of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    A half century of intermittently collected cryospheric and hydrologic data in Afghanistan has involved diverse field surveys, aerial photography, and satellite imagery that enable change detection in the war-torn, drought-stricken region. Afghanistan relies heavily upon snow-and ice-melt for vital irrigation and ground-water recharge, yet the past two decades of war have only exacerbated the originally already deficient information collection and analysis of such data. Glacier field studies and base-line inventory work initiated in the pre-war 1960-1970 period are now providing limited change detection information for the vital physical analysis necessary in the reconstruction of the country. Five case study areas were selected for renewed assessment over the intervening half century, from the western-most ice masses of the Koh-i-Foladi region in central Afghanistan, through the Mir Samir and Sakhi regions of the central Hindu Kush, to the Keshnikhan and Pamir areas of the Wakhan Corridor. Certain incompatibilities or ambiguities exist between Soviet-era and Western-derived data sets. In general, however, glaciers of Afghanistan are continuing to downwaste and retreat, with smaller ice masses disappearing altogether, presumably as the climatic snowline continues to rise above the peaks, a trend first noticed in the 1960s. Glacier survival in the lower central areas is now in part determined by topographic shielding from solar radiation high in shadowed cirques, or being preserved beneath increasing debris covers, whereas in the higher regions to the northeast, fewer changes to the larger, higher altitude glaciers are apparent. Renewed assessment of all Afghanistan glaciers is now underway as a part of the USGS- and NASA-supported GLIMS (Global Land-Ice Measurements from Space) project, and is viewed as an important element in the primary geodata collection and hazard assessment necessary for aiding in rebuilding the infrastructure of the beleaguered nation.

  3. Groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taher, Mohammad R.; Chornack, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan Geological Survey, with technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey, established a network of wells to measure and monitor groundwater levels to assess seasonal, areal, and potentially climatic variations in groundwater characteristics in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, the most populous region in the country. Groundwater levels were monitored in 71 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting as early as July 2004 and continuing to the present (2013). The monitoring network is made up exclusively of existing production wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Seventy wells are in unconsolidated sediments, and one well is in bedrock. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, using electric tape water-level meters. Water levels in well 64 on the grounds of the Afghanistan Geological Survey building were measured more frequently. This report provides a 10-year compilation of groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin prepared in cooperation with the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Depths to water below land surface range from a minimum of 1.47 meters (m) in the Shomali subbasin to a maximum of 73.34 m in the Central Kabul subbasin. The Logar subbasin had the smallest range in depth to water below land surface (1.5 to 12.4 m), whereas the Central Kabul subbasin had the largest range (2.64 to 73.34 m). Seasonal water-level fluctuations can be estimated from the hydrographs in this report for wells that have depth-to-water measurements collected under static conditions. The seasonal water-level fluctuations range from less than 1 m to a little more than 7 m during the monitoring period. In general, the hydrographs for the Deh Sabz, Logar, Paghman and Upper Kabul, and Shomali subbasins show relatively little change in the water-level trend during the period of record, whereas hydrographs for the Central Kabul subbasin show water level decreases of several meters to about 25 m.

  4. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277

  6. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  7. Factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Muhammad Shuaib; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Reyer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study, a secondary analysis of data from Afghanistan Health Survey 2012, aimed to identify factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. Subjects were 5,662 women aged 15–49 years who had had one delivery in the two years preceding the survey. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. The study found that 54.0% of mothers used antenatal care (ANC) at least one time, and 47.4% of births were assisted by skilled birth attendants (SBA). Adjusted OR of ANC use was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.08–3.60) for urban residency, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.26–2.27) for primary education relative to no education, 3.94 (95% CI, 3.51–4.42) for knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy, and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.47–2.15) for television and radio relative to no exposure. Adjusted OR of SBA utilization was 3.71 (95% CI, 2.65–5.18) for urban residency, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.91) for age <20 years relative to age 34–49 years, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.03–1.97) for secondary and higher education relative to no education, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.47–2.27) for para 1 relative to para ≥5, 6.66 (95% CI, 5.43–8.15) for ≥4 ANC visits relative to no visit, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21–1.57) for knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.38–1.90) for radio relative to no exposure, and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.25–3.27) for rich households relative to poor ones. Since women's education and knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy were significant factors of both ANC and SBA, educating women may be an effective step in promoting safe maternal health. PMID:26663938

  8. Repatriation and the reconstruction of Afghanistan: the role of women.

    PubMed

    Wali, S

    1994-01-01

    This update on the consequences of the 14 years of war in Afghanistan and refugee repatriation points out the possible need for humanitarian intervention. The political situation is described as lacking in platform leadership and lacking in leaders' commitment to the people. The US has reduced interests in Afghanistan. The UN and other international agencies rarely mention Afghanistan and repatriation. Pakistan is exercising its self-interests in the country. Saudi Arabia is described as opposing the rising Iranian brand of religious ideology and supplying mercenaries. The formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States has reduced USSR involvement to the increasing flow of Tajik refugees into Afghanistan. Islam is described as a historically strong and positive force in the formation of social and political values. Afghani needs are described as restoration of peace, security, and self-determination and a return to the former Islamic principles and practices. A "new imported ideology packaged as religion" is viewed as detrimental. The international community is urged to commit its resources to supporting a process aimed at creating a popularly elected platform of leadership committed to democratic values and principles and with respect for human rights and equity. Successful repatriation is considered dependent on internal security and financial resources from the international community. Repatriation is hampered by the extensive land mines (estimated to be at least 23 million) scattered across the countryside. At least 75% of the over 3 million refugees in Pakistan and the 2.5 million in Iran are estimated to be women and children. 14 years of political and economic instability resulted in little social development for refugee women and children. The UN urged donations of $45.1 million for repatriation and reconstruction. Only $13.7 million were received. These small sums in foreign aid are viewed as inconsequential when compared to the estimated US military

  9. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  10. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  11. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2012-08-01

    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  12. USGS Training in Afghanistan: Modern Earthquake Hazards Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlin, J. D.; Garthwaite, M.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.; Bergen, K.; Vincent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can present a significant hazard, not only from strong ground shaking, but also from liquefaction and extensive land sliding. The magnitude 6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghanistan to such hazards, and resulted in over 1000 fatalities. The USGS has provided the first of a series of Earth Science training courses to the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS). This course was concerned with modern earthquake hazard assessments, and is an integral part of a larger USGS effort to provide a comprehensive seismic-hazard assessment for Afghanistan. Funding for these courses is provided by the US Agency for International Development Afghanistan Reconstruction Program. The particular focus of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 in Kabul, was on providing a background in the seismological and geological methods relevant to preparing for future earthquakes. Topics included identifying active faults, modern tectonic theory, geotechnical measurements of near-surface materials, and strong-motion seismology. With this background, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the community and be actively involved in earthquake hazard assessments themselves. The December, 2006, training course was taught by four lecturers, with all lectures and slides being presented in English and translated into Dari. Copies of the lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. Class participants included many of the section leaders from within the AGS who have backgrounds in geology, geophysics, and engineering. Two additional training sessions are planned for 2007, the first entitled "Modern Concepts in Geology and Mineral Resource Assessments," and the second entitled "Applied Geophysics for Mineral Resource Assessments."

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  14. Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a significant public health concern in Afghanistan. Currently, approximately 60% of the population, or nearly 14 million people, live in a malaria-endemic area. Afghanistan's diverse landscape and terrain contributes to the heterogeneous malaria prevalence across the country. Understanding the role of environmental variables on malaria transmission can further the effort for malaria control programme. Methods Provincial malaria epidemiological data (2004-2007) collected by the health posts in 23 provinces were used in conjunction with space-borne observations from NASA satellites. Specifically, the environmental variables, including precipitation, temperature and vegetation index measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer, were used. Regression techniques were employed to model malaria cases as a function of environmental predictors. The resulting model was used for predicting malaria risks in Afghanistan. The entire time series except the last 6 months is used for training, and the last 6-month data is used for prediction and validation. Results Vegetation index, in general, is the strongest predictor, reflecting the fact that irrigation is the main factor that promotes malaria transmission in Afghanistan. Surface temperature is the second strongest predictor. Precipitation is not shown as a significant predictor, as it may not directly lead to higher larval population. Autoregressiveness of the malaria epidemiological data is apparent from the analysis. The malaria time series are modelled well, with provincial average R2 of 0.845. Although the R2 for prediction has larger variation, the total 6-month cases prediction is only 8.9% higher than the actual cases. Conclusions The provincial monthly malaria cases can be modelled and predicted using satellite-measured environmental parameters with reasonable accuracy. The Third Strategic Approach of the WHO EMRO Malaria Control and

  15. Emerging Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rumana, Nahid; Pervin, Kumkum; Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shahana, Nahid; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    As a result of an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases for last few decades, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are being considered as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in many developing countries including Bangladesh. Performing an extensive literature search, we compiled, summarized, and categorized the existing information about CVD mortality and morbidity among different clusters of Bangladeshi population. The present review reports that the burden of CVD in terms of mortality and morbidity is on the rise in Bangladesh. Despite a few non-communicable disease prevention and control programs currently running in Bangladesh, there is an urgent need for well-coordinated national intervention strategies and public health actions to minimize the CVD burden in Bangladesh. As the main challenge for CVD control in a developing country is unavailability of adequate epidemiological data related to various CVD events, the present review attempted to accumulate such data in the current context of Bangladesh. This may be of interest to all stakeholder groups working for CVD prevention and control across the country and globe. PMID:26686566

  16. Y-STR profiling in two Afghanistan populations.

    PubMed

    Lacau, Harlette; Bukhari, Areej; Gayden, Tenzin; La Salvia, Joel; Regueiro, Maria; Stojkovic, Oliver; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Afghanistan's unique geostrategic position in Eurasia has historically attracted commerce, conflict and conquest to the region. It was also an important stop along the Silk Road, connecting the far eastern civilizations with the western world. Nevertheless, limited genetic studies have been performed in Afghan populations. In this study, 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were typed to evaluate their forensic and population genetic applications in 189 unrelated Afghan males geographically partitioned along the Hindu Kush Mountain range into north (N=44) and south (N=145) populations. North Afghanistan (0.9734, 0.9905) exhibits higher haplotype diversity than south Afghanistan (0.9408, 0.9813) at both the minimal 9-loci and 17-loci Yfiler haplotypes, respectively. The overall haplotype diversity for both Afghan populations at 17 Y-STR loci is 0.9850 and the corresponding value for the minimal 9-loci haplotypes is 0.9487. A query using of the most frequent Afghan Yfiler haplotype (7.98%) against the worldwide Y-STR haplotype reference database (YHRD) returned no profile match, indicating a high power of discrimination with 17 Y-STR loci. A median-joining network based on 15 Y-STR loci displays limited haplotype sharing between the two Afghan populations, possibly due to the Hindu Kush Mountain range serving as a natural barrier to gene flow between the two regions. PMID:21237696

  17. Documentation of a heroin manufacturing process in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Zerell, U; Ahrens, B; Gerz, P

    2005-01-01

    The present article documents an authentic process of heroin manufacturing in Afghanistan: white heroin hydrochloride produced using simple equipment and a small quantity of chemicals. The quantities of chemicals actually used corresponded to the minimum needed for manufacturing heroin. The only organic solvent used was acetone, and only a very small quantity of it was used. Because the chemicals used in the demonstration were from actual seizures in Afghanistan, some of the chemicals had been disguised or repackaged by smugglers. Others had been put into labelled containers that proved to be counterfeit, and some glass containers used were not the original containers of the manufacturer displayed on the label. The brown heroin base prepared as an intermediate step in the process shares some of the characteristics of the South-West Asia type of heroin preparations often seized in Germany. The final product of the documented heroin manufacturing process was white heroin hydrochloride, which shares the key characteristics of the white heroin occasionally seized in Germany and other countries in Western Europe since 2000. The present article demonstrates that this kind of heroin can be produced in Afghanistan.

  18. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  19. Information Activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeyoshi

    The last few years have seen an explosive growth in database and computer networking activities in Australia. At present there are six major information networks in Australia, which carry more than 400 locally produced databases and many others from overseas. AUSINET databases are exemplified. MIDAS (Multi-mode International Data Aquisition System) provides lower cost access to overseas databases than before. The paper also gives brief outline of various bodies which relate to information and library policy in Australia and regional cooperative activities.

  20. Family, society, economy and fertility in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A

    1989-09-01

    "This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural conditions under which the large family represents a rational economic goal for parents [in Bangladesh]." The author notes that rural children provide valuable labor services to parents during childhood, grown sons continue to support their parents financially and in other ways, and sons are the most reliable source of security in old age. Daughters, however, remain at home and cost a significant amount for dowries at marriage. It is concluded that prevailing socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh still provide substantial support for high fertility and son preference.

  1. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  2. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  3. 31 CFR 545.412 - Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 545.412... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 545.412 Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

  4. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7702 Section 225.7702... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  5. 31 CFR 545.516 - Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.516 Section 545.516 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.516 Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  6. 31 CFR 545.519 - Payments and transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to the... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN... transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7702 Section 225.7702... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  8. 31 CFR 545.520 - Noncommercial personal remittances to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.520 Section 545.520 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and... Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. United States financial institutions, as defined in § 545.314,...

  9. 76 FR 36167 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2... the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Afghanistan, and I hereby waive...

  10. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Full and Open Competition 206.303-70 Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan....

  11. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  12. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  13. Education and Politics in Afghanistan: The Importance of an Education System in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Jeaniene

    2005-01-01

    Afghanistan has a long history of social unrest and ethnic conflict, and the manipulation of the education system by internal and external powers for political purposes has been one of the major contributors to these divisions. As Afghanistan attempts to build peace and maintain co-existence after more than 20 years of violence, there continues to…

  14. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  15. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Full and Open Competition 206.303-70 Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan....

  16. A Lifetime of Trauma: Mental Health Challenges for Higher Education in a Conflict Environment in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as…

  17. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  18. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  19. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  20. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  1. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  2. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  3. Arsenic Mitigation and Social Mobilisation in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammelt, Crelis F.; Boes, Jan

    2004-01-01

    For the people of Bangladesh, mostly in rural areas, a new disaster is emerging. Two-thirds of the deep tube wells installed over the last three decades--roughly 3 million in total--contain arsenic concentrations above the permissible levels set by the WHO. These wells were installed to contribute to a secure and reliable drinking water supply,…

  4. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  5. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

  6. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  7. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  8. Educational Access in Bangladesh. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schooling in Bangladesh. It outlines types of educational provision and provides some basic statistics on access, vulnerability and exclusion, as well as insights into the characteristics of those denied access. It is based on findings from the "Country Analytic Review on Access to…

  9. Strategic Intervention of ODL in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, A. Q. M. Bazlur; Rahman, M. Rokibur

    2010-01-01

    Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context…

  10. First outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A K; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A H M; Ali, K S; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-07-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  11. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sophie, Brun; Coralie, Zumelzu; Mai Ba, Hoanganh; Annie, Levy; Dea, Garcia-Hermoso; Liliane, Laroche; Arezki, Izri

    2015-12-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  12. Information Network on Rural Development (INRD), Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanasundra, Leelangi

    1994-01-01

    Discusses information networking in Bangladesh and describes the formation of the Information Network on Rural Development (INRD) which was initiated by the Center on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP). Organization, membership, activities, participation, and finance are examined. (four references) (LRW)

  13. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Md Akram

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some other major cancer

  14. Measuring equity in disability and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Barbou-des-Courieres, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses equity in health and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan based on a representative national household survey. Equitable access is a cornerstone of the Afghan health policy. We measured socioeconomic-related equity in access to public health care, using disability--because people with disabilities are poorer and more likely to use health care--and a concentration index (CI) and its decomposition. The socioeconomic-related equity in healthcare utilization was measured using a probit model and compared with an OLS model providing the horizontal inequity index (HI). We found a low rate of healthcare facilities utilization (25%). Disabled persons are using more healthcare facilities and have higher medical expenses. Disability is more frequently associated with older age, unemployed heads of household and lower education. The Cl of disability is 0.0221 indicating a pro-rich distribution of health. This pro-rich effect is higher in small households (CI decreases with size of the household, -0.0048) and safe (0.0059) areas. The CI of healthcare utilization is -0.0159 indicating a slightly pro-poor distribution of healthcare utilization but, overall, there is no difference in healthcare utilization by wealth status. Our study does not show major socioeconomic related inequity in disability and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. This is due to the extreme and pervasive poverty found in Afghanistan. The absence of inequity in health access is explained by the uniform poverty of the population and the difficulty of accessing BPHS facilities (a basic package of health services), despite alarming health indicators.

  15. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  16. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Noor, Ayan Ahmed; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Kakar, Faizullah K; Hansen, Peter M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services. Although frequently used in other health-care settings, this represents the first time that the BSC has been employed in a developing country. The BSC was designed via a collaborative process focusing on translating the vision and mission of the MOPH into 29 core indicators and benchmarks representing six different domains of health services, together with two composite measures of performance. In the absence of a routine health information system, the 2004 BSC for Afghanistan was derived from a stratified random sample of 617 health facilities, 5719 observations of patient-provider interactions, and interviews with 5597 patients, 1553 health workers, and 13,843 households. Nationally, health services were found to be reaching more of the poor than the less-poor population, and providing for more women than men, both key concerns of the government. However, serious deficiencies were found in five domains, and particularly in counselling patients, providing delivery care during childbirth, monitoring tuberculosis treatment, placing staff and equipment, and establishing functional village health councils. The BSC also identified wide variations in performance across provinces; no province performed better than the others across all domains. The innovative adaptation of the BSC in Afghanistan has provided a useful tool to summarize the multidimensional nature of health-services performance, and is enabling managers to benchmark performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in the Afghan context.

  17. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  18. Modern Earthquake Hazard Assessments in Afghanistan: A USGS Training Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthwaite, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Medlin, J.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region at the western extent of the Indo-Asian collision zone, where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can cause damage, not only from strong ground shaking and surface rupture, but also from liquefaction and extensive landsliding. The M=6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghan communities to such hazards, and resulted in at least 1000 fatalities. This training course in modern earthquake hazard assessments is an integral part of the international effort to provide technical assistance to Afghanistan using an "end-to-end" approach. This approach involves providing assistance in all stages of hazard assessment, from identifying earthquakes, to disseminating information on mitigation strategies to the public. The purpose of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 at the Afghan Geological Survey in Kabul, was to provide a solid background in the relevant seismological and geological methods for preparing for future earthquakes. With this information, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the Afghan community. In addition, they are better prepared to conduct earthquake hazard assessments and to build the capabilities of the Afghan Geological Survey. The training course was taught using a series of Power Point lectures, with all lectures being presented in English and translated into Dari, one of the two main languages of Afghanistan. The majority of lecture slides were also annotated in both English and Dari. Lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. As part of the on-going USGS participation in the program, additional training sessions are planned in the subjects of field geology, modern concepts in Earth science, mineral resource assessments and applied geophysics.

  19. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  20. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Noor, Ayan Ahmed; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Kakar, Faizullah K; Hansen, Peter M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services. Although frequently used in other health-care settings, this represents the first time that the BSC has been employed in a developing country. The BSC was designed via a collaborative process focusing on translating the vision and mission of the MOPH into 29 core indicators and benchmarks representing six different domains of health services, together with two composite measures of performance. In the absence of a routine health information system, the 2004 BSC for Afghanistan was derived from a stratified random sample of 617 health facilities, 5719 observations of patient-provider interactions, and interviews with 5597 patients, 1553 health workers, and 13,843 households. Nationally, health services were found to be reaching more of the poor than the less-poor population, and providing for more women than men, both key concerns of the government. However, serious deficiencies were found in five domains, and particularly in counselling patients, providing delivery care during childbirth, monitoring tuberculosis treatment, placing staff and equipment, and establishing functional village health councils. The BSC also identified wide variations in performance across provinces; no province performed better than the others across all domains. The innovative adaptation of the BSC in Afghanistan has provided a useful tool to summarize the multidimensional nature of health-services performance, and is enabling managers to benchmark performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in the Afghan context. PMID:17308736

  1. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in the Helmand Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A majority of the Afghan population lacks adequate and safe supplies of water because of contamination, lack of water-resources management regulation, and lack of basic infrastructure, compounded by periods of drought and seasonal flooding. Characteristics of historical streamflows are needed to assist with efforts to quantify the water resources of the Helmand Basin. The Helmand Basin is the largest river basin in Afghanistan. It comprises the southern half of the country, draining waters from the Sia Koh Mountains in Herat Province to the eastern mountains in Gardez Province (currently known as the Paktia Province) and the Parwan Mountains northwest of Kabul, and finally draining into the unique Sistan depression between Iran and Afghanistan (Favre and Kamal, 2004). The Helmand Basin is a desert environment with rivers fed by melting snow from the high mountains and infrequent storms. Great fluctuations in streamflow, from flood to drought, can occur annually. Knowledge of the magnitude and time distribution of streamflow is needed to quantify water resources and for water management and environmental planning. Agencies responsible for the development and management of Afghanistan's surface-water resources can use this knowledge for making safe, economical, and environmentally sound water-resource planning decisions. To provide the Afghan managers with necessary streamflow information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), computed streamflow statistics for data collected at historical gaging stations within the Helmand Basin. The historical gaging stations used are shown in figure 1 and listed in table 1.

  2. Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Tasnim, Tarana

    2008-01-01

    Child health is one of the important indicators for describing mortality conditions, health progress and the overall social and economic well being of a country. During the last 15 years, although Bangladesh has achieved a significant reduction in the child mortality rate, the levels still remain very high. The utilization of qualified providers does not lead to the desired level; only a third relies on qualified providers. This study is mainly aimed at investigating the influence of maternal education on health status and the utilization of child healthcare services in Bangladesh. This study is based on the data of the Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) during 2000. The analysis of the findings reveals that 19.4% of the children under five reported sickness during 30 days prior to the survey date. Moreover, approximately one out of every thirteen children suffers from diarrhoea in the country. It is striking to note that a significant portion of the parents relied on unqualified or traditional providers for the children's healthcare because of low cost, easy accessibility and familiarity of the services. The study suggests that maternal education is a powerful and significant determinant of child health status in Bangladesh. Maternal education also positively affects the number of children receiving vaccination. In order to improve the health condition of children in Bangladesh maternal education should be given top priority. The public policies should not just focus on education alone, but also consider other factors, such as access to health facilities and quality of services. Health awareness campaign should be strengthened as part of the public health promotion efforts. More emphasis should also be given to government-NGO (Non Government Organization) partnerships that make vaccination programs successful and, thereby, reduce the incidence of preventable diseases.

  3. Solar and Wind Resource Assessments for Afghanistan and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D. S.; Kelly, M.; Elliott, D.; George, R.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.; Cowlin, S.; Gilman, P.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently completed the production of high-resolution wind and solar energy resource maps and related data products for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The resource data have been incorporated into a geospatial toolkit (GsT), which allows the user to manipulate the resource information along with country-specific geospatial information such as highway networks, power facilities, transmission corridors, protected land areas, etc. The toolkit allows users to then transfer resource data for specific locations into NREL's micropower optimization model known as HOMER.

  4. Streamflow characteristics at streamgages in northern Afghanistan and selected locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.; Williams-Sether, Tara

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for 79 historical streamgages in Northern Afghanistan and other selected historical streamgages are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgage include (1) station description, (2) graph of the annual mean discharge for the period of record, (3) statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, (4) monthly and annual flow duration, (5) probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, (6) probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, (7) probability of occurrence of seasonal low discharges, (8) annual peak discharges for the period of record, and (9) monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  5. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  6. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  7. Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Bronwyn A.; Middleton, Deborah; Bergfeld, Jemma; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Wang, Linfa

    2012-01-01

    Human infections with Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh are associated with markedly different patterns of transmission and pathogenicity. To compare the 2 strains, we conducted an in vivo study in which 2 groups of ferrets were oronasally exposed to either the Malaysia or Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus. Viral shedding and tissue tropism were compared between the 2 groups. Over the course of infection, significantly higher levels of viral RNA were recovered from oral secretions of ferrets infected with the Bangladesh strain. Higher levels of oral shedding of the Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus might be a key factor in onward transmission in outbreaks among humans. PMID:23171621

  8. The Primary School Curriculum: Policies of Environmental Education in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ara, Quazi Afroz Jahan

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of environmental awareness and environmental education in Bangladesh. Presents a statement of the principal aims and objectives of environmental education at the primary level. (DDR)

  9. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  10. A large-scale integrated aerogeophysical survey of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R. T.; Bowles, J. H.; Abraham, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    A multi-sensor, multidisciplinary aerogeophysical survey of a major portion of Afghanistan was recently conducted by investigators from the Naval Research Laboratory and the U.S. Geological Survey. More than 110,000 line km of data tracks were flown aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft. Sensor systems installed on the P-3 included dual gravimeters, scalar and vector magnetometers, a digital photogrammetric camera, a hyperspectral imager, and an L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Data from all sources were precisely co-registered to the ground by a combination of interferometric-mode Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurements. The data from this integrated mapping mission support numerous basic and applied science efforts in Afghanistan including: resource assessment and exploration for oil, gas, and minerals, development of techniques for sensor fusion and automated analysis, and topics in crustal geophysics and geodesy. The data will also support civil infrastructure needs such as cadastral surveying, urban planning and development, and pipeline/powerline/road routing and construction, agriculture and hydrologic resource management, earthquake hazard analysis, and base-maps for humanitarian relief missions.

  11. Medical support of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Bochniak, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The system of medical support in the territory of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan is based on four levels of medical treatment. Level 4 is organized outside the war theatre, in the territories of the countries that are a part of the stabilization forces of international organizations (NATO). Both the tasks and the structure of medical support are adjusted to fit the requirements of the U.S. Forces. The same tasks and structure are also recognized by medical services of other NATO countries participating in military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Each subsequent level of medical support is progressively more highly specialized and capable of providing more advanced medical treatment in comparison to the preceding level. Medical evacuation is executed either by air or overland depending on the type of illness or injury as well as the tactical situation prevailing in the combat zone. The aim of this paper is to present the planning, challenges, and problems of medical assistance in the contemporary battlefield. PMID:21534227

  12. Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groninger, John W.

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  13. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  14. Aeromagnetic Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and related data were digitized from 1976 magnetic field and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan. The magnetic field data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Magnetic Field of Afghanistan (Western Area) Delta-Ta Isolines,' compiled by V. A. Cnjagev and A. F. Bukhmastov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  15. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Bangladesh is a country, which is frequently suffering from flooding. The current research is conducted in the framework of a project, which focuses on the flooding issues in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh. A haor is a saucer-shaped depression, which is used during the dry period (December to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (June-November), and thereby presents a very interesting socio-economic perspective of flood risk management. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss and lot of distress whereas monsoon flooding brings benefits. The area is bordering India, thereby presenting trans-boundary issues as well, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly through the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the impact of climate changes. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) and a two

  16. Coronary artery disease in Bangladesh: A review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A.K.M. Monwarul; Majumder, A.A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an increasingly important medical and public health problem, and is the leading cause of mortality in Bangladesh. Like other South Asians, Bangladeshis are unduly prone to develop CAD, which is often premature in onset, follows a rapidly progressive course and angiographically more severe. The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Genetic predisposition, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and conventional risk factors play important role. Lifestyle related factors, including poor dietary habits, excess saturated and trans fat, high salt intake, and low-level physical activity may be important as well. Some novel risk factors, including hypovitaminosis D, arsenic contamination in water and food-stuff, particulate matter air pollution may play unique role. At the advent of the new millennium, we know little about our real situation. Largescale epidemiological, genetic and clinical researches are needed to explore the different aspects of CAD in Bangladesh. PMID:23993003

  17. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, SM Moslehuddin; Majumdar, Md Anwarul Azim; Karim, Rezina; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country. Aim The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students. Method First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties. Results A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad. Discussion Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas. Conclusions Reorientation of health care and medical

  18. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, S R

    1994-08-01

    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  19. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective.

    PubMed

    Azad, Kishwar

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM) in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years)/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS), the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it's aims that 'no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor' is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk), and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC) supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  20. PREDICTIVE MODELING OF CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN BANGLADESH

    PubMed Central

    Koepke, Amanda A.; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Wakefield, Jon; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model. The entire system is treated as a continuous-time hidden Markov model, where the hidden Markov states are the numbers of people who are susceptible, infected, or recovered at each time point, and the observed states are the numbers of cholera cases reported. We use a Bayesian framework to fit this hidden SIRS model, implementing particle Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to sample from the posterior distribution of the environmental and transmission parameters given the observed data. We test this method using both simulation and data from Mathbaria, Bangladesh. Parameter estimates are used to make short-term predictions that capture the formation and decline of epidemic peaks. We demonstrate that our model can successfully predict an increase in the number of infected individuals in the population weeks before the observed number of cholera cases increases, which could allow for early notification of an epidemic and timely allocation of resources. PMID:27746850

  1. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  3. Void-Filled SRTM Digital Elevation Model of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barrios, Boris

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The purpose of this data set is to provide a single consistent elevation model to be used for national scale mapping, GIS, remote sensing applications, and natural resource assessments for Afghanistan's reconstruction. For 11 days in February of 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Afghanistan DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are as a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:200,000 - scale Soviet General Staff Topographic Maps which date from the middle to late 1980's. Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and image processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes SRTM DEM quadrangles projected and clipped in geographic coordinates for the entire country. An index of all available SRTM DEM quadrangles is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. Also

  4. Opium trade, insurgency, and HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan: relationships and regional consequences.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Nevada; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2010-07-01

    Global health and conflict studies share key linkages that have important research and policy implications but for which data are currently lacking. This analytical review examines the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan, using it as a basis to develop a conceptual framework that integrates security and public health concepts. The analysis draws on recent peer-reviewed and gray literature to assess the interrelationship among 3 variable clusters and their impact on the emergence of the HIV epidemic in Afghanistan. The evidence suggests that there is a complex indirect relationship linking illicit opium trade, the ongoing insurgency, and forced and spontaneous migration to the emergence of an injection drug use-driven HIV epidemic in Afghanistan. These findings demonstrate a clear need for an integrated cross-disciplinary and regional approach to the emerging threat of HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan, to inform more balanced and effective policy making in this and other regions of strategic global import.

  5. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  6. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school education…

  7. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  8. Blood lead levels of primary school children in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, R; Henderson, A K; Daley, W R; Naughton, M; Khan, M H; Rahman, M; Kieszak, S; Rubin, C H

    2001-01-01

    Dhaka, Bangladesh, has one of the highest air lead levels in the world. In February 2000, we evaluated children at five primary schools in Dhaka to determine blood lead (BPb) levels, sources of environmental exposure, and potential risk factors for lead poisoning. Selected schools represented a range of geographic and socioeconomic strata. A total of 779 students 4-12 years of age participated. The mean BPb level was 15.0 microg/dL (range 4.2-63.1 microg/dL). Most students (87.4%) had BPb levels above the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's level of concern (10 microg/dL). Elevated BPb levels correlated with soil eating [odds ratio (OR) = 3.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-8.39], low parental education (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.97-3.75), living close to major roads (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.23-4.29), and increasing age (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06-1.16). BPb levels measured were similar to those in other countries that use leaded gasoline. No other potential sources of lead exposure were consistently identified. Combustion of leaded gasoline is the main source of lead exposure in Dhaka, resulting in ubiquitous contamination of the environment. The increase in BPb levels with age, a finding contrary to observations in the United States and Australia, may be related to increased outdoor activities. The Bangladeshi government recently announced a plan to eliminate leaded gasoline. Baseline BPb surveys are critical to develop and evaluate intervention policies. Strategies to reduce BPb levels need to address variations in socioeconomic status, construction type and location of housing, and levels of hygiene. PMID:11445508

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, C.J.; Kosti, Amir Zada; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Omari, Mohammad Karim; Muty, Salam Abdul; Nakshband, Haidari Gulam; Hosine, Abdul Aminulah; Wahab, Abdul; Hamidi, Abdul Wasy; Ahmadi, Nasim; Agena, Warren F.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Drenth, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey--Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit (AU) (80230101).

  10. A close look at the demography of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Brown, E

    1979-02-01

    The first survey designed to allow estimates of the demographic characteristics of Afghanistan's sedentary population was conducted during the period 1972-1974. Our analysis of these data, based on recently developed techniques for handling imcomplete or inaccurate data, suggests that this population lives under conditions that are extreme when judged by modern standards. Marriage is early, especially for females, and universal. Marital fertility conforms to a pattern of natural fertility and total fertility is high. The birth rate is among the highest in the world today, and the expectation of life at birth is among the very lowest. Mortality is lower in urban areas than in rural areas, whereas total fertility is approximately the same in both. Our estimates of fertility and mortality imply stable populations which match closely the observed age distributions for both the rural and urban areas.

  11. Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment. PMID:26366328

  12. Paediatric anaesthesia in Afghanistan: a review of the current experience.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, G R

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the author's experience of the paediatric patient load on the U.K. medical services in Afghanistan. Over a 3 month period there was a mean of 2.9 paediatric trauma admissions per week, mean age was 6.8 years with gunshot wound or explosive injury being the mechanisms of injury in 77% of the trauma admissions. Overall these children represented 10.8% of the surgical workload. Some of the issues of paediatric anaesthesia in this environment are discussed including paediatric equipment, resuscitation for paediatric massive haemorrhage and regional anaesthesia. The need to formally recognise the problem in training and equipping deployed medical personnel to deal with this challenge is examined.

  13. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  14. Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (lactose tolerance) in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, A G; Delbrück, H; Haeckel, R; Goedde, H W; Flatz, G

    1976-09-10

    Two hundred and seventy apparently healthy adult subjects from Afghanistan, mainly from the central and eastern parts of the country, were subjected to a lactose tolerance test. The change of blood glucose from the fasting concentration at 20 min after the administration of lactose showed a bimodal distribution. Forty-seven subjects had a rise of blood glucose concentration of more than 1.1 mmol/l and were classified as persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (PHILA), a term which lays emphasis on the fact that high lactase activity in the adult is an unusual state whose prevalence in some populations requires explanation. In the Afghan sample there were no significant differences of the frequency of PHILA in different ethnic groups. PMID:965005

  15. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  16. Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Webber, Murray T.; Ratcliff, Alison J.; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population) who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. Results 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L). One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities. PMID:23469126

  17. Poverty, vulnerability, and provision of healthcare in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Noor, Ayan A; Lopez, Dominique; Mashkoor, Ashraf

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents findings on conditions of healthcare delivery in Afghanistan. There is an ongoing debate about barriers to healthcare in low-income as well as fragile states. In 2002, the Government of Afghanistan established a Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS), contracting primary healthcare delivery to non-state providers. The priority was to give access to the most vulnerable groups: women, children, disabled persons, and the poorest households. In 2005, we conducted a nationwide survey, and using a logistic regression model, investigated provider choice. We also measured associations between perceived availability and usefulness of healthcare providers. Our results indicate that the implementation of the package has partially reached its goal: to target the most vulnerable. The pattern of use of healthcare provider suggests that disabled people, female-headed households, and poorest households visited health centres more often (during the year preceding the survey interview). But these vulnerable groups faced more difficulties while using health centres, hospitals as well as private providers and their out-of-pocket expenditure was higher than other groups. In the model of provider choice, time to travel reduces the likelihood for all Afghans of choosing health centres and hospitals. We situate these findings in the larger context of current debates regarding healthcare delivery for vulnerable populations in fragile state environments. The 'scaling-up process' is faced with several issues that jeopardize the objective of equitable access: cost of care, coverage of remote areas, and competition from profit-orientated providers. To overcome these structural barriers, we suggest reinforcing processes of transparency, accountability and participation. PMID:20359809

  18. Radiometric Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric (uranium content, thorium content, potassium content, and gamma-ray intensity) and related data were digitized from radiometric and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan published in 1976. The uranium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Uranium (Radium) Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The thorium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Thorium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The potassium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Potassium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The gamma-ray intensity data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Gamma-Field of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  19. Preparation of GPR+MD sensors evaluation tests in Japan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Feng, Xuan; Kobayashi, Takao; Zhou, Zheng-Shu; Savelyev, Timofei G.; Fujiwara, Jun

    2005-06-01

    Currently there are a few projects for landmine detection in Afghanistan, which is supported by the Japanese government. Some field test for landmine detection sensors have been carried out in Afghanistan and Japan. We introduce in this paper about the plan of these projects, and its evaluation tests. JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency) which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)) is developing unmanned vehicles which are mounted sensors for AP landmine detection. The prototype of the sensors and equipments will be ready by February 2005 and will be tested in a test site in Japan by March 2005. Then, it is planned to be evaluated in Afghanistan in summer 2005. JICS (Japan International Cooperation System) which is under the Ministry of Foreign affairs (MOFA) has a project on "Developing Mine Clearance related equipment in Afghanistan". In this project, we plan to evaluate mine detectors in Afghanistan until March 2005. The evaluation test of JICS project has already started in August-Deecember 2004, in Afghanistan,. In the evaluation the both projects, we are preparing test lanes. Most of the sensors to be evaluated is a combination of a metal detector and GPR, and as for GPR, there has been not many examples of such evaluation tests. In this paper, we introduce the outline of the evaluation test, and also discuss some technical aspects of the evaluation test for the combination sensors of a metal detector and a GPR.

  20. Healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  1. Bangladesh: Summary Report. Financing Primary and Secondary Education in Bangladesh. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Qazi Kholiquzzaman

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to gain an understanding on educational expenditure at primary and secondary levels in Bangladesh. In estimating educational expenditure by source, it has been sought to determine: (1) sources of financing of primary and secondary education; (2) rural-urban variation; (3) variation between boys and girls; (4)…

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  4. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  5. Australia in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  6. Library Automation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  7. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  8. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  9. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  10. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  11. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. PMID:24268003

  12. On a national drug policy for Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, N

    1984-01-01

    On April 27, 1982 the Ministry of Health of the government of Bangladesh, set up an 8-man expert committee to evaluate all the registered pharmaceutical products presently available, and to formulate a draft National Drug Policy. Objectives are: 1) to provide support for ensuring quality and availability of drugs; 2) to reduce drug prices; 3) to eliminate useless, nonessential, and harmful drugs from the market; 4) to promote local production of finished drugs; 5) to ensure coordination among government branches; 6) to develop a drug monitoring and information system; 7) to promote the scientific development and application of unani, ayurvedic, and homeopathic medicines; 8) to improve the standard of hospital and retail pharmacies; and 9) to insure good manufacturing practices. 16 criteria were agreed on as guidelines for evaluating the drugs on the country's market. Drugs in Bangladesh have been classified into 3 categories. The 1st is drugs that are positively harmful. They should be banned immediately and withdrawn from the market. There are 265 locally manufactured drugs and 40 imported drugs in this category. The 2nd, drugs to be slightly reformulated by eliminating some of their requirements. There are 134 drugs in this category. The 3rd is drugs that do not conform to 1 or more of the 16 criteria/guidelines. There are over 500 drugs in this category. The new drug policy will produce a saving of 800 million taka (US $32.4 million). Drug supply in Bangladesh is a problem. The public sector distributes 20% of the total. In the private sector, drugs are supplied through import and local production. Investment for research by the pharmaceutical companies is essential. The principles laid down by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations for the supply of good medicine needs to be put into practice. PMID:6729960

  13. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  14. Working with religious leaders in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M

    1991-10-01

    For over a decade, family planning organizations in Bangladesh have worked to overturn religious opposition to family planning. In a Muslim country where 86% of the population lives in rural areas, ending religious opposition is seen as essential to the success family planning. As Mukkaram Chowdhury, director general of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), explained in a recent interview, recent efforts around the issue have focused on approaching local religious leaders and engaging them in constructive dialogues concerning contraception and family planning. The FPAB distributes pamphlets that explain that the Koran and other Muslim tests advocate practices that can be enhanced by family planning. According to Chowdhury, the Koran argues against people having children they cannot support, points out that too many children results in poverty, and insists on personal responsibility towards the well-being of one's family. National meetings to discuss these issues have had success in changing attitudes. While not all religious leaders have ceased opposing family planning, Chowdhury is encourage by the fact that many have become tolerant -- and some even support -- family planning. At a recent meeting in Khaka, religious leaders and scholars agreed that family planning can be justified as a health measure (reservations, however, were expressed toward sterilization). Noting that Bangladesh's efforts to change religious opposition may serve as models for other Muslim countries, Chowdhury points out that the country's family planning program still faces several obstacles, including the need to make rural communities health conscious, and the need to improve the educational and professional status of women, which will strengthen their role in the family.

  15. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  16. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Speelman, P; Ljungström, I

    1986-11-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes of diarrhea. Specimens were cultured for bacteria and samples of serum and saliva were collected for antibody studies (IgG and SIgA). The prevalence of G. lamblia infections was 5.2% and the incidence 11.8%. Children aged less than or equal to 10 years and newcomers were most frequently infected (P less than 0.02). Symptoms were present in 37% of the subjects infected with G. lamblia. A systemic antibody response was observed in 57% of symptomatic patients and 35% of asymptomatic subjects during the first 2 months of infection. The prevalence and the incidence of E. histolytica infection were 3.2% and 8.6%, respectively. Infections with E. histolytica were correlated with the duration of stay in Bangladesh; less than 1 year 7% vs. greater than 3 years 26% (P less than 0.01). Most expatriates infected with E. histolytica were asymptomatic (90%). Three adult patients, who were resident in Bangladesh for less than 1 year, were symptomatic but none of them developed dysentery or a serological response. Four of 25 asymptomatic subjects had significant antibody titers. Three of these people were seropositive for ameba at the beginning of the study. The local immune response, reflected by specific secretory IgA in saliva samples, correlated poorly with both E. histolytica and G. lamblia infections.

  17. Bangladesh gas line battles rice paddies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Bangladesh is seeing a potential savings to its national economy in the construction of a new 107-mile pipeline. The pipeline will bring natural gas from the newly tapped fields of Bakhrabad near Dhaka to the country's main port and industrial center at Chittagong. Industries in Chittagong are instigating a conversion program from oil to gas, saving more than $100 million a year. The paddyfields, with their high water-tables have slowed site work and made progress at times difficult. In addition, there have been quite a few water crossings, which hampered progress.

  18. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  19. Population pressure and agricultural productivity in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R H

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between population pressure or density and agricultural productivity is examined by analyzing the changes in the land-man ratio and the changes in the level of land yield in the 17 districts of Bangladesh from 1961-64 and 1974-77. The earlier years were pre-Green Revolution, whereas in the later years new technology had been introduced in some parts of the country. Net sown area, value of total agricultural output, and number of male agricultural workers were the main variables. For the country as a whole, agricultural output grew by 1.2%/year during 1961-64 to 1974-77, while the number of male agricultural workers grew at 1.5%/year. The major source of agricultural growth during the 1960s was found to be increased land-yield associated with a higher ratio of labor to land. The findings imply that a more intensified pattern of land use, resulting in both higher yield and higher labor input/unit of land, is the main source of growth of output and employment in agriculture. There is very little scope for extending the arable area in Bangladesh; increased production must come from multiple cropping, especially through expansion of irrigation and drainage, and from increases in per acre yields, principly through adoption of high yield variants, which explained 87% of the variation in output per acre during the 1970s. Regional variation in output was also associated with variation in cropping intensity and proportion of land given to high yield variants. There is considerable room for modernizing agricultural technology in Bangladesh: in 1975-76 less than 9% of total crop land was irrigated and only 12% of total acreage was under high yield variants. The adoption of new food-grain technology and increased use of high yield variants in Bangladesh's predominantly subsistence-based agriculture would require far-reaching institutional and organizational changes and more capital. Without effective population control, expansion of area under high yield

  20. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  1. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.

  2. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs. PMID:6701953

  3. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima

    2016-01-01

    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  4. Learning Needs and Problems in Primary Education. Report of Technical Working Group Meetings (Bangkok, Thailand, September 6-12, 1983). Volume I: Research Issues and Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This first volume in a two-part report reviews completed and proposed research studies on learning needs and problems in primary education and describes research proposed for Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, India, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand. An introductory chapter considers the following…

  5. Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection's pool: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sanaullah; Attaullah, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. Awareness program and research capacity in the field of hepatitis are very limited in Afghanistan. Number of vulnerabilities and patterns of risk behaviors signal the need to take action now. Thirty one studies dating from October 2003 to 2011 were included, consisting the data of 132,981 individuals for HBV and 132,500 individuals for HCV. Percentage prevalence was 1.9% for HBV and 1.1% for HCV in all available Afghanistan population. Most at risk population to hepatitis include injecting drug users who share needles and female sex workers, while truck drivers, prisoners and homosexual men needs attention, as their statistical figure are missing. Data suggests that high incidence of intravenous drug use, sexual activities, unsafe blood transfusion procedures and mobility are major risk factors for hepatitis transmission. This review is based on analysis of the limited available data in Afghanistan. Although there are many underlying vulnerability factors, it appears that Afghanistan remains at an early epidemic phase. Further research is required to determine the seroprevalence and prevalent genotype(s) of HBV and HCV in all provinces in Afghanistan. This article provides some key insights into the potential and likely future transmission dynamics of hepatitis which will serve as a guide in the identification of priority areas in term of high risk groups and risk behaviours in the country and will assist to develop urgent strategic plans to combat the future burden of hepatitis in Afghanistan. PMID:21569317

  6. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  7. Glacier and climate change in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J.; Bishop, M.; Burgett, A.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change predictions and water resource related issuesin Afghanistan and Pakistan have led to the need for detailed assessments and understanding of glacier fluctuations, and the determination of the dominant controlling factors governing glacier sensitivity to climate change. Consequently, we studied glacier fluctuations and the role of topography in an attempt to understand glacier fluctuations.Specifically we used ASTER imagery, Landsat ETM data, and an SRTM digital elevation model, together with Google Earth™ high-resolution imagery to examine terminus fluctuations, ice velocity variations, and local- and meso-scale topographic parameters that are related to irradiance variations, ablation, and glacial geomorphology.Multispectral satellite imagery were utilized to estimate advance and retreat rates, along with glacier profile velocities. Geomorphometric analysis was utilized to generateglacier altitude profiles of hypsometry, slope, curvature, and topographic shielding. Our results reveal that glacier response to climate change is highly variable in Pakistan, as many glaciers are advancing as well as retreating, while others exhibit a stationary terminus. It is important to note that advances in the Karakoram do not appear to be restricted to glaciers at high elevations, suggesting climate forcing. Glaciers in the Hindu Raj and Hindu Kush are retreating, with fewer glaciers advancing, indicating the possibility of a spatial trend from West to East in Pakistan. There is a dramatic diminution of Hindu Kush ice in Afghanistan. In the Karakoram, many new surging glaciers have been identified with flow velocities ranging from 200-1000 m/yr. Non- surging glaciers also exhibit relative high velocities there. Spatial patternsof relief appear to be associated with glacier debris cover, as snow/ice avalanchescontribute debris and ice mass. In addition, patterns of topographic shielding are highly variable, revealing variations in the diffuse-skylight irradiance

  8. Damage From the Nahrin, Afghanistan, Earthquake of 25 March, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, C. L.; Yeats, R. S.

    2002-12-01

    On 25 March, 2002, a destructive earthquake of mb = 6.1 struck the city of Nahrin and nearby villages in Baghlan Province in northeastern Afghanistan. The earthquake occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault that parallels the linear northeast-trending range front of the Hindu Kush Mountains, east of Nahrin. Field reconnaissance showed no disturbance of the ground by surface rupture, liquefaction, or lateral spreading, and virtually no evidence of landsliding or rockfall. United Nations and Afghan authorities estimate the death toll from the earthquake to be over 2000, with about 20,000 families impacted by the earthquake. We conducted a survey of damage in 68 villages affected by the earthquake and found that areas within 25 km of the epicenter experienced modified Mercalli intensities of between VI and VII. Shaking intensities were strong enough to cause complete building collapse in many villages. Site conditions were an important factor in the distribution of damage in the Nahrin area. Houses built on the narrow crests of ridges eroded in loess suffered major damage due to the focusing of near-surface seismic waves on ridge-tops. Houses on low fluvial terraces along the Nahrin River also suffered major damage, likely due to their close proximity to the water table. Structures built on metamorphic bedrock and alluvial fans along the range front of the Hindu Kush Mountains or on high terraces along the Nahrin River suffered comparatively less damage. Building failure was predominantly caused by the mud-block construction, characteristic of much of Afghanistan and adjacent countries. Most houses are built of mud blocks made from reworked loess, which contains a relatively low percentage of clay. The walls contain no bracing against lateral shear, and wall corners are not tied together, leading to failure at corners and roof collapse. In several villages, mosques were constructed to a higher standard and suffered significantly less damage than surrounding mud

  9. Afghanistan [population education in countries of the region].

    PubMed

    Zafarsai, B; Khamar, S M

    1982-06-01

    In Afghanistan population education began as an organized program in the nonformal education sector with the initiation of a Unesco/UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) supported project--Family Health and Adult Education. The project, which aimed to integrate family health and family life education, was carried out over a 30-month period in 26 experimental classes in the province of Kohdaman, Shakardara, and the neighboring subdistricts of Kabul. The total enrollment was 479 women. In 1978 a new project was proposed for UNFPA funding, Family Health and Family Life Education through Mass Education Program. It was planned to integrate population education in all 6 education programs of the General Agency for Literacy Campaign (GALC). These programs are: general literacy program; women's program; agriculture and cooperative program; complementary education program; out-of-school children program; and follow-up materials program. The 1st national seminar on population education was organized in September 1979. 17 government and semigovernment agencies involved in population related activities participated. The seminar arrived at a definition and goal of population education. Population education is defined as an educational program which provides for study of the population situation affecting the way of life of the individual, the family, community, and the country. The seminar identified the following as the goal of population education: to provide young people and adults with a knowledge and understanding of population dynamics, causes and consequences of population growth, and the impact of population change/growth on aspects of quality of life. There are now about 26 key personnel in the Ministry of Education who have participated in regional seminars, workshops, and training programs organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Key personnel involved in population education in Afghanistan went on study tours in India, Cuba

  10. Earthquake Occurrence in Bangladesh and Surrounding Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hussaini, T. M.; Al-Noman, M.

    2011-12-01

    The collision of the northward moving Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is the cause of frequent earthquakes in the region comprising Bangladesh and neighbouring India, Nepal and Myanmar. Historical records indicate that Bangladesh has been affected by five major earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 (Richter scale) during 1869 to 1930. This paper presents some statistical observations of earthquake occurrence in fulfilment of a basic groundwork for seismic hazard assessment of this region. An up to date catalogue covering earthquake information in the region bounded within 17°-30°N and 84°-97°E for the period of historical period to 2010 is derived from various reputed international sources including ISC, IRIS, Indian sources and available publications. Careful scrutiny is done to remove duplicate or uncertain earthquake events. Earthquake magnitudes in the range of 1.8 to 8.1 have been obtained and relationships between different magnitude scales have been studied. Aftershocks are removed from the catalogue using magnitude dependent space window and time window. The main shock data are then analyzed to obtain completeness period for different magnitudes evaluating their temporal homogeneity. Spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, magnitude-depth histograms and other statistical analysis are performed to understand the distribution of seismic activity in this region.

  11. Tectonics and petroleum prospects in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.N.

    1995-07-10

    Bangladesh is a part of the Bengal basin, bordered to the west and northwest by Jurassic-early Cretaceous volcanic trap rocks of the Rajmahal Hills, underlain by Precambrian shield and Gondwana sediments. The Bengal basin is the largest delta basin (approximately 23,000 sq miles) in the world, at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. The deep sea fan complex that is being built outward into the Bay of Bengal has in excess of 12 km of sediments. Rate of sediment transportation within the basin, from the Himalayas and the mountains and hills to the north, east, and west, exceeds 1 billion tons/year. The tectonic and sedimentary history of Bangladesh is favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation. The basin is an underexplored region of 207,000 sq km where only 52 exploratory wells have been drilled with a success rate of more than 30%. In addition to the folded belt in the east, where gas and some oil have been found, the Garo-Rajmahal gap to the north and the deep sea fan to the south merit detailed exploration using state of the art technology. The paper describes the tectonics, sedimentation, petroleum prospects, and seismic surveys.

  12. Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Samta, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yokota, H; Tanabe, K; Sezaki, M; Yano, Y; Hamabe, K; Yabuuchi, K; Tokunaga, H

    2002-01-01

    In March 1997, we analyzed the water of all tubewells used for drinking in Samta village in the Jessore district, Bangladesh. It has been confirmed from the survey that the arsenic contamination in Samta was one of the worst in the Ganges basin including West Bengal, India. 90% of the tubewells had arsenic concentrations above the Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg/l. Tubewells with higher arsenic concentrations of over 0.50 mg/l were distributed in the southern area with a belt-like shape from east to west, and the distribution of arsenic concentration showed gradual decreasing toward northern area of the village. In order to examine the characteristics of the arsenic distribution in Samta, we have performed investigations such as: 1) the characteristics of groundwater flow, 2) the distribution of arsenic in the ground, 3) the concentration of arsenic and the other dissolved materials in groundwater, and 4) the distribution of arsenic concentration of trivalence and pentavalence. This paper examines the mechanism of arsenic release to groundwater and explains the above-mentioned characteristics of the arsenic contamination in Samta through the investigations of the survey results for these years.

  13. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  14. Bangladesh Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Obler, H.; Gilbert, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project (ACEMP) is based on a Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) between the Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In FY80, the Asia Bureau and Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA), worked closely to develop a funding mechanism which would meet Bangladesh's needs both for flood and cyclone warning capability and for application of remote sensing data to development problems. In FY90, OFDA provided for a High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving capability to improve their forecasting accuracy for cyclones, flooding and storm surges. That equipment is primarily intended as a disaster prediction and preparedness measure. The ACEM Project was designed to focus on the development applications of remote sensing technology. Through this Project, AID provided to the Bangladesh Government (BDG) the equipment, technical assistance, and training necessary to collect and employ remote sensing data made available by satellites as well as hydrological data obtained from data collection platforms placed in major rivers. The data collected will enable the BDG to improve the management of its natural resources.

  15. 31 CFR 545.521 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.521 Section 545.521 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and... Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. U.S. citizens who reside on a permanent basis in the territory...

  16. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  17. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  18. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  19. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  20. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  1. The INSPIRE Project: Using the "Unknown" to Co-Construct a Training Course on Humanistic Counselling in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdondini, Lucia; Grieve, Sandra; Kaveh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article details a collaborative project between the University of Strathclyde (UK) and the University of Herat (Afghanistan). The aim was to co-construct a model of training, based on humanistic approaches, in order to enhance counselling services in Afghanistan and to establish counselling training at the University of Herat. Two groups of…

  2. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR...

  3. Class 6 Proficiency in Afghanistan 2013: Outcomes of a Learning Assessment of Mathematical, Reading and Writing Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Tom; Mendelovits, Juliette; Stanyon, Rachel; Turner, Ross; Walker, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Ministry of Education, Afghanistan, engaged the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) as a partner to support the development of a national learning assessment program in Afghanistan. To achieve this goal, the Learning Assessment unit of the Ministry of Education and ACER have collaborated to design and implement the…

  4. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR...

  5. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR...

  6. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Houben, R. M.; Grede, N.; de Pee, S.; Boccia, D.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  7. Iron status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; McClung, James P; Karl, J Philip; Brothers, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Iron is a micronutrient necessary for energy metabolism and for oxygen transport and delivery. Depletion of iron stores (iron deficiency [ID]) may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which affects mood, cognitive function, and physical performance. Previous studies indicated that iron status may decline during military training. This study assessed the iron status and prevalence of ID and IDA in military personnel deployed to Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan (1492 m). Within the pool of 294 participants (149 male and 145 female), 2 males (1%) and 8 females (6%) presented with ID. Although IDA was not observed in males, 3 females (2%) met the criteria for IDA. Female sex (p = 0.05) and self-reported history of anemia (p < 0.05) were associated with diminished iron status. Amenorrhea was associated with higher ferritin (p < 0.05) and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) levels. Although ID and IDA did not affect a large portion of the deployed population assessed in this study, findings suggest that risk factors including female sex, history of anemia, and regular menstruation should be considered in the assessment of iron status in military personnel.

  8. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP.

  9. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach.

  10. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity.

  11. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  12. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment.

  13. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh. PMID:27386271

  14. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, U K; Biswas, B K; Chowdhury, T R; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Basu, G C; Chanda, C R; Lodh, D; Saha, K C; Mukherjee, S K; Roy, S; Kabir, S; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2000-05-01

    Nine districts in West Bengal, India, and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of the 42 districts in Bangladesh and the 9 districts in West Bengal are 92,106 km(2) and 79.9 million and 38,865 km(2) and 42.7 million, respectively. In our preliminary study, we have identified 985 arsenic-affected villages in 69 police stations/blocks of nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. In Bangladesh, we have identified 492 affected villages in 141 police stations/blocks of 42 affected districts. To date, we have collected 10,991 water samples from 42 arsenic-affected districts in Bangladesh for analysis, 58,166 water samples from nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. Of the water samples that we analyzed, 59 and 34%, respectively, contained arsenic levels above 50 microg/L. Thousands of hair, nail, and urine samples from people living in arsenic-affected villages have been analyzed to date; Bangladesh and West Bengal, 93 and 77% samples, on an average, contained arsenic above the normal/toxic level. We surveyed 27 of 42 districts in Bangladesh for arsenic patients; we identified patients with arsenical skin lesions in 25 districts. In West Bengal, we identified patients with lesions in seven of nine districts. We examined people from the affected villages at random for arsenical dermatologic features (11,180 and 29,035 from Bangladesh and West Bengal, respectively); 24.47 and 15.02% of those examined, respectively, had skin lesions. After 10 years of study in West Bengal and 5 in Bangladesh, we feel that we have seen only the tip of iceberg.

  15. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  16. A comprehensive population dataset for Afghanistan constructed using GIS-based dasymetric mapping methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Allyson L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the application of dasymetric methods for mapping the distribution of population throughout Afghanistan. Because Afghanistan's population has constantly changed through decades of war and conflict, existing vector and raster GIS datasets (such as point settlement densities and intensities of lights at night) do not adequately reflect the changes. The purposes of this report are (1) to provide historic population data at the provincial and district levels that can be used to chart population growth and migration trends within the country and (2) to provide baseline information that can be used for other types of spatial analyses of Afghanistan, such as resource and hazard assessments; infrastructure and capacity rebuilding; and assisting with international, regional, and local planning.

  17. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  18. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  19. Aeromagnetic surveys in Afghanistan: An updated website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenwary, Ghulam Sakhi; Kohistany, Abdul Hakim; Hussain, Sardar; Ashan, Said; Mutty, Abdul Salam; Daud, Mohammad Ahmad; Wussow, Michael D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Kucks, Robert P.; Finn, Carol A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Liang, Robert T.; Jarvis, James L.; Gardner, Joan M.; Childers, Vicki A.; Ball, David C.; Brozena, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its geologic setting, Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial natural resources. Although valuable mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information about the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Owing to the current security situation and the large areas of the country that have not been evaluated by geophysical exploration methods, a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  20. Addressing maternal and child health in post-conflict Afghanistan: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Rai, R K; Alagarajan, M

    2013-09-01

    Afghanistan's maternal and child mortality rates are among the highest in the world. The country faces challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015 which can be attributed to multiple causes related to accessibility, affordability and availability of health-care services. This report addresses the challenges in strengthening maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, as well discussing the areas to be prioritized. In order to ensure sound maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, policy-makers must prioritize monitoring and surveillance systems, integrating maternal and child health care with rights-based family planning methods, building human resources, offering incentives (such as the provision of a conditional cash transfer to women) and promoting action-oriented, community-based interventions. On a wider scale, the focus must be to improve the health infrastructure, organizing international collaboration and expanding sources of funding. PMID:24313047

  1. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  2. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  3. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  4. A new species of the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V

    2015-10-02

    A new species from the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group--C. succuba sp. n.--is described from the mountains of Central Afghanistan, Bamyan Province. The new species differs from the geographically close C. p. jomuda Nekrutenko & Tshikolovets in morphology of the male and female genitalia along with the distinct wavy shape of the postdiscal white line on the hindwing underside. Discovery of the new species from C. paulae species group extends known distribution range of the group to the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau in Central Afghanistan.

  5. A "boots on the ground" perspective of caring for the women and children in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy

    2011-01-01

    In 1972 Margarete V. Silberberg wrote about her nursing experience when caring for women at a Kabul, Afghanistan, hospital. Based on my experience during a recent deployment to Afghanistan, I describe providing health care to Afghan women and children as a military Women's Health Nurse Practitioner. Delivering health care presented the threat of physical harm for the health care team and those who received the care. Afghan women and children continue to experience significant cultural, religious, and social circumstances that limit their education, personal development, protection from abuse, and access to health care.

  6. Groundwater Flow and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, C. F.

    2004-12-01

    Although groundwater in Bangladesh is severely contaminated by arsenic, little is known about the complex transient patterns of groundwater flow that flush solutes from aquifers and carry solutes into the subsurface. Hydrologic modeling results for our field site in the Munshiganj district indicate that groundwater flow is vigorous, flushing the aquifer over time-scales of decades and also introducing solute loads into the aquifer with recharge from rice fields, ponds and rivers. The combined hydrologic and biogeochemical results from our field site imply that the biogeochemistry of the aquifer system may not be in steady-state, and that the net effect of competing processes could either increase or decrease arsenic concentrations over the next decades. Modeling results suggest that irrigation has greatly changed the location, timing and chemical content of recharge to the aquifer, drawing large fluxes of anoxic water into the aquifer during the dry season that may mobilize arsenic from oxides in near-surface sediments.

  7. Buerger's disease and cigarette smoking in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Grove, W. J.; Stansby, G. P.

    1992-01-01

    Buerger's disease is rare in the West but common in parts of Asia and the Middle East. A total of 39 patients with Buerger's disease were investigated in the setting of a hospital in Bangladesh. All but one were male and the mean age at onset of symptoms was 34 years. All but two were current smokers with a mean duration of smoking history of 17 years before the onset of symptoms. No other risk factors were identified. The majority of patients had ulceration or gangrene at presentation, and all but one had palpable femoral pulses. Vascular reconstruction was not possible in this institution and the main treatment options adopted were antibiotics, analgesia, chemical sympathectomy and amputation. PMID:1567129

  8. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  9. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  10. Dengue infection in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, R; Tabassum, S; Mamun, K Z; Nessa, A; Jahan, M

    2013-10-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are now endemic in Bangladesh with outbreaks being reported quite frequently. This cross sectional study was done clinically suspected dengue patients were selected from different hospitals of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, from January 2008 to December 2008. The clinical features, risk factors and laboratory findings associated with dengue infection were investigated among 201 clinically suspected patients. Antibodies were detected in 137(68.2%) cases. Of these, 80(58.4%) were primary and 57(41.6%) as secondary dengue cases according to presence of dengue-specific IgM and/or IgG antibodies. Among primary cases, 70(87.5%) were DF and 10(12.5%) were DHF cases, in contrast to secondary cases, where 10(18.1%) were DF and 47(81.9%) were DHF cases. Majority (57.9%) of patients presented with Grade I and 42.1% had Grade II disease. Patients between 16-30 years were the most vulnerable age group (81.3% DF and 71.9% DHF patients). Males out-numbered females with 72.5% male vs. 27.5% female patients having DF and 68.4% male vs. 31.6% female patients having DHF. The monsoon period was the peak season for dengue infection. Headache and arthralgia were the most frequent symptoms in both DF and DHF, but vomiting was more common in DHF. The Tourniquet test was significantly positive among DHF than DF cases (p = 0.001). Platelet count was the only laboratory parameter that showed significantly higher values among DHF than DF cases (p = 0.001).

  11. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ≥40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of ≥ 40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ≥50 (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR = 1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR = 2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR = 1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI ≥ 30 Kg/meter squared (OR = 2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

  12. Homelessness and Money Mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Connor P.; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. Methods. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009–2011. Results. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one’s credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Conclusions. Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness. PMID:24148067

  13. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11-16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their "broken economy," the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future.

  14. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: Resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11–16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their “broken economy,” the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future. PMID:20452111

  15. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Education Achievements and School Efficiency in Rural Bangladesh. World Bank Discussion Papers, 319.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.

    Two of the largest World Bank investment projects in Bangladesh are the general education project and the female secondary scholarship and assistance project. This paper evaluates the expected results of these educational projects using the household and school survey data recently collected in rural Bangladesh. Bangladesh spends only 2 percent of…

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  18. Planning Australia's hospital workforce.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mary; Gavel, Paul; Conn, Warwick

    2002-01-01

    Growing government support has been evident during the past decade for macro-level workforce planning to ensure that future populations have access to appropriate health care services. Population ageing is impacting on workforce requirements and on workforce supply within Australia and internationally. Changes in financing and the organisation of health services are impacting on the availability of training and on the quality of working life. The age and gender profile and career expectations of young Australians are changing. These factors are all adding to the importance and complexity of workforce planning. This paper draws on data from various sources to describe Australia's hospital workforce, to explore supply-side workforce trends and to discuss some contemporary issues of concern to policy makers and workforce planners. The paper finds that in recent years there has been a 3 per cent decline in the number of full time equivalent staff in public hospitals, while the number in the private hospital workforce has increased by 28 per cent. The paper concludes that, nationally, there are serious limitations in the data available to describe and monitor the hospital workforce and that there is a need to remedy this situation.

  19. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Results The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Conclusion Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation. PMID:23384348

  20. Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John; Wynn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study to identify the potential for phosphate deposits in Afghanistan. As part of this study, a geographic information system was constructed containing a database of phosphate occurrences in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, and a database of potential host lithologies compiled from 1:1,000,000 scale maps. Within Afghanistan, a handful of known occurrences and reports indicate the presence of phosphate in Permian, Cretaceous, and Paleogene sediments and in carbonatite. With the exception of the Khanneshin carbonatite, very little is known about these occurrences. In the countries surrounding Afghanistan, economic phosphate is known to occur in Cambrian, Devonian, and Paleogene sediments and in Kiruna-type Fe-apatite deposits. Many of the host units may extend into Afghanistan or equivalent units may be present. Although the possibility of economic phosphate deposits exist for Afghanistan, the need for detailed exploration for phosphate, the remoteness of some locations, and the probability that a deposit would not be exposed at the surface mean that one or more deposits are not likely to be identified in the near future. Even if a phosphate-bearing deposit is identified in Afghanistan, it is not clear if the probable size, thickness, and grade ranges would allow economic development of the hypothesized resource.

  1. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  2. Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plane, Jandelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

  3. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  4. Mental Health and Childhood Adversities: A Longitudinal Study in Kabul, Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Goodman, Anna; Tol, Wietse; Eggerman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify prospective predictors of mental health in Kabul, Afghanistan. Method: Using stratified random-sampling in schools, mental health and life events for 11- to 16-year-old students and their caregivers were assessed. In 2007, 1 year after baseline, the retention rate was 64% (n = 115 boys, 119 girls, 234 adults) with no…

  5. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  6. 76 FR 67416 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan, September 2011 (Dates Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...), allowing Afghan container trucks to drive through Pakistan to the Indian border, and also to port cities... population of 2.6 million, it is also the largest city in Afghanistan. It is the commercial center for the... in transit city (tbd) and overnight in pre-arranged departure from transit city. Day Three Travel...

  7. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…

  8. Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  9. Surveillance of Disease and Nonbattle Injuries During US Army Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.

    PubMed

    Hauret, Keith G; Pacha, Laura; Taylor, Bonnie J; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) are the leading causes of morbidity during wars and military operations. However, adequate medical data were never before available to service public health centers to conduct DNBI surveillance during deployments. This article describes the process, results and lessons learned from centralized DNBI surveillance by the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, predecessor of the US Army Public Health Command, during operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (2001-2013).The surveillance relied primarily on medical evacuation records and in-theater hospitalization records. Medical evacuation rates (per 1,000 person-years) for DNBI were higher (Afghanistan: 56.7; Iraq: 40.2) than battle injury rates (Afghanistan: 12.0; Iraq: 7.7). In Afghanistan and Iraq, respectively, the leading diagnostic categories for medical evacuations were nonbattle injury (31% and 34%), battle injury (20% and 16%), and behavioral health (12% and 10%). Leading causes of medically evacuated nonbattle injuries were sports/physical training (22% and 24%), falls (23% and 26%) and military vehicle accidents (8% and 11%). This surveillance demonstrated the feasibility, utility, and benefits of centralized DNBI surveillance during military operations. PMID:27215861

  10. 75 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Afghanistan: 75 FR 29466; May 26, 2010. Supplemental Regulatory Flexibility Analysis The Regulatory... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: To read... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . You can also get a copy by sending a request to the...

  11. Seroconversions for Coxiella and Rickettsial Pathogens among US Marines Deployed to Afghanistan, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pho, Nhien; Myers, Todd E.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed serum samples from 1,000 US Marines deployed to Afghanistan during 2001–2010 to find evidence of 4 rickettsial pathogens. Analysis of predeployment and postdeployment samples showed that 3.4% and 0.5% of the Marines seroconverted for the causative agents of Q fever and spotted fever group rickettsiosis, respectively. PMID:27434653

  12. Integrating Learning, Leadership, and Crisis in Management Education: Lessons from Army Officers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayes, D. Christopher; Allen, Nate; Self, Nate

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model and case study used to teach crisis leadership as a management education topic. The materials emerge from studies of U.S. Army leaders (company commanders and platoon leaders) working in Iraq and Afghanistan. The authors explain how examples and cases from military combat provide tools to teach about crisis…

  13. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  14. Afghanistan and Multiculturalism in Khaled Hosseini's Novels: Study of Place and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary F.; Todd, Reese H.; Olaniran, Bolanle; Lucey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to frame Khaled Hosseini's novels, "The Kite Runner" and "A Thousand Splendid Suns", as literature to expand and enhance the American secondary curriculum with multicultural themes based on Afghanistan as a geographical and cultural place in a dynamic, diverse, and complex world more mediated than ever before…

  15. Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael Jessee

    2016-01-01

    Afghanistan's public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially…

  16. 78 FR 54947 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  17. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  18. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  19. The Genetic Basis of Fusarium Root Rot Tolerance in the Afghanistan Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic basis of tolerance to Fusarium root rot found in many landraces grown in the region that includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and northwestern India was examined in a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a tolerant accession. Three loci appear to be primarily resp...

  20. Muslim and Western Influences on School Curriculum in Post-War Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.

    2007-01-01

    In Afghanistan, education has largely been destroyed, partly in the name of Islam, by the wars fought on its behalf, or by different ethnic groups vying for control of this Islamic country. Similarly, curriculum has been used to promote political and/or religious viewpoints and to strengthen positions of power. War dominated the language of…

  1. Feasibility of Open Schooling in Disturbed Societies: The Case of Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Most countries have enshrined the right to education in their constitution but, in reality, to fulfil this commitment, countries do face a number of challenges. And this is true with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which unlike other countries has a long history of war, conflicts, insurgency, and hence insecurity. Although there have been…

  2. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  3. Localizing OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Lauryn; Hashimi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    The Darakht-e Danesh ("knowledge tree") Online Library is the first open educational resource (OER) initiative in Afghanistan, established to enhance teacher subject-area knowledge, access and use of learning materials, and to foster more diverse teaching methodologies in order to improve learning outcomes in Afghan classrooms. This…

  4. CLINICAL FEATURES, CURRENT TREATMENTS AND OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSAIA/ECLAMPSIA IN NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN

    PubMed Central

    AHADI, SAYED SHIR MOHAMMAD; YOSHIDA, YOSHITOKU; RABI, MIRWAIS; SARKER, MOHAMMAD ABUL BASHAR; REYER, JOSHUA A.; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Afghanistan, preeclampsia/eclampsia is the second leading cause of maternal deaths following maternal hemorrhage. This study aimed to describe clinical features, current treatments, and outcome among preeclampsia and eclampsia patients in the north region of Afghanistan. This was a retrospective study based on medical records of four center hospitals (one regional hospital and three provincial hospitals) in the north region of Afghanistan. Subjects were 322 patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia, admitted from March 2012 to March 2013. Out of 322 cases, 72.7% were diagnosed as preeclampsia and the rest as eclampsia. Those aged 30–39 years were 41.0% among preeclampsia patients and 29 years and younger were 35.2% among eclampsia patients (p= 0.002). The first delivery was significantly higher (p=0.045) among eclampsia patients (51.1%) than among preeclampsia patients (36.8%). While none died among the preeclampsia patients, 12 out of 88 eclampsia patients died in the hospitals. The causes of the 12 deaths were pulmonary edema (6 patients), renal failure (3 patients), cerebrovascular attack (2 patients), and hemorrhage (1 patient). There were no clinical findings at admission significantly associated with the deaths within the eclampsia patient group. Although the sample size was not large enough, patients admitted to the regional/provincial hospitals at the stage of preeclampsia had a low risk of death. Access at the stage of preeclampsia and improvement in treatments for eclampsia would reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan. PMID:25797975

  5. If You Believe in Faith: An Interview with Afghanistan's Minister of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Angie

    2004-01-01

    New construction springs up like hope in Afghanistan's capital: rampant, haphazard, and, too often, quick to deteriorate in Kabul's harsh climate. But one closely watched building project has come to symbolize so much--the renovation of the bombed-out, abandoned women's dormitories at Kabul University. When completed, they will house two thousand…

  6. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan. PMID:21282137

  7. Seroconversions for Coxiella and Rickettsial Pathogens among US Marines Deployed to Afghanistan, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Farris, Christina M; Pho, Nhien; Myers, Todd E; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-01

    We assessed serum samples from 1,000 US Marines deployed to Afghanistan during 2001-2010 to find evidence of 4 rickettsial pathogens. Analysis of predeployment and postdeployment samples showed that 3.4% and 0.5% of the Marines seroconverted for the causative agents of Q fever and spotted fever group rickettsiosis, respectively. PMID:27434653

  8. Home-Based School Teachers in Afghanistan: Teaching for Tarbia and Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Teachers in community-based or home-based schools in Afghanistan play a critical role in extending access to education to children who are unable to access the government schools, especially girls. These teachers--men and women--are nominated by the community to teach, without necessarily having teaching experience or even completing their own…

  9. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, Hakim; Azizi, Masood; Mogren, Saad

    2016-08-01

    This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.

  10. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  11. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  12. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  13. Geologic and topographic maps of the Kabul South 30' x 60' quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with three highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in Geospatial PDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts

  14. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  15. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

  16. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  17. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  18. Migrant women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Misztal, B A

    1991-01-01

    The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...."

  19. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  20. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Afghanistan, January 2014‒August 2015.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-10-23

    Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.

  2. Mesozoic ophiolites, sutures, and arge-scale tectonic movements in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapponnier, Paul; Mattauer, Maurice; Proust, François; Cassaigneau, Christian

    1981-02-01

    The tectonic history of Afghanistan appears to be the result of successive accretion of fragments of Gondwana to the active margin of Laurasia since the end of the Paleozoic. The margin, in Afghanistan, lies along the present Herat and Panjshir faults, south of Hindu Kush, swings around the central Pamirs and can presumably be traced along the present western Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults in Tibet. North of this boundary, Paleozoic rocks have been deformed in the Upper Paleozoic, whereas south of it, there is no trace of the Hercynian orogeny. The first collision of Gondwanian fragments with Laurasia probably occurred in the early Mesozoic along the Hindu Kush and Kunlun. To the south, ophiolites along the Panjao and Pangong-Nu Chiang sutures (respectively in central Afghanistan and central Tibet) testify for another suturing event in the Upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous. The Indus-Tsangpo suture between India and Tibet corresponds, in eastern Afghanistan, to two ophiolite subbelts, near Kabul and Khost. Both ophiolite complexes have been emplaced between Maestrichtian and Lower Eocene by choking of two northward-dipping subduction zones. After complete contact between the Indian and Asian continents was achieved, presumably in the end of Eocene, the penetration of India into Asia caused large-scale intra-continental shortening. A large part of the shortening was accommodated by strike-slip faulting along Mesozoic and more ancient sutures. Central Afghanistan, in particular, was extruded to the west along the Herat suture by the protrusion of the Pamir wedge. It subsequently collided with the Lut block.

  3. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  4. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  5. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  6. An interview with Mahmuder Rahman: Bangladesh's arsenic agony.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahmuder

    2008-01-01

    Professor Mahmuder Rahman obtained his medical degree from Dhaka University in Bangladesh and is a member of the Royal College of Physicians (United Kingdom). He was a full professor and consultant physician at Dhaka National Medical College and Hospital until 2003. Apart from his clinical and academic work, he has contributed extensively to formulating policy for affordable health services, and is actively involved in developing integrated health delivery services such as Dhaka Community Hospital, which is a self-financing hospital dedicated to providing health care for people on low incomes. Rahman was actively involved in developing the "Arsenicosis" National Case Detection and Case Management Protocols. He has published more than 15 papers on Bangladesh's arsenic problem. As a member of Bangladesh's National Expert Committee on Arsenic, he took a leading role in formulating the National Arsenic Mitigation Policy and Action Plan.

  7. Variability of annual daily maximum rainfall of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, Faisal; Hewa, Guna Alankarage; Argue, John R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with a study on rainfall characterises of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh for the period of 1953 to 2009. Data were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department in January 2011 and found 2.84% missing data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on annual rainfall, annual daily and monthly maximum rainfall. We applied Gumbel distribution function to estimate return periods of extreme rainfall events and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 425 mm had a return period of 100 years. Normal distribution function was adopted to forecast rainfall variability due to global climate change and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 200 mm might occur in any 12 years during the period of 2010 to 2066. The outcomes of this paper can be used in better understanding rainfall patterns of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  8. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  9. Adolescent contraceptive use and its determinants in Bangladesh: evidence from Bangladesh Fertility Survey 1989.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, M; Islam, M M

    1995-09-01

    This study is concerned with contraceptive use among the currently married adolescents in Bangladesh utilizing the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) data. The study analyzes the factors affecting the current use of contraception among the adolescents through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that although adolescents have almost universal knowledge about contraceptive methods, only 15 percent are currently using any method of contraception. The corresponding figures for the adults and for the nation as a whole are 34.4 percent and 31.4 percent, respectively. Among the individual methods currently used by the adolescents, the pill appears as the most popular method, followed by safe period. A substantial proportion of the adolescents were found to rely on the traditional methods of contraception. Among the socio-economic variables (as revealed by the logistic regression analysis), respondents' education, participation in the family planning decision, visit by family planning workers, region of residence, husband's occupation and possession of electricity in the household appear as the most significant factors determining the current use of contraception among the adolescents.

  10. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  11. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  12. Molecular Dating of HIV-1 Subtype C from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md. Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of <0.1% in the general population and <1% among key affected populations, but it is one of few Asian countries that has yet to reverse the epidemic. In order to do this, it is important to understand the transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of HIV-1 subtype C strains from Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960’s. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families. PMID:24223905

  13. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  14. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of <0.1% in the general population and <1% among key affected populations, but it is one of few Asian countries that has yet to reverse the epidemic. In order to do this, it is important to understand the transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of HIV-1 subtype C strains from Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  15. Endemic goitre, nutrition, and landholding in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Stone, T

    1984-03-01

    Endemic goitre in adult females, cretinism, and anthropometry in children were examined in a goitrous area of Bangladesh. An area survey showed total goitre varying from 62.0 to 93.0%, visible goitre from 9.0 to 54.8% between areas. A village study examining thyroid size in 538 adult females and anthropometry in 116 children showed goitre prevalences varying significantly (p less than 0.001) but unpredictably with household landholding size; underweight and wasting varied inversely and significantly (p less than 0.01 and 0.05 respectively) with the same socioeconomic indicator. By household, there was no relationship between anthropometry in children and thyroid enlargement in the mother. Hormone analyses showed depressed serum T4, but no raised TSH. Only one deaf-mute cretin was found in the area. It is speculated that variation in goitre prevalence in this moderately severe endemic primarily reflects qualitative and quantitative changes in diet, as a function of the socioeconomic status of the household. PMID:6698705

  16. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  17. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  18. Entamoeba moshkovskii Infections in Children in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karin M.; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Roy, Shantanu; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.; Petri, William A.; Haque, Rashidul

    2003-01-01

    Entamoeba moshkovskii cysts are morphologically indistinguishable from those of the disease-causing species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic E. dispar. Although sporadic cases of human infection with E. moshkovskii have been reported, the organism is considered primarily a free-living ameba. No simple molecular detection tool is available for diagnosing E. moshkovskii infections. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect E. moshkovskii directly in stool. We tested 109 stool specimens from preschool children in Bangladesh by PCR; 17 were positive for E. histolytica (15.6%) and 39 were positive for E. dispar (35.8%). In addition, we found that 23 (21.1%) were positive for E. moshkovskii infection, and 17 (73.9%) of these also carried E. histolytica or E. dispar. The high association of E. moshkovskii with E. histolytica and E. dispar may have obscured its identification in previous studies. The high prevalence found in this study suggests that humans may be a true host for this ameba. PMID:12737742

  19. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

    2015-05-01

    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial.

  20. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

    2015-05-01

    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial. PMID:25440856

  1. Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

    2014-12-01

    As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination.

  2. Malnutrition, menarche, and marriage in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A K; Huffman, S L; Curlin, G T

    1977-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of nutritional status on the onset of menarche and the association between age at menarche and age at marriage, a survey of 1155 girls, ages 10 through 20, was conducted in a rural area of Bangladesh in March 1976. In order to obtain an estimated mean of age of menarche, probit analysis was used. The mean age of menarche using this technique is estimated at 15.65 for Muslims and 15.91 for Hindus. It was learned that in recent years the age of menarche has increased in a rural area. This increase seems to be associated with malnutrition caused by the war, postwar inflation, floods and famines during the 1971-75 period. When age is controlled for, the prominent effect of weight on menstrual status is evident. 98% of the girls whose weights were 88 pounds or greater had reached menarche compared to only 1% of those weighing less than 66 pounds. Body weight appears to be 1 of the most important factors for the determination of onset of menarche. There exists a seasonality of onset of menarche with a peak in winter. Age of marriage among this rural population has increased and may be associated with the increasing age of menarche. Since both age of menarche and age of marriage have increased, fertility among females age 15-19 may be expected to decrease in the future if this pattern continues. PMID:607404

  3. Infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Talukder, M Q; Sella, G E

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study was done on the infant feeding practices in a rural area. One hundred and ten infants were followed up from birth to 1 year of age by alternate day home visits, to inquire about the type of food, and frequency of consuming it. It was found that 100% mothers breast-fed their infants from birth to 1 year, almost every day. But, bottles containing various kinds of milk and starchy food were added to 60% of infants diets by 3 months, and 80% by 5 months of age. This additional food was given mostly in diluted form, which was more so in case of tinned milk. Family food such as rice and vegetables were given in 30% and 40% child days respectively from 6 months to 1 year. Rural people withhold protein food and fruits during infancy. It is concluded, that infant feeding practices in our population is improper and mothers should, therefore, be trained and motivated on weaning practices for timely and adequate supplementation to ameliorate the presently observed dietary deficiency and early malnutrition in rural Bangladesh. PMID:1459679

  4. Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

    2014-12-01

    As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. PMID:24760731

  5. Natural Resource Assessments in Afghanistan Through High Resolution Digital Elevation Modeling and Multi-spectral Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirico, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides USGS/USAID natural resource assessments in Afghanistan through the mapping of coal, oil and natural gas, minerals, hydrologic resources and earthquake and flood hazards.

  6. Health needs and eHealth readiness assessment of health care organizations in Kabul and Bamyan, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Durrani, H; Khoja, S; Naseem, A; Scott, R E; Gul, A; Jan, R

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the need and readiness of health care institutions in Kabul and Bamyan, Afghanistan for successful implementation of information and communication technology in health care (eHealth). A mixed methods design was adopted at 2 institutions in the Aga Khan Development Network in Afghanistan: the French Medical Institute for Children in Kabul and Bamyan Provincial Hospital, Bamyan. Information for the needs assessment was obtained from interviews and focus groups and eHealth readiness was assessed using a validated survey tool. The needs of institutions in the Aga Khan Development Network in Afghanistan were categorized as follows: provision of care needs; learning needs; and information management needs. eHealth readiness on average was lower in Bamyan compared with Kabul in all areas of the readiness assessment. Other institutions in Afghanistan may benefit from adopting the model of needs and readiness assessment used for Aga Khan Development Network institutions. PMID:22888626

  7. Moving Forward with Export Oriented Shipbuilding Industries in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, N. M. G.

    2012-10-01

    In the recent time, shipbuilding has been considered as a thrust sector in the economy of Bangladesh. But, there exist various problems that obstruct the development of this sector especially for export oriented shipbuilding. In this paper, the general shipbuilding related problems along with its nature have been identified. The prospects of export oriented shipbuilding in context of global and international demand have been highlighted. Also, the present initiatives towards export oriented shipbuilding has been focused. Finally some recommendations have been put forward in this paper in order to hold a firm position in world shipbuilding market by export oriented shipbuilding industry in Bangladesh.

  8. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  9. Engineering education in Bangladesh - an indicator of economic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-05-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.

  10. Women’s empowerment revisited: a case study from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farzana; Rottach, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the changing dimensions of women's empowerment over time in three Bangladesh villages where one of the authors has been conducting research since 1991. The article discusses theoretical issues related to the measurement of women's empowerment, and describes findings from a recent study in the villages exploring the current salience of indicators developed for a 1992 survey. In the article we discuss the types of social, economic, and political change that affect the measurement of women’s empowerment; propose and explain a new set of indicators for the rural Bangladesh setting; and discuss implications for measuring women's empowerment in other settings. PMID:20856695

  11. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in environmental water in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haque, Anwarul; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes represent a threat for failure of empirical antibiotic therapy and are associated with high mortality, morbidity and expenses. We examined surface water in Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh and isolated ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, suggesting the potential role of water for the dissemination and transmission of resistant genes among microorganisms. E. coli found most prevalent among isolated Enterobacteriaceae from environmental water. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed CTX-M-type and SHV-type ESBL genes in isolates that may influence the spread of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria causing human and animal infections in Bangladesh. PMID:25103169

  12. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  13. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  14. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  15. Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, the north-northwestern part of Bangladesh, have been collected for palynological analysis. All samples except one yielded palynomorphs and some samples contain well-preserved and abundant palynomorphs of the gymnospermal and cryptogamic groups that are considered to be useful for future correlation studies. The lower coal bed (331.6-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef of Queensland, Australia extends for roughly 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and is made up of thousands of individual reefs which define the edge of the Continental shelf. Swan Reef, the southern part of the reef system, is seen in this view. Water depths around the reefs are quite shallow (less than 1 to 36 meters) but only a few kilometers offshore, water depths can reach 1,000 meters.

  17. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them. PMID:25015592

  18. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  19. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  20. Relation of Topography to Airborne Gravity in Afghanistan and the Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a multi-sensor, multi-disciplinary aerogeophysical survey, the US Naval Research Laboratory collected airborne gravity over most of Afghanistan in 2006 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1089/Afghan_grv.html). The data were measured using a pair of ZLS Corporation air-sea gravimeters 7 km altitude above mean sea level aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft operated by the US Navy's Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1). Aircraft positions were determined from kinematic GPS measurements in the aircraft relative to five base stations using differential interferometric techniques. Track spacing was set to 4 km over much of Afghanistan, but was increased to 8 km in the northern block of the survey area. Aircraft ground speed averaged between 300 and 380 knots, faster than ideal for high resolution gravity, but enabled approximately 113,000-km of data tracks to be flown in 220 flight hours, covering more than 330000 km2. In this presentation, we investigate the implications of the airborne gravity data for the tectonic development history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is described as comprising three different platforms (Wheeler et al., 2005): 1) the north Afghanistan platform north of the Hari-Rud fault (HRF), a part of the Eurasian plate for 250-350 my; 2) the accreted terranes south of the HRF including low flats, formed as island arcs and fragments of continental and oceanic crust collided with the Eurasian plate during the closure of the Tethys Ocean in the past 250 my; and 3) the transpressional plate in the east, formed as the Indian plate moves northward since Cretaceous. The Bouguer anomaly map reveals elongated negative values along the east-west striking HRF, which seems to manifest different tectonic developmental histories across the boundary. Over the southern flats in the accreted terranes platform, the Bouguer anomaly map appears to show a continuation of alternating southwest-northeast trending highs and lows like those over the northern high

  1. Geologic and Topographic Maps of the Kabul North 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with two highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in GeoPDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts to rebuild

  2. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  3. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  4. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  5. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  6. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

  7. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  8. Socioeconomic status and fertility in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, K; Becker, S

    1985-01-01

    Using a unique set of birth registration data from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, for the period 1974-77, and socioeconomic information collected in the 1974 census, fertility was studied in relation to occupation, size of dwelling, number of cows and number of boats owned. The total fertility rate was found to vary between 6 and 6.5 except in the famine year of 1975. There was no consistent relationship between fertility and education of women. The age-specific fertility rates by religion show that Muslims had higher fertility at all ages in 1974 and 1977 and at older ages in 1975 and 1976. Overall, however, fertility of Hindus is consistently lower than that of Muslims, but the relative differences are under 10%. Fertility differentials by occupation showed that the household heads who were farm laborers had relatively lower fertility compared to other occupational groups, except for the year 1977 where the families of service holders were found to have relatively lower fertility. Women in households whose heads were businessmen or farmers (owning their land) had above average fertility. In 1974, households in the business occupational groups had, on average, 1 birth more than other households. Women in households with fishermen as heads had below average fertility in 1974 and 1975, but very high fertility in 1976 and 1977. Fertility levels differed according to the type of household in which the family resided. Nuclear families had below average fertility up to the age of 35 and above average fertility at the end of the reproductive age. In the 15-19 age group, augmented families had higher fertility each year examined. The association between dwelling place and fertility is positive each year, the relative differences in fertility between the groups being largest in 1974. Positive relations were found between economic status and fertility. PMID:3972858

  9. A hygiene experiment in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khanom, K; Leonard, R C

    1989-01-01

    In February 1987, 10 students from the health education department at the National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine of Bangladesh conducted a before after only health education experiment concerning intestinal worm infestation and sanitation by interviewing at least 160 individuals in a village outside of Dhaka. 74.5% initially believed that the only action to take for intestinal worm infestation was to visit a physician and take medicines. After 30 days of intense health education efforts, a 38% increase in those who gave preventive answers occurred among the lower class and a 52% increase among the middle class. Nevertheless 50% of the poor and 37% of the middle class still believed in curative care. In the pretest, 85% did not know how the worms entered the intestine and, in the posttest, this percent fell to 25%. The pretest showed that the typical village member only had 1 correct answer concerning adverse effects of the worms. After intense health education, the number of correct answers of the typical respondent climbed to 2. Moreover, before the intervention, only 20% reported washing their hands correctly after defecation using either rash or soap. After intervention, 96% did so. On the other hand, no change occurred in water sources (2 public tube wells or dirt storage ponds) or the latrine situation. Financial restraints and/or social class may have been responsible for the lack of changes. For example, a tube well is a status symbol of the rich and it would offend the rich if lesser families used them. Further, even the middle class could not afford a sanitary latrine. Therefore the health education intervention had little effect on 2 major sources of the worm infestation problem.

  10. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  11. The Development of a National Agricultural Extension Policy in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, M.; Sarkar, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    The background of agriculture in Bangladesh and the process of developing a national agricultural extension policy focused on sustainable development are described. The policy explicates the meaning of agricultural extension, use of agricultural knowledge and information systems, and 11 core principles. (SK)

  12. Considerations around the introduction of a cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher B; Mogasale, Vittal; Bari, Tajul Islam A; Clemens, John D

    2014-12-12

    Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a complimentary control and prevention strategy. The performance of a new low cost oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, used in recent trials in Bangladesh, was also reviewed in the context of a potential large-scale public-sector vaccination program. Findings showed the oral vaccine to be highly cost-effective when targeting ages 1-14 y, and cost-effective when targeting ages 1+y, in high-burden/high-risk districts. Other vaccination strategies targeting urban slums and rural areas without improved water were found to be cost-effective. Regardless of cost-effectiveness (value), the budget impact (affordability) will be an important determinant of which target population and vaccination strategy is selected. Most importantly, adequate vaccine supply for the proposed vaccination programs must be addressed in the context of global efforts to establish a cholera vaccine stockpile and supply other control and prevention efforts.

  13. Learning from Real-Life Problems: Functional Education in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mahmood Aminul

    1980-01-01

    Describes a program in Bangladesh designed to make the rural poor understand their social and economic problems in order to begin to bring about change through their own efforts. The program is functional education and includes topics in family planning, health, housing, nutrition, and agriculture. (Author/SA)

  14. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  15. Case Studies for Management Development in Bangladesh. Second Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    These 15 case studies developed by faculty at institutions in Bangladesh are appropriate for use in a course in management development. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision.…

  16. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-12-20

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  17. The Succeed Project: Challenging Early School Failure in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E.; Hossain, Kamal; O'Gara, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    This evaluation research compares the first-grade competencies of two cohorts of Bangladesh children who attended "Succeed" preschools, with a control group who did not attend preschool. Testing of these groups occurred in 2006, 2007, and 2005, respectively. The Succeed program aims to improve children's learning and children's school success by…

  18. Conserving the zoological resources of Bangladesh under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Das, Bidhan C

    2009-06-01

    It is now well recognized that Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries to climate change and sea level rise. Low levels of natural resources and a high occurrence of natural disasters further add to the challenges faced by the country. The impacts of climate change are anticipated to exacerbate these existing stresses and constitute a serious impediment to poverty reduction and economic development. Ecosystems and biodiversity are important key sectors of the economy and natural resources of the country are selected as the most vulnerable to climate change. It is for these reasons that Bangladesh should prepare to conserve its natural resources under changed climatic conditions. Unfortunately, the development of specific strategies and policies to address the effects of climate change on the ecosystem and on biodiversity has not commenced in Bangladesh. Here, I present a detailed review of animal resources of Bangladesh, an outline of the major areas in zoological research to be integrated to adapt to climate change, and identified few components for each of the aforesaid areas in relation to the natural resource conservation and management in the country.

  19. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  20. Quality and Processes of Bangladesh Open University Course Materials Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Tofazzal; Rahman, Morshedur; Rahman, K. M. Rezanur

    2006-01-01

    A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU) introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team…

  1. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  2. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  3. Sedimentation and tectonics of the Sylhet trough, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Nur Alam, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Sylhet trough, a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin in northeastern Bangladesh, contains a thick fill (12 to 16 km) of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that record its tectonic evolution. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and petrographic data collected from outcrops, cores, well logs, and seismic lines are used to reconstruct the history of this trough. -from Authors

  4. New Trends in Legal Education at Bangladesh Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdousi, Nahid

    2008-01-01

    In Bangladesh, formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All…

  5. The Journey towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, M. Tariq; Mullick, Jahirul

    2013-01-01

    Several international declarations, signed over the last few decades, are helping to promote Education for All, by eliminating inequalities in both society and education systems. This article, a descriptive review of policy documents and reform initiatives, reports on ways the Government of Bangladesh has responded to these international…

  6. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  7. School drop out in Bangladesh: Insights using panel data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, R.; Hossain, A.; Lewin, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relative strength of different factors associated with school drop out using data collected between 2007 and 2009 in Bangladesh. A sample of 9046 children, aged 4-15, was selected across six districts for a household survey focusing on children's school access and experiences. Two groups of children were identified: those…

  8. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  9. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  10. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  11. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  12. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22754058

  14. Dengue fever outbreak in a recreation club, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Breiman, Robert F; Hossain, Anowar; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2004-04-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred among employees of a recreation club in Bangladesh. Occupational transmission was characterized by a 12% attack rate, no dengue among family contacts, and Aedes vectors in club areas. Early recognition of the outbreak likely limited its impact.

  15. Serologic evidence of dengue infection before onset of epidemic, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Anowar; Khatun, Mahmuda; Arjumand, Farzana; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2003-11-01

    Dengue fever emerged in Bangladesh in 2000. We tested 225 serum samples from febrile patients and 184 blood donors in 1996 and 1997 for dengue antibodies; 55 (24.4% ) febrile patients had dengue antibodies ( 65.5% with secondary infection pattern), compared with one (0.54%) donor (p <0.001), suggesting that dengue transmission was ongoing well before 1996.

  16. Health sciences libraries and information services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M S; Ahmed, Z; Akhter, N

    1990-01-01

    Basic problems relating to the status of health sciences libraries and information centers in Bangladesh are highlighted and discussed; strategies for improving the country's health sciences information services are suggested. A survey of libraries is reported, the country's national science and technology information policy is defined, and recommendations for action are proposed. PMID:2224300

  17. Food crises and female children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R

    1987-01-01

    Although almost all nations show lower female than male mortality, Bangladesh and certain other developing countries show higher female mortality rates. Among children aged 1 to 4 in Bangladesh, female mortality rates are 45% higher for girls than for boys. This paper examines whether 1) sex biased attitudes toward nutrition (as expressed in terms of food intake) are more marked during food crises, and 2) these biases are related to the socioeconomic status of the family. The study measured weight and height of approximately 1400 children aged 1 to 4 in Bangladesh from April 1975 (10 months after the famine began) through December 1976 (14 months after the famine ended). The findings clearly indicate that sex and social status are strong correlates of nutritional status. Children of higher status families with larger homes fared better throughout the time period. Within each status category, boys fared better than girls. While poor families were harder hit by famine than wealthier ones, male-female nutritional discrimination was stronger among the higher classes. These differences were accentuated during the famine period. Policy makers and planners in Bangladesh must be made aware that such sex biases exist and that these patterns are exacerbated during food shortages.

  18. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  19. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  20. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider

    2011-01-01

    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  1. Australia Viewed by NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This multispectral map of Australia and surrounding seas was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer shortly after closest approach on Dec. 8, 1990 from an altitude of about 50,000 miles. The image shows various ocean, land and atmospheric cloud features as they appear in three of the 408 infrared colors or wavelengths sensed by the instrument. The wavelength of 0.873 micron, represented as blue in the photo, shows regions of enhanced liquid water absorption, i.e. the Pacific and Indian oceans. The 0.984- micron band, represented as red, shows areas of enhanced ground reflection as on the Australian continent. This wavelength is also sensitive to the reflectivity of relatively thick clouds. The 0.939- micron wavelength, shown as green, is a strong water-vapor-absorbing band, and is used to accentuate clouds lying above the strongly absorbing lower atmosphere. When mixed with the red indicator of cloud reflection, the green produces a yellowish hue; this indicates thick clouds. The distinctive purplish color off the northeast coast marks the unusually shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. Here the blue denoting water absorption combines with the red denoting reflection from coral and surface marine organisms to produce this unusual color. The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft is a combined mapping (imaging) and spectral instrument. It can sense 408 contiguous wavelengths from 0.7 micron (deep red) to 5.2 microns, and can construct a map or image by mechanical scanning. It can spectroscopically analyze atmospheres and surfaces and construct thermal and chemical maps.

  2. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    PubMed

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  3. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  4. Management of paediatric tuberculosis in provincial and district hospitals in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Delawer, F M; Isono, M; Ueki, H; Zhuben, M; Zafari, M; Seddiq, M K; Habib, H; Ayoubi, M K

    2013-08-01

    Case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis 1 B) in children are challenging issues vorldwide. This study in Afghanistan aimed to evaluate paediatric TB case management, including contact investigation, at health facilities where all diagnostic processes were available. In 7 out of 8 regions of the country 1 province was selected. Documents used for management of paediatric TB cases were reviewed in 15 distinct hospitals and 8 provincial hospitals in the selected provinces. The key issues which emerged were: a low suspect rate among total outpatients (0.4%) and a very low suspect rate among children aged < 5 years; low performance of suspect management (68.5% suspects received further examinations); low utilization of other diagnostic methods; a high early defaulter rate (14.0%); and insufficient coverage of contact management (74.0%). This survey indicated that the Afghanistan national TB programme needs to develop plans to improve the quality of diagnosis, suspect management and contact management in paediatric TB cases.

  5. Surface water investigations in Afghanistan: a summary of activities from 1952 to 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, Arthur O.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize briefly the history of the Surface Water Research project since its inception in 1952, the work accomplished, and the problems encountered. In general, each topic is discussed under two periods of time: 1952-1963, when projects were confined to the Helmand River Valley and was entitled Helmand Surface Water Investigations (306-12-021, 306-M-12-AD and 306-AC-12-AD5), and 1963-1969 when activities were expanded to cover most of Afghanistan and title was changed to Surface Water Research (306-11-190-002). Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Water and Soil Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Royal Government of Afghanistan under the auspices of the United States Agency for International Development.

  6. After the parade: military nurses' reintegration experiences from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary Ellen; Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe reintegration experiences of U.S. military nurses returning from deployments in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. A qualitative study using a phenomenological method was conducted. The population comprised nurses who served in the U.S. Army, Navy, or Air Force in Iraq or Afghanistan during 2003-2013, including Active Duty, National Guard, and Reserve nurses. Purposive sampling with Veteran and professional nursing organizations yielded a sample of 35 nurses. Nine themes emerged from analysis: (a) homecoming; (b) renegotiating roles; (c) painful memories of trauma; (d) getting help; (e) needing a clinical change of scenery; (f) petty complaints and trivial whining; (g) military unit or civilian job: support versus lack of support; (h) family and social networks: support versus lack of support; and (i) reintegration: a new normal.

  7. Notes on interpretation of geophysical data over areas of mineralization in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial metallic mineral resources. Although valuable mineral deposits have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Geophysical surveys, particularly those conducted from airborne platforms, are a well-accepted and cost-effective method for obtaining information on the geological setting of a given area. This report summarizes interpretive findings from various geophysical surveys over selected mineral targets in Afghanistan, highlighting what existing data tell us. These interpretations are mainly qualitative in nature, because of the low resolution of available geophysical data. Geophysical data and simple interpretations are included for these six areas and deposit types: (1) Aynak: Sedimentary-hosted copper; (2) Zarkashan: Porphyry copper; (3) Kundalan: Porphyry copper; (4) Dusar Shaida: Volcanic-hosted massive sulphide; (5) Khanneshin: Carbonatite-hosted rare earth element; and (6) Chagai Hills: Porphyry copper.

  8. Malaria problem in Afghanistan: malaria scanning results of the Turkish medical aid group after the war.

    PubMed

    Oner, Yaşar Ali; Okutan, Salih Erkan; Artinyan, Elizabeth; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2005-04-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species and it is especially seen in tropical and subtropical areas. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the infection in Afghanistan, which is an endemic place for malaria and had severe socio-economical lost after the war. We also compared these data with the ones that were recorded before the war. Blood samples were taken from 376 malaria suspected patients who come to the health center, established by the medical group of Istanbul Medical Faculty in 2002, Afghanistan. Blood samples were screened using the OPTIMAL Rapid Malaria Test and Giemsa staining method. In 95 (25.3%) patients diagnosis was malaria. In 65 patients (17.3%) the agent of the infection was P. falciparum and in 30 patients (8%) agents were other Plasmodium species.

  9. The psychological effects of the war in Afghanistan on young Afghan refugees from different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Mghir, R; Raskin, A

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the psychological effects of the war in Afghanistan on two groups of young Afghan refugees currently residing in the United States. One group, with Tajik parents showed significantly less evidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression than the second group with Pashtun parents. These two groups of young refugees came from very different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Some of these differences persist to the present. The Tajik parents are wealthier, more likely to speak English at home and less religious than the Pashtun parents. Their wartime experiences were also different. The Pashtun parents and their children spent more time in Afghanistan during the war, and experienced or witnessed more traumatic events, such as torture or combat, than the Tajik parents and their children. The possible effects of these ethnic differences on current psychopathology are described and discussed.

  10. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  11. Why are Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans seeking PTSD disability compensation at unprecedented rates?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced historically low rates of fatalities, injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. combatants. Yet they have also produced historically unprecedented rates of PTSD disability compensation seeking from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The purpose of this article is to consider hypotheses that might potentially resolve this paradox, including high rates of PTSD, delayed onset PTSD, malingered PTSD, and economic variables.

  12. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. PMID:26840007

  13. Snowline and Glacier Assessment in the Central Hindu Kush, Afghanistan, Utilizing Multi- Temporal Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritashya, U. K.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Bulley, H. N.; Olsenholler, J. A.; Sartan, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Snow- and glacier-covered massifs in Afghanistan represent the main source of fresh water for the country. Although it is widely recognized that these high altitude cryospheric components are highly sensitive to climatic fluctuation, very little information on changing conditions in Afghanistan have been reported. Climate simulations representing a carbon-dioxide-loading scenario suggest Afghanistan, and the Hindu Kush and Karakoram of Pakistan, could exhibit greater rates of change than in the eastern Himalaya. Consequently, our objective was to assess changes in snowline altitude and glacier areas over a thirty year period. Specifically, we used multi-temporal satellite imagery from different optical sensors from 1973 2002 to assess snowline altitude variations and glacier retreat in the Central Hindu Kush, Afghanistan. Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ASTER imagery were orthorectified and radiometrically calibrated, and a digital elevation model was generated using ASTER data. We developed a semi-automatic pixel-based, multi-spectral, classification method that incorporates spectral and topographic information. The ASTER-derived DEM represented the baseline elevation reference. Our results are based upon analysis of 12 mountain massifs and 80 glaciers, and indicate that the snowline altitude has increased by approximately 200 m in the last three decades. Results also show glacier retreat and the disconnection of tributary glaciers to their main trunk glacier. In addition, the increase in meltwater production is evident on some glaciers, as revealed by variation in the frequency and size of supraglacial and proglacial lakes. These cryospheric changes can be linked to regional-scale climate change that is affecting the water resource supply in this chronically arid Hindu Kush area. There is an urgent need to conduct fieldwork to obtain direct measurements to further document rapid change due to climate forcing.

  14. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  15. New-onset asthma among soldiers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Peters, Michael C; Weissinger, Kristen M; Gagliano, Christy A; Chen, John J

    2010-01-01

    Since June 4, 2004, asthma diagnosed and symptomatic after the age of 12 years has been an exclusion criterion for military enlistment unless exempted via medical waiver. The Department of Defense determined that 13% of U.S. Army Medic visits in Iraq are for new-onset acute respiratory illness; case reports of veterans with asthma that began in Iraq and Afghanistan War zones have surfaced. This prompted our study to determine whether new asthma is diagnosed more frequently among Iraq/Afghanistan War troops versus stateside-based troops. Retrospective review of asthma diagnoses among computerized charts for military personnel discharged from active duty and examined between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007, at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Northport, NY, classified soldiers by (1) deployment status-whether they were stationed in Iraq/Afghanistan for a 1-year tour of duty or stationed in the United States, and (2) VA diagnosis of asthma per International Classification of Disease codes. Associations between deployment and asthma statuses were evaluated/stratified by gender/age group. Eligibility criteria entailed (1) residence in Long Island, (2) aged 18-45 years, and (3) both U.S. military service and discharge dates between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007. Out of 6233 patients who served between 2004 and 2007 and were followed at the Northport VAMC, 290 new-onset/prevalent asthma cases were identified. Deployment to Iraq was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma compared with stateside soldiers (6.6% versus 4.3%; with a crude odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.11). These associations persist when stratified by gender and age group. Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan is associated with new-onset asthma. Etiologic studies, surveillance, incidence, epidemiology, and assessing response to therapy are recommended.

  16. Viability of karezes (ancient water supply systems in Afghanistan) in a changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, G. L.; Johnson, W. C.; Liu, Huan

    2015-09-01

    The Afghanistan population living far from rivers relies upon groundwater delivered from karezes (sub-horizontal tunnels). Karezes exploit unconfined groundwater in alluvial fans recharged largely by snowmelt from the Hindu Kush, the central mountain range of the country. Since the multi-year drought that began in 1998, many karezes have stopped flowing. This study characterizes the hydraulics of a kariz, the potential for reduced groundwater recharge because of climate change, and the impact of increasing population on kariz water production. A typical kariz in Afghanistan is 1-2 km long with a cross-section of 1-2 m2 and gradient of 1 m km-1. MODFLOW simulations show that water delivery from a kariz can be modeled by imposing a high ratio of kariz hydraulic conductivity to aquifer hydraulic conductivity on the cells representing the kariz. The model is sensitive to hydraulic conductivity, kariz gradient, and length of the kariz in contact with the water table. Precipitation data are scarce in Afghanistan, but regional data show a long-term trend of decreased snow cover, and therefore strong likelihood of decreased aquifer recharge. Population in Afghanistan has increased at a rate of about 2.2 % over the past several decades. An assessment of a six-district region within Kandahar Province where karezes are the most likely source of water indicates that water demand could have caused water tables to decline by 0.8-5.6 m, more than enough to cause karezes to stop flowing. These results suggest that kariz water production is not sustainable under current climate- and population-growth trends.

  17. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. Combat internist: the internal medicine experience in a combat hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel U; Parrish, Scott C; Saeed, Omar; Fiedler, Joyce P

    2015-01-01

    Military internists and internal medicine subspecialists are physicians who generally work in traditional internal medicine settings. However, when deployed to combat settings, they must prepare and adapt their skills for a wide spectrum of complex, polytrauma, and multinational patients. There are limitations in personnel, equipment, and technical resources that make the circumstances complex and demanding. This article highlights some of the unique roles, challenges, and experiences of four military internists at the NATO Role 3, a deployed combat hospital in Afghanistan. PMID:25562851

  5. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Sanaie, A.; Nasrat, A.; Seddiq, M. K.; Mahmoodi, S. D.; Stevens, R. H.; Creswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won’t receive proper care. Methods From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification. Results We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125) were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified. Discussion While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can

  6. Why are Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans seeking PTSD disability compensation at unprecedented rates?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced historically low rates of fatalities, injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. combatants. Yet they have also produced historically unprecedented rates of PTSD disability compensation seeking from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The purpose of this article is to consider hypotheses that might potentially resolve this paradox, including high rates of PTSD, delayed onset PTSD, malingered PTSD, and economic variables. PMID:23954726

  7. Selected epidemiological aspects of fresh whole blood application in the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Adam; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Lass, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Minimisation of blood transmitted diseases is a basic element of all blood transfusion strategies. Civilian health service standards used in peacetime may be difficult to implement in a battlefield. The risk of blood-borne diseases depends on the applied donor qualification procedures and the epidemiological situation in the areas of military operations. The authors discuss various epidemiological aspects considered when selecting potential donors of fresh whole blood for a Walking Blood Bank at the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

  8. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data for geothermal reconnaissance in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, H.; Aboud, E.; Gottsmann, J.

    2015-11-01

    The geologic setting of Afghanistan has the potential to contain significant mineral, petroleum and geothermal resources. However, much of the country's potential remains unknown due to limited exploration surveys. Here, we present countrywide aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) and to evaluate the geothermal exploration potential. CPD is an isothermal surface at which magnetic minerals lose their magnetization and as such outlines an isotherm of about 580 °C. We use spectral analysis on the aeromagnetic data to estimate the CPD spatial distribution and compare our findings with known geothermal fields in the western part of Afghanistan. The results outline four regions with geothermal potential: 1) regions of shallow Curie point depths (∼16-21 km) are located in the Helmand basin. 2) regions of intermediate depths (∼21-27 km) are located in the southern Helmand basin and the Baluchistan area. 3) Regions of great depths (∼25-35 km) are located in the Farad block. 4) Regions of greatest depths (∼35-40 km) are located in the western part of the northern Afghanistan platform. The deduced thermal structure in western Afghanistan relates to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, while the shallow CPDs are related to crustal thinning. This study also shows that the geothermal systems are associated with complex magmatic and tectonic association of major intrusions and fault systems. Our results imply geothermal gradients ranging from 14 °C/km to 36 °C/km and heat-flow values ranging from 36 to 90 mW/m2 for the study area.

  9. Perceptions of Ayurvedic medicine by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Yoshida, Yasuko; Alim, Md Abdul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bangladesh is now facing the public health problems of deficiency of iron and iodine, especially for women. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh has implemented strong countermeasures to enhance the health condition of the nation. On the other hand, based on the concept of the Declaration of Alma-Ata, complementary and alternative medicine should be used more vigorously to enhance public health in the world. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine such as ayurvedic medicine (AM) should be increased in Bangladesh. Therefore we conducted the study on perceptions of AM by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh in order to promote and enhance the effective usage of AM, including herbal medicines as medical resources, from December 2010 to January 2011. This study showed younger citizens (61.1%) did not get more benefit from AM than elder citizens (48.0%). On the other hand, younger citizens (76.8%) did not get more harm from AM than elder citizens (70.1%). We think that in terms of effectiveness of AM, the younger generation in Dhaka seems to be more skeptical to AM than the elder generation in Dhaka, even though the younger generation are more satisfied with AM than the elder generation. With viewpoint of enhancement of usage of AM in Dhaka, we think that scientifically sound information on AM should be collected rigorously and brought to the citizens vigorously to remove the skeptical feeling of AM from younger citizen in Dhaka. In terms of the effective utilization of limited medical resources, AM should be used appropriately in Bangladesh, Asia and the world. PMID:27019531

  10. Perceptions of Ayurvedic medicine by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Yoshida, Yasuko; Alim, Md Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh is now facing the public health problems of deficiency of iron and iodine, especially for women. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh has implemented strong countermeasures to enhance the health condition of the nation. On the other hand, based on the concept of the Declaration of Alma-Ata, complementary and alternative medicine should be used more vigorously to enhance public health in the world. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine such as ayurvedic medicine (AM) should be increased in Bangladesh. Therefore we conducted the study on perceptions of AM by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh in order to promote and enhance the effective usage of AM, including herbal medicines as medical resources, from December 2010 to January 2011. This study showed younger citizens (61.1%) did not get more benefit from AM than elder citizens (48.0%). On the other hand, younger citizens (76.8%) did not get more harm from AM than elder citizens (70.1%). We think that in terms of effectiveness of AM, the younger generation in Dhaka seems to be more skeptical to AM than the elder generation in Dhaka, even though the younger generation are more satisfied with AM than the elder generation. With viewpoint of enhancement of usage of AM in Dhaka, we think that scientifically sound information on AM should be collected rigorously and brought to the citizens vigorously to remove the skeptical feeling of AM from younger citizen in Dhaka. In terms of the effective utilization of limited medical resources, AM should be used appropriately in Bangladesh, Asia and the world. PMID:27019531

  11. Perceptions of Ayurvedic medicine by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Yoshida, Yasuko; Alim, Md Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh is now facing the public health problems of deficiency of iron and iodine, especially for women. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh has implemented strong countermeasures to enhance the health condition of the nation. On the other hand, based on the concept of the Declaration of Alma-Ata, complementary and alternative medicine should be used more vigorously to enhance public health in the world. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine such as ayurvedic medicine (AM) should be increased in Bangladesh. Therefore we conducted the study on perceptions of AM by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh in order to promote and enhance the effective usage of AM, including herbal medicines as medical resources, from December 2010 to January 2011. This study showed younger citizens (61.1%) did not get more benefit from AM than elder citizens (48.0%). On the other hand, younger citizens (76.8%) did not get more harm from AM than elder citizens (70.1%). We think that in terms of effectiveness of AM, the younger generation in Dhaka seems to be more skeptical to AM than the elder generation in Dhaka, even though the younger generation are more satisfied with AM than the elder generation. With viewpoint of enhancement of usage of AM in Dhaka, we think that scientifically sound information on AM should be collected rigorously and brought to the citizens vigorously to remove the skeptical feeling of AM from younger citizen in Dhaka. In terms of the effective utilization of limited medical resources, AM should be used appropriately in Bangladesh, Asia and the world.

  12. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Redwanur M

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights. PMID:16611360

  13. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D.; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:24861340

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  15. A new species of Bryoleuca Hampson, 1908 from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae).

    PubMed

    Pekarsky, Oleg

    2015-11-13

    A new species of the raptricula species-group, Bryoleuca pljushtchi sp. n. is described. A diagnostic comparison is made with Bryoleuca raptricula ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), Bryoleuca felina (Eversmann, 1852), Bryoleuca orthogramma (Boursin, 1954), Bryoleuca volodia An, Choi & Ronkay, 2013 and Bryoleuca nahnybidai Pekarsky, 2014. Adults and female genitalia of the new species and its closest relatives are illustrated. Modern taxonomic studies of the raptricula-group started by Fibiger et al. (2009) and got progress by the clarification of the taxonomic status of B. felina (Pekarsky & Ronkay 2010). Subsequently, further two newly recognised species were described in the last two years, B. volodia and B. nahnybidai. The first attempt to prepare the checklist of the subfamily was made by Hacker (1990) and, later, European check list was given in the Noctuidae Europaeae, Vol. 11 (Fibiger et al. 2009). As for the fauna of Afghanistan, Koçak and Kemal (2012) listed twelve Bryophilinae species one of which, B. raptricula, belongs to the genus Bryoleuca. The taxonomic situation of the raptricula species-complex is far not completely known yet. Present paper contains the description of a new Bryoleuca species from Afghanistan. The single female of this new species was collected by Ukrainian entomologists Igor Pljushtch and Oleg Pak in Central Afghanistan in 2013.

  16. Opiate use, treatment, and harm reduction in Afghanistan: recent changes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Todd, Catherine S; Macdonald, David; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Mansoor, G Farooq; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Afghanistan leads global opium and cannabis production, amidst concerted efforts to improve the country's infrastructure. In this commentary, the evidence base for drivers of increased drug use in the context of deteriorating security is presented, government, donor, and civil society responses to date are described, and key areas for health policy response are summarized. Opiate use in Afghanistan shows disturbing trends: multiple substances are accessible at low cost and frequently used in combination, and injecting use has become more common. Pressures from both donor and governmental sectors have compromised innovations in programming. Further, civil unrest and resultant displacement have created challenges for programme implementation. Afghanistan urgently needs a well-funded, sustainable, comprehensive, and inclusive programme of drug dependency treatment, aftercare, and harm reduction services, as well as realistic, effective, and culturally salient primary prevention programmes. To date, drug dependence is not a prioritised issue, current programmes are under-resourced, and the continuum of care has a narrow scope generally limited to treatment. Unless this issue is addressed, the next generation of Afghans is poised to become a casualty of the opiate industry. PMID:22717389

  17. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable conventional petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Wandrey, C.J.; Agena, Warren F.; Steinshouer, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey - Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum in northern Afghanistan; the resulting estimates are 1.6 billion barrels (0.2 billion metric tons) of crude oil, 16 trillion cubic feet (0.4 trillion cubic meters) of natural gas, and 0.5 billion barrels (0.8 billion metric tons) of natural gas liquids. Most of the undiscovered crude oil is in the Afghan-Tajik Basin and most of the undiscovered natural gas is in the Amu Darya Basin. Four total petroleum systems were identified, and these were subdivided into eight assessment units for the purpose of this resource assessment. The area with the greatest potential for undiscovered natural gas accumulations is in Upper Jurassic carbonate and reef reservoirs beneath an impermeable salt layer in relatively unexplored parts of northern Afghanistan. The Afghan-Tajik Basin has the greatest potential for undiscovered crude oil accumulations, and these are potentially in Cretaceous to Paleogene carbonate reservoir rocks associated with thrust faulting and folding.

  18. Observations from a maternal and infant hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan--2003.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Afghanistan is believed to have one of the highest infant and maternal mortality rates in the world. As a result of decades of war and civil unrest, Afghan women and children suffer from poor access to health services, harsh living conditions, and insufficient food and micronutrient security. To address the disproportionately high infant and maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan, the US Department of Health and Human Services pledged support to establish a maternal health facility and training center. Rabia Balkhi Hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan, was selected because this hospital admits approximately 36,000 patients and delivers more than 14,000 babies annually. This article reports the initial observations at Rabia Balkhi Hospital and describes factors that influenced women's access, the quality of care, and the evaluation health care services. This observational investigation examined areas of obstetric, laboratory and pharmacy, and ancillary services. The investigators concluded that profound changes were needed in the hospital's health care delivery system to make the hospital a safe and effective health care facility for Afghan women and children and an appropriate facility in which to establish an Afghan provider training program for updating obstetric skills and knowledge. PMID:15973254

  19. Traumatic brain injury, PTSD, and current suicidal ideation among Iraq and Afghanistan U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Holowka, Darren W; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Sohyun C; Chen, May S; Gradus, Jaimie L; Nock, Matthew K; Rosen, Raymond C; Keane, Terence M

    2014-04-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among veterans deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychiatric conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are potentially important risk factors for suicide in this population, but the literature is limited by a dearth of research on female veterans and imprecise assessment of TBI and suicidal behavior. This study examined 824 male and 825 female U.S. veterans who were enrolled in the baseline assessment of the Veterans After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry (Project VALOR), an observational registry of veterans with and without PTSD who deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and were enrolled in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Results indicated that current depressive symptoms, PTSD, and history of prior TBI were all significantly associated with current suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.91, Cramers' Vs = .19 and .08, respectively). After adding a number of variables to the model, including psychiatric comorbidity, TBI history was associated with increased risk of current suicidal ideation among male veterans only (RR = 1.55). TBI is an important variable to consider in future research on suicide among veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, particularly among male veterans. PMID:24639101

  20. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.

  1. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  2. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-01

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia. PMID:24168089

  3. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  4. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  5. Deployment-related mental disorders among Canadian Forces personnel deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, David; Zamorski, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The conflict in Afghanistan has exposed more Canadian Forces personnel to a greater degree of adversity than at any time in recent memory. We determined the incidence of Afghanistan deployment–related mental disorders and associated risk factors among personnel previously deployed in support of this mission. Methods: The study population consisted of 30 513 Canadian Forces personnel who began a deployment in support of the mission in Afghanistan before Jan. 1, 2009. The primary outcome was a mental disorder perceived by a Canadian Forces clinician to be related to the Afghanistan deployment. Data on diagnoses and perceptions were abstracted from medical records of a stratified random sample of 2014 personnel. Sample design weights were used in all analyses to generate descriptive statistics for the entire study population. Results: Over a median follow-up of 1364 days, 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.1%–14.8%) of the study population had a mental disorder that was attributed to the Afghanistan deployment. Posttraumatic stress disorder was the most common diagnosis (in 8.0%, 95% CI 7.0%–9.0%, of personnel). Deployment to higher-threat locations, service in the Canadian Army and lower rank were independent risk factors associated with an Afghanistan-related diagnosis (e.g., hazard ratio for deployment to Kandahar Province 5.6, 95% CI 2.6–12.5, relative to deployment to the United Arab Emirates). In contrast, sex, Reserve Forces status, multiple deployments and deployment length were not independent risk factors. Interpretation: An important minority of Canadian Forces personnel deployed in support of the Afghanistan mission had a diagnosis of a mental disorder perceived to be related to the deployment. Determining long-term outcomes is an important next step. PMID:23820441

  6. Characteristics of family planning clients in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Khan, A R

    1983-01-01

    The study objective was to establish a profile of family planning clients in Bangladesh to illustrate differences and similarities of the clients who obtain various types of contraceptives--oral contraceptives (OCs), injectables, tubal ligation, and vasectomy--in both urban and rural areas. The urban women receiving OCs attended the family planning clinics of 6 hospitals in Dacca during the 1974-77 period. The rural OC clients attended a government family planning clinic about 25 miles southeast of Dacca between 1975-77. Urban injectable clients all attended the family planning clinic of the model clinic in Dacca. Rural injectable clients attended the same family planning clinic in Matlab as did rural OC clients. Urban tubal ligation clients were randomly selected from 2 areas, Kalicakar and Kustia. Vasectomy clients were randomly sampled from the lists of vasectomy clients which attended mass vasectomy centers in Shibjuir and Shalna provinces 2 years prior to the survey follow-up. The higher mean ages of all rural contraceptive users, regardless of method, was consistent with their high parities and the small percentages of these women who desired more children. 15.6% of urban women choosing sterilization had never used contraception previously, but 93.2% of urban OC acceptors and 61.5% of the injectable clients were obtaining contraception for the 1st time. 62% of sterilization clients who had previously used contraception had been using OCs. Among the rural users of contraceptives, those using pills and vasectomy had the highest proportions of no prior use of contraception (94% and 95.7%, respectively). 42% of tubal ligation clients had never used contraception previously; 64.2% of the injectable clients indicated they had never used contraceptives. Among the OC acceptors the majority of previous users had IUDs inserted. Injectable and tubal ligation acceptors previously using contraception had primarily been OC users. In both the urban and rural areas the vast

  7. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic

  8. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  9. Job satisfaction and retention of health-care providers in Afghanistan and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job among primary health-care providers in countries with distinctly different human resources crises, Afghanistan and Malawi. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we enrolled 87 health-care providers in 32 primary health-care facilities in Afghanistan and 360 providers in 10 regional hospitals in Malawi. The study questionnaire was used to assess job satisfaction, intention to stay on the job and five features of the workplace environment: resources, performance recognition, financial compensation, training opportunities and safety. Descriptive analyses, exploratory factor analyses for scale development, bivariate correlation analyses and bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results The multivariate model for Afghanistan, with demographic, background and work environment variables, explained 23.9% of variance in job satisfaction (F(9,73) = 5.08; P < 0.01). However, none of the work environment variables were significantly related to job satisfaction. The multivariate model for intention to stay for Afghanistan explained 23.6% of variance (F(8,74) = 4.10; P < 0.01). Those with high scores for recognition were more likely to have higher intention to stay (β = 0.328, P < 0.05). However, being paid an appropriate salary was negatively related to intent to stay (β = -0.326, P < 0.01). For Malawi, the overall model explained only 9.8% of variance in job satisfaction (F(8,332) = 4.19; P < 0.01) and 9.1% of variance in intention to stay (F(10,330) = 3.57; P < 0.01). Conclusions The construction of concepts of health-care worker satisfaction and intention to stay on the job are highly dependent on the local context. Although health-care workers in both Afghanistan and Malawi reported satisfaction with their jobs, the predictors of satisfaction, and the extent to which those predictors explained variations in job

  10. Australia: the coming of age.

    PubMed

    Kelley, A C

    1988-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Australia and their implications are assessed. The author concludes that "Australia faces a relatively favourable demographic future: ageing is proceeding at a slower pace here, the pattern of the labour force ageing is conducive to restructuring in the intermediate future, and a well-established immigration policy can be used to accommodate demographics with social and economic goals. The financing of social services for the aged will produce fewer concerns here partly because of less immediate demographic pressures and partly because of the orientation of the age-pension system." PMID:12233479

  11. British atomic tests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Suter, K

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom and Australia have reached agreement on the British payment for cleaning up the Maralinga (South Australia) site at which the UK tested some of its atomic weapons in the 1960s. The tests were conducted amid great secrecy and only in recent years has the truth about the health hazards fully emerged. The peace movement opposed the tests and its stand has been vindicated. Also vindicated have been the claims by Aborigines that more damage was done by the tests than was earlier admitted.

  12. Clavadoce (Annelida: Phyllodocidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin S; Greaves, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The first records of the phyllodocid genus Clavadoce are provided from Australia, where the fifth species in the genus is now known: Clavadoce dorsolobata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1987) comb. nov. which is widely distributed in intertidal habitats in southeastern Australia. Clavadoce dorsolobata was described as Eumida (Sige) dorsolobata Hartmann-Schröder, 1987 and herein transferred to Clavadoce. Five species of Clavadoce are now known world wide, four of which are from different regions on the Pacific Ocean margin, while Clavadoce cristata is from the North Atlantic. The Australian species is the first record of Clavadoce for the southern hemisphere. PMID:27395480

  13. Map and Database of Probable and Possible Quaternary Faults in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Haller, K.M.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in Afghanistan, has prepared a digital map showing the distribution of probable and suspected Quaternary faults in Afghanistan. This map is a key component of a broader effort to assess and map the country's seismic hazards. Our analyses of remote-sensing imagery reveal a complex array of tectonic features that we interpret to be probable and possible active faults within the country and in the surrounding border region. In our compilation, we have mapped previously recognized active faults in greater detail, and have categorized individual features based on their geomorphic expression. We assigned mapped features to eight newly defined domains, each of which contains features that appear to have similar styles of deformation. The styles of deformation associated with each domain provide insight into the kinematics of the modern tectonism, and define a tectonic framework that helps constrain deformational models of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The modern fault movements, deformation, and earthquakes in Afghanistan are driven by the collision between the northward-moving Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. The patterns of probable and possible Quaternary faults generally show that much of the modern tectonic activity is related to transfer of plate-boundary deformation across the country. The left-lateral, strike-slip Chaman fault in southeastern Afghanistan probably has the highest slip rate of any fault in the country; to the north, this slip is distributed onto several fault systems. At the southern margin of the Kabul block, the style of faulting changes from mainly strike-slip motion associated with the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, to transpressional and transtensional faulting. North and northeast of the Kabul block, we recognized a complex pattern of potentially active strike-slip, thrust, and normal faults that form a

  14. Community-based InterVentions to prevent serIous Complications (CIVIC) following spinal cord injury in Bangladesh: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad S; Harvey, Lisa A; Rahman, Md. Akhlasur; Muldoon, Stephen; Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Jan, Stephen; Taylor, Valerie; Cameron, Ian D; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Lindley, Richard I; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Li, Qiang; Dhakshinamurthy, Murali; Herbert, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In low-income and middle-income countries, people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are vulnerable to life-threatening complications after they are discharged from hospital. The aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an inexpensive and sustainable model of community-based care designed to prevent and manage complications in people with SCI in Bangladesh. Methods and analysis A pragmatic randomised controlled trial will be undertaken. 410 wheelchair-dependent people with recent SCI will be randomised to Intervention and Control groups shortly after discharge from hospital. Participants in the Intervention group will receive regular telephone-based care and three home visits from a health professional over the 2 years after discharge. Participants in the Control group will receive standard care, which does not involve regular contact with health professionals. The primary outcome is all-cause mortality at 2 years. Recruitment started on 12 July 2015 and the trial is expected to take 5 years to complete. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee at the site in Bangladesh and from the University of Sydney, Australia. The study will be conducted in compliance with all stipulations of its protocol, the conditions of ethics committee approval, the NHMRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007), the Note for Guidance on Good Clinical Practice (CPMP/ICH-135/95) and the Bangladesh Guidance on Clinical Trial Inspection (2011). The results of the trial will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations at scientific conferences. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12615000630516, U1111-1171-1876. PMID:26743709

  15. Food and Education in the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Final Proceedings Report: AIA-NGO-WFP-CAII Workshop (Islamabad, Pakistan, February 17-20, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Bronwen

    The civil war and desperate humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has severely limited human capacity development over the past 23 years. Human development indicators for Afghanistan are among the worst in the world, and the fighting has deprived more than a generation of even a basic education. To support and build on the indigenous early efforts…

  16. Social Sciences in Asia II: Afghanistan, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Nepal. Reports and Papers in the Social Sciences, No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on social science teaching and research in Afghanistan, Japan, Indonesia, Korea, and Nepal. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. The first chapter suggests that social science has not played a major role in the socioeconomic development of Afghanistan because most Afghans favor traditional ways of thinking. The…

  17. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  18. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  19. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  20. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…