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Sample records for afghanistan geological survey

  1. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  2. Topographic and hydrographic GIS dataset for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Minerals Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, P.G.; Moran, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains a collection of 24 folders, each representing a specific U.S. Geological Survey area of interest (AOI; fig. 1), as well as datasets for AOI subsets. Each folder includes the extent, contours, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and hydrography of the corresponding AOI, which are organized into feature vector and raster datasets. The dataset comprises a geographic information system (GIS), which is available upon request from the USGS Afghanistan programs Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/minerals.php), and the maps of the 24 areas of interest of the USGS AOIs.

  3. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  4. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  5. Aeromagnetic Survey in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's geologic setting indicates significant natural resource potential While important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information of the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Due to the security situation and the large areas of the country of Afghanistan that has not been covered with geophysical exploration methods a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  6. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    This work represents the fourth installment of the series, and publishes a dataset of eight new AOIs and one subarea within Afghanistan. These areas include Dasht-e-Nawar, Farah, North Ghazni, South Ghazni, Chakhansur, Godzareh East, Godzareh West, and Namaksar-e-Herat AOIs and the Central Bamyan subarea of the South Bamyan AOI (datasets for South Bamyan were published previously in Casey and Chirico, 2013). For each AOI and subarea, this dataset collection consists of the areal extent boundaries, elevation contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-m intervals, and an enhanced DEM. Hydrographic datasets covering the extent of four AOIs and one subarea are also included in the collection. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to support mineral assessments, monitoring, management, and investment.

  7. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-11-18

    This work represents the fourth installment of the series, and publishes a dataset of eight new AOIs and one subarea within Afghanistan. These areas include Dasht-e-Nawar, Farah, North Ghazni, South Ghazni, Chakhansur, Godzareh East, Godzareh West, and Namaksar-e-Herat AOIs and the Central Bamyan subarea of the South Bamyan AOI (datasets for South Bamyan were published previously in Casey and Chirico, 2013). For each AOI and subarea, this dataset collection consists of the areal extent boundaries, elevation contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-m intervals, and an enhanced DEM. Hydrographic datasets covering the extent of four AOIs and one subarea are also included in the collection. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to support mineral assessments, monitoring, management, and investment.

  8. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  9. Geologic and topographic maps of the Kabul South 30' x 60' quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with three highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in Geospatial PDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts

  10. Aeromagnetic surveys in Afghanistan: An updated website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenwary, Ghulam Sakhi; Kohistany, Abdul Hakim; Hussain, Sardar; Ashan, Said; Mutty, Abdul Salam; Daud, Mohammad Ahmad; Wussow, Michael D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Kucks, Robert P.; Finn, Carol A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Liang, Robert T.; Jarvis, James L.; Gardner, Joan M.; Childers, Vicki A.; Ball, David C.; Brozena, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its geologic setting, Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial natural resources. Although valuable mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information about the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Owing to the current security situation and the large areas of the country that have not been evaluated by geophysical exploration methods, a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  11. Petroleum geology and resources of Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.; Clarke, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    Afghanistan consists largely of a series of continental fragments that, moving northward, docked and accreted to the southern proto-Asia continent. The tectonization of the accreted terranes is generally severe and prospects are limited essentially to the 48, 000 mi{sup 2} (124,000 km{sup 2}) North Afghanistan basin. This basin represents the Afghan portion of the Turanian platform, plus the orogenic belt around its southern and eastern perimeter. Exploration to date is judged to be preliminary in character, with some 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas and 80 million barrels of oil being discovered by 1980. There are two types of traps: Mesozoic low-amplitude drapes or tilted fault blocks, and Neogene high-amplitude folds. Appreciable reservoirs are limited to three horizons - Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene - of which the lower Cretaceous is considered to be the best. Source rock is confined largely to the Lower and Middle Jurassic shales. Upper Jurassic evaporites form a barrier between the Jurassic source shales and the Lower Cretaceous reservoirs and Neogene folds. There appear to be five principal plays, and estimated total recoverable petroleum in them is 300 million barrels of oil, 9.6 TCF of gas, and 145 million barrels of condensate. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Geologic and Topographic Maps of the Kabul North 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with two highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in GeoPDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts to rebuild

  13. A large-scale integrated aerogeophysical survey of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R. T.; Bowles, J. H.; Abraham, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    A multi-sensor, multidisciplinary aerogeophysical survey of a major portion of Afghanistan was recently conducted by investigators from the Naval Research Laboratory and the U.S. Geological Survey. More than 110,000 line km of data tracks were flown aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft. Sensor systems installed on the P-3 included dual gravimeters, scalar and vector magnetometers, a digital photogrammetric camera, a hyperspectral imager, and an L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Data from all sources were precisely co-registered to the ground by a combination of interferometric-mode Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurements. The data from this integrated mapping mission support numerous basic and applied science efforts in Afghanistan including: resource assessment and exploration for oil, gas, and minerals, development of techniques for sensor fusion and automated analysis, and topics in crustal geophysics and geodesy. The data will also support civil infrastructure needs such as cadastral surveying, urban planning and development, and pipeline/powerline/road routing and construction, agriculture and hydrologic resource management, earthquake hazard analysis, and base-maps for humanitarian relief missions.

  14. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  15. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Yount, James

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  16. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  17. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  18. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  19. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  20. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yount, James C.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  1. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jarm-Keshem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  2. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  3. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  4. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  5. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, David A.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  6. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  7. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Sawyer, David A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  8. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, Charles R.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  9. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  10. Large-Scale Digital Geologic Map Databases and Reports of the North Coal District in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hare, Trent M.; Davis, Philip A.; Nigh, Devon; Skinner, James A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Bolm, Karen S.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Galuszka, Donna; Stettner, William R.; Sultani, Shafiqullah; Nader, Billal

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the Afghanistan coal resource maps and associated databases that have been digitally captured and maps that have been thus far converted to GIS databases. Several maps by V/O Technoexport, USSR (VOTU) and Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung (BGR), Hannover, Germany, are captured here. Most of the historical coal exploration is concentrated in north-central Afghanistan, a region referred to as the 'North Coal District', and almost all of the coal-related maps found Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archives to date cover various locations within that district as shown in the index map. Most of the maps included herein were originally scanned during U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) site visits to Kabul in November 2004 and February 2006. The scanning was performed using equipment purchased by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) and installed at the AGS by USGS. Many of these maps and associated reports exist as single unpublished copies in the AGS archives, so these efforts served not only to provide a basis for digital capturing, but also as a means for preserving these rare geologic maps and reports. The data included herein represent most of the coal-related reports and maps that are available in the AGS archives. This report excludes the limited cases when a significant portion of a report's text could not be located, but it does not exclude reports with missing plates. The vector files are released using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Personal Geodatabase, ESRI shapefile vector format, and the open Geography Markup Language (GML) format. Scanned images are available in JPEG and, when rectified, GeoTIFF format. The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions made by the staff of the AGS Records and Coal Departments whose valuable assistance made it possible to locate and catalogue the data provided herein. We especially acknowledge the efforts of particular

  11. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  12. A summary of data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at Dasht-e-Nawar, Afghanistan, in support of lithium exploration, June-September 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillings, Lisa L.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Kalaly, Siddiq S.; Ahmadi, M. Idrees; Akbar, A. Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the data from the passive seismic survey suggests that the maximum sediment thickness in the northern lobe of the basin is 107 m, and in the southern lobe of the basin it is 173 m. Although the boreholes did not extend to the basin floor, the low Li concentration observed in pore waters does not suggest the presence of a viable Li brine resource at Dasht-e-Nawar.

  13. Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Ludington, Stephen; Orris, Greta J.; Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.; Rytuba, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines to assess the undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan between 2006 and 2007. This report presents the results of this work and contains chapters describing and assessing the mineral resources of Afghanistan. An accompanying Geographical Information System (GIS) is an accompanying disk that includes supporting data. Funding for this effort was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

  14. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3570, Tagab-E-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, Charles R.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  15. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3768 and 3668, Imam-Saheb (215), Rustaq (216), Baghlan (221), and Taloqan (222) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Chris J.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  16. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sang-Charak (501) and Sayghan-O-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  17. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3062 and 2962, Charburjak (609), Khanneshin (610), Gawdezereh (615), and Galachah (616) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  18. Factors influencing contraceptive use among women in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Osmani, Ahmad Kamran; Reyer, Joshua A.; Osmani, Ahmad Reshad; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increase in contraceptive use in Afghanistan has been frustratingly slow from 7.0% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2012. Data on contraceptive use and influencing factors were obtained from Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012, which had been collected through interview-led questionnaire from 13,654 current married women aged 12–49 years. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contraceptive use were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When adjusted for age, residence, region, education, media, and wealth index, significant OR was obtained for parity (OR of 6 or more children relative to 1 child was 3.45, and the 95%CI 2.54–4.69), number of living sons (OR of 5 or more sons relative to no son was 2.48, and the 95%CI 1.86–3.29), wealth index (OR of the richest households relative to the poorest households was 2.14, and the 95%CI 1.72–2.67), antenatal care attendance (OR relative to no attendance was 2.13, and the 95%CI 1.74–2.62), education (OR of secondary education or above relative to no education was 1.62, and the 95%CI 1.26–2.08), media exposure (OR of at least some exposure to electronic media relative to no exposure was 1.15, and the 95%CI 1.01–1.30), and child mortality experience (OR was 0.88, and the 95%CI 0.77–0.99), as well as age, residence (rural/urban), and region. This secondary analysis based on AHS 2012 showed the findings similar to those from the previous studies in other developing countries. Although the unique situation in Afghanistan should be considered to promote contraceptive use, the background may be common among the areas with low contraceptive use. PMID:26663934

  19. Geophysical and Geologic Training of the Afghan Geological Survey, May, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Bohannon, R.; Abraham, J.; Medlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Afghanistan lies within the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and consists of four primary tectonic units: (1) the North Afghan Platform, part of the greater Kazakhstan craton that includes Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; (2) the mountainous Hindu Kush-Pamirs in the northeast; (3) the transpressional plate boundary at the Chaman fault near the border with Pakistan; and (4) the southern accreted terranes located south of the east-west oriented Herat fault. The diverse geology of Afghanistan affords the country abundant natural resources, as well as many natural hazards. In order to assist in the identification of these resources and to map hazardous faults, a multi-agency consortium including the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry, the USGS and the US Navel Research Lab conducted a detailed airborne geophysical survey of the western half of Afghanistan during 2007. Over 110,000 km of data were collected, including aeromagnetic, gravity, hyperspectral imagery, synthetic aperture radar and photogrammetric data. These data provide remarkable images of the surficial and sub-surface structure of the country. Armed with these new, high quality data, USGS trainers conducted an in-depth training course at the offices of the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) during May, 2008. Eighty staff members of the AGS attended the four-day course which covered the following topics: (1) the geology and tectonics of Afghanistan; (2) a synthesis of modern plate tectonic processes; (3) use of geophysical and geological data to identify natural resources and hazardous faults. Particular emphasis was placed on oil and gas, mineral, coal and water resources. Earthquake and landslide hazards in Afghanistan were also discussed in detail. The building of scientific and technical capabilities at the AGS is a high priority because the development of their natural resources will have a positive impact on economic growth in Afghanistan. Future courses will benefit from hands-on training in methods of

  20. Digitized data from ground geophysical surveys in Afghanistan: A website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polster, Sarah W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the process of digitization of a 1974 report on geophysical work undertaken by Soviet geophysicists in southern and eastern Afghanistan. These data, uncovered in Afghanistan, represent magnetic and electrical ground surveys for which locations are not well defined. Due to lack of location information, these surveys were georeferenced using the cities, rivers, and surrounding geology found on the maps used to plot survey locations. A geologic map found in the Soviet report contains profile lines that correspond to the geophysical maps, allowing these data to be georeferenced. The profiles correspond to sets of resistivity, chargeabiliy, and magnetic data. Some datasets were presented as graphs and needed to be gridded into a useable image. Only the vertical component of the magnetic field was collected, so conversion to total field anomaly was necessary. The magnetic data were collected in either gammas or milliorstead, both of which required conversion to standard SI units. To be useful to modern studies, the datasets and images contained in this report have been digitized, georeferenced, and in some cases converted into computer-ready formats.

  1. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1983-05-01

    In this discussion of Afghanistan, attention focuses on: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Only recently has there been a population census in the country; consequently, there has been relatively little reliable demographic information available, especially in a historical context. Afghanistan's total population was officially estimated at nearly 16 million in late 1967. According to UN estimates, the population totaled 8.3 million in 1960 and increased to 9.8 and 12.3 million in the following 2 decades to over 14 million by 1975. The rate of population growth, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have increased from 1.6% during 1950-55 to 2.4% by the following decade, reaching 2.9% during 1970-75. The crude birthrate declined slightly from 50.4 births/1000 during 1950-55 to 49.2 during 1970-75. The crude death rate declined from 34.6/1000 to 23.4 deaths/1000 during the same period. Although the rate of population growth is considered to be fairly high, the government does not perceive this as presenting a population problem for the country as a whole since the overall population density is relatively low (approximately 20 persons per square kilometer). A national statistical information system has been developed in Afghanistan over the past decades. The government has no explicit population policy, and a clear association between population and development issues has not been expressed. Policies in the area of population distribution indicate the government's concern with settlement and resettlement of certain segments of the population in connection with the overall economic and social development of sparsely

  2. Factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Muhammad Shuaib; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Reyer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study, a secondary analysis of data from Afghanistan Health Survey 2012, aimed to identify factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. Subjects were 5,662 women aged 15–49 years who had had one delivery in the two years preceding the survey. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. The study found that 54.0% of mothers used antenatal care (ANC) at least one time, and 47.4% of births were assisted by skilled birth attendants (SBA). Adjusted OR of ANC use was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.08–3.60) for urban residency, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.26–2.27) for primary education relative to no education, 3.94 (95% CI, 3.51–4.42) for knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy, and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.47–2.15) for television and radio relative to no exposure. Adjusted OR of SBA utilization was 3.71 (95% CI, 2.65–5.18) for urban residency, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.91) for age <20 years relative to age 34–49 years, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.03–1.97) for secondary and higher education relative to no education, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.47–2.27) for para 1 relative to para ≥5, 6.66 (95% CI, 5.43–8.15) for ≥4 ANC visits relative to no visit, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21–1.57) for knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.38–1.90) for radio relative to no exposure, and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.25–3.27) for rich households relative to poor ones. Since women's education and knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy were significant factors of both ANC and SBA, educating women may be an effective step in promoting safe maternal health. PMID:26663938

  3. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  4. Airborne Hyperspectral Survey of Afghanistan 2007: Flight Line Planning and HyMap Data Collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, K. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired over Afghanistan with the HyMap imaging spectrometer (Cocks and others, 1998) operating on the WB-57 high altitude NASA research aircraft (http://jsc-aircraft-ops.jsc.nasa.gov/wb57/index.html). These data were acquired during the interval of August 22, 2007 to October 2, 2007, as part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) project 'Oil and Gas Resources Assessment of the Katawaz and Helmand Basins'. A total of 218 flight lines of hyperspectral remote sensing data were collected over the country. This report describes the planning of the airborne survey and the flight lines that were flown. Included with this report are digital files of the nadir tracks of the flight lines, including a map of the labeled flight lines and corresponding vector shape files for geographic information systems (GIS).

  5. Aeromagnetic Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and related data were digitized from 1976 magnetic field and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan. The magnetic field data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Magnetic Field of Afghanistan (Western Area) Delta-Ta Isolines,' compiled by V. A. Cnjagev and A. F. Bukhmastov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  6. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  7. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3764 and 3664, Jalajin (117), Kham-Ab (118), Char Shangho (123), and Sheberghan (124) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  8. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3260 and 3160, Dasht-E-Chahe-Mazar (419), Anardara (420), Asparan (601), and Kang (602) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Van S.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  9. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.; Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  10. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-I-Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  11. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3368 and Part of Quadrangle 3370, Ghazni (515), Gardez (516), and Part of Jaji-Maydan (517) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  12. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3870 and 3770, Maymayk (211), Jamarj-I-Bala (212), Faydz-Abad (217), and Parkhaw (218) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  13. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3168 and 3268, Yahya-Wona (703), Wersek (704), Khayr-Kot (521), and Urgon (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  14. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3460 and 3360, Kol-I-Namaksar (407), Ghuryan (408), Kawir-I-Naizar (413), and Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Van S.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  15. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3470 and the Northern Edge of Quadrangle 3370, Jalal-Abad (511), Chaghasaray (512), and Northernmost Jaji-Maydan (517) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  16. Radiometric Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric (uranium content, thorium content, potassium content, and gamma-ray intensity) and related data were digitized from radiometric and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan published in 1976. The uranium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Uranium (Radium) Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The thorium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Thorium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The potassium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Potassium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The gamma-ray intensity data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Gamma-Field of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  17. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, “Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring

  18. Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan, Version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an accompanying database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. Included is an accompanying Microsoft? Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan's energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards, currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,462) and unpublished (n = 174) references compiled through September, 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable, interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft? Access is required.

  19. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  20. U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) at Stennis Space Center is a unique high-tech facility that provides hydrologic instrumentation support to the U. S. Geological Survey and other federal agencies worldwide. The HIF has the responsibility for warehousing, testing, evaluating, designing, repairing, and calibrating numerous pieces of hydrologic instrumentation, which is used in studying water on the surface, in the soil, and in the atmosphere of the Earth.

  1. Aeromagnetic and Gravity Surveys in Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data were digitized from aeromagnetic maps created from aeromagnetic surveys flown in southeastern and southern Afghanistan in 1966 by PRAKLA, Gesellschaft fur praktische Lagerstattenforschung GmbH, Hannover, Germany, on behalf of the 'Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung', Hannover, Germany. The digitization was done along contour lines, followed by interpolation of the data along the original survey flight-lines. Survey and map specifications can be found in two project reports, 'prakla_report_1967.pdf' and 'bgr_report_1968.pdf', made available in this open-file report.

  2. Minnesota Geological Survey may close

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The future of the Minnesota Geological Survey is up in the air until January 1992, when the state legislature reconvenes. On June 4, Governor Arne H. Carlson vetoed a line-item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that contains funding for the MGS. If funds are not restored by special legislative appropriation and approved by the governor during the spring of 1992, MGS will be abolished effective July 1992.The possibility of closing the survey reflects a financial decision, according to Robert A. Schroeder, assistant to the governor. It is not based on the usefulness of the survey's work. “The governor's objective with his line-item vetoes was to control overall spending, not to target specific programs,” he said. Since MGS is university-affiliated, it is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency. Because of overspending in 1991, the state has had to cut back funds, and the university is one area hit by budget cuts. The university may still choose to fund the program and has the flexibility to reallocate funds within the system.

  3. Geologic map of the Shaida deposit and Misgaran prospect, Herat Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1973 original map compilation of V.I. Tarasenko and others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map and map of useful minerals, Shaida area, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by V.I. Tarasenko, N.I. Borozenets, and others in 1973. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in August 2010. This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the Shaida copper-lead-zinc deposit and Misgaran copper-lead-zinc prospect in western Afghanistan and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of these documents and on observations made during our field visit. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and might not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  4. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3560, 3562, and 3662, Sir Band (402), Khawja-Jir (403), Bala-Murghab (404), and Darah-I-Shor-I-Karamandi (122) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Lidke, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  5. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3772, 3774, 3672, and 3674, Gaz-Khan (313), Sarhad (314), Kol-I-Chaqmaqtin (315), Khandud (319), Deh-Ghulaman (320), and Ertfah (321) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  6. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3064, 3066, 2964, and 2966, Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), Sreh-Chena (707), Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), and Samandkhan-Karez (713) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.; Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  7. Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1966-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh annual review of the econamic and scientific work of the U.S. Geological Survey. As in previous years the purpose of the volume is to make available promptly to the public the highlights of Survey investigations. This year the volume consists of 4 chapters (A through D) of Professional Paper 550. Chapter A contains a summary of significant results, and the remaining chapters are made up of collections of short technical papers. Many of the results summarized in chapter A are discussed in greater detail in the short papers or in reports listed in 'Publications in Fiscal Year 1966,' beginning on page A265. The tables of contents for chapters B through D are listed on pages A259-A264. Numerous Federal, State, county, and municipal agencies listed on pages A211-A215 cooperated financially with the Geological Survey during fiscal 1966 and have contributed significantly to the results reported here. They are identified where appropriate in the short technical papers that have appeared in Geological Survey Research and in papers published cooperatively, but generally are not identified in the brief statements in chapter A. Many individuals on the staff of the Geological Survey have contributed to 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' Reference is made to only a few. Frank W. Trainer, Water Resources Division, was responsible for organizing and assembling chapter A and for critical review of papers in chapters B-D, assisted by Louis Pavlides, Geologic Division. Marston S. Chase, Publications Division, was in charge of production aspects of the series, assisted by Jesse R. Upperco in technical editing, and William H. Elliott and James R. Hamilton in planning and preparing illustrations. The volume for next year, 'Geological Survey Research 1967,' will be published as chapters af Professional Paper 5715. Previous volumes are listed below, with their series designations. Gealagical Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Gealagical

  8. Spotlight: Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Felt, J C

    1988-05-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country approximately the size of Texas with an estimated population of 14.5 million. The fertility level (6.7 children per women) is estimated to be very high, as is the mortality rate (183 infant deaths/1,000 live births). Demographic data sources are scarce, and current estimates are based on a 1972-1974 series of surveys and a 1979 census which enumerated only 55-60% of the population. The government of Afghanistan, a Marxist state, has asked for international aid to improve data collection and analysis. Compounding the problems of accurate data collection is the state of civil war that has existed in Afghanistan since the Marxist coup in in 1978 and Soviet occupation in 1979. The war impelled the emigration of 5 million refugees, who live in camps in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. Although the population decline that resulted from this emigration is significant, the repatriation of the refugees will play a role in determining the population dynamics for the next decade, as will the withdrawal of Soviet troops -- expected in 1990. Because of Afghanistan's central-Asia location, there is a unique ethnic and linguistic mixture of tribes. The largest group is the Pushtus, who make up 40% of the population. Afghan Persian and Pushtu are the dominant languages, and 98% of all Afghans are Moslem. The economy is largely agricultural and half the cultivated land must be irrigated. 85% of the population live in rural areas and another 2.5 million are nomads. The low status of women and female children, low levels of health care, and high fertility contribute to the lower life expectancy of females over males. Although the government supports contraceptive services, such services are inadequate, and sterilization is illegal. The withdrawal of Soviet troops and the possible end to civil war between the Kabul government and the rebel factions, and the effects of repatriation of refugees will determine the direction of Afghanistan's future

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, C.J.; Kosti, Amir Zada; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Omari, Mohammad Karim; Muty, Salam Abdul; Nakshband, Haidari Gulam; Hosine, Abdul Aminulah; Wahab, Abdul; Hamidi, Abdul Wasy; Ahmadi, Nasim; Agena, Warren F.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Drenth, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey--Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit (AU) (80230101).

  10. US Geological Survey customers speak out

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, S.; Snyder, G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides results of a customer survey carried out in 1994 by the US Geological Survey. Uses of cartographic products are classified, as are application areas, accuracy satisfaction, media, Digital Line Graph requirements in update, and frequency of product use. USGS responses and plans for the future are noted. -M.Blakemore

  11. Afghanistan Glacier Diminution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of melt water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with glacierized drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped glacier regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for glacier-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that glaciers, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many glaciers declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock glaciers, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of glacier location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest glaciers occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 glaciers from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 glacier-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated glacier forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent glacier-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and glacier retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary

  12. Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    This report is USGS Afghanistan Project No. 155. This study was funded by an Interagency Agreement between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Geological Survey. Afghanistan is located in the geologically active part of the world where the northward-moving Indian plate is colliding with the southern part of the Eurasian plate at a rate of about 1.7 inches per year. This collision has created the world's highest mountains and causes slips on major faults that generate large, often devastating earthquakes. Every few years a powerful earthquake causes significant damage or fatalities. New construction needs to be designed to accommodate the hazards posed by strong earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a preliminary seismic-hazard map of Afghanistan. Although the map is generalized, it provides government officials, engineers, and private companies who are interested in participating in Afghanistan's growth with crucial information about the location and nature of seismic hazards.

  13. The United States Geological Survey Library System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library, established in 1882, is one of the largest earth science libraries in the world. The Library System consists of the headquarters library in Reston, Virginia, and three branch libraries in Denver, Colorado; Flagstaff, Arizona; and Menlo Park, California

  14. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  15. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  16. U. S. Geological Survey programs in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

     The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has served as the Nation’s principal collector, repository, and interpreter of earth science data for more than a century. In this capacity, the USGS in Wisconsin works in partnership with State, county, municipal public works departments, public health agencies, water and sanitation districts, Indian agencies, and other Federal agencies. This Fact Sheet describes some of the current USGS activities in Wisconsin. 

  17. Petroleum geology and resources of the Amu-Darya basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2004-01-01

    The Amu-Darya basin is a highly productive petroleum province in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (former Soviet Union), extending southwestward into Iran and southeastward into Afghanistan. The basin underlies deserts and semideserts north of the high ridges of the Kopet-Dag and Bande-Turkestan Mountains. On the northwest, the basin boundary crosses the crest of the Karakum regional structural high, and on the north the basin is bounded by the shallow basement of the Kyzylkum high. On the east, the Amu-Darya basin is separated by the buried southeast spur of the Gissar Range from the Afghan-Tajik basin, which is deformed into a series of north-south-trending synclinoria and anticlinoria. The separation of the two basins occurred during the Neogene Alpine orogeny; earlier, they were parts of a single sedimentary province. The basement of the Amu-Darya basin is a Hercynian accreted terrane composed of deformed and commonly metamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. These rocks are overlain by rift grabens filled with Upper Permian-Triassic rocks that are strongly compacted and diagenetically altered. This taphrogenic sequence, also considered to be a part of the economic basement, is overlain by thick Lower to Middle Jurassic, largely continental, coal-bearing rocks. The overlying Callovian-Oxfordian rocks are primarily carbonates. A deep-water basin surrounded by shallow shelves with reefs along their margins was formed during this time and reached its maximum topographic expression in the late Oxfordian. In Kimmeridgian-Tithonian time, the basin was filled with thick evaporites of the Gaurdak Formation. The Cretaceous-Paleogene sequence is composed chiefly of marine clastic rocks with carbonate intervals prominent in the Valanginian, Barremian, Maastrichtian, and Paleocene stratigraphic units. In Neogene time, the Alpine orogeny on the basin periphery resulted in deposition of continental clastics, initiation of new and rejuvenation of old faults, and formation of most structural

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    As the nation's largest water, earth and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial, scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every state by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy and mineral resources.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2,000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every State by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the Nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy, and mineral resources

  20. Groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taher, Mohammad R.; Chornack, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan Geological Survey, with technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey, established a network of wells to measure and monitor groundwater levels to assess seasonal, areal, and potentially climatic variations in groundwater characteristics in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, the most populous region in the country. Groundwater levels were monitored in 71 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting as early as July 2004 and continuing to the present (2013). The monitoring network is made up exclusively of existing production wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Seventy wells are in unconsolidated sediments, and one well is in bedrock. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, using electric tape water-level meters. Water levels in well 64 on the grounds of the Afghanistan Geological Survey building were measured more frequently. This report provides a 10-year compilation of groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin prepared in cooperation with the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Depths to water below land surface range from a minimum of 1.47 meters (m) in the Shomali subbasin to a maximum of 73.34 m in the Central Kabul subbasin. The Logar subbasin had the smallest range in depth to water below land surface (1.5 to 12.4 m), whereas the Central Kabul subbasin had the largest range (2.64 to 73.34 m). Seasonal water-level fluctuations can be estimated from the hydrographs in this report for wells that have depth-to-water measurements collected under static conditions. The seasonal water-level fluctuations range from less than 1 m to a little more than 7 m during the monitoring period. In general, the hydrographs for the Deh Sabz, Logar, Paghman and Upper Kabul, and Shomali subbasins show relatively little change in the water-level trend during the period of record, whereas hydrographs for the Central Kabul subbasin show water level decreases of several meters to about 25 m.

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2012-08-01

    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  2. State geological surveys: Their growing national role in policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhard, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    State geological surveys vary in organizational structure, but are political powers in the field of geology by virtue of their intimate knowledge of and involvement in legislative and political processes. Origins of state geological surveys lie in the recognition of society that settlement and prosperity depended on access to a variety of natural resources, resources that are most familiar to geologists. As the surveys adapt to modern societal pressures, making geology serve the public has become the new mission for many state geological surveys. Geologic mapping was the foundation of most early surveys, and the state surveys have brought mapping back into the public realm to meet today's challenges of growing population density, living environment desires, and resource access.

  3. A Population Survey of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) 563C>T (Mediterranean) Mutation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Jamornthanyawat, Natsuda; Awab, Ghulam R.; Tanomsing, Naowarat; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Yamin, Fazel; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Woodrow, Charles J.; Imwong, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common inherited enzyme defect and an important problem in areas with Plasmodium vivax infection because of the risk of haemolysis following administration of primaquine to treat the liver forms of the parasite. We undertook a genotypic survey of 713 male individuals across nine provinces of Afghanistan in which malaria is found, four in the north and five in the east. RFLP typing at nucleotide position 563 detected 40 individuals with the Mediterranean mutation 563C>T, an overall prevalence of 5.6%. This varied according to self-reported ethnicity, with prevalence in the Pashtun/Pashai group of 33/369 (8.9%) compared to 7/344 individuals in the rest of the population (2.0%; p<0.001, Chi-squared test). Multivariate analysis of ethnicity and geographical location indicated an adjusted odds ratio of 3.50 (95% CI 1.36–9.02) for the Pashtun/Pashai group, while location showed only a trend towards higher prevalence in eastern provinces (adjusted odds ratio = 1.73, 0.73–4.13). Testing of known polymorphic markers (1311C>T in exon 11, and C93T in intron XI) in a subset of 82 individuals wild-type at C563 revealed a mixture of 3 haplotypes in the background population and was consistent with data from the 1000 Genomes Project and published studies. By comparison individuals with G6PD deficiency showed a highly skewed haplotype distribution, with 95% showing the CT haplotype, a finding consistent with relatively recent appearance and positive selection of the Mediterranean variant in Afghanistan. Overall, the data confirm that the Mediterranean variant of G6PD is common in many ethnic groups in Afghanistan, indicating that screening for G6PD deficiency is required in all individuals before radical treatment of P. vivax with primaquine. PMID:24586352

  4. United States Geological Survey, programs in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Meteorologic and physiographic factors in parts of Texas combine to produce some of the most intense rainstorms in the Nation; these rainstorms cause severe, destructive floods somewhere in the State almost every year. A recent example is the catastrophic flooding in the Houston area in October 1994 that resulted in at least 22 deaths, hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage, and substantial environmental damage. When flooding is imminent, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mobilizes field crews that work around the clock making direct measurements of streamflow and water-surface elevations. The data collected by USGS personnel are provided continuously to the National Weather Service and the Federal Emergency Management Agency among others. The data collected during a series of floods provide a chronology of historical peak streamflows and water-surface elevations that aid in flood forecasting and the design of structures to convey or withstand flood waters.

  5. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M.

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  7. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  8. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  9. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  10. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  11. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  12. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.; Gough, Larry P.

    2000-01-01

    This annual compilation of geologically related papers, all dealing with studies in Alaska, contains 16 reports divided among four topics: geologic framework, environment and climate, resources, and bibliographies. These topics reflect the scope and objectives of some currently active U.S. Geological Survey programs and projects from all parts of the State of Alaska. Studies include results from the natural, chemical, and physical Earth sciences and are of interest to academia, government, industry, and the general public.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey technology transfer opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is interested in entering into a partnership with private industry for commercialization of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)-Common Software Platform (CSP) software.

  14. Selection of colors and patterns for geologic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) color and pattern standards and conventions for geologic maps have evolved since the USGS published its first set of standards in 1881. Since that time, USGS personnel have continuously updated and revised the standards in response to the need to show increasingly complex geologic map data and in response to changing technology. The color and pattern standards and conventions contained in this book enable geologists, cartographers, and editors to produce geologic maps that have consistent geologic-age color schemes and patterns. Such consistency enables geologists and other users of geologic maps to obtain a wealth of geologic information at a glance and to produce maps that can easily be used and compared to other published maps that follow the color and pattern standards and conventions.

  15. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    This volume of the U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook is special, the first we have ever dedicated to an individual.  While we were preparing that repost, Vincent E. McKelvey, eminent scientist and former Director of the Geological Survey died.  Because of his deep devotion not only to his science but also to the agency and to the public that he served, we dedicate the 1986 Yearbook to Vince's memory.

  16. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  17. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  18. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  19. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, Hakim; Azizi, Masood; Mogren, Saad

    2016-08-01

    This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.

  20. Geological Survey data as a support for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matthew; Bogaard, Paul; Pedersen, Mikael

    2015-04-01

    The National Geological Surveys of Europe have through many years collaborated on making their large possessions of geological data available for researchers, the general public and decision makers at all levels. Numerous projects have been carried out with the aim of harmonizing data across national boundaries and making data interoperable by delivering them according to international standards like those defined by INSPIRE, OGC, CGI and others. In 2012 - 2014 an EU co-funded study was carried out with the title of EGDI-Scope. The study showed how an integrated European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) can be established so that all sorts of geological data form the Geological Surveys can be accessed in a common way by the relevant stakeholders. The establishment of such an EGDI is a cornerstone of the strategy of the organization of the Geological Surveys of Europe, EuroGeoSurveys, and the organization has decided to start implementing the infrastructure and establishing an organization which will ensure that this will be sustained. One of the most obvious user groups for the geological information is EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, which will be implemented in the coming years. The EPOS implementation project therefore contains a specific workpackage to establish the connection between the Geological Survey data and the rest of EPOS. A Thematic Core Service (TCS) for geological data and modeling will be built for making the data available for the Integrated Core Services of EPOS. The TCS will deal with borehole data, digital geological maps, geophysical data like seismics and borehole logs, archived physical geological material like samples and cores, geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soil and minerals as well as with 3D and 4D geological models of the subsurface. Great emphasis will be put on making the system sustainable and with easy access and the idea is also to further develop and promote the international standards for data exchange

  1. Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John; Wynn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study to identify the potential for phosphate deposits in Afghanistan. As part of this study, a geographic information system was constructed containing a database of phosphate occurrences in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, and a database of potential host lithologies compiled from 1:1,000,000 scale maps. Within Afghanistan, a handful of known occurrences and reports indicate the presence of phosphate in Permian, Cretaceous, and Paleogene sediments and in carbonatite. With the exception of the Khanneshin carbonatite, very little is known about these occurrences. In the countries surrounding Afghanistan, economic phosphate is known to occur in Cambrian, Devonian, and Paleogene sediments and in Kiruna-type Fe-apatite deposits. Many of the host units may extend into Afghanistan or equivalent units may be present. Although the possibility of economic phosphate deposits exist for Afghanistan, the need for detailed exploration for phosphate, the remoteness of some locations, and the probability that a deposit would not be exposed at the surface mean that one or more deposits are not likely to be identified in the near future. Even if a phosphate-bearing deposit is identified in Afghanistan, it is not clear if the probable size, thickness, and grade ranges would allow economic development of the hypothesized resource.

  2. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  3. USGS Training in Afghanistan: Modern Earthquake Hazards Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlin, J. D.; Garthwaite, M.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.; Bergen, K.; Vincent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can present a significant hazard, not only from strong ground shaking, but also from liquefaction and extensive land sliding. The magnitude 6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghanistan to such hazards, and resulted in over 1000 fatalities. The USGS has provided the first of a series of Earth Science training courses to the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS). This course was concerned with modern earthquake hazard assessments, and is an integral part of a larger USGS effort to provide a comprehensive seismic-hazard assessment for Afghanistan. Funding for these courses is provided by the US Agency for International Development Afghanistan Reconstruction Program. The particular focus of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 in Kabul, was on providing a background in the seismological and geological methods relevant to preparing for future earthquakes. Topics included identifying active faults, modern tectonic theory, geotechnical measurements of near-surface materials, and strong-motion seismology. With this background, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the community and be actively involved in earthquake hazard assessments themselves. The December, 2006, training course was taught by four lecturers, with all lectures and slides being presented in English and translated into Dari. Copies of the lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. Class participants included many of the section leaders from within the AGS who have backgrounds in geology, geophysics, and engineering. Two additional training sessions are planned for 2007, the first entitled "Modern Concepts in Geology and Mineral Resource Assessments," and the second entitled "Applied Geophysics for Mineral Resource Assessments."

  4. U.S. Geological Survey activities, fiscal year 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Activities report for fiscal year 1981 presents a summary of the work performed between October 1, 1980 and September 30, 1981. The main sections of this report are: (1) The Year in Review; a brief overview of the significant events of the Geological Survey during fiscal year 1980; (2) Perspectives; essays focusing on specific events (rather than scientific topics) and programs involving multi-Division participation; (3) Missions, Organization, and Budget; a description of the Geological Survey 's major duties and assignments and of the organizational structure that supports its missions; and (4) Division Chapters; a description of the significant accomplishments (rather than a comprehensive program by program discussion) of each of the eight operating Divisions and Offices. Also included are supplementary information regarding key personnel, cooperators, and selected summary budgetary tables. (USGS)

  5. New activities at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent E.

    1974-01-01

    As the Nation's principal source of information about the configuration of the land surface, the composition and structure of the rocks at and beneath the surface, the distribution and character of its energy, mineral, and water resources, and the nature of natural geologic processes, the U. S. Geological Survey focuses its work on some of the Nation's most critical problems. As the Survey tackles new problems with new techniques, it is fully aware of the resource needs and environmental pressures of an expanding economy and growing population.

  6. The new camera calibration system at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Modern computerized photogrammetric instruments are capable of utilizing both radial and decentering camera calibration parameters which can increase plotting accuracy over that of older analog instrumentation technology from previous decades. Also, recent design improvements in aerial cameras have minimized distortions and increased the resolving power of camera systems, which should improve the performance of the overall photogrammetric process. In concert with these improvements, the Geological Survey has adopted the rigorous mathematical model for camera calibration developed by Duane Brown. An explanation of the Geological Survey's calibration facility and the additional calibration parameters now being provided in the USGS calibration certificate are reviewed. -Author

  7. Records and history of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Clifford M.

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains two presentations in Portable Document Format (PDF). The first is Renee M. Jaussaud's inventory of the documents accessioned by the end of 1997 into Record Group 57 (Geological Survey) at the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) Archives II facility in College Park, Md., but not the materials in NARA's regional archives. The second is Mary C. Rabbitt's 'The United States Geological Survey 1879-1989,' which appeared in 1989 as USGS Circular 1050. Additionally, USGS Circular 1050 is also presented in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey silicate rock standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has processed six silicate rocks to provide new reference samples to supplement G-1 and W-1. Complete conventional, rapid rock, and spectrochemical analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey are reported for a granite (replacement for G-1), a granodiorite, an andesite, a peridotite, a dunite, and a basalt. Analyses of variance for nickel, chromium, copper, and zirconium in each rock sample showed that for these elements, the rocks can be considered homogeneous. Spectrochemical estimates are given for the nickel, chromium, copper, and zirconium contents of the samples. The petrography of five of the six rocks is described and CIPW norms are presented. ?? 1967.

  9. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  10. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  11. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  12. The British Geological Survey and the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chesher, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The British Geological Survey is the UK`s national centre for earth science information with a parallel remit to operate internationally. The Survey`s work covers the full geoscience spectrum in energy, mineral and groundwater resources and associated implications for land use, geological hazards and environmental impact. Much of the work is conducted in collaboration with industry and academia, including joint funding opportunities. Activities relating directly to hydrocarbons include basin analysis, offshore geoscience mapping, hazard assessment, fracture characterization, biostratigraphy, sedimentology, seismology, geomagnetism and frontier data acquisition techniques, offshore. The BGS poster presentation illustrates the value of the collaborative approach through consortia support for regional offshore surveys, geotechnical hazard assessments and state-of-the-art R & D into multicomponent seismic imaging techniques, among others.

  13. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey began a program to map the State geologically at a scale of 1:24,000 and to publish the maps as 707 U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Maps. Fieldwork was completed by the spring of 1977, and all maps were published by December 1978. Geologic mapping of the State was proposed by the Kentucky Society of Professional Engineers in 1959. Wallace W. Hagan, Director and State Geologist of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and Preston McGrain, Assistant State Geologist, promoted support for the proposal among organizations such as Chambers of Commerce, industrial associations, professional societies, and among members of the State government. It was also arranged for the U.S. Geological Survey to supply mapping personnel and to publish the maps; the cost would be shared equally by the two organizations. Members of the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to the program were organized as the Branch of Kentucky Geology. Branch headquarters, including an editorial staff, was at Lexington, Ky., but actual mapping was conducted from 18 field offices distributed throughout the State. The Publications Division of the U.S. Geological Survey established a cartographic office at Lexington to prepare the maps for publication. About 260 people, including more than 200 professionals, were assigned to the Branch of Kentucky Geology by the U.S. Geological Survey at one time or another. The most geologists assigned any one year was 61. To complete the mapping and ancillary studies, 661 professional man-years were required, compared with an original estimate of 600 man-years. A wide variety of field methods were used, but most geologists relied on the surveying altimeter to obtain elevations. Surface data were supplemented by drill-hole records, and several dozen shallow diamond-drill holes were drilled to aid the mapping. Geologists generally scribed their own maps, with a consequent saving of publication costs

  14. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    It is not very often that a single event is so overwhelming that it changes public perceptions of natural hazards for generations. Perhaps for the U.S. Geological Survey, the explosive volcanic activity of Mount St. Helens began such a change. After 101 years of careful science of the Earth's past and meticulous observations and assessments of the present, predictive earth science was in full public view. However vague and faint the glimpse of the future made possible by earth science, it was enough. Warnings were issued, thousands of lives were saved, and the age of real-time geology began. The Survey's basic mission has not changed, but the power of our analytical tools has increased by several orders of magnitude. The Survey's efforts to understand Earth processes and hydrologic principles continued with the collection, during fiscal year 1980, of valuable new data on the geologic origin and framework, seismicity, and mineral and energy resources of the United States. The Survey is also responsible for classification of the leasable minerals on Federal lands and the regulation of mineral exploration and development activities on Federal and Indian lands. As the principal earth science fact-gathering agency, the Survey provides information for sound decisionmaking by government and private industry. Industry uses the Survey's information in exploring for energy and minerals and improving their efforts to make development of energy and minerals compatible with environmental protection standards. Government uses the Survey's information in conducting leasing operations on public lands, in regulating the safe design and siting of nuclear plants, and in establishing guidelines for determining and locating areas that are subject to geologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and provides an overview of future directions. Many of the topics

  15. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    Fiscal year 1978 saw the U.S. Geological Survey continuing to perform its basic historical missions of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information about the Earth, its processes, and its water and mineral resources. Classifying Federal lands and supervising lessee mineral extraction operations on those lands were also major Survey concerns during the year. In addition, substantial progress was made in the exploration and assessment of the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, a recently assigned mission. These basic missions found expression in a wide range of program activities and interests as diverse as the sands of Mars and the volcanoes of Hawaii. Programs included assessment of numerous potential energy and mineral resources, study of earthquakes and other geologic hazards, appraisal of the magnitude and quality of the Nation's water resources, and supervision of lease operations on Federal lands. The Survey also was involved in developing data on land use and producing topographic, geologic, and hydrologic maps for public and private use. In cooperation with other Federal agencies, the Survey participated in studies under the U.S. Climate Program and continued its analysis of data received from the two Viking landers on the surface of Mars. On April 3, 1978, Dr. H. William Menard became the 10th Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. Menard, who, until his appointment, was Professor of Geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., brings to the Director's post the experience gained in a long and successful career as a marine geologist and oceanographer. He succeeds Dr. Vincent E. McKelvey, who continues with the Survey as a senior research scientist.

  16. Abbreviations used in publications of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1953-01-01

    The use of abbreviations in publications of the Geological Survey is determined by several forces working in different directions. Pulling in the direction of greater condensation and the freer use of abbreviations and symbols is the desire to achieve greater economy in publications. Working in the opposite direction is the desire to have the publications used more conveniently by an increasingly heterogeneous public.

  17. USSR and Afghanistan mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shroder, J.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Afghanistan is a geological complex in which plentiful minerals and fuels were formed. Western geologists explored that country during the last 100 years and produced many reports and maps. Real progress in a systematic analysis, however, was not made until the intensive efforts of the Soviet Union during the past two decades. By diplomatic and economic maneuvers, the Soviets took control of Afghanistan's nascent hydrocarbon indusry during the 1960s. Following the 1973 coup, the Soviets and Afghan supporters replaced pro-Western technical advisors and hampered Western-linked development. Intensive field investgations led to the discovery of hundreds of mineral deposits and several good petroleum prospects. The current Russian military occupation is partially subsidized with Afghanistan resources. 83 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Maps out, models in at the British Geological Survey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; Kessler, Holger

    2013-04-01

    BGS has stopped its' systematic onshore geological surveying programme and the litho-printing of geological maps will cease after a final batch of completed maps are published. In future BGS will undertake integrated mapping and 3D modelling in user defined target areas considering all our available geospatial data (map, boreholes, geophysics etc) assessed in a single 3D workspace. The output will be 3D geological framework models that capture the understanding and interpretation of the survey geologist and honour all available data at the time. As well as building new models in these strategic areas, BGS is collating all existing models assembled over the last 25 years into a common framework to produce a multi-scaled National Geological Model of Britain. comprising crustal, bedrock and quaternary and anthropocene themes (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/UKGeology/nationalgeologicalmodel/home.html). Different to the traditional geological map, the national model will not be completed at any specific scale, but at every point in the model there may be a different geological resolution available, depending on the purpose mof the original model or the strategic national need for subsurface information. The need for a complete and robust nested stratigraphic framework (BGS Lexicon) is becoming more important as we advance this model. Archive copies of all legacy models will be approved and stored in their native formats. In addition a newly designed Geological Object Store will hold geological objects such as coverages, surfaces and cross-sections from these models inside a relational database to ensure versioning and long-term security of the National Geological Model. In the mid-term these models will be attributed with physical properties such as porosity and density and form inputs to process models such as groundwater and landslide models to help predict and simulate environmental change. A key challenge for geologists and their systems building the geological

  19. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LAND REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Doyle G.

    1983-01-01

    USGS uses all types of remotely sensed data, in combination with other sources of data, to support geologic analyses, hydrologic assessments, land cover mapping, image mapping, and applications research. Survey scientists use all types of remotely sensed data with ground verifications and digital topographic and cartographic data. A considerable amount of research is being done by Survey scientists on developing automated geographic information systems that can handle a wide variety of digital data. The Survey is also investigating the use of microprocessor computer systems for accessing, displaying, and analyzing digital data.

  20. The National Center of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1974-01-01

    In August of 1973, the U. S. Geological Survey moved its first group of employees into the John Wesley Powell Federal Building of its newly constructed National Center at Reston, Virginia. The move signaled the fruition of more than a decade of planning and work to consolidate the agency's widespread activities into one location which could truly serve as a National Center. The Survey's leadership in the natural resources field has been materially strengthened through the availability of the Center's outstanding research and engineering facilities. Also the Center affords important professional and administrative advantages by bringing together the 2,200 Survey employees in the Washington, D.C, metropolitan area.

  1. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  2. Geologic map of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1976 original map compilation of V.G. Cheremytsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Renaud, Karine M.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Packard, Patricia H.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of the Geological map of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, scale 1:10,000, which was compiled by V.G. Cheremytsin in 1976. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original map and also visited the field area in September 2009, August 2010, and February 2011. This modified map, which includes cross sections, illustrates the geologic structure of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of that map and a related report, and based on observations made during our field visits. (Refer to the References section in the Map PDF for complete citations of the original map and related report.) Elevations on the cross section are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  3. Modern Earthquake Hazard Assessments in Afghanistan: A USGS Training Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthwaite, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Medlin, J.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region at the western extent of the Indo-Asian collision zone, where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can cause damage, not only from strong ground shaking and surface rupture, but also from liquefaction and extensive landsliding. The M=6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghan communities to such hazards, and resulted in at least 1000 fatalities. This training course in modern earthquake hazard assessments is an integral part of the international effort to provide technical assistance to Afghanistan using an "end-to-end" approach. This approach involves providing assistance in all stages of hazard assessment, from identifying earthquakes, to disseminating information on mitigation strategies to the public. The purpose of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 at the Afghan Geological Survey in Kabul, was to provide a solid background in the relevant seismological and geological methods for preparing for future earthquakes. With this information, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the Afghan community. In addition, they are better prepared to conduct earthquake hazard assessments and to build the capabilities of the Afghan Geological Survey. The training course was taught using a series of Power Point lectures, with all lectures being presented in English and translated into Dari, one of the two main languages of Afghanistan. The majority of lecture slides were also annotated in both English and Dari. Lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. As part of the on-going USGS participation in the program, additional training sessions are planned in the subjects of field geology, modern concepts in Earth science, mineral resource assessments and applied geophysics.

  4. Short papers in geology, hydrology, and topography; Articles 1-59: Geological Survey Research 1962

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1962-01-01

    This collection of 59 short papers on subjects in the fields of geology, hydrology, topography, and related sciences is one of a, series to be relea~ed during the year as chapters of Professional Paper 450. The papers in this chapter report on the scientific and economic· results of current work by members of the Geologic, Topographic, and 'Vater Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Some of the pa.pers annom1ce new discoveries or present observations on problems of limited scope; other papers draw conclusions from more extensive or continuing investigations that in large part will be discussed in greater detail in reports to be published in the future.

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 1979 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  6. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.; Williams, John R.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartog-raphy. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Business Partner Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Business Partner Program is composed of a network of private sector organizations that distribute U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) products. By engaging the private sector, State and local government, and academic and nonprofit organizations in product dissemination, the USGS expects to increase the availability of its products to end users, locate customer service closer to the user, and provide cost savings to the Federal Government.

  13. Michael Tuomey's 1848 geological survey of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Michael Tuomey completed his 'Report on the Geology of South Carolina,' the result of four years of arduous labor. The report is the first detailed and comprehensive geological description of the entire state, and it includes a geological map that shows the distribution of Coastal Plain and Piedmont-Blue Ridge units. In the sesquicentennial of Tuomey's survey, it is fitting that we recognize his important early contribution to the geology of South Carolina and the southeast. Tuomey's report is a 293-page volume with a 48-page appendix and an index. Although he gave a complete depiction of Coastal Plain geology and delineated Cretaceous, Lower Eocene, Eocene, Miocene, Post-Pliocene, and alluvial units on his map, the emphasis herein is on his mapping of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge. The metamorphic units he delineated are clay slate, mica slate, talcose slate, hornblende slate, gneiss, and lime rock. Gneiss is the most extensive unit on the map. His map shows many elements of the geologic framework we recognize today. The distribution of his clay slate unit corresponds closely with the Carolina slate and Bel Air belts as we know them now. The gneiss between the two clay slate areas matches the Kiokee belt. Areas of mica slate approximate the northern part of the Kings Mountain belt and the Chauga belt. He also recognized that his talcose slate unit was associated with gold deposits. Granitic and basaltic intrusive rocks are also delineated on the map. It shows the Newberry, Columbia, and Liberty Hill granites we recognize today. Basaltic intrusives outlined include the Bush River of western Newberry County, Dutchmans Creek, Big Wateree Creek, and Ogden gabbros. He described the regional extent of diabase dikes as occuring from Virginia to Alabama, noted their preferred direction and diagrammed their near-vertical orientation. He also referred to the distinctive soil and topography that develops on the large gabbros. Michael Tuomey

  14. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

  15. The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1989-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, just a few hours before the mandatory close of the final session of the 45th Congress, when President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the bill appropriating money for sundry civil expenses of the Federal Government for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1879. The sundry civil expenses bill included a brief section establishing a new agency, the United States Geological Survey, placing it in the Department of the Interior, and charging it with a unique combination of responsibilities: 'classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' The legislation stemmed from a report of the National Academy of Sciences, which in June 1878 had been asked by Congress to provide a plan for surveying the Territories of the United States that would secure the best possible results at the least possible cost. Its roots, however, went far back into the Nation's history. The first duty enjoined upon the Geological Survey by the Congress, the classification of the public lands, originated in the Land Ordinance of 1785. The original public lands were the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains claimed by some of the colonies, which became a source of contention in writing the Articles of Confederation until 1781 when the States agreed to cede their western lands to Congress. The extent of the public lands was enormously increased by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and later territorial acquisitions. At the beginning of Confederation, the decision was made not to hold the public lands as a capital asset, but to dispose of them for revenue and to encourage settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the method of surveying and a plan for disposal of the lands, but also reserved 'one-third part of all gold, silver, lead, and copper mines to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall thereafter direct,' thus implicitly requiring

  16. A brief history of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1975-01-01

    Established by an Act of Congress in 1879 and charged with responsibility for "classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain," the U. S. Department of the Interior's Geological Survey has been the Nation's principal source of information about its physical resources the configuration and character of the land surface, the composition and structure of the underlying rocks, and the quality, extent, and distribution of water and mineral resources. Although primarily a research and fact-finding agency, it has responsibility also for the classification of Federal mineral lands and waterpower sites, and since 1926 it has been responsible for the supervision of oil and mining operations authorized under leases on Federal land. From the outset, the Survey has been concerned with critical land and resource problems. Often referred to as the Mother of Bureaus, many of its activities led to the formation of new organizations where a management or developmental function evolved. These included the Reclamation Service (1902), the Bureau of Mines (1910), the Federal Power Commission (1920), and the Grazing Service (1934, since combined with other functions as the Bureau of Land Management). Mrs. Rabbitt's summary of the Survey's history in the following pages brings out well the development of these diverse activities and the Survey's past contributions to national needs related to land and resources.

  17. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The United States uses tremendous amounts of geologic energy resources. In 2004 alone, the United States consumed more than 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 21.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion short tons of coal. Forecasts indicate the Nation's need for energy resources will continue to grow, raising several questions: How much domestic and foreign petroleum resources are available to meet the growing energy demands of the Nation and world? Does the United States have coal deposits of sufficient quantity and quality to meet demand over the next century? What other geologic energy resources can be added to the U.S. energy mix? How do the occurrence and use of energy resources affect environmental quality and human health? Unbiased information from robust scientific studies is needed for sound energy policy and resource management decisions addressing these issues. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program provides impartial, scientifically robust information to advance the understanding of geologically based energy resources including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. This information can be used to contribute to plans for a secure energy future and to facilitate evaluation and responsible use of resources.

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey's TRIGA® reactor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBey, Timothy M.; Roy, Brycen R.; Brady, Sally R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a low-enriched uranium-fueled, pool-type reactor located at the Federal Center in Denver, Colorado. The mission of the Geological Survey TRIGA® Reactor (GSTR) is to support USGS science by providing information on geologic, plant, and animal specimens to advance methods and techniques unique to nuclear reactors. The reactor facility is supported by programs across the USGS and is organizationally under the Associate Director for Energy and Minerals, and Environmental Health. The GSTR is the only facility in the United States capable of performing automated delayed neutron analyses for detecting fissile and fissionable isotopes. Samples from around the world are submitted to the USGS for analysis using the reactor facility. Qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses, spatial elemental analyses, and geochronology are performed. Few research reactor facilities in the United States are equipped to handle the large number of samples processed at the GSTR. Historically, more than 450,000 sample irradiations have been performed at the USGS facility. Providing impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other interested parties throughout the world is an integral part of the research effort of the USGS.

  6. U. S. Geological Survey investigation of Mississippi Embayment area

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, E.E.

    1983-09-01

    Prior to about 1974, most of the work in the Mississippi embayment area by members of the U.S. Geological Survey was motivated by interest in the embayment's paleontologic aspects, stratigraphy, and economic resources, especially ground water. However, an excellent description of the effects of the New Madrid earthquake series was published on the centennial of that 1811-1812 seismicity. During World War II, combined efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines produced a wealth of information about the Little Rock pluton and the process of laterizing exposed nepheline syenite to form bauxite. That project, in a search for additional intrusive bodies at shallow depth, sponsored a reconnaissance aeromagnetic survey along the embayment edge from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Cairo, Illinois. Magnetic anomalies that were identified then are now known to be related to the series of buried plutons aligned along the northwestern margin of the upper Mississippi embayment graben. Later investigations assessed the geochemistry of the more mafic parts of the Little Rock pluton. In 1974, U.S. Geological survey effort, along with that of other federal agencies, state agencies, and academic institutions, was directed toward finding the cause of ongoing seismicity in the upper embayment and toward assessing the related potential effects on persons and property. The purpose of this poster display is to summarize the more significant findings in this area related to (a) the rock sequence, lower crust to surface; (b) the major structural features, including a rift system; (c) the current state of stress; and (d) the present-day seismicity.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey land remote sensing activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Doyle G.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) were among the earliest to recognize the potential applications of satellite land remote sensing for management of the country's land and water resources…not only as a user but also as a program participant responsible for final data processing, product generation, and data distribution. With guidance from Dr. William T. Pecora, who was the Survey's Director at that time and later Under Secretary of Interior, the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program was established in 1966 as a focal point for these activities within the Department. Dr. Pecora was among the few who could envision a role for the Survey and the Department as active participants in programs yet to come--like the Landsat, Magsat, Seasat and, most recently, Shuttle Imaging Radar programs.

  8. What are parasitologists doing in the United States Geological Survey?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was formed in 1879 as the nation's primary natural science and information agency. The mission of the agency is to provide scientific information to a??describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.a?? Prior to 1996, the USGS comprised 3 divisions or disciplines: geology, mapping, and water. Historically, the agency was most noted for cartographic products that were used widely by both government and private sector. With the inclusion of the National Biological Service into the USGS in 1996 as the Biological Resource Discipline (BRD), a living resources dimension was added to the earth sciences character of the USGS. With the addition of BRD, the bureau is able now to contribute both the physical and biological sciences to address the nation's resource management problems.

  9. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm

    2014-05-01

    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/sigma/home.html) in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field

  10. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1980-01-01

    In March 1979, the U.S. Geological Survey celebrated its 100th year of service to the Nation and 10 decades of stewardship of the land and its resources. During this year, as in the previous 99, the Survey discharged its national trust by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating earth science information and by continuing its somewhat more recent responsibilities of supervising the development of energy and mineral resources on Federal lands. The basic mission of the Survey has changed over the years, and the scope of its activities and the power of analytic tools have also increased by several orders of magnitude from the early surveys of then "remote" western areas of the United States to surveying and mapping the mountains of the Moon and the polar caps of Mars and from the use of surveyor's transits, picks, the travelling chemistry kits to interpretation of Earth imagery. These representative advances illustrate important and continuing trends for at no previous time have our earth resources been so precious or our consciousness of their finiteness so acute. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and offers an overview of its future. Many of the topics touched on below will continue to be important resource issues in the coming decade.

  11. United States Geological Survey Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    The Survey resumes the practice of annually summarizing the progress it has made in identifying the Nation's land, water, energy, and mineral resources, classifying federally owned mineral lands and waterpower sites, and in supervising the exploration and development of energy and mineral resources on Federal and Indian lands. The Annual Report for 1975 consists of five parts: * The Year in Review - a review of the issues and events which affected Survey programs and highlights of program accomplishments. * Perspectives - several short papers which address major resource issues and summarize recent advances in the earth sciences. * A description of the Survey's budget, programs, and accomplishments. * A set of statistical tables and related information which documents program trends, workloads, and accomplishments. * A compendium of Survey publications and information services available to the public. One purpose of this report is to increase public awareness and understanding of the Geological Survey's programs and, more generally, of the role of earth sciences information in helping to resolve many of the natural resource conflicts that face our society now and in the years ahead. To be useful, however, information must be available and readily accessible to those responsible for natural resource policy at the time that the decisions are made. This report emphasizes the types of information products and services provided by the Survey and tells how to obtain additional information.

  12. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska 1980 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1980-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  14. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Nairn R. D.; Hudson, Travis

    1981-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  15. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  16. Appraising U.S. Geological Survey science records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has legislative charters to preserve and make accessible land remote sensing records important to the United States. This essay explains the appraisal process developed by EROS to ensure the science records it holds and those offered to it align with those charters. The justifications behind the questions employed to weed and to complement the EROS archive are explained along with the literature reviewed supporting their inclusion. Appraisal results are listed by individual collection and include the recommendations accepted by EROS management. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  17. Celebrating 125 years of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Kathleen K.

    2004-01-01

    In the 125 years since its creation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has provided the science information needed to make vital decisions and safeguard society. In this anniversary year, we celebrate the mission that has guided us, the people and traditions that have shaped us, and the science and technology that will lead us into the future. Through a wealth of long-term data and research, we have served the needs of society, the Earth, and its environment. This Circular captures a few of our past achievements, current research efforts, and hopes and challenges for the future.

  18. DIGITAL MAPPING PROGRAM OF THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuni, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    As the nation's primary Federal earth-science, factfinding and research agency, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides cartographic and natural resource information to many users to aid in planning and decision-making. Users of the data, both inside and outside the USGS, have become more and more sophisticated in their applications. As a consequence, scientists at the USGS are embracing computer technology as an essential element of their data gathering and production activities. Now, much of that cartographic information is available in computer-compatible form on magnetic tape from USGS national digital cartographic data bases.

  19. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U. S. Geological survey during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, J.P.; Hamilton, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The reports presented in this book begin with an article on the advance of Hubbard Glacier and its damming of Russell Fiord in southern Alaska followed by 40 short papers related to the five regional subdivision of Alaska and to areas offshore on the Alaska continental shelf. These papers provide a representative sample of current U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research in Alaska. Two bibliographies cover reports about Alaska in USGS publications released in 1987 and reports about Alaska by USGS authors in outside publications in 1987.

  20. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey circum-arctic resource appraisal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Among the greatest uncertainties in future energy supply is the amount of oil and gas yet to be found in the Arctic. Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey has assessed the area north of the Arctic Circle. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) consists of three parts: (1) Mapping the sedimentary sequences of the Arctic (Grantz and others 2009), (2) Geologically based estimation of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum (Gautier and others 2009, discussed in this presentation) and (3) Economic appraisal of the cost of delivering the undiscovered resources to major markets (also reported at this conference by White and others). We estimate that about 30% of the world's undiscovered gas and about 13% of the world's undiscovered oil may be present in the Arctic, mostly offshore under less than 500m of water. Billion BOE-plus accumulations of gas and oil are predicted at a 50% probability in the Kara Sea, Barents Sea, offshore East and West Greenland, Canada, and Alaska. On a BOE basis, undiscovered natural gas is three times more abundant than oil in the Arctic and is concentrated in Russian territory. Oil resources, while critically important to the interests of Arctic countries, are probably not sufficient to significantly shift the current geographic patterns of world oil production. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

  2. New York State Geological Survey crystalline rock project. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Presented is a preliminary geologic map of the West-Central Adirondack Region, based on mapping by members of the New York State Geological Survey and participants from several universities during the 1984 field season. The area mapped comprises portions of the West Canada Lakes, Old Forge, McKeever, Number Four, Big Moose and Raquette Lake 15 minute quadrangles. The geology of the area is dominated by two major groups of hornblende-granulite facies rocks: (a) a supracrustal sequence locally showing internal stratigraphy, including quartzofeldspathic leucogneiss, kinzigite, marble, calcsilicate granulite and amphibolite, and (b) granitic and charnockitic gneisses of both plutonic and supracrustal origin, which are widespread and often occur as elliptical domes and lenses, as well as being interstratified with the metasedimentary sequence. Clear intrusive relationships are few. In addition to these rocks, minor intrusions of meta-anorthosite and metagabbro are locally present. At least three phases of folding are present. The first is expressed by regional foliation development. The second generation is tight to isoclinal and overturned with axial trends ranging from east to northeast. The third generation is open folds with north to northwest axial trends. Good correlation exists between photogeology, aeromagnetics, and field observations.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey programs in Florida, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The safety, health, and economic well-being of Florida?s citizens are important to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is involved in water-related, geologic, biological, land use, and mapping issues in many parts of the State. The USGS office in Tallahassee acts as the liaison for all studies conducted by USGS scientists in Florida. Water resources activities are conducted not only from the office in Tallahassee, but also from offices in Miami, Tampa, and Altamonte Springs (Orlando). Scientists in these offices investigate surface water, ground water and water quality in Florida, working in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies and organizations. The USGS Center for Coastal Geology and Regional Marine Studies was established in St. Petersburg in 1988, in cooperation with the University of South Florida. The Center conducts a wide variety of research on mineral resources and on coastal and regional marine problems, including coastal erosion, climate change, wetlands deterioration, and coastal pollution. A USGS mapping office is located in St. Petersburg. Also, the Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) in Tallahassee provides USGS information to customers and directs inquiries to the appropriate USGS office or State agency on earth science topics, particularly those related to cartography, geography, aerial photography, and digital data. Biologists at the USGS Florida Caribbean Science Center, located in Gainesville, conduct biological and ecosystem studies in Florida, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

  4. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, Eric J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the Water Science Strategy, presented in detail in Circular 1383-G, "U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Strategy--Observing, Understanding, Predicting, and Delivering Water Science to the Nation." This fact sheet looks at the relevant issues facing society and describes the strategy built around observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science for the next 5 to 10 years by building new capabilities, tools, and delivery systems to meet the Nation’s water-resource needs. This fact sheet presents the vision of water science for the U.S. Geological Survey and the societal issues that are influenced by, and in turn influence, the water resources of the Nation. The fact sheet describes the five goals of the Water Science Strategy. Nine priority actions also are presented, which combine and elevate the numerous specific strategic actions contained within Circular 1383-G. The fact sheet concludes with a discussion of the intended outcomes of the Water Science Strategy.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey library classification system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasscer, R. Scott

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers. The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences. The system contains seven schedules: * Subject schedule * Geological survey schedule * Earth science periodical schedule * Government document periodical schedule * General science periodical schedule * Earth science map schedule * Geographic schedule Introduction provides detailed instructions on the construction of call numbers for works falling into the framework of the classification schedules. The tables following the introduction can be quickly accessed through the use of the newly expanded subject index. The purpose of this publication is to provide the earth science community with a classification and retrieval system for earth science materials, to offer sufficient explanation of its structure and use, and to enable library staff and clientele to classify or access research materials in a library collection.

  7. Historical profile, Quality of Water Laboratories, U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durum, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    During the period 1918 to 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established 22 District-type water quality laboratories. These facilities provided the analytical capability and water-quality information for hydrologic investigations and the national baseline inventory of chemical, physical, fluvial sediment, and biological characteristics of surface and ground waters in the United States. Prior to 1950, most methods used in the laboratory were gravimetric, colorimetric, or titrimetric. Flame photometric equipment was common to most laboratories in the 1950's, and the atomic absorption spectrophotometer was added to larger laboratories in the 1960's. In the late 1960's, the first of the automatic analyzers was installed. Total annual production averaged about 480 adjusted complete analyses during the early years 1919-28, about 7,800 in 1946, and about 50,000 in 1970. Budget estimates for the majority of laboratories ranged from $25,000 to $50,000 (1940-50) and $75,000 to $300,000 (1965-73). Beginning in 1972, major functions of the 22 laboratories have been combined into two comprehensive highly-automated facilities located at Denver (Arvada), Colo., and Atlanta (Doraville), Ga. These laboratories comprise the Central Laboratory System for the U.S. Geological Survey. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Agile Data Curation at a State Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    State agencies, including geological surveys, are often the gatekeepers for myriad data products essential for scientific research and economic development. For example, the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is mandated to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources in support of economic development, conservation, management, and public policy for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses. As part of that mandate, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data more accessible to stakeholders. Even as demand for greater data accessibility grows, budgets for such efforts are often small, meaning that agencies must do more for less. Agile software development has yielded efficient, effective products, most often at lower cost and in shorter time. Taking guidance from the agile software development model, the GSA is working towards more agile data management and curation. To date, the GSA's work has been focused primarily on data rescue. By using workflows that maximize clear communication while encouraging simplicity (e.g., maximizing the amount of work not done or that can be automated), the GSA is bringing decades of dark data into the light. Regular checks by the data rescuer with the data provider (or their proxy) provides quality control without adding an overt burden on either party. Moving forward, these workflows will also allow for more efficient and effective data management.

  9. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  10. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  11. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  12. Surface water investigations in Afghanistan: a summary of activities from 1952 to 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, Arthur O.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize briefly the history of the Surface Water Research project since its inception in 1952, the work accomplished, and the problems encountered. In general, each topic is discussed under two periods of time: 1952-1963, when projects were confined to the Helmand River Valley and was entitled Helmand Surface Water Investigations (306-12-021, 306-M-12-AD and 306-AC-12-AD5), and 1963-1969 when activities were expanded to cover most of Afghanistan and title was changed to Surface Water Research (306-11-190-002). Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Water and Soil Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Royal Government of Afghanistan under the auspices of the United States Agency for International Development.

  13. Notes on interpretation of geophysical data over areas of mineralization in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial metallic mineral resources. Although valuable mineral deposits have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Geophysical surveys, particularly those conducted from airborne platforms, are a well-accepted and cost-effective method for obtaining information on the geological setting of a given area. This report summarizes interpretive findings from various geophysical surveys over selected mineral targets in Afghanistan, highlighting what existing data tell us. These interpretations are mainly qualitative in nature, because of the low resolution of available geophysical data. Geophysical data and simple interpretations are included for these six areas and deposit types: (1) Aynak: Sedimentary-hosted copper; (2) Zarkashan: Porphyry copper; (3) Kundalan: Porphyry copper; (4) Dusar Shaida: Volcanic-hosted massive sulphide; (5) Khanneshin: Carbonatite-hosted rare earth element; and (6) Chagai Hills: Porphyry copper.

  14. National Geothermal Data System: State Geological Survey Contributions to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Clark, R.; Love, D.; Coleman, C.; Caudill, C.; Matti, J.; Musil, L.; Day, J.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    In collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists the Arizona Geological Survey is leading the effort to bring legacy geothermal data to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). NGDS is a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers entering its final stages of development. Once completed the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. This presentation focuses on the scientific and data integration methodology as well as State Geological Survey contributions to date. The NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community and with other emerging data integration and networking efforts. Core to the USGIN concept is that of data provenance; by allowing data providers to maintain and house their data. After concluding the second year of the project, we have nearly 800 datasets representing over 2 million data points from the state geological surveys. A new AASG specific search catalog based on popular internet search formats enables end users to more easily find and identify geothermal resources in a specific region. Sixteen states, including a consortium of Great Basin states, have initiated new field data collection for submission to the NGDS. The new field data includes data from at least 21 newly drilled thermal gradient holes in previously unexplored areas. Most of the datasets provided to the NGDS are being portrayed as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS), meaning that the data is compatible with a

  15. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data used in a U.S. Geological Survey regional geologic framework study along the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Brothers, Laura L.; Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey obtained raw Reson multibeam data files from Science Applications International Corporation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for 20 hydrographic surveys and extracted backscatter data using the Fledermaus Geocoder Toolbox from Quality Positioning Service. The backscatter mosaics produced by the U.S. Geological Survey for the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data increased regional geophysical surveying efficiency, collaboration among government agencies, and the area over which geologic data can be interpreted by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes the methods by which the backscatter data were extracted and processed and includes backscatter mosaics and interpolated bathymetric surfaces.

  16. Water resources publications of the U.S. Geological Survey for Tennessee, 1987-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Eva G.; Oldson, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents an updated bibliography of water-resources related reports authored or co-authored by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Tennessee District The bibliography lists 102 reports published by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period 1987 through 1993. Articles, papers, and abstracts published by non-U.S. Geological Survey sources for this same period also are listed. The report augments a previous bibliography for the years 1906-1987.

  17. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MARINE-MINERALS RESEARCH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Summary form only given. The US Exclusive Economic Zone is an area approximately one and two-thirds the size of the land area of the United States. In this frontier area, US Geological Survey (USGS) research in marine minerals is aimed at three objectives: (1) defining geologic settings of potential mineral resources; (2) understanding the processes by which seafloor nonliving resources form; and (3) estimating the resource potential. Potential resources of primary interest are cobalt-rich manganese seafloor crusts, polymetallic sulfides in hydrothermal vent areas on the seafloor, and heavy-mineral placer deposits. Research activities include studies of manganese-crust samples from oceanographic-institution archives and a USGS research cruise through the central and southern Pacific. Preliminary results confirm that cobalt is concentrated by as much as 2. 5% in the manganese crusts at water depths of 1000-2600 m; further research on the precipitation processes and patterns of crust formation will be needed to understand the origin, occurrence patterns, and resource potential of these crusts. Research cruises have revealed a zone of polymetallic sulfide vent deposits a few hundred meters long in the Juan de Fuca spreading center.

  18. Tectonic map of Liberia based on geophysical and geological surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John Charles; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretation of the results of aeromagnetic, total-gamma radioactivity, and gravity surveys combined with geologic data for Western Liberia from White and Leo (1969) and other geologic information allows the construction of a tectonic map of Liberia. The map approximately delineates the boundaries between the Liberian (ca. 2700 m.y.) province in the northwestern two-thirds of the country, the Eburnean (ca. 2000 m.y.) province in the south-eastern one-third, and the Pan-African (ca. 550 m.y.) province in the coastal area of the northwestern two-thirds of the country. Rock follation and tectonic structural features trend northeastward in the Liberian province, east-northeastward to north-northeastward in the Eburnean province, and northwestward in the Pan-African age province. Linear residual magnetic anomailes 20-80 km wide and 200-600 gammas in amplitude and following the northeast structural trend typical of the Liberian age province cross the entire country and extend into Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.

  19. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  1. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  2. Instruction manual for U.S. Geological Survey sediment observers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    This instruction manual is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sediment Observers. An overview of the USGS Sediment Program is presented, and basic theory on sediment transport is explained. Step-by-step instructions on when and how to sample for sediment also are presented. USGS Sediment Observer safety issues are discussed and corrective actions are presented. An empty pouch is included at the back of the manual for miscellaneous supplies, such as extra sampler nozzles, thermometers, new gaskets, and markers to be supplied by USGS personnel distributing the manual. A plastic reference card also is included, which can be removed from the manual and kept at the sampling site. Only general guidelines are presented in the manual so space is provided for USGS personnel distributing the manual to fill in project specific instructions.

  3. Groundwater technical procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, William L.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    A series of groundwater technical procedures documents (GWPDs) has been released by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Discipline, for general use by the public. These technical procedures were written in response to the need for standardized technical procedures of many aspects of groundwater science, including site and measuring-point establishment, measurement of water levels, and measurement of well discharge. The techniques are described in the GWPDs in concise language and are accompanied by necessary figures and tables derived from cited manuals, reports, and other documents. Because a goal of this series of procedures is to remain current with the state of the science, and because procedures change over time, this report is released in an online format only. As new procedures are developed and released, they will be linked to this document.

  4. Recent U.S. Geological Survey applications of Lidar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Queija, Vivian R.; Stoker, Jason M.; Kosovich, John J.

    2005-01-01

    As lidar (light detection and ranging) technology matures, more applications are being explored by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists throughout the Nation, both in collaboration with other Federal agencies and alone in support of USGS natural-hazards research (Crane et al., 2004). As the technology continues to improve and evolve, USGS scientists are finding new and unique methods to use and represent high-resolution lidar data, and new ways to make these data and derived information publicly available. Different lidar sensors and configurations have offered opportunities to use high-resolution elevation data for a variety of projects across all disciplines of the USGS. The following examples are just a few of the diverse projects in the USGS where lidar data is being used.

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental goals of the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Remote Sens-ing (LRS) Program are to provide the Federal Government and the public with a primary source of remotely sensed data and applications and to be a leader in defining the future of land remote sensing, nationally and internationally. Remotely sensed data provide information that enhance the understand-ing of ecosystems and the capabilities for predicting ecosystem change. The data promote an understanding of the role of the environment and wildlife in human health issues, the requirements for disaster response, the effects of climate variability, and the availability of energy and mineral resources. Also, as land satellite systems acquire global coverage, the program coordinates a network of international receiving stations and users of the data. It is the responsibility of the program to assure that data from land imaging satellites, airborne photography, radar, and other technologies are available to the national and global science communities.

  6. The United States Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Burley, Thomas E.; Carlino, Jennifer A.; Govoni, David L.; Henkel, Heather S.; Holl, Sally L.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Martín, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ladino, Cassandra; Tessler, Steven; Zolly, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data represent corporate assets with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. Recognizing these motives, a USGS team developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model (SDLM) as a high-level view of data—from conception through preservation and sharing—to illustrate how data management activities relate to project workflows, and to assist with understanding the expectations of proper data management. In applying the Model to research activities, USGS scientists can ensure that data products will be well-described, preserved, accessible, and fit for re-use. The Model also serves as a structure to help the USGS evaluate and improve policies and practices for managing scientific data, and to identify areas in which new tools and standards are needed.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Programs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maps, describes, and seeks to understand Minnesota's mineral, water, and biological resources. The USGS is known for impartial data collection and data interpretation that enable resource planners and others to make informed decisions. Today's issues are more pressing than ever - understanding natural hazards to minimize their effects on life and property, the continuing need for mineral- and water-resource development, and understanding the effects of human activities on water resources. As the Nation's leading natural-science agency, the USGS works with other Federal agencies and State and local agencies in addressing these issues. Watershed districts; soil- and water-conservation districts; Tribal governments; mining industries; educators; city, county, regional, State, and Federal planning agencies; consulting firms; crop consultants; farmers; and other private citizens use USGS maps, interpretive reports, and data to manage Minnesota's resources.

  8. United States Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Rynn M.; Jones, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Response is to ensure that the disaster response community has access to timely, accurate, and relevant geospatial products, imagery, and services during and after an emergency event. To accomplish this goal, products and services provided by the National Geospatial Program (NGP) and Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program serve as a geospatial framework for mapping activities of the emergency response community. Post-event imagery and analysis can provide important and timely information about the extent and severity of an event. USGS Natural Hazards Response will also support the coordination of remotely sensed data acquisitions, image distribution, and authoritative geospatial information production as required for use in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery operations.

  9. Reaeration equations derived from U.S. geological survey database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, C.S.; Flores, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the reaeration-rate coefficient (K2) is extremely important for waste-load allocation. Currently, available K2 estimation equations generally yield poor estimates when applied to stream conditions different from those for which the equations were derived because they were derived from small databases composed of potentially highly inaccurate measurements. A large data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas methods was compiled from U.S. Geological Survey studies. This compilation included 493 reaches on 166 streams in 23 states. Careful screening to detect and eliminate erroneous measurements reduced the date set to 371 measurements. These measurements were divided into four subgroups on the basis of flow regime (channel control or pool and riffle) and stream scale (discharge greater than or less than 0.556 m3/s). Multiple linear regression in logarithms was applied to relate K2 to 12 stream hydraulic and water-quality characteristics. The resulting best-estimation equations had the form of semiempirical equations that included the rate of energy dissipation and discharge or depth and width as variables. For equation verification, a data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas procedures by other agencies was compiled from the literature. This compilation included 127 reaches on at least 24 streams in at least seven states. The standard error of estimate obtained when applying the developed equations to the U.S. Geological Survey data set ranged from 44 to 61%, whereas the standard error of estimate was 78% when applied to the verification data set.Accurate estimation of the reaeration-rate coefficient (K2) is extremely important for waste-load allocation. Currently, available K2 estimation equations generally yield poor estimates when applied to stream conditions different from those for which the equations were derived because they were derived from small databases composed of potentially highly inaccurate measurements. A large

  10. WATER INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, Charles R.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the Geological Survey's program of releasing water data to the public, two large-scale computerized systems are maintained. The National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System was developed to provide more effective and efficient management of data-releasing activities and provides for the processing, storage, and retrieval of surface-water, ground-water and water-quality data. Another service available is providing assistance to users of water data to identify, locate, and acquire needed data. This service is provided by the National Water Data Exchange, which has the mission to identify sources of water data and to provide the connection between those who acquire and those who use water data.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey study on groundwater depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The total depletion of groundwater in the United States from 1900 to 2008 was about 1000 cubic kilometers, more than twice the amount of water in Lake Erie, according to a 10 May report by the U.S. Geological Survey, Groundwater Depletion in the United States (1900-2008), that includes an evaluation of long-term cumulative depletion volumes in 40 separate aquifers in the United States. "This large volume of depletion represents a serious problem in the United States because much of this storage loss cannot be easily or quickly recovered and affects the sustainability of some critical water supplies and base flow to streams, among other effects," the report notes. For more information, see http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5079/.

  12. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M.

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  14. Geologic map of the Ahankashan-Rakhna basin, Badghis, Ghor, and Herat Provinces, Afghanistan, modified from the 1974 original map compilation of Y.I. Shcherbina and others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Bogdanow, Anya K.

    2014-01-01

    The Ahankashan and Rakhna prospect area is one of several gold and copper deposits within west-central Afghanistan. Here, various felsic to intermediate igneous porphyries intrude Lower Triassic to lower Paleogene sedimentary rocks, producing mineral and ore-bearing zones related to hydrothermal alteration, skarns, silicification, and crushing (brecciation). Mineralized skarns contain assemblages such as magnetite, magnetite-hematite, epidote-hematite, and epidote-garnet, as well as disseminations of chalcopyrite, covellite, chalcocite, cuprite, malachite, and azurite. Gold mineralization is mainly associated with zones of crushing along faults, and with small silicified igneous veins within granite and quartz porphyry.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  16. Afghanistan: A Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.

    Afghanistan and its people are not well known or understood by the United States, yet many U.S. people now consider the U.S. and Afghanistan to be at war. How is it possible to know the enemy? This book offers a complete, but not exhaustive source of information about Afghanistan, the land and its people. The book is intended as a guide for anyone…

  17. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    Fiscal 1977 marked the 98th year the U.S. Geological Survey has endeavored in the unceasing task of providing information about the Earth and its physical resources, and regulating the activities of lessees engaged in extracting petroleum and other minerals from the public domain. The past year also marked the beginning of a third and challenging mission, drawing upon the Survey's scientific talents, to explore and assess the petroleum potential of a vast 37,000 square miles expanse of Alaska's North Slope known as the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. The first two missions require detailed and continuing investigations of the location, character, and extent of the Nation's land, water, mineral, and energy resources; a continuing National Topographic Mapping Program; the classification of Federal lands for mineral and waterpower potential; and a continuing program of technical review, safety inspection and royalty auditing of the operations of private parties engaged in mineral development on Federal lands to assure standards of safety, environmental protection, resource conservation, and a fair market return to the public for the development of their resources.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska; 1981 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1981-01-01

    This Circular describes the 1981 programs and projects of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each office and division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The largest program at present is related to oil and gas exploration, but programs also include mineral appraisal, water-resource studies, volcanic and seismic programs, topographic mapping, glaciological and geohazard studies, and many other activities. Alaska is the largest and the least populated, least explored, and least developed of the Nation 's States. The land area contains 375 million acres and comprises 16 percent of the onshore land and more than half of the Outer Continental Shelf of the Nation. After Native and State of Alaska land selections of 44 million acres have been made, approximately 60 percent, 225 million acres, of Alaska land will remain under Federal jurisdiction. Federal lands in Alaska then will comprise approximately 30 percent of all onshore land in the Nation 's public domain. (USGS)

  19. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sang-Charak (501) and Sayghan-O-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  5. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3570, Tagab-E-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  6. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  7. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  8. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  9. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jarm-Keshem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched a program to enhance the acquisition, preservation, and use of remotely sensed data for USGS science programs, as well as for those of cooperators and customers. Remotely sensed data are fundamental tools for studying the Earth's land surface, including coastal and near-shore environments. For many decades, the USGS has been a leader in providing remotely sensed data to the national and international communities. Acting on its historical topographic mapping mission, the USGS has archived and distributed aerial photographs of the United States for more than half a century. Since 1972, the USGS has acquired, processed, archived, and distributed Landsat and other satellite and airborne remotely sensed data products to users worldwide. Today, the USGS operates and manages the Landsats 5 and 7 missions and cooperates with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to define and implement future satellite missions that will continue and expand the collection of moderate-resolution remotely sensed data. In addition to being a provider of remotely sensed data, the USGS is a user of these data and related remote sensing technology. These data are used in natural resource evaluations for energy and minerals, coastal environmental surveys, assessments of natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides), biological surveys and investigations, water resources status and trends analyses and studies, and geographic and cartographic applications, such as wildfire detection and tracking and as a source of information for The National Map. The program furthers these distinct but related roles by leading the USGS activities in providing remotely sensed data while advancing applications of such data for USGS programs and a wider user community.

  11. Data Management and Rescue at a State Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; McIntyre-Redden, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    As new technologies are developed to utilize data more fully, and as shrinking budgets mean more needs to be done with less, well-documented and discoverable legacy data is vital for continued research and economic growth. Many governmental agencies are mandated to maintain scientific data, and the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is no different. As part of the mandate to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data (including samples) more accessible to stakeholders. The GSA has been involved in several data management, preservation, and rescue projects, including the National Geothermal Data System and the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. GSA staff utilizes accepted standards for metadata, such as those found at the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). Through the use of semi-automated workflows, these standards can be applied to legacy data records. As demand for more detailed information on samples increases, especially so that a researcher can do a preliminary assessment prior to a site visit, it has become critical for the efficiency of the GSA to have better systems in place for sample tracking and data management. Thus, GSA is in the process of registering cores and related samples for International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) through the System for Earth Sample Registration. IGSNs allow the GSA to use asset management software to better curate the physical samples and provide more accurate information to stakeholders. Working with other initiatives, such as EarthCube's iSamples project, will ensure that GSA continues to use best practices and standards for sample identification, documentation, citation, curation, and sharing.

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  13. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  14. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  15. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Analysis of the U.S. geological survey streamgaging network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19.9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17.8 percent. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3, 493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the

  2. Stratigraphic nomenclature in reports of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohee, George V.

    1974-01-01

    The Geologic Names Committee of the United States Geological Survey was first organized on February 17, 1899, " ... to consider all names of geologic formations or other divisions of rock classifications with a view to determining whether they comply with the rules of nomenclature adopted for the Survey publications and to recommend such action as may be advisable in any individual case to secure unity of nomenclature under the rules."

  3. The U.S. Geological Survey land remote sensing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, T.; Feuquay, J.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been a provider of remotely sensed information for decades. As the availability and use of satellite data has grown, USGS has placed increasing emphasis on expanding the knowledge about the science of remote sensing and on making remotely sensed data more accessible. USGS encourages widespread availability and distribution of these data and through its programs, encourages and enables a variety of research activities and the development of useful applications of the data. The science of remote sensing has great potential for assisting in the monitoring and assessment of the impacts of natural disasters, management and analysis of environmental, biological, energy, and mineral investigations, and supporting informed public policy decisions. By establishing the Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) as a major unit of the USGS Geography Program, USGS has taken the next step to further increase support for the accessibility, understanding, and use of remotely sensed data. This article describes the LRS Program, its mission and objectives, and how the program has been structured to accomplish its goals.

  4. Geographic analysis and monitoring at the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findley, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey assesses the Nation's land surface at a variety of spatial and temporal scales to understand the rates, causes, and consequences of natural and human-induced processes and their interactions that affect the landscape over time. The program plays an important role in developing National Map tools and application. The GAM is a science and synthesis program that not only assesses the rates of changes to the Earth's land surface, but also provides reports on the status and trends of the Nation's land resources on a periodic basis, produces a land-use and land- cover database for the periodically updated map and data set-the Geographic Face of the Nation, and conducts research leading to improved understanding and knowledge about geographic processes. Scientific investigations provide comprehensive information needed to understand the environmental, resource, and economic consequences of landscape change. These analyses responds to the needs of resource managers and offers the American public baseline information to help them understand the dynamic nature of our national landscape and to anticipate the opportunities and consequences of our actions.

  5. New hydrologic instrumentation in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.; Shope, W.G.; ,

    1991-01-01

    New water-level sensing and recording instrumentation is being used by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring water levels, stream velocities, and water-quality characteristics. Several of these instruments are briefly described. The Basic Data Recorder (BDR) is an electronic data logger, that interfaces to sensor systems through a serial-digital interface standard (SDI-12), which was proposed by the data-logger industry; the Incremental Shaft Encoder is an intelligent water-level sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12; the Pressure Sensor is an intelligent, nonsubmersible pressure sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and monitors water levels from 0 to 50 feet; the Ultrasonic Velocity Meter is an intelligent, water-velocity sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and measures the velocity across a stream up to 500 feet in width; the Collapsible Hand Sampler can be collapsed for insertion through holes in the ice and opened under the ice to collect a water sample; the Lighweight Ice Auger, weighing only 32 pounds, can auger 6- and 8-inch holes through approximately 3.5 feet of ice; and the Ice Chisel has a specially hardened steel blade and 6-foot long, hickory D-handle.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STREAMGAGING NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Arthur G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic-data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.

  7. Introduction and role of the US Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gryc, G.

    1989-01-01

    When the USGS assumed overall supervision of the program, a policy was initiated to make all acquired technical data public as promptly as possible. Consequently, weekly drilling reports were issued, and the results of the geophysical surveys were made available as soon as the data had been put into usable form. This information was incorporated into several oil-industry service files and is available in both hard copy and computer format. When the program was terminated, final reports were required of Husky Oil NPR Operations, Inc., and Tetra Tech, Inc. Most of these reports were immediately released to the public through the National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in Boulder, Colorado 80303. Thus nearly all the technical data were available in 1981, when the exploration program was terminated and the leasing program was authorized by Congress. When the USGS was assigned the overall direction of the exploration program in 1977, in-house studies were begun to provide the knowledge on which to base informed and objective guidance. The studies ranged from detailed stratigraphy and geochemistry to synthesis and interpretation of the geological framework of the NPRA and adjacent areas. In addition, the large volume and rapid accumulation of this new information stimulated research in data storage and processing.

  8. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2003 in Afghanistan: Outdated Sampling Frame and the Effect of Sampling Weights on Estimates of Maternal and Child Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Muhammad; Becker, Stan; Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to an urgent need for information on the coverage of health service for women and children after the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) was conducted in 2003 using the outdated 1979 census as the sampling frame. When 2004 pre-census data became available, population-sampling weights were generated based on the survey-sampling scheme. Using these weights, the population estimates for seven maternal and child healthcare-coverage indicators were generated and compared with the unweighted MICS 2003 estimates. The use of sample weights provided unbiased estimates of population parameters. Results of the comparison of weighted and unweighted estimates showed some wide differences for individual provincial estimates and confidence intervals. However, the mean, median and absolute mean of the differences between weighted and unweighted estimates and their confidence intervals were close to zero for all indicators at the national level. Ranking of the five highest and the five lowest provinces on weighted and unweighted estimates also yielded similar results. The general consistency of results suggests that outdated sampling frames can be appropriate for use in similar situations to obtain initial estimates from household surveys to guide policy and programming directions. However, the power to detect change from these estimates is lower than originally planned, requiring a greater tolerance for error when the data are used as a baseline for evaluation. The generalizability of using outdated sampling frames in similar settings is qualified by the specific characteristics of the MICS 2003—low replacement rate of clusters and zero probability of inclusion of clusters created after the 1979 census. PMID:21957678

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they

  10. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable conventional petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Wandrey, C.J.; Agena, Warren F.; Steinshouer, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey - Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum in northern Afghanistan; the resulting estimates are 1.6 billion barrels (0.2 billion metric tons) of crude oil, 16 trillion cubic feet (0.4 trillion cubic meters) of natural gas, and 0.5 billion barrels (0.8 billion metric tons) of natural gas liquids. Most of the undiscovered crude oil is in the Afghan-Tajik Basin and most of the undiscovered natural gas is in the Amu Darya Basin. Four total petroleum systems were identified, and these were subdivided into eight assessment units for the purpose of this resource assessment. The area with the greatest potential for undiscovered natural gas accumulations is in Upper Jurassic carbonate and reef reservoirs beneath an impermeable salt layer in relatively unexplored parts of northern Afghanistan. The Afghan-Tajik Basin has the greatest potential for undiscovered crude oil accumulations, and these are potentially in Cretaceous to Paleogene carbonate reservoir rocks associated with thrust faulting and folding.

  11. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey standard for digital orthophotos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, David; Caruso, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has added the new category of digital orthophotos to the National Digital Cartographic Data Base. This differentially rectified digital image product enables users to take advantage of the properties of current photoimagery as a source of geographic information. The product and accompanying standard were implemented in spring 1991. The digital orthophotos will be quadrangle based and cast on the Universal Transverse Mercator projection and will extend beyond the 3.75-minute or 7.5-minute quadrangle area at least 300 meters to form a rectangle. The overedge may be used for mosaicking with adjacent digital orthophotos. To provide maximum information content and utility to the user, metadata (header) records exist at the beginning of the digital orthophoto file. Header information includes the photographic source type, date, instrumentation used to create the digital orthophoto, and information relating to the DEM that was used in the rectification process. Additional header information is included on transformation constants from the 1927 and 1983 North American Datums to the orthophoto internal file coordinates to enable the user to register overlays on either datum. The quadrangle corners in both datums are also imprinted on the image. Flexibility has been built into the digital orthophoto format for future enhancements, such as the provision to include the corresponding digital elevation model elevations used to rectify the orthophoto. The digital orthophoto conforms to National Map Accuracy Standards and provides valuable mapping data that can be used as a tool for timely revision of standard map products, for land use and land cover studies, and as a digital layer in a geographic information system.

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted four assessments of world oil and gas resources over the past 15 years. Recently, a new five year plan for the World Energy Program was completed. Eight regional coordinators were appointed and planning activities for a new world assessment which will include oil, natural gas and coal resources is planned within four years. Currently the program is undertaking U.S. AID sponsored collaborative work with research organizations in Russia including VINIGNI and VNIGRI. Some of the products planned for this collaborative effort include a petroleum basin map of the former Soviet Union and eventually a basin map of the world at a scale of 1:5,000,000 and databases characterizing past exploration activities in Russia. Centers are being established in Moscow and Tyumen to where state of the art seismic processing, organic geochemistry and geographic information systems will be operational. Additionally, collaborative research particularly organic geochemical studies and unconventional natural gas studies in the Timon-Pechora basin are underway. Training of Russian scientists both at the USGS and in Russia on equipment purchased for the Russian institutes has been underway for the past year. An analogous program, but at a smaller scale, focusing primarily on seismic processing and compilation of databases is underway with Ukranian geologists. Similar collaborative activities in coal research are underway in Armenian and Kyrgyzstan, and recently completed in India and Pakistan. Collaborative organic geochemical research, natural gas research with particular emphasis on basin centered gas accumulations or unconventional natural gas accumulations such as coal bed methane have been undertaken or are anticipated in several countries including Hungary, Poland, China, several Middle East countries, South America and Indonesia.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has a long and proud tradition of objective, unbiased science in service to the Nation. A reputation for impartiality and excellence is one of our most important assets. To help preserve this vital asset, in 2004 the Executive Leadership Team (ELT) of the USGS was charged by the Director to develop a set of fundamental science practices, philosophical premises, and operational principles as the foundation for all USGS research and monitoring activities. In a concept document, 'Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey', the ELT proposed 'a set of fundamental principles to underlie USGS science practices.' The document noted that protecting the reputation of USGS science for quality and objectivity requires the following key elements: - Clearly articulated, Bureau-wide fundamental science practices. - A shared understanding at all levels of the organization that the health and future of the USGS depend on following these practices. - The investment of budget, time, and people to ensure that the USGS reputation and high-quality standards are maintained. The USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) encompass all elements of research investigations, including data collection, experimentation, analysis, writing results, peer review, management review, and Bureau approval and publication of information products. The focus of FSP is on how science is carried out and how products are produced and disseminated. FSP is not designed to address the question of what work the USGS should do; that is addressed in USGS science planning handbooks and other documents. Building from longstanding existing USGS policies and the ELT concept document, in May 2006, FSP policies were developed with input from all parts of the organization and were subsequently incorporated into the Bureau's Survey Manual. In developing an implementation plan for FSP policy, the intent was to recognize and incorporate the best of USGS current practices to obtain the optimum

  14. List of publications of the N. C. Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This booklet lists approximately 290 publications, some of which are out of print and may be borrowed from libraries and copied, but most listings include ordering information. The list contains bulletins, economic papers, regional geology series, field trip guidebooks, regional and county maps, geologic maps, orthophotoquads, topographic maps, aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric maps, etc.

  15. Geologic map of the Weka Dur gold deposit, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1967 original map compilation of M.P. Guguev and others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    The Weka Dur gold deposit lies in a cluster of other gold deposits in Badakhshan Province (Ragh district), such as the Kadar, Nesheb Dur, and Rishaw gold occurrences. These gold occurrences lie within a zone of late Hercynian folding and are most likely related to fluids that originated from orogenic processes. The Weka Dur deposit is the largest recorded gold occurrence in Afghanistan and is hosted in Proterozoic mica schist and amphibolite that is intruded by diabase dikes and other intrusive rocks. The tabular orebody is 350 meters (m) long and 2 m wide and can be traced downdip for 110 m. Mineralization consists of ochreous, brecciated schists containing high gold concentrations along gently and steeply dipping fissures. The brecciated rocks grade to 46.7 grams per ton (g/t) silver and contain arsenopyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, and scheelite. Trenches and adits were constructed, mapped, and sampled during the 1960s. Calculated resources are 958.3 kilograms of gold, averaging 4.1 g/t gold.

  16. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in the Helmand Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A majority of the Afghan population lacks adequate and safe supplies of water because of contamination, lack of water-resources management regulation, and lack of basic infrastructure, compounded by periods of drought and seasonal flooding. Characteristics of historical streamflows are needed to assist with efforts to quantify the water resources of the Helmand Basin. The Helmand Basin is the largest river basin in Afghanistan. It comprises the southern half of the country, draining waters from the Sia Koh Mountains in Herat Province to the eastern mountains in Gardez Province (currently known as the Paktia Province) and the Parwan Mountains northwest of Kabul, and finally draining into the unique Sistan depression between Iran and Afghanistan (Favre and Kamal, 2004). The Helmand Basin is a desert environment with rivers fed by melting snow from the high mountains and infrequent storms. Great fluctuations in streamflow, from flood to drought, can occur annually. Knowledge of the magnitude and time distribution of streamflow is needed to quantify water resources and for water management and environmental planning. Agencies responsible for the development and management of Afghanistan's surface-water resources can use this knowledge for making safe, economical, and environmentally sound water-resource planning decisions. To provide the Afghan managers with necessary streamflow information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), computed streamflow statistics for data collected at historical gaging stations within the Helmand Basin. The historical gaging stations used are shown in figure 1 and listed in table 1.

  17. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey programs in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The USGS also continues to monitor geologic conditions in Texas associated with rare but potentially dangerous earthquakes. Recently, the Nation Biological Service (now the Biological Resources Division) joined the USGS to continue their appraisal of the nation's biological resources.

  19. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  20. U.S. Geological Survey spatial data access

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Buswell, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has done a progress review on improving access to its spatial data holdings over the Web. The USGS EROS Data Center has created three major Web-based interfaces to deliver spatial data to the general public; they are Earth Explorer, the Seamless Data Distribution System (SDDS), and the USGS Web Mapping Portal. Lessons were learned in developing these systems, and various resources were needed for their implementation. The USGS serves as a fact-finding agency in the U.S. Government that collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific information about natural resource conditions and issues. To carry out its mission, the USGS has created and managed spatial data since its inception. Originally relying on paper maps, the USGS now uses advanced technology to produce digital representations of the Earth’s features. The spatial products of the USGS include both source and derivative data. Derivative datasets include Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), Digital Elevation Models, Digital Line Graphs, land-cover Digital Raster Graphics, and the seamless National Elevation Dataset. These products, created with automated processes, use aerial photographs, satellite images, or other cartographic information such as scanned paper maps as source data. With Earth Explorer, users can search multiple inventories through metadata queries and can browse satellite and DOQ imagery. They can place orders and make payment through secure credit card transactions. Some USGS spatial data can be accessed with SDDS. The SDDS uses an ArcIMS map service interface to identify the user’s areas of interest and determine the output format; it allows the user to either download the actual spatial data directly for small areas or place orders for larger areas to be delivered on media. The USGS Web Mapping Portal provides views of national and international datasets through an ArcIMS map service interface. In addition, the map portal posts news about new

  1. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  2. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Near Real-Time Dst Index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.; Friberg, P.A.; Stewart, D.C.; Lisowski, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    The operational version of the United States Geological Survey one-minute Dst index (a global geomagnetic disturbance-intensity index for scientific studies and definition of space-weather effects) uses either four- or three-station input (including Honolulu, Hawaii; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Hermanus, South Africa; and Kakioka, Japan; or Honolulu, San Juan and Guam) and a method based on the U.S. Geological Survey definitive Dst index, in which Dst is more rigorously calculated. The method uses a combination of time-domain techniques and frequency-space filtering to produce the disturbance time series at an individual observatory. The operational output is compared to the U.S. Geological Survey one-minute Dst index (definitive version) and to the Kyoto (Japan) Final Dst to show that the U.S. Geological Survey operational output matches both definitive indices well.

  4. Twenty-seventh annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walcott, Charles D.

    1906-01-01

    State cooperation.--Many of the States, following a well-established policy, cooperated with the National Survey in geologic, topographic, and hydrographic work; details are given on pages 12, 29, 72, and 74.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  6. Integrated analysis of remote sensing products from basic geological surveys. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasilvafagundesfilho, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing led to the development of several techniques to obtain image information. These techniques as effective tools in geological maping are analyzed. A strategy for optimizing the images in basic geological surveying is presented. It embraces as integrated analysis of spatial, spectral, and temporal data through photoptic (color additive viewer) and computer processing at different scales, allowing large areas survey in a fast, precise, and low cost manner.

  7. Prevention of malaria in Afghanistan through social marketing of insecticide-treated nets: evaluation of coverage and effectiveness by cross-sectional surveys and passive surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Mark; Webster, Jayne; Saleh, Padshah; Chandramohan, Daniel; Freeman, Tim; Pearcy, Barbara; Durrani, Naeem; Rab, Abdur; Mohammed, Nasir

    2002-10-01

    Malaria is often a major health problem in countries undergoing war or conflict owing to breakdown of health systems, displacement of vulnerable populations, and the increased risk of epidemics. After 23 years of conflict, malaria has become prevalent in many rural areas of Afghanistan. From 1993 to the present, a network of non-governmental organizations, co-ordinated by HealthNet International, has operated a programme of bednet sales and re-treatment in lowland areas. To examine whether a strategy based on insecticide-treated nets (ITN) is a viable public health solution to malaria, communities were given the opportunity to buy nets and then monitored to determine population coverage and disease control impact. This was carried out using two contrasting methods: cross-sectional surveys and passive surveillance from clinics using a case-control design. Nets were purchased by 59% of families. Cross-sectional surveys demonstrated a 59% reduction in the risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection among ITN users compared with non-users (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.25-0.66). The passive surveillance method showed a comparable reduction in the risk of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria among ITN users (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.21-0.47). The cross-sectional method showed a 50% reduction in risk of P. vivax infection in ITN users compared with non-users (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.17-1.49) but this effect was not statistically significant. The passive surveillance method showed a 25% reduction in the risk of symptomatic P. vivax malaria (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.66-0.85). ITN appeared to be less effective against P. vivax because of relapsing infections; hence an effect took more than one season to become apparent. Passive surveillance was cheaper to perform and gave results consistent with cross-sectional surveys. Untreated nets provided some protection. Data on socioeconomic status, a potential confounding factor, was not collected. However, at the time of net sales, there was no difference in malaria

  8. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3260 and 3160, Dasht-E-Chahe-Mazar (419), Anardara (420), Asparan (601), and Kang (602) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  9. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3062 and 2962, Charburjak (609), Khanneshin (610), Gawdezereh (615), and Galachah (616) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-I-Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3768 and 3668, Imam-Saheb (215), Rustaq (216), Baghlan (221), and Taloqan (222) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  12. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3870 and 3770, Maymayk (211), Jamarj-I-Bala (212), Faydz-Abad (217), and Parkhaw (218) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  13. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3368 and Part of Quadrangle 3370, Ghazni (515), Gardez (516), and Part of Jaji-Maydan (517) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  14. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3764 and 3664, Jalajin (117), Kham-Ab (118), Char Shangho (123), and Sheberghan (124) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  15. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3168 and 3268, Yahya-Wona (703), Wersek (704), Khayr-Kot (521), and Urgon (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3560 and 3562, Sir Band (402), Khawja-Jir (403), and Bala-Murghab (404) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  19. Obtaining maps and data from the U.S. Geological Survey*

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallam, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produces a variety of resource information for the United States. This includes many data bases of particular interest to planners such as land use and terrain information prepared by the National Mapping Division, water quantity and quality data collected by Water Resources Division, and coal resource information gathered by the Geologic Division. These data are stored in various forms, and information on their availability can be obtained from appropriate offices in the U.S. Geological Survey as well as from USGS Circular 777. These data have been used for the management, development, and monitoring of our Nation's resources by Federal, State, and local agencies. ?? 1982.

  20. The use of U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM-based petroleum assessments in undergraduate geology laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eves, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Dyman, T.S.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic oil production is declining and United States reliance on imported oil is increasing. America will be faced with difficult decisions that address the strategic, economic, and political consequences of its energy resources shortage. The geologically literate under-graduate student needs to be aware of current and future United States energy issues. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically provides energy assessment data via digitally-formatted CD-ROM publications. These publications are free to the public, and are well suited for use in undergraduate geology curricula. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources (Digital Data Series or DDS-30) (Gautier and others, 1996) is an excellent resource for introducing students to the strategies of hydrocarbon exploration and for developing skills in problem-solving and evaluating real data. This paper introduces the reader to DDS-30, summarizes the essential terminology and methodology of hydrocarbon assessment, and offers examples of exercises or questions that might be used in the introductory classroom. The USGS contact point for obtaining DDS-30 and other digital assessment volumes is also provided. Completing the sample exercises in this report requires a copy of DDS-30.

  1. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  2. Groundwater contaminant science activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Aquifers in New England provide water for human needs and natural ecosystems. In some areas, however, aquifers have been degraded by contaminants from geologic and human sources. In recent decades, the U.S. Geological Survey has been a leader in describing contaminant occurrence in the bedrock and surficial aquifers of New England. In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey has also studied the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants, the factors affecting the geographic distribution of contaminants, and the geochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate. This fact sheet describes some of the major science needs in the region related to groundwater contaminants and highlights recent U.S. Geological Survey studies that provide a foundation for future investigations.

  3. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Neal, Christina A.; Wessels, Rick L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Slack, John F.; Shanks, Wayne (Pat); Karl, Susan M.; Gemery, Pamela A.; Bittenbender, Peter E.; Ridley, W. Ian; Burns, W. Matthew; Hayba, Daniel O.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wandless, Gregory A.; Colvin, Anna; Haeussler, Peter J.; Galloway, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The collection of papers that follows continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation’s needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of “online only” versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  4. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Galloway, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The collection of six papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is the first 'online only' version of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  5. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie; Galloway, John

    2010-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of 'online only' versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  6. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of "online only" versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  7. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Galloway, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of 'online only' versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  8. Groundwater contaminant science activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2016-03-23

    Aquifers in New England provide water for human needs and natural ecosystems. In some areas, however, aquifers have been degraded by contaminants from geologic and human sources. In recent decades, the U.S. Geological Survey has been a leader in describing contaminant occurrence in the bedrock and surficial aquifers of New England. In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey has also studied the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants, the factors affecting the geographic distribution of contaminants, and the geochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate. This fact sheet describes some of the major science needs in the region related to groundwater contaminants and highlights recent U.S. Geological Survey studies that provide a foundation for future investigations.

  9. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  12. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  13. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  14. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jarm-Keshem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  15. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3570, Tagab-E-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sang-Charak (501) and Sayghan-O-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park. Geological Survey Bulletin 1327.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, S. W.

    In 1964, Canyonlands was established as the 32nd U.S. national park, covering 400 square miles at the junction of the Green and Colorado Rivers in Utah. This booklet gives the early history of the area, a summary of the geologic history of the park, and a description of the high mesas, benchlands, and canyons. There are 81 illustrations including…

  1. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-B: Geology, Information Systems and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.

  2. Forty-second annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1921-01-01

    The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1921 comprised items amounting to $1,730,700. In addition $140,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey.

  3. Geology of Wisconsin: Survey of 1873-1879, Volume I

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chamberlin, T.C.

    1883-01-01

    The leading purpose df this volume was determined by the following enactment, being section 1, chapter 121, of the Laws of 1876. "The people of the State of Wisconsin, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: Section 1. That in the preparation of his final report, the chief geologist be, and he is hereby authorized to collate the general geology and the leading facts and principles relating to the material resources of the State, together with practical suggestions as to the methods of detecting and utilizing the same, so as to constitute the material for a volume suited to the wants of explorers, miners, land owners, and manufacturers, who use crude native products, and to the needs of the schools of the State, and the masses of intelligent people who are not familiar with the principles of geology; said volume to be written in clear, plain language, with explanations of technical terms, and to be properly illustrated with maps and diagrams, and to be so arranged as to constitute a key to the more perfect understanding of the whole report." To subserve the purposes thus legally defined, the volume will be found to consist of three distinct portions; Part I, embracing the General Geology of the State, with explanatory matter; Part II, consisting of lists of the minerals, rocks and life-products of the State, with descriptions and auxiliary discussions; and Part III, embracing industrial descriptions and practical suggestions with reference to the leading natural resources of the State.

  4. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  5. Women's network in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Violence and discrimination against women have been part of the Afghan culture for thousands of years, but recently this situation has grown worse. In response, Afghan women have recently formed the Afghan Women's Network. The main objective of this organization is to work for peace and human rights in Afghanistan where the Taliban sect has been especially oppressive of women's rights. In a declaration issued late last year, the Network, which includes women in Pakistan as well as Afghanistan, requested international support for their work to guarantee the right of women to work outside the home, as well as their right to education and personal safety. PMID:12179739

  6. U.S. Geological Survey activities in New Mexico 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1995-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the USGS in New Mexico, including activities of the Water Resources, Geologic, and National Mapping Divisions. Some USGS projects address hydrologic and geologic hazards, such as flood discharges, landslides, and land subsidence. Recent environmental assessments include participation in the Kirtland Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, erosion on the Zuni Reservation, and ground-water contamination in eastern Bernalillo County. Water availability studies have focused on ground-water depletion in the Albuquerque Basin, recharge in the Roswell Basin, and the water resources of Taos County. Irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area and trace metals in a reach of the Rio Grande have been investigated. The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program has two study units partly located in New Mexico. Energy and mineral resource assess- ments include gas resources in the San Juan Basin and environmental impacts of mining in the Mimbres Resource Area. The USGS is studying the extent of suitable habitat for Mexican Spotted Owls. Also discussed are cartographic/thematic products and Geographical Information Systems; surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data-collection net- works; and reports published from 1993 to 1995.

  7. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data for geothermal reconnaissance in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, H.; Aboud, E.; Gottsmann, J.

    2015-11-01

    The geologic setting of Afghanistan has the potential to contain significant mineral, petroleum and geothermal resources. However, much of the country's potential remains unknown due to limited exploration surveys. Here, we present countrywide aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) and to evaluate the geothermal exploration potential. CPD is an isothermal surface at which magnetic minerals lose their magnetization and as such outlines an isotherm of about 580 °C. We use spectral analysis on the aeromagnetic data to estimate the CPD spatial distribution and compare our findings with known geothermal fields in the western part of Afghanistan. The results outline four regions with geothermal potential: 1) regions of shallow Curie point depths (∼16-21 km) are located in the Helmand basin. 2) regions of intermediate depths (∼21-27 km) are located in the southern Helmand basin and the Baluchistan area. 3) Regions of great depths (∼25-35 km) are located in the Farad block. 4) Regions of greatest depths (∼35-40 km) are located in the western part of the northern Afghanistan platform. The deduced thermal structure in western Afghanistan relates to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, while the shallow CPDs are related to crustal thinning. This study also shows that the geothermal systems are associated with complex magmatic and tectonic association of major intrusions and fault systems. Our results imply geothermal gradients ranging from 14 °C/km to 36 °C/km and heat-flow values ranging from 36 to 90 mW/m2 for the study area.

  8. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  9. Inventory of ground-water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, Robert E.; Akbari, M. Amin; Chornack, Michael P.; Mueller, David K.; Ruddy, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey began working with engineers at the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide hydrologic training and equipment and to apply these tools to build an inventory of water wells in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan. An inventory of 148 wells now includes information on well location, depth, and access. Water-level and water-quality measurements have been made at most of these wells. A water-level elevation map has been constructed, and general directions of ground-water flow have been defined. Ground-water flow in the Kabul Basin is primarily through saturated alluvium and other basin-fill sediments. The water-table surface generally mirrors topography, and ground water generally flows in the directions of surface-water discharge. The quality of ground water in the Kabul Basin varies widely. In some areas, ground-water quality is excellent, with low concentrations of dissolved solids and no problematic constituents. In other areas, however, high concentrations of dissolved solids and the presence of some constituents at concentrations deemed harmful to humans and crops render untreated ground water marginal or unsuitable for public supply and/or agricultural use. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of nitrate, boron, and dissolved solids, and an indication of fecal pollution in some parts of the basin. As Afghanistan emerges from years of conflict, as institutional capacities rejuvenate and grow, and as the need for wise water-management decisions continues, adequate data and a fuller understanding of the ground-water resource in the Kabul Basin will be imperative. The work described in this report represents only a modest beginning in what will be a long-term data-collection and interpretive effort.

  10. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic Framework studies provide background information that is the scientific basis for present and future studies of the environment, mineral and energy resources, paleoclimate, and hazards in Alaska. One paper presents the results of sedimentologic and paleontologic comparisons of lower Paleozoic, deep-water-facies rock units in central Alaska (Dumoulin and others). The authors show which of these units are likely to correlate with one another, suggest likely source regions, and provide a structural restoration of units that have been fragmented by large fault motions. A second framework paper provides a map, rock descriptions, and chemical compositions of volcanic rocks in a newly recognized, geologically young volcanic center in the Aleutian volcanic arc (Hildreth and others). A third paper presents an interesting summary of gravity changes that occurred in south-central Alaska during the great earthquake of 1964 and for the following 25 years (Barnes). Gravity changes correlate with land-elevation changes in some cases, but not in others, which means that different processes are responsible for the gravity changes.

  11. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Pennsylvania, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helm, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division 's objective of presenting impartial, accurate data and scientific analyses equally to all interested parties, current activities in Pennsylvania are described by a listing of project location, cooperator(s), period of project, project chief, headquarters office, problem, objective, approach, progress and plans. The basic data programs for surface water, groundwater, and water quality are described. Also included is an extensive listing of selected literature on water resources in Pennsylvania and information on obtaining these publications. A brief description of the Water Resources mission of the U.S. Geological Survey and a list of cooperators and types of funding is included and also a description of U.S. Geological Survey data bases and information sources. (USGS)

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan-Tajik Basin Provinces, Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan–Tajik Basin Provinces of Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The mean volumes were estimated at 962 million barrels of crude oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 582 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Amu Darya Basin Province and at 946 million barrels of crude oil, 7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Afghan–Tajik Basin Province.

  13. Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  14. Afghanistan Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Save the Children, Westport, CT.

    This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

  15. Pistacia in Afghanistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Pistacia have been reported within Afghanistan: Pistacia vera L., P. Khinjuk Stocks, P.atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech. f., and P. integerrima (=P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. f.). Information on their identification is provided based on recent literat...

  16. Why Is Afghanistan Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    As a former Peace Corps volunteer, avid traveler, classroom geography teacher, and writer, the author has been interested in Afghanistan for decades. Sparked by her own travel experiences in Kabul in February 1970, she made certain that her ninth grade World History/Geography students in south Central Los Angeles not only knew where Afghanistan…

  17. Storage and retrieval of ground-water data at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Maria W.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a computerized Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) file that contains information about wells and springs at sites from all States of the United States. This file contains data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and personnel of cooperating State, local and Federal agencies. The file is easily accessible to members or users of the National Water Data Exchange. Since the establishment of the GWSI file in 1974, the data base has grown 19% per year and contains information on about 770,000 sites as of February 1981. (USGS)

  18. Geologic map of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1968 original map compilation of E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map of the area of Zarkashan-Anguri gold deposits, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin in 1968. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in April 2010. This modified map, which includes a cross section, illustrates the geologic setting of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross section and includes modifications based on our examination of that and other documents, and based on observations made and sampling undertaken during our field visit. (Refer to the Introduction and the References in the Map PDF for an explanation of our methodology and for complete citations of the original map and related reports.) Elevations on the cross section are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map.

  19. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL REAL-TIME HYDROLOGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GOES SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey maintains the basic hydrologic data collection system for the United States. The Survey is upgrading the collection system with electronic communications technologies that acquire, telemeter, process, and disseminate hydrologic data in near real-time. These technologies include satellite communications via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Data Collection Platforms in operation at over 1400 Survey gaging stations, Direct-Readout Ground Stations at nine Survey District Offices and a network of powerful minicomputers that allows data to be processed and disseminate quickly.

  20. The role of the U.S. Geological Survey in the lithium industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility in the U.S. Department of the Interior to assess the nation's energy and mineral resources. The evaluation of reserves and resources of a commodity such as lithium should be a continuing process in the light of advancing technology and ever-growing knowledge of its geologic occurrence and geochemical behavior. Although reserves of lithium vary with market demand because of the investment required to find, develop, and appraise an ore body, total resources are a function of the geologic occurrence and geochemical behavior of lithium. By studying known deposits and publishing data on their origin and occurrence, the U.S. Geological Survey can aid in the discovery of new deposits and improve the resource base. Resource data are used both by the government and the private sector. Government funding for research on energy-related technologies such as electric vehicle batteries and fusion power requires assurance that there will be enough lithium available in time for commercialization. Questions of availability for all mineral commodities must be answered by the U.S. Geological Survey so that intelligent decisions can be made. ?? 1978.

  1. Thirty-ninth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1918-01-01

    The appropriations for the work of the United States Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1917-18 comprised items amounting to $1,750,520. The plan of operations as approved by the Secretary of the Interior contemplated surveys and investigations in the United States and Alaska designed mainly to obtain information or to encourage activities essential to the rapid and successful prosecution of the war. The results of the work are reported in detail in the following pages.

  2. Forty-fourth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1923-01-01

    The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1922 comprised items amounting to $1,450,940. In addition $119,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $8,000 and $5,050.93 for miscellaneous printing and binding and miscellaneous supplies, respectively, were made from Interior Department appropriations.

  3. Forty-third annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1922-01-01

    The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1922 comprised items amounting to $1,614,349. In addition $140,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $10,000 and $7,423.96 for miscellaneous printing and binding and for miscellaneous supplies, respectively, were made from Interior Department appropriations.

  4. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  5. NATIONAL WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM OF THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.

    1985-01-01

    National Water Information System (NWIS) has been designed as an interactive, distributed data system. It will integrate the existing, diverse data-processing systems into a common system. It will also provide easier, more flexible use as well as more convenient access and expanded computing, dissemination, and data-analysis capabilities. The NWIS is being implemented as part of a Distributed Information System (DIS) being developed by the Survey's Water Resources Division. The NWIS will be implemented on each node of the distributed network for the local processing, storage, and dissemination of hydrologic data collected within the node's area of responsibility. The processor at each node will also be used to perform hydrologic modeling, statistical data analysis, text editing, and some administrative work.

  6. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  7. Bibliography of glacier studies by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on glaciers written by U.S. Geological Survey members between 1896 and early 1996 are listed. The reports contain information about glacier and had at least one USGS author or was dependent on USGS data or projects. Extensive glacier studies have been done by the USGS in North America, Greenland, Iceland, as well as in Antarctica.

  8. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1975. Geological Survey Circular 765.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, C. Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    The United States Geological Survey has compiled data on water use in this country every fifth year since 1950. This document is the most recent of this series and presents data on water withdrawn for use in the United States in 1975. In the introduction, recent and present water use studies are discussed along with a description of the…

  9. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Elisabeth F.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen projects of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resource Division active in Alaska in 1990 are described. Each description includes information on period of project, chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1987 through January 1990. (USGS)

  10. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E. F., (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic data collection activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska are described. Seventeen projects were active in 1987. Each description includes information on period of project, project chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1984 through 1986. (USGS)

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water- Resources Program: Fiscal Year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Bruce K.; Mann, William B.

    1989-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and State and local agencies. It provides a balanced approach to the study and resolution of water-related problems and to acquiring hydrologic data. The principal program objectives are to: (1) collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources, and (2) appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through analytical and interpretive investigations. During fiscal year 1988, hydrologic data collection, interpretive investigations, and research were conducted by Geological Survey personnel in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with more than 1,000 local, State, and regional agencies. In fiscal year 1988, Federal funding of almost $60 million was matched by cooperating agencies, who also provided approximately $6 million unmatched for a total program of about $126 million. This amounted to more than 40 percent of the total funds for Geological Survey water-resources activities. This report presents examples of current (1988) investigations. It also lists about 250 water-resources investigations related to agricultural activities that the Geological Survey conducted from 1970 to 1988.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Aids Federal Agencies in ObtainingCommercial Satellite and Aerial Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a leading U.S. Federal civil agency in the implementation of the civil aspects of the Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP). The USGS is responsible for collecting inter-agency near-term requirements, establishing an operational infrastructure, and supporting the policy and other Federal agencies.

  13. A U.S. Geological Survey marker embedded in the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A U.S. Geological Survey marker embedded in the northeast corner of concrete abutment. This view also shows the basic abutment and tower footing arrangement. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  14. List of current and planned projects of the trace elements program, U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, Rollin C.

    1951-01-01

    This summary lists the Geological Survey's current and future investigations of uranium and other elements of related interest. The titles of the investigations are grouped under the headings listed in the table of contents. Entries in each category are listed alphabetically, according to author or project leader, and numbered consecutively.

  15. WATSTORE: National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System of the U. S. Geological Survey; user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchison, Norman E.

    1975-01-01

    with an IBM 370/155 computer. WATSTORE is now (1975) available to other Federal agencies and selected cooperators of the Geological Survey who acquire and(or) use water data. The WATSTORE User's Guide describes the systeb and how it operates.

  16. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Carbonates, Phyllosilicates, Sulfates, Altered Minerals, and Other Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Iron-bearing Minerals and Other Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Bibliography of Oklahoma hydrology; reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and principal cooperating agencies, 1901-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S., (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the hydrology of Oklahoma have been issued by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1901. This bibliography lists reports on hydrology in Oklahoma prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and the principal State cooperating agencies, the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Of the nearly 350 reports issued from 1901 through 1988, about 200 have been concerned primarily with groundwater; the remainder have dealt with some aspect of surface water, water quality, or geology. The reports are listed by agency and report type, and are indexed both by author and subject. (USGS)

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey's water resources program in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltshire, Denise A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey performs hydrologic investigations throughout the United States to appraise the Nation's water resources. The Geological Survey began its water-resources investigations in New York in 1895. To meet the objectives of assessing New York's water resources, the Geological Survey (1) monitors the quantity and quality of surface and ground water, (2) conducts investigations of the occurrence, availability, and chemical quality of water in specific areas of the State, (3) develops methods and techniques of data-collection and interpretation, (4) provides scientific guidance to the research community, to Federal, State, and local governments, and to the public, and (5) disseminates data and results of research through reports, maps, news releases, conferences, and workshops. Many of the joint hydrologic investigations are performed by the Geological Survey in cooperation with State, county, and nonprofit organizations. The data collection network in New York includes nearly 200 gaging stations and 250 observation wells; chemical quality of water is measured at 260 sites. Data collected at these sites are published annually and are filed in the WATSTORE computer system. Some of the interpretive studies performed by the Geological Survey in New York include (1) determining the suitability of ground-water reservoirs for public-water supply in urban areas, (2) assessing geohydrologic impacts of leachate from hazardous waste sites on stream and ground-water quality, (3) evaluating the effects of precipitation quality and basin characteristics on streams and lakes, and (4) developing digital models of the hydrology of aquifers to simulate ground-water flow and the interaction between ground water and streams.

  6. Ground-Water Levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akbari, M. Amin; Tahir, Mohammad; Litke, David W.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 69 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting in July 2004 and continuing through March 2007. The monitoring network is composed of existing water-supply wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Very little information is available about the construction or completion of the wells, and there are no geologic logs for the wells being monitored. The majority of the wells are completed in Tertiary or Quaternary sediments. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, by engineers from the Afghanistan Geological Survey using 100-meter electric tapes. Well depths in the study area ranged from 4.9 to 160 meters. Water levels below land surface ranged from less than 1.5 to 68 meters, while static water levels ranged from 1.5 to 40 meters. Seasonal water-level fluctuations from September 2005 through May 2006 ranged from less than 1 to 8 meters. Water level trends during the study period showed both increases and decreases. Drawdowns due to pumping ranged from 5 to 25 meters.

  7. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3460 and 3360, Kol-I-Namaksar (407), Ghuryan (408), Kawir-I-Naizar (413), and Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  8. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3064, 3066, 2964, and 2966, Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), Sreh-Chena (707), Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), and Samandkhan-Karez (713) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  9. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3772, 3774, 3672, and 3674, Gaz-Khan (313), Sarhad (314), Kol-I-Chaqmaqtin (315), Khandud (319), Deh-Ghulaman (320), and Ertfah (321) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3470 and the Northern Edge of Quadrangle 3370, Jalal-Abad (511), Chaghasaray (512), and Northernmost Jaji-Maydan (517) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. A history of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. Volume VII, 1966-79, integrating the disciplines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biesecker, James E.; Blakey, James F.; Feltz, Herman R.; George, John R.

    2000-01-01

    This volume is the seventh in the series of reports on the history of the water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey. The first four volumes were written by Robert Follansbee, and each is entitled "A History of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey."

  12. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3260 and 3160, Dasht-E-Chahe-Mazar (419), Anardara (420), Asparan (601), and Kang (602) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  13. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3168 and 3268, Yahya-Wona (703), Wersek (704), Khayr-Kot (521), and Urgon (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  14. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3368 and Part of Quadrangle 3370, Ghazni (515), Gardez (516), and Part of Jaji-Maydan (517) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  15. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3560 and 3562, Sir Band (402), Khawja-Jir (403), and Bala-Murghab (404) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3764 and 3664, Jalajin (117), Kham-Ab (118), Char Shangho (123), and Sheberghan (124) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3062 and 2962, Charburjak (609), Khanneshin (610), Gawdezereh (615), and Galachah (616) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3768 and 3668, Imam-Saheb (215), Rustaq (216), Baghlan (221), and Taloqan (222) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-I-Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3870 and 3770, Maymayk (211), Jamarj-I-Bala (212), Faydz-Abad (217), and Parkhaw (218) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. Earth science photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, Joseph K.; Abston, Carl C.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM set contains 1,500 scanned photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Library for use as a photographic glossary of elementary geologic terms. Scholars are encouraged to copy these public domain images into their reports or databases to enhance their presentations. High-quality prints and (or) slides are available upon request from the library. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with the ISO 9660 standard; however, it is intended for use on DOS-based computer systems only.

  3. Origins and early years of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, in the closing hours of the final session of the 45th Congress. The bill appropriating the money for sundry civil expenses of the Government during fiscal year 1880 was signed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Included in the bill was the provision for a new agency under the Department of the Interior; it was charged with responsibility for “classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.”

  4. Geologic map of the Haji-Gak iron deposit, Bamyan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1965 original map compilation of M.S. Smirnov and I.K. Kusov

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renaud, Karine M.; Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological-structural map of Hajigak iron-ore deposit, scale 1:10,000, which was compiled by M.S. Smirnov and I.K. Kusov in 1965. (Refer to the References Cited section in the Map PDF for complete citations of the original map and a related report.) USGS scientists, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original documents and also visited the field area in November 2009. This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the Haji-Gak iron deposit and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of these documents. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  5. Geologic map of the western Haji-Gak iron deposit, Bamyan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1965 original map compilation of V.V. Reshetniak and I.K. Kusov

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renaud, Karine M.; Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geologic-prospecting plan of western area of Hajigak iron-ore deposit, scale 1:2,000, which was compiled by V.V. Reshetniak and I.K. Kusov in 1965. (Refer to the References Cited section in the Map PDF for complete citations of the original map and related reports.) USGS scientists, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original documents and also visited the field area in November 2009. This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the western Haji-Gak iron deposit and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and includes modifications based on our examination of that document. We constructed the cross sections from data derived from the original map. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  6. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEAR REAL-TIME HYDROLOGICAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G.; ,

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

  7. Maps showing aeromagnetic survey and geologic interpretation of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey over part of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, on the southern Alaska Peninsula, was flown in 1977 as part of the Alaska mineral resource assessment program (AMRAP). Maps at scales 1:250,000 and 1:63,360 have been released on open-file (U.s. Geological Survey, 1978a, 1978b). This report includes the aeromagnetic map superimposed on the topographic base (sheet 1) and an interpretation map superimposed on the topographic and simplified geologic base (sheet 2). This discussion provides an interpretation of the aeromagnetic data with respect to regional geology, occurrence of ore deposits and prospects, and potential oil and gas resources. The survey was flown along northwest-southeast lines, spaced about 1.6 km apart, at a nominal elevation of about 300 m above the land surface. A proton-precession magnetometer was used for the survey, and the resulting digital data were computer contoured at intervals of 10 and 50 gammas (sheet 1). The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 1965, updated to 1977, was removed from the total field data.

  8. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  9. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balwanz; David

    2007-01-01

    From 1979 to 2002, Afghanistan was in a near constant state of war and exhibited some of the lowest levels of development in the world. While local conflicts and Taliban remnants continue to challenge Afghanistan's reconstruction and stabilization, significant progress has been made since the 2001 U.S. led invasion and subsequent fall of the…

  10. West Virginia Geological Survey's role in siting fluidized bed combustion facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.J.; King, Hobart M.; Ashton, K.C.; Kirstein, D.S.; McColloch, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A project is presented which demonstrates the role of geology in planning and siting a fluidized bed combustion facility. Whenever a project includes natural resource utilization, cooperation between geologists and design engineers will provide an input that could and should save costs, similar to the one stated in our initial premise. Regardless of whether cost reductions stem from a better knowledge of fuel and sorbent availabilities, or a better understanding of the local hydrology, susceptibility to mine-subsidence, or other geologic hazards, the geological survey has a vital role in planning. Input to planning could help the fluidized-bed developer and design-engineer solve some economic questions and stretch the financial resources at their disposal.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Science Support Strategy for Biscayne National Park and Surrounding Areas in Southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert-Lohmann, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Jones, Sonya A.; Reich, Chris D.; Wingard, Georgina L.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts a wide range of research in and around the Biscayne National Park region of southern Florida. This research encompasses the biologic, ecologic, meteorologic, geologic, and hydrologic components of the system, including water-quality analyses, ground-water modeling, hydrogeologic-data collection, ecologic-habitat evaluations, wetlands characterizations, biogeochemistry of ecosystems, and paleo-ecologic analyses. Relevant information is provided herein for researchers and managers interested in the Biscayne Bay area and about current U.S. Geological Survey efforts that address important resource protection and management issues. Specifically, managers and scientists are provided with information on current and recently completed U.S. Geological Survey projects and a sample listing of potential U.S. Geological Survey research projects addressing relevant issues that face the study area.

  12. Quaternary deposits in southwestern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    Geologic evidence in the closed Seistan Basin of southwestern Afghanistan and adjacent parts of Iran and Pakistan indicates that a lake as much as 65,000 sq km in size occupied this closed depression during Pleistocene time. The deposits consist mostly of lacustrine silt and clay and have a maximum observed thickness of about 250 m. A layer of alluvial gravels overlies the sequence. The deposits are probably early or middle Pleistocene in age; they are old enough to have sustained nearly 300 m of erosion over large areas but are not faulted or detectably folded in the central part of the basin although they are upwarped along the west edge of the basin. Sand dunes cover extensive areas of the basin. Dune orientation shows that the strong surface winds enter the basin blowing toward the south-southeast and then are deflected to the east, apparently as a response to mountains bordering the basin on its south side. The Gawdezereh, a large deflation depression, may be a result of an augmented excavation ability of winds that oc urs where turbulence is created along a zone of deflection. ?? 1974.

  13. The Energy Lands Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, fiscal year 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maberry, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Lands Program of the U.S. Geological Survey comprises several projects that conduct basic and interpretive earth-science investigations into the environmental aspects of energy-resource recovery, transmission, and conversion. More than half the coal reserves of the United States occur west of the Mississippi River; therefore, the program concentrates mostly on coal-producing regions in the Western interior. Additional studies involve the oil-shale region in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah, and coal-related work in Alaska and Appalachia. The work is done both by USGS personnel and under USGS grants and contracts through the Energy Lands Program to universities, State Geological Surveys, and private individuals. Maps and reports characterizing many aspects of environmental earth science are being prepared for areas of Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. Types of studies underway include bedrock, surficial, and interpretive geology; engineering geology, geochemistry of surface materials and plants; climatic conditions as they influence rehabilitation potential of mined lands; and feasibility of surface vs. underground mining. The purpose common to all investigations in the Energy Lands Program is to provide timely earth-science information for use by managers, policy-makers, engineers, scientists, planners, and others, in order to contribute to an environmentally sound, orderly, and safe development of the energy resources of the Nation.

  14. Resolution versus speckle relative to geologic interpretability of spaceborne radar images - A survey of user preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A survey conducted to evaluate user preference for resolution versus speckle relative to the geologic interpretability of spaceborne radar images is discussed. Thirteen different resolution/looks combinations are simulated from Seasat synthetic-aperture radar data of each of three test sites. The SAR images were distributed with questionnaires for analysis to 85 earth scientists. The relative discriminability of geologic targets at each test site for each simulation of resolution and speckle on the images is determined on the basis of a survey of the evaluations. A large majority of the analysts respond that for most targets a two-look image at the highest simulated resolution is best. For a constant data rate, a higher resolution is more important for target discrimination than a higher number of looks. It is noted that sand dunes require more looks than other geologic targets. At all resolutions, multiple-look images are preferred over the corresponding single-look image. In general, the number of multiple looks that is optimal for discriminating geologic targets is inversely related to the simulated resolution.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  16. McNutt to Be Nominated to Lead U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama announced on 9 July his intention to nominate Marcia McNutt as director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and science advisor to the Secretary of the Interior. McNutt, who served as AGU president from 2000 to 2002, currently is president and chief executive officer of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, in Moss Landing, Calif. “Scientific information from the U.S. Geological Survey is crucial to solving the most important problems facing society—finding sufficient supplies of fresh water and clean energy and providing accurate information that allows citizens to prepare intelligently for climate change. I look forward to leading such a respected institution at this critical time,” McNutt said.

  17. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey on organic materials in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Robert Andrew

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for investigating the Nation's water resources for source, availability, quantity, and quality. This paper describes the Geological Survey's research on organic substances in water and fluvial sediments. Results and ongoing studies are examined. Typical research includes: Separation, concentration, and chromatographic identification of volatile acids; free-flow electrophoresis fractionation of natural organic materials; identification of chlorinated insecticides in suspended sediments and bottom materials; fate of organics following underground disposal; determination of humic and fulvic acid stability constants and characterizations; identification of low-molecular weight chloroorganic constituents in water; PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl compound) distribution in aquatic environments; dissolved organic carbon in ground water; and improvement in separation and concentration schemes prior to analyses.

  18. Water-data program of the US Geological Survey in Kansas, fiscal year 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, R.K.; Medina, K.D.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is the principal Federal agency responsible for the collection of hydrologic data needed for the planning, development, use, and management of the water resources in Kansas. Hydrologic-data collection by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas began in 1895. The fiscal-year 1983 water-data program, operated in cooperation with several Federal , State, and local agencies, included 270 stations for collection of river, lake, and reservoir data, 1,940 wells for collection of ground-water data; 53 sampling stations and 215 wells for collection of water-quality data. This report provides a detailed description of the water-data program, including coordination and funding, data-collection activities, quality-assurance plans, availability of data, network design, and future needs for water data. (USGS)

  19. Strategic plan for the U.S. Geological Survey 1996 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    During the past two decades profound changes have swept across the scientific, social, and political landscape in which the U.S. Geological Survey (the USGS) functions and to which it is inextricably linked. Core values that were institutionally forged and universally embraced in the past have been vigorously challenged and even vigorously assaulted. Political, economic, and societal forces that coalesced in 1995 threatened the very existence of the U.S. Geological Survey an organization that we long believed to be vital and important to the well-being of the American people and to the advancement of the earth sciences. The near abolishment of the USGS was averted largely by our customers. It was their understanding of the value of our work and their demand that we continue to provide our products and services that ensured our near-term survival.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State cooperative water- resources program; fiscal year 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, B.K.; Mann, William B.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program (50-50 matching of funds) started in Kansas in 1895. During fiscal year (FY) 1987, hydrologic data collection, investigations, and research are being conducted in every state, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with 940 state, regional and local agencies. Federal funding of $55.3 million was matched by cooperating agencies; cooperators also provided $4.6 million unmatched, for a program total of about $115 million. The Cooperative Program accounted for almost 45% of the FY 1987 obligations of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. The principal areas of emphasis during the year included groundwater contamination, stream quality, water supply and demand, and hydrologic hazards. Information is presented on program functions and priorities. Data collection activities are also described as is work related to water resources contamination. Several examples of current (1987) investigations are provided. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Planning and acquiring a national center for the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, William A.

    1993-01-01

    This history of building a National Center for the U.S. Geological Survey is a "nuts and bolts" account of the planning, design and construction, forgotten happenings, and frustrations in the planning and authorization process, and the political and other considerations which played a significant role in the culmination of a dream about a National Center for the Geological Survey. This documented data of unique procedures in the acquisition and financing of Federal buildings, the choice and development of the building site, and its location as a contribution to the enhancement of the "new town" concept of the 1960's in the planning and development of the National Capital Area, may well provide guidance in the future to those who have to decide whether a building of true worth should be preserved.

  2. Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Stress and Sediment Mobility Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Butman, Bradford; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Signell, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Sea Floor Stress and Sediment Mobility Database contains estimates of bottom stress and sediment mobility for the U.S. continental shelf. This U.S. Geological Survey database provides information that is needed to characterize sea floor ecosystems and evaluate areas for human use. The estimates contained in the database are designed to spatially and seasonally resolve the general characteristics of bottom stress over the U.S. continental shelf and to estimate sea floor mobility by comparing critical stress thresholds based on observed sediment texture data to the modeled stress. This report describes the methods used to make the bottom stress and mobility estimates, statistics used to characterize stress and mobility, data validation procedures, and the metadata for each dataset and provides information on how to access the database online.

  3. Water-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Bruce K.; Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is the principal Federal agency responsible for the collection of hydrologic data needed for the planning, development, use, and management of the Nation 's water resources. These data are the foundation necessary for conducting analytical and interpretive appraisals describing the occurrence and availability of surface and ground waters, and their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The data are likewise required for basic and problem-oriented research in hydraulics, hydrology, and related fields. Hydrologic data collection by the Geological Survey began in 1894. Current operations include about 17,000 stations for collection of river, lake, and reservoir data; about 27,000 wells for collection of ground-water data; and almost 17,000 stations for collection of water-quality information. These activities are described as well as the means by which the data are made available, and how the program is coordinated with other agencies. (USGS)

  4. Fifty-eighth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1937-01-01

    During the fiscal year 1937 the Geological Survey continued its systematic work in investigating, mapping, and reporting on the geology, the mineral and water resources, and the physical features of the United States. The results of this work are basic in all conservational activities, as those who plan and direct the conservation policies toward the wise development and use of the Nation's resources must first have the facts about the quantity, quality, distribution, and availability of those resources and adequate maps with which to pursue and record further studies. Through its technical supervision of prospecting, mining, and producing operations on public and Indian land under permits, leases, and licenses, the Survey was directly engaged in the practical application of conservation policies.

  5. The national land use data program of the US Geological Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Witmer, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Data and Analysis (LUDA) Program which provides a systematic and comprehensive collection and analysis of land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis is described. Maps are compiled at about 1:125,000 scale showing present land use/cover at Level II of a land use/cover classification system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in conjunction with other Federal and state agencies and other users. For each of the land use/cover maps produced at 1:125,000 scale, overlays are also compiled showing Federal land ownership, river basins and subbasins, counties, and census county subdivisions. The program utilizes the advanced technology of the Special Mapping Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, high altitude NASA photographs, aerial photographs acquired for the USGS Topographic Division's mapping program, and LANDSAT data in complementary ways.

  6. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  7. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  8. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), and National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Hot dry rock and the U.S. geological survey: a question of priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John H.

    1996-01-01

    The enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 saw the assignment of definite responsibilities relating to hot dry rock (HDR) to the US Geological Survey (USGS). This mandate provided some explicit guidelines and individual tasks in areas in which the USGS already had close ties to the Department of Energy and a number of its national laboratories. This paper discusses various tasks in terms of priorities being conducted by USGS as response to the Act.

  10. Past, present, and future of water data delivery from the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of national water databases managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, including surface-water, groundwater, water-quality, and water-use data. These are readily accessible to users through web interfaces and data services. Multiple perspectives of data are provided, including search and retrieval of real-time data and historical data, on-demand current conditions and alert services, data compilations, spatial representations, analytical products, and availability of data across multiple agencies.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources, 2000 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-10-20

    From 2000 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted 139 quantitative assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations within the United States. This report documents those assessments more fully than previously done by providing detailed documentation of both the assessment input and output. This report also compiles the data into spreadsheet tables that can be more readily used to provide analogs for future assessments, especially for hypothetical continuous accumulations.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Menlo Park campus; self-guided tour

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Tongue, Mara G.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), established by an act of Congress in 1879, is the Nation's largest natural science and civilian mapping agency. The USGS works in cooperation with more than 2,000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial scientific information. This information is used to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, safeguard the Nation's natural resources, and enhance quality of life through careful monitoring of water, biological, energy, and mineral resources.

  13. Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

    1952-01-01

    The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

  14. White House Proposes 4% Increase to U.S. Geological Survey Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Although funding for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) pales compared with that for NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and other U.S. federal science agencies, the overall percent increase for USGS for fiscal year (FY) 2015 would be bigger than for those other agencies if Congress goes along with the budget that the White House proposed on 4 March.

  15. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  18. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwell, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Codes for the unique identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems are presented. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new books. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Josefson, Beverly M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  20. An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

  1. Consanguineous marriages in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Afghanistan populations. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 7140 from the following provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunduz, Samangan and Takhar. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The proportion of consanguineous marriages in the country was 46.2%, ranging from 38.2% in Kabul province to 51.2% in Bamyan province. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was 0.0277, and ranged from 0.0221 to 0.0293 in these two regions. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (p<0.001). First cousin marriages (27.8%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (6.9%), second cousin (5.8%), beyond second cousin (3.9%) and first cousin once removed (1.8%). There were significant differences between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (χ2=177.6, df=25, p<0.001). Tajiks (Soni) and Turkmens (also Pashtuns) showed the lowest (α=0.0250) and highest (α=0.0297) mean inbreeding coefficients, respectively, among the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The study shows that Afghanistan's populations, like other Islamic populations, have a high level of consanguinity.

  2. The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C.R.; Jeffers, Sharon

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division has improved support to the agencies field offices by the consolidation of all instrumentation support services in a single facility. This facility known as the Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) is located at the National Space Technology Laboratory, Mississippi, about 50 miles east of New Orleans, Louisiana. The HIF is responsible for design and development, testing, evaluation, procurement, warehousing, distribution and repair of a variety of specialized hydrologic instrumentation. The centralization has resulted in more efficient and effective support of the Survey 's hydrologic programs. (USGS)

  3. Forty-sixth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1925-01-01

    SIR: The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1925 included 10 items, amounting to $1,735,423. In addition $110,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $10,000 for miscellaneous printing and binding and of $4,944.75 for miscellaneous supplies were made to the Survey from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of this report. The balance shown is $15,175.31. Cooperation with the States and other public agencies continued as in other years. The value of the mapping and investigative work of the Survey and the necessity of expediting the completion of this physical inventory of the. country's resources is now so widely recognized that 37 States as well as many counties and municipalities shared with the Federal Government in meeting the cost. The total amount thus contributed was $739, 537. 94. Funds aggregating $231,208.90 were placed to the credit of the Geological Survey for services rendered to other Government bureaus and offices. Balances at the end of the year amounted to about $15,000, and the total expenditure, measuring the amount of work accomplished during the year, was $2,690,994.53.

  4. U. S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water-Resources Program Fiscal Year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a part- nership between the U.S. Geological Survey and State and local agencies. It provides a balanced approach to the study and resolution of water- related problems and to acquiring hydrologic data. The principal program objectives are to: (1) collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources, and (2) appraise the availa- bility and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through analytical and interpretive investi- gations. During fiscal year 1993, hydrologic data collection, interpretive investigations, and research were conducted by Geological Survey personnel in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and in several territories in cooperation with about 1,100 local, State, and regional agencies. In fiscal year 1993, Federal funding of $63.5 million was matched by cooperating agencies, which also provided almost $23 million unmatched for a total program of about $150 million. This amounted to nearly 40 percent of the total funds for Geological Survey water- resources activities. This report presents examples of current (1993) investigations. It also provides updated information on Cooperative Program investigations related to agricultural activities.

  5. Cooperative activities of the U.S. Geological Survey with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, fiscal years 1983-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, A. E.; Scott, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, has been involved in numerous cooperative activities with Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Assistance agreements, which include both grants and cooperative agreements, have fostered many educational research and development activities. These activities have included site visits, employment opportunities, curriculum development, seminars, and research projects. The activities are consistent with the Geological Survey's mission of conducting earth-science research and dissemination of the results. The cooperative have benefitted the Historically Black Colleges and Universities, their students, and the Geological Survey.

  6. 43 CFR 3836.14 - What other requirements must geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys meet to qualify as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., geochemical, or geophysical surveys meet to qualify as assessment work? 3836.14 Section 3836.14 Public Lands... Assessment Work § 3836.14 What other requirements must geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys meet to qualify as assessment work? (a) Qualified experts must conduct the surveys and verify the...

  7. 43 CFR 3836.14 - What other requirements must geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys meet to qualify as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., geochemical, or geophysical surveys meet to qualify as assessment work? 3836.14 Section 3836.14 Public Lands... Assessment Work § 3836.14 What other requirements must geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys meet to qualify as assessment work? (a) Qualified experts must conduct the surveys and verify the...

  8. Topical index and bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Diane; Houser, Shirley S.

    1952-01-01

    Part 1, the topical index, lists the titles of reports prepared from 1941 to December 1952, in conjunction with the Geological Survey's program of uranium and other elements of related interest. It includes not only completed Trace Elements reports and those now in preparation, but also Survey publications, publications by Survey personnel in scientific journals, and open-fie releases. The titles are grouped topically under the headings listed in the table of contents. Entries in each category are listed alphabetically, by author, and numbered consecutively. Many of the reports have been cross-indexed, where appropriate. The classification of the Trace Elements reports, insofar as it is known, has been indicated after the title of the report. The classification of some of the earlier Trace Elements reports is uncertain. The Geological Survey does not have additional copies of most of the reports listed, but copies of some of the completed reports can be loaned on request to organizations officially cooperating with the Atomic Energy Commission. Many Trace Elements reports have been made available to the public, either by open-file release, reproduction by Technical Information Service, Oak Ridge (referred to as TIS), by publication as a Geological Survey circular or bulletin or by a publication in a scientific journal. This information is given, following the title of the report. If the abstract of a Trace Element report has been published in Nuclear Science Abstracts, it is noted by the initials NSA following the title of the report. Part 2 is a reference guide to information on the Trace Elements program that is available to the public. This information is categorized according to the type of publication or release.

  9. Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

  10. Fortieth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1919-01-01

    The fortieth annual report of the United States Geological Survey is an appropriate place in which to compare the present scope of the work with that of the work done during the first year of this organization. The growth of the Survey is suggested by a comparison of the appropriations for 1918-19, which comprise items amounting to $1,437,745, with the total appropriation of $106,000 for the first year, 1879-80. During the 40 years the personnel has been increased from 39 to 967. The corresponding growth in public functions of the organization, which is one of the oldest of the Federal scientific bureaus, can be inferred from the detailed report of activities which makes up the greater part of this volume. The past year has been the most notable in the Survey's history, as it marked the completion of the period of its largest national contribution, and the later half of the year was largely a time of readjustment of program. It seems opportune, therefore, that the special topics discussed in the pages immediately following should be forward-looking and suggestive of the larger usefulness planned for the Geological Survey in the future.

  11. Selected literature on water-resources investigations in New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey, through 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, F. L.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the importance and complexity of the water resources of New Jersey today, there is a need for a current bibliography to serve as a basis for future water resources studies. This report lists about 400 book reports, map reports, and articles that deal with the water resources of New Jersey published through 1986. The publications are grouped under three major headings: (1) publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, (2) publications of State agencies prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, and (3) other publications, such as technical journals prepared by or co-authored by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Most of the publications are available for inspection at the West Trenton office of the U.S. Geologic Survey and at large public and university libraries. Ordering information is given for those publications that are for sale. (USGS)

  12. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: fiscal years 2009 and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fordham, Monique; Montour, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    Although this report uses the term “resources,” the U.S. Geological Survey, through its interdisciplinary research, acknowledges the interconnectedness of the Earth and all the life forms that live upon it.

  13. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jam-Kashem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  14. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  15. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  16. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  17. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  18. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  19. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  20. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  1. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  2. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  3. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  4. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  5. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  6. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  7. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  8. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  9. Preliminary Field Report of the United States Geological Survey of Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer

    1869-01-01

    SIR : In accordance with your instructions dated Washington, April 1, 1869, I have the honor to transmit my preliminary field report of the United States geological survey of Colorado and New Mexico, conducted by me, under your direction, during the past season. A portion of your instructions is as follows :  “You will proceed to the field of your labors as soon as the necessary arrangements can be made and the season will permit, and your attention will be especially directed to the geological, mineralogical and agricultural resources of the Territories herein designated; you will be required to ascertain the age, order of succession, relative position, dip, and comparative thickness of the different strata and geological formations, and examine with care all the beds, veins, and other deposits, of ores, coals, clays, marls, peat, and other mineral substances, as well as the fossil remains of the different formations; and you will also make full collections in geology, mineralogy, and paleontology, to illustrate your notes taken in the field.”

  10. History of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J. (compiler)

    2006-01-01

    At various times during the period when it was part of the National Biological Service (1993–96), the Center served as the administrative and programmatic home base for a wide number of science activities in numerous Western states (table 1). This reflected the previous fragmentation of biological and related science efforts across resource management agencies in the U.S. Department of the Interior. The organization of the 2 Center within the National Biological Service was a manifestation of the desire of the Secretary of the Interior to consolidate its biological science activities in administratively independent entities that would ensure that the science retained its objectivity. Congress later recognized the need to maintain a hierarchical independence between biological science and resource management in the Department. However, Congress also saw that the U.S. Geological Survey, with its long history of objective science support to the nation in geology, water resources, geography, and remote sensing, was a suitable alternative home for these biological science functions. Thus, in 1996 Congress transferred the biological resources functions of the National Biological Service to the U.S. Geological Survey. Detailed overviews and opinions about the history and policy issues surrounding the formation and subsequent fate of the National Biological Service can be found elsewhere (for example Cohn, 1993, 2005; Kaufman, 1993; Kreeger, 1994; Pulliam, 1995, 1998a,b; Reichhardt, 1994; Wagner, 1999)

  11. State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M. Lee; Richard, Stephen M.

    2015-03-13

    The State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System project is built on the work of the project managed by Boise State University to design and build the National Geothermal Data System, by deploying it nationwide and populating it with data principally from State Geological Surveys through collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). This project subsequently incorporated the results of the design-build and other DOE-funded projects in support of the NGDS. The NGDS (www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to millions of data records, images, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience, production, and land use data in 30+ categories to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information gathered from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored development and research projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers throughout all 50 states. These data are relevant to geothermal energy exploration and development, but also have broad applicability in other areas including natural resources (e.g., energy, minerals, water), natural hazards, and land use and management.

  12. Access routes to the United States Geological Survey's National Center, Reston, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1977-01-01

    The National Center: The U.S. Geological Survey, established in 1879 as a bureau in the Department of the Interior, is one of the Federal Government's major earth science research and fact-finding agencies. By 1960, the continued growth of the Survey's natural resources and environmental programs and activities led to the agency's headquarters personnel being housed in more than 30 different buildings scattered throughout the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. In 1962, Congress approved the construction of a National Center to consolidate the overall Survey's headquarters effort. A site in Reston's industrial/educational complex was selected and on July 15, 1971, ground was broken for the John Wesley Powell Federal Building.

  13. Fifty-ninth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1938-01-01

    Basically important in the general program of conservation and development were the results of the Geological Survey's work during the fiscal year 1938. Investigations of the Nation's mineral and water supplies were conducted with all possible vigor and dispatch, thousands of square miles were surveyed for topographic maps, and technical supervision was given to prospecting, mining, and producing operations on public and Indian lands. This work was accomplished through the use of the regularly appropriated funds, the co-operative funds from States, counties, and municipalities, the funds transferred from other departments of the Government for types of work within the Survey's field, and the emergency funds derived chiefly from the Public Works Administration and devoted largely to mapping of various types and to studies of floods. The aggregate expenditures amounted to $5,248,000, which was 265,000 less than the amount expended during the preceding year.

  14. Programs and activities of the Missouri District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, fiscal year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Wanietia M.

    1979-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive investigations. The data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes the data-collection activities and investigations in Missouri for the 1979 fiscal year and provides an extensive list of water-resources references for the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Bibliography of Oklahoma hydrology; reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and principal cooperating agencies, 1901-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J. S., (compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports on hydrology in Oklahoma prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and the principal State cooperating agencies, the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Included are citations of about 550 reports, abstracts, and journal articles issued from 1901 through July 1993. The reports are listed by agency and report type, and are indexed by author, subject, and USGS report number.

  16. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the water resources of Florida, 1886-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Carmen A.; Hoy, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released a listing of its reports on water resources in Florida for the period 1886-1995. Most of the reports contained in the listing were prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with numerous public agencies in Florida. The compilation has a full bibliographic list of reports arranged alphabetically by senior author. In addition, the reports are indexed by geographic areas and by special topics.

  17. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  18. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  19. Map and Database of Probable and Possible Quaternary Faults in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Haller, K.M.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in Afghanistan, has prepared a digital map showing the distribution of probable and suspected Quaternary faults in Afghanistan. This map is a key component of a broader effort to assess and map the country's seismic hazards. Our analyses of remote-sensing imagery reveal a complex array of tectonic features that we interpret to be probable and possible active faults within the country and in the surrounding border region. In our compilation, we have mapped previously recognized active faults in greater detail, and have categorized individual features based on their geomorphic expression. We assigned mapped features to eight newly defined domains, each of which contains features that appear to have similar styles of deformation. The styles of deformation associated with each domain provide insight into the kinematics of the modern tectonism, and define a tectonic framework that helps constrain deformational models of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The modern fault movements, deformation, and earthquakes in Afghanistan are driven by the collision between the northward-moving Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. The patterns of probable and possible Quaternary faults generally show that much of the modern tectonic activity is related to transfer of plate-boundary deformation across the country. The left-lateral, strike-slip Chaman fault in southeastern Afghanistan probably has the highest slip rate of any fault in the country; to the north, this slip is distributed onto several fault systems. At the southern margin of the Kabul block, the style of faulting changes from mainly strike-slip motion associated with the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, to transpressional and transtensional faulting. North and northeast of the Kabul block, we recognized a complex pattern of potentially active strike-slip, thrust, and normal faults that form a

  20. The interoperability skill of the Geographic Portal of the ISPRA - Geological Survey of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pia Congi, Maria; Campo, Valentina; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delogu, Daniela; Ventura, Renato; Battaglini, Loredana

    2010-05-01

    The Geographic Portal of Geological Survey of Italy (ISPRA) available at http://serviziogeologico.apat.it/Portal was planning according to standard criteria of the INSPIRE directive. ArcIMS services and at the same time WMS and WFS services had been realized to satisfy the different clients. For each database and web-services the metadata had been wrote in agreement with the ISO 19115. The management architecture of the portal allow it to encode the clients input and output requests both in ArcXML and in GML language. The web-applications and web-services had been realized for each database owner of Land Protection and Georesources Department concerning the geological map at the scale 1:50.000 (CARG Project) and 1:100.000, the IFFI landslide inventory, the boreholes due Law 464/84, the large-scale geological map and all the raster format maps. The portal thus far published is at the experimental stage but through the development of a new graphical interface achieves the final version. The WMS and WFS services including metadata will be re-designed. The validity of the methodology and the applied standards allow to look ahead to the growing developments. In addition to this it must be borne in mind that the capacity of the new geological standard language (GeoSciML), which is already incorporated in the web-services deployed, will be allow a better display and query of the geological data according to the interoperability. The characteristics of the geological data demand for the cartographic mapping specific libraries of symbols not yet available in a WMS service. This is an other aspect regards the standards of the geological informations. Therefore at the moment were carried out: - a library of geological symbols to be used for printing, with a sketch of system colors and a library for displaying data on video, which almost completely solves the problems of the coverage point and area data (also directed) but that still introduces problems for the linear data

  1. Times and locations of explosions; U.S. Geological Survey 1962 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roller, John C.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey detonated 86 large charges of chemical explosives in the western United States from 6 June to 9 August 1962, in a study of crustal structure in the western United States. This Technical Letter consists of two tables containing information about these explosions. Table I gives a brief geographical description of the shotpoints, and Table II gives the date, time, location, charge size, surface elevation, and some general information about the shots. In the Remarks column (Table II), the configuration and depth of most of the charges are given. This part of the table is not complete, as some of this information has not yet been compiled. Three types of explosives were used in the program. These were: Nitramon WW, a carbo-nitrate blasting agent; Composition B, a mixture of RDX and TNT; and Tovex-Gel, a non-nitroglycerin blasting slurry. The loading, firing, and surveying was done by United ElectroDynamics, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The timing was done by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering