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  1. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  2. Spotlight: Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Felt, J C

    1988-05-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country approximately the size of Texas with an estimated population of 14.5 million. The fertility level (6.7 children per women) is estimated to be very high, as is the mortality rate (183 infant deaths/1,000 live births). Demographic data sources are scarce, and current estimates are based on a 1972-1974 series of surveys and a 1979 census which enumerated only 55-60% of the population. The government of Afghanistan, a Marxist state, has asked for international aid to improve data collection and analysis. Compounding the problems of accurate data collection is the state of civil war that has existed in Afghanistan since the Marxist coup in in 1978 and Soviet occupation in 1979. The war impelled the emigration of 5 million refugees, who live in camps in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. Although the population decline that resulted from this emigration is significant, the repatriation of the refugees will play a role in determining the population dynamics for the next decade, as will the withdrawal of Soviet troops -- expected in 1990. Because of Afghanistan's central-Asia location, there is a unique ethnic and linguistic mixture of tribes. The largest group is the Pushtus, who make up 40% of the population. Afghan Persian and Pushtu are the dominant languages, and 98% of all Afghans are Moslem. The economy is largely agricultural and half the cultivated land must be irrigated. 85% of the population live in rural areas and another 2.5 million are nomads. The low status of women and female children, low levels of health care, and high fertility contribute to the lower life expectancy of females over males. Although the government supports contraceptive services, such services are inadequate, and sterilization is illegal. The withdrawal of Soviet troops and the possible end to civil war between the Kabul government and the rebel factions, and the effects of repatriation of refugees will determine the direction of Afghanistan's future

  3. Afghanistan: Reconstituting a Collapsed State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    the pieces back in place and hoping Afghanistan will reanimate automatically as a functioning state. It may surprise some to know that the main...mission for several years, and during this window of opportunity, the ANA can be utilized for greater political effect.51 The 18,000 coalition forces and...internal dissension, and loss of its former Pakistani sponsors have severely reduced its capabilities.52 More promising, Taliban militants recently

  4. Afghanistan: A Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.

    Afghanistan and its people are not well known or understood by the United States, yet many U.S. people now consider the U.S. and Afghanistan to be at war. How is it possible to know the enemy? This book offers a complete, but not exhaustive source of information about Afghanistan, the land and its people. The book is intended as a guide for anyone…

  5. Democratization of Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan Transition Under Threat, ed. Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra (Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), 34. 20 Charles L. Barry and...ed. Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra (Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), 105. 25 Ibid. 26 Charles L. Barry and Samuel R. Greene, What...Priorities for the Future.” In Afghanistan Transition Under Threat, edited by Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , 89-148. Canada: Wilfrid Laurier

  6. Applying Realism Theory in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    the Afghanistan strategy in order to meet changing national strategic objectives. Most recently the Obama Administration, following a nine month...Administration and the Obama Administration adjusted and modified the Afghanistan strategy in order to meet changing national strategic objectives. Most...modified the Afghanistan strategy in order to meet changing national strategic objectives. Unfortunately for the United States, the Bush

  7. Terrorism, Insurgency, and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Afghanistan and Kashmir, through groups such as Lashkar e-Tayyiba (LT), Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM), Jamiat Ulema- i-Islam’s Fazlur Rehman faction (JUI-F...British dubbed them “Mad Mullah movements.” There have been many. A similar figure to Mullah Omar, Mirza Ali Khan —a Tori KhelWaziri whowas known to

  8. Why Is Afghanistan Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    As a former Peace Corps volunteer, avid traveler, classroom geography teacher, and writer, the author has been interested in Afghanistan for decades. Sparked by her own travel experiences in Kabul in February 1970, she made certain that her ninth grade World History/Geography students in south Central Los Angeles not only knew where Afghanistan…

  9. Pakistan and Afghanistan Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In March and April 1968, the author was a guest of the U.S. Information Service on a two week trip to Pakistan and Afghanistan. During this stay, 30 libraries in five cities were visited. This paper describes this trip and relates the library happenings in these countries. It was obvious that Pakistan librarianship had advanced beyond the…

  10. Afghanistan Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Save the Children, Westport, CT.

    This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

  11. UNO's Afghanistan Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, M. D.

    This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

  12. Area Handbook for Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harvey H.; And Others

    This handbook is one of a series prepared by Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of The American University as a convenient compilation of basic fact for American military and other personnel overseas. It deals with the political, social, economic, and military developments since 1959, which have contributed to Afghanistan's continuing national stability…

  13. Pistacia in Afghanistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Pistacia have been reported within Afghanistan: Pistacia vera L., P. Khinjuk Stocks, P.atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech. f., and P. integerrima (=P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. f.). Information on their identification is provided based on recent literat...

  14. Current challenges and future achievements of blood transfusion service in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, A M; Sanei Moghaddam, E; Masoud, A; Faisal, H

    2012-10-01

    Afghanistan is a country with population of over 28 million. The long term conflicts have devastated country's qualified resources including human resources. ANBSTS was established by MoPH as the country national blood service. Currently in addition to central and regional blood centers of ANBSTS many other hospitals have their own transfusion services. Blood donation in Afghanistan mainly depends on replacement donors. Donor selection and donor interview are not very efficient. Most of the blood in Afghanistan is administered as fresh whole blood. Although blood transfusion services in Afghanistan require more efforts to be fully efficient, based on recent improvements in working procedures of ANBSTS a promising future for blood transfusion services in Afghanistan is predicted.

  15. Sustainable Construction in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    An Atlas of Indigenous Domestic Architecture, 148. 121 Ibid., 25. 122 Barnett R . Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and... Kidwell , “Public War, Private Fight? The United States and Private Military Companies,” Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper 12 (Fort Leavenworth...Kennedy, Joseph F. Building without Borders: Sustainable Construction for the Global Village. Gabriola, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 2004. Kidwell

  16. Afghanistan Narcotics: The Bigger Battle Toward Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    65  iv Table of Figures Figure 1. Poppy ...Cultivation in Afghanistan 1996-2006......................................................... 13 Figure 2. Opium poppy cultivation change in Afghanistan...20 Figure 4. Opium Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan (ha), 2003-2007 .................................... 20 Figure 5. Salaries in Afghanistan

  17. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balwanz; David

    2007-01-01

    From 1979 to 2002, Afghanistan was in a near constant state of war and exhibited some of the lowest levels of development in the world. While local conflicts and Taliban remnants continue to challenge Afghanistan's reconstruction and stabilization, significant progress has been made since the 2001 U.S. led invasion and subsequent fall of the…

  18. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  19. Afghanistan Glacier Diminution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of melt water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with glacierized drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped glacier regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for glacier-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that glaciers, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many glaciers declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock glaciers, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of glacier location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest glaciers occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 glaciers from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 glacier-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated glacier forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent glacier-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and glacier retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary

  20. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-14

    1 For text, see [http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/afghan/afghan-agree.htm]. Order Code RS21922 Updated October 14, 2008 Afghanistan: Government ...However, ethnic disputes have been confined to political debate and competition, enabling Karzai to focus on improving governance , reversing security...deterioration and on his re-election bid in the fall of 2009. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post- War Governance , Security, and U.S. Policy, by

  2. Securing Afghanistan’s Future Against Opium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    International Studies, 2007), 51. 38 Blanchard, Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy, 35. 39 Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan Transition Under...Geoffrey and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan: Transition Under Threat. Waterloo, Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation and Wilfrid Laurier

  3. Seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This publication describes the seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity and is intended for use in seismic hazard studies of that nation. Included are digital files with information on earthquakes that have been recorded in Afghanistan and vicinity through mid-December 2004. Chapter A provides an overview of the seismicity and tectonics of Afghanistan and defines the earthquake parameters included in the 'Summary Catalog' and the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects.' Chapter B summarizes compilation of the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' and documents their formats. The 'Summary Catalog' itself is presented as a comma-delimited ASCII file, the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects' is presented as an html file, and the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' are presented as flat ASCII files. Finally, this report includes as separate plates a digital image of a map of epicenters of earthquakes occurring since 1964 (Plate 1) and a representation of areas of damage or strong shaking from selected past earthquakes in Afghanistan and vicinity (Plate 2).

  4. Progress and Pain in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoepf, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Academics in Afghanistan, with help from abroad, are struggling to repair the damage done to the country's higher-education system by decades of occupation, civil war, and fundamentalist Taliban rule. However, sporadic foreign aid, a lack of basic resources, and overwhelming demand leave plenty of room for improvement in the otherwise remarkable…

  5. Communicable disease control in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Mohammad S; Powell, Clydette L; Bano, Rashida A; Quddus, Arshad D; Shah, Syad K; Ogden, Ellyn L; Butt, Waqar R; Moideen, Mohd Arshil

    2014-01-01

    Among public health challenges in Afghanistan, communicable diseases still predominate because the epidemiologic transition to chronic disease has not yet occurred. Afghanistan's 10-year journey to improve its response to communicable disease is reflected in varying degrees of progress and innovation, all while long-standing conflict and geographic inaccessibility limit outreach and effective service delivery to vulnerable populations. Although Afghanistan is close to achieving polio elimination, other reportable communicable diseases are only slowly achieving their goals and objectives through targeted, sustained programmatic efforts. The introduction of disease early warning systems has allowed for identification and investigation of outbreaks within 48 hours. Tuberculosis case detection has risen over the last 10 years, and treatment success rates have been sustained at World Health Organization targets over the last 5 years at 85%. These successes are in large part due to increased government commitment, Global Fund support, training of community health workers and improved laboratory capabilities. Malaria cases dropped between 2002 and 2010. HIV/AIDS has been kept at low levels except in only certain sub-sectors of the population. In order to build on these achievements, Afghanistan will need a comprehensive strategy for all communicable diseases, with better human and infrastructure development, better multi-sectoral development and international collaboration.

  6. Loess failure in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Schettler, Megan Jensen; Weihs, Brandon J.

    Mass movements in northeastern Afghanistan include large-scale rockslides and complex slope failures, as well as failures in loess. The loess region in northeastern Afghanistan occurs in the Badakhshan and Takhar provinces and was likely created by dust blown to the east from the Karakum Desert and the alluvial plains of northern Afghanistan. This loessic dust was deposited against the Hindu Kush mountain range which rises up along the eastern half of Afghanistan as a result of transpressional tectonism. It overlies less permeable crystalline and sedimentary bedrocks such as Triassic granite, Proterozoic gneiss, and Miocene and Pliocene clastics in the area with the largest concentration of slope failures. Thirty-four loess slides and flows were mapped and analyzed using remote satellite imagery over digital elevation models on Google Earth™. This source enabled location, classification, and measurement of failures. Findings revealed that most failed slopes faced north, west, and northwest. This trend can be explained possibly as different moisture contents resulting from the primarily westerly wind direction, which may cause more precipitation to be deposited on west-facing slopes, and sun position during the hottest part of the day. Additionally, the easterly rising Hindu Kush range may cause more slope area to face west in the study region. Other contributing factors could be the very high seismicity of the area, which may cause rapid dry fluidized loess flows, and landscape modification by humans. Several loess slope failures appear to be generated by water concentration through irrigation ditches and possible rutted tire tracks, which can create tunneling between the loess and its less permeable bedrock. Causes and effects of loess failure in Afghanistan need to be investigated in more depth. Further study may lead to the adoption of more sustainable and safe farming practices and more informed housing locations, which may prevent loss of property, crop, and

  7. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  8. Indicators of NGO Security in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-14

    warlord in charge of the province, the aid group is less likely to come under attack. Despite their many faults , the Taliban government curbed the...province share a boundary with Afghanistan border?(Yes/No) Source: Afghanistan Information Management System shapefile 7. BorderPak- Does the...province share a boundary with Pakistan? (Yes/No) Source: Afghanistan Information Management System shapefile 8. Foodpop#- Beneficiary population of

  9. Measles epidemic sweeps through Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    2000-04-22

    This article reports that the measles epidemic continues to spread in at least 7 of the war-ravaged Afghanistan's 30 provinces. The WHO estimated that the case-fatality rate has reached 8-13%. This was further exacerbated by a lack of the most basic health service, which led to thousands of children malnourished and nonimmunized. In Badakhshan province, the districts of Darwaz, Shegnan, Kishem, Khawhan, Kalafgan, Chal and Ishkamish were areas affected by the epidemic. On the other hand, in Samangan province the scene was worst in the district of Darra Souf. Likewise, in the western province of Afghanistan districts of Tolak and Kush Rabat Sango, child death due to measles were also reported. In response, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization announced that 25 million children would benefit from a donation of US$350 million annually.

  10. Mapping the Human Terrain in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-16

    Michael Bhatia and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan, Arms and Conflict: Armed groups, disarmament and security in a post-war society, (New York, NY: Routledge...Bhatia, Michael and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan, Arms and Conflict: Armed groups, disarmament and security in a post-war society. New York, NY

  11. 76 FR 31470 - Taliban (Afghanistan) Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... procedure, Afghanistan, Banks, Banking, Blocking of assets, Foreign investments in the United States... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 545 Taliban (Afghanistan) Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the...

  12. The Afghanistan National Institute of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article, David Forrest probes Ahmad Sarmast (Founder and Director of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music, Ministry of Education, Afghanistan) about the development of the Institute, its sponsorship, the range of local musicians and music educators that work there, and the student population.

  13. Primary and Secondary Curriculum Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgescu, Dakmara

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes curriculum processes and products pertaining to the overall reconstruction of Afghanistan's education system after 2002. With the support of several international agencies, including UNESCO's International Bureau of Education (IBE), as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Afghanistan's Ministry of Education succeeded…

  14. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  15. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  16. Area Handbook Series: Afghanistan: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Nevertheless, the invasion brings certain dividends . A generation of Soviet officers is gaining experience in guerrilla warfare and "ticket punches...modemite politique , published in 1085; a passable, though not elegant, English translation of Roy’s book appears in the Joint Publications Research...Universitaires de France, 1981. Roy, Olivier. "Afghanistan: Islam and Political Modernity" (L’Afghanistan: Islam modernitee politique ). Paris: May 1985

  17. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF OPERATIONAL ARTS AND SCIENCES Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama April 2015 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for...Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006), 2. 4. Seth G. Jones , Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan, (Rand Corporation, 2008), 38. 5...Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare Theory and Practice, 54. 16. Seth G. Jones , In the Graveyard of Empires: America’s War in Afghanistan (New York, NY

  18. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    parties including Hezb- i -Islami. Tajiks have ruled Afghanistan on only a few occasions. Rabbani served as president of the mujahedin government...killing 60, while they were visiting their mosques to celebrate the Shiite holy day of Ashura. Pakistan-based militant group Lashkar- i -Jhangvi...such as Jamiat-Islami, the Uzbek group Junbush Melli Islami Afghanistan, and the Pashtun Islamist party Hezb – i -Islami, were funded and armed by

  19. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-06

    central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the fall of the Taliban. Some...former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush...in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC

  20. Afghanistan tragedy: public health and human suffering.

    PubMed

    Laming, A

    1995-12-01

    Dedicated to two young volunteers killed in a landmine clearing accident, this story of Afghanistan is just one among thousands of others that never leave its borders. To understand Afghanistan is to come to terms with the religious, racial and cultural faultlines that divide it. A 3 month medical placement provided insights rather than answers. An indomitable people through famine, war, firce winters and foreign intrusion, the Afghanis are set to continue their struggle into succeeding generations.

  1. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper.

  2. Counternarcotics Strategies: Effects on Afghanistan Hearts and Minds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    Hodes and, Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan, (NY: Routledge, 2007), 40. 48 Barton, 153. 49 Blanchard, 15. so Ibid, 19... Sedra . 2007. The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan. New York, NY: Routledge, 2007. Johnson, Chris. Afghanistan. 2nd ed. GB: Oxfam, 2004

  3. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    report of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, mili- tary, and economic perspectives. Among the important issues Dr...became the most important arms supplier to Afghanistan, so too Moscow gradually emerged as Afghanistan’s principal trading partner and economic aid...which contained few important economic assets. OTHER NOTEWORTHY RESISTANCE LEADERS WITHIN AFGHANISTAN Like Massoud and Zabiullah, other renowned

  4. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  5. Afghanistan environmental profile. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Afghanistan's environment, already scarred by 12 years of conflict, is likely to undergo severe stress as external and internal refugees are resettled, according to this preliminary environmental profile. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 discusses the state of Afghanistan's environment in 1978 prior to the Soviet invasion, while Chapter 3 documents the environmental impacts of events since that time, including population relocation, deforestation, and locust and sunn-pest infestations. Chapter 4 examines major environmental areas (vegetation, wildlife, soil erosion, pesticides, public health, environmental infrastructure, energy, and air quality) with respect to both existing conditions and what is likely to occur when resettlement begins in earnest. Chapter 5 presents potential mitigation measures, including a set of environmental guidelines for the Government of Afghanistan. Chapter 6 discusses the Geographic Information System being developed under USAID's Agricultural Services Support Program; it discusses the extent to which GIS data can contribute to environmental studies, and vice versa.

  6. Quaternary deposits in southwestern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    Geologic evidence in the closed Seistan Basin of southwestern Afghanistan and adjacent parts of Iran and Pakistan indicates that a lake as much as 65,000 sq km in size occupied this closed depression during Pleistocene time. The deposits consist mostly of lacustrine silt and clay and have a maximum observed thickness of about 250 m. A layer of alluvial gravels overlies the sequence. The deposits are probably early or middle Pleistocene in age; they are old enough to have sustained nearly 300 m of erosion over large areas but are not faulted or detectably folded in the central part of the basin although they are upwarped along the west edge of the basin. Sand dunes cover extensive areas of the basin. Dune orientation shows that the strong surface winds enter the basin blowing toward the south-southeast and then are deflected to the east, apparently as a response to mountains bordering the basin on its south side. The Gawdezereh, a large deflation depression, may be a result of an augmented excavation ability of winds that oc urs where turbulence is created along a zone of deflection. ?? 1974.

  7. Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply.

  8. Governance in Afghanistan: Context and Possibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Shah invaded India, and sacked Delhi. During the next 8 http://blogs.rnw.nl/vredeenveiligheid/files/2010/01/tribal-structure-isaf-rc-south1.jpg... Oliver , Edward E. Across the Border (or Pathan and Biloch). London: Chapman and Hall, 1890. Rodenbough, Theophilus Francis. Afghanistan and the Anglo

  9. Achieving Peace in Afghanistan: Obstacles and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    interests between insurgent factions could pose significant obstacles to negotiations. This 12 challenge to the organizations’ unity could become more...significant challenges during negotiations over the role of women in Afghan society. To overcome these potential obstacles , the United States...Achieving Peace in Afghanistan: Obstacles and Recommendations by Colonel Lee K. Grubbs United States Army United

  10. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  11. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    September 7, 2009. A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai... Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from...heartland of Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. 24 Mulrine

  12. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-02

    Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the fall of...former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited...Congressional Research Service 21 mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar

  13. Pakistan’s Impact on Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    never loses CI • Baloch five insurgencies: 1948, 1958-59, 1962-63, 1973-77, and 2002+ (Talibanizing) • Suppressed 75 million Bengalis in 1970-71 with...1962-1963 sporadic infiltration • Pakistan: Lesson Learned : Local security • 1963-1973 Royal Peace with Pakistan • Afghanistan supports Pakistan

  14. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  15. Security Force Assistance in Afghanistan: Identifying Lessons for Future Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Military Reform in Afghanistan,” in Mark Sedra , ed., Con- fronting Afghanistan’s Security Dilemma: Reforming the Security Sector, Brief 28, Bonn Inter...2005, p. 5; Mark Sedra , “Security Sector Reform in Afghanistan: The Slide Towards Expedi- ency,” International Peacekeeping, Vol. 13, No. 1, March...Wartime: The Soviet Experience.” 40 Mark Sedra , “Police Reform in Afghanistan: An Overview,” in Sedra , ed., in Confronting Afghanistan’s Security Dilemma

  16. Post 2014 Afghanistan: Challenges to India’s Securitization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Afghanistan is no longer a mere insulator state lying at the crossroads of strong Regional Security Complexes, and how it forms an integral part of the...competing branches of successive ruling families.”7Polygamous power plays were not unique to Afghanistan and have perhaps been a part of many dynasties...constituted important parts of the new king’s credo. Unlike his predecessors, Amanullah’s vision of Afghanistan was a vision of an independent

  17. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  18. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  19. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  20. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  1. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  2. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-10

    addition to describing the structure and development of the Afghan narcotics trade, this report provides current statistical information, profiles the... profile cases. U.S. federal prosecutors participate in CJTF training activities in Afghanistan. The CJTF prepares cases for the Central Narcotics... Colombia ,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 30, 2000. 105 According to a USDA official, “The Department of Agriculture, as an agency, is opposed to the idea

  3. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    Soviet and anti-Taliban wars fought with Pashtun parties including Hezb- i -Islamii. Tajiks have ruled Afghanistan on only a few occasions. Rabbani...militant group Lashkar- i -Jhangvi— generally allied to the almost purely Pashtun Taliban—claimed responsibility. There are also tensions between the...Hizb-e-Islami. Several other Karzai supporters are followers of Abd- i - Rab Rasul Sayyaf, a prominent Pashtun Islamic conservative mujahedin era party

  4. Winning in Afghanistan: A NATO Operational Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    requires effective strategic 24 communications to gain the critical consensus among the key actors of the International Community and the GIRA. S E...allies against a common foe. Winston S . Churchill, The Grand Alliance (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1950), 604, 644-658, 659. 9 “ International ...AND SUBTITLE Winning in Afghanistan: A NATO Operational Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Brad

  5. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  6. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-30

    August 2010 of a Karzai NSC aide, Mohammad Zia Salehi , on charges of soliciting a bribe from the New Ansari Money Exchange in exchange for ending a...criticism that Karzai is protecting his aides ( Salehi reportedly was involved in bringing Taliban figures to Afghanistan for conflict settlement...perform their work without political interference. In November 2010, the Attorney General’s office said it had ended the prosecution of Salehi

  7. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    2010 of a Karzai NSC aide, Mohammad Zia Salehi , on charges of soliciting a bribe from the New Ansari Money Exchange in exchange for ending a money...criticism that Karzai is protecting his aides ( Salehi reportedly was involved in bringing Taliban figures to Afghanistan for conflict settlement talks...their work without political interference. In November 2010, the Attorney General’s office said it had ended the prosecution of Salehi . • Anti

  8. Afghanistan in the Balance: Air Politik

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    However, one must acknowledge that alternative explanations exist. In their study of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Graham T. Allison and Philip Zelikow...Graham T. Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd ed. (New York: Longman, 1999). Instructively...treasure.html. See also: Lindsay Hodges Anderson, "Debate on Afghanistan Strategy Continues among Hks Experts," Harvard Kennedy School of

  9. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-08

    A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces...conservatives. In March 2005, Karzai appointed a former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by...Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the

  10. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    elections to the parliament, their service at many levels of government, including a governorship ( Bamiyan Province), and their growing presence in the...the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the...Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June

  11. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a...Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A... Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. Other Candidates Abd al-Salam Rocketi ("Mullah Rocketi”). A Pashtun, reconciled

  12. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Strategic Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    Iranians, Chinese, and Americans . In truth, the Americans had not yet begun supporting the Islamic insurgency in Afghanistan. Nevertheless, “Cold War...logic” would assume Americans were definitely involved. The Politburo meeting lasted four days and concluded with a decision to provide military aid... Americans from Iran, the Soviets knew that the U.S. would be seeking another foothold on their southern border. Amin’s U.S. education and

  13. SIGAR: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-30

    by USAID. Other challenges include a lack of qualifi ed health workers and inad- equate health care funding. Social determinants have also affected...community elders to encourage ownership and protection of health services. USAID has also increased training for health care workers .347 Water and...Afghanistan Presidential Election Voting ballots are organized and arranged for counting by Afghan presidential election workers at a local school in

  14. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    democratic Afghanistan governed by technocrats and newly emerging political figures, many seats in the lower house are held by personalities and factions...most of the corruption takes place in the course of performing mundane governmental functions, such as government processing of official documents, in...Meshrano Jirga representatives after the lower house elections planned for 2010. Security Benefits of Local Governance Programs The IDLG is also the

  15. [Role of a military psychiatrist in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Daudin, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Operational conditions expose soldiers to situations which are potentially traumatic on a psychological level. The specific and non specific psychological disorders which can result require relatively flexible treatment tools which can be adapted to the circumstances.As the first "link in the chain", the intervention of a psychiatrist in a theatre of operations enables the psychological care to begin at an early stage to be followed by long-term treatment when necessary. This article focuses on a mission in Afghanistan.

  16. Challenges with Counterinsurgency Doctrine in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t CHALLENGES WITH COUNTERINSURGENCY DOCTRINE IN AFGHANISTAN BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL HUGH D. BAIR United...new chief of international operations, Saif al-Adel, is focused on increasing the number of “small-but- often” attacks designed to hurt the West more...Obama’s Wars, 236. 16 U.S. Department of the Army, Counterinsurgency, 191. 17 Douglas R . Cubbison, “Battle of Wanat Historical Analysis: Rough Draft

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... shall provide only products from Iraq or Afghanistan or services from Iraq or Afghanistan under...

  18. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  19. Overcoming the Obstacles to Establishing a Democratic State in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-23

    to productivity. Other crops which would flourish in Afghanistan are saffron, sunflowers, almonds , raisins, cumin, and certain fruits and vegetables...presence is needed to reduce rampant Taliban presence in these areas. Afghanistan and Pakistan must also resolve their long-standing and bitter dispute

  20. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  1. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  2. Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This interim report is an updating of the 1977 Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. The interim report reflects the significant changes in policies brought about by the Saur Revolution establishing the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978. A comprehensive revision of the report is expected when the new government's…

  3. What Drives Pakistan’s Interest in Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Asian markets . 40 Ibid, 52-53. 41 Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and...complex challenges in this volatile region, an observer must not only analyze Pakistan but also their historical relationship with Afghanistan to...analyze Pakistan but its relationship with Afghanistan to understand Pakistani motivations and concerns within this volatile region of the world

  4. At American U. of Afghanistan, Turmoil at the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Billed as the country's first independent university, the American University of Afghanistan was established in 2004 with financial support from the highest levels of the American and Afghan governments. But its development has been rockier than anticipated, even taking into account Afghanistan's growing instability. A number of current and former…

  5. Back to School in Afghanistan: Determinants of School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimbert, Stephane; Miwa, Keiko; Nguyen, Duc Thanh

    2008-01-01

    One of the first achievements of post-conflict Afghanistan was to bring almost 4 million children back to school. Issues remain daunting, however, with low primary enrollment especially for girls and in rural areas and very weak learning achievements. We review some key features of the education system in Afghanistan. By matching household and…

  6. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Royal Marines from Oruzgan, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Matheson, A; Williams, R; Bailey, M S

    2012-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and occurs as a spectrum of clinical syndromes ranging from various forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) to mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). CL in Afghanistan is either zoonotic (ZCL) due to L. major or anthroponotic (ACL) due to L. tropica and there has been a prolonged epidemic of ACL in eastern Afghanistan since 1987. However, there have been remarkably few reports of CL due to L. tropica amongst foreign troops serving in Afghanistan since 2001. We describe two such cases in Royal Marines deployed to Oruzgan Province in Afghanistan from 2008-9. These patients illustrate important issues regarding the clinical features, referral, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of CL amongst foreign troops in Afghanistan. This disease has the potential to cause significant disruption to military personnel and units and so requires efficient management in order to maintain operational effectiveness.

  8. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  9. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-10-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry.

  10. Afghanistan, history and beyond - GIS based application tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Rahul Chidananda

    The emphasis of this tool is to provide an insight into the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a warring nation for decades; this tool provides a brief account of the reasons behind the importance of Afghanistan, which led to its invasion by Britain, Russia and USA. The timeline for this thesis was set from 1879 to 1990 which ranges from Barakzai Dynasty to the soviet invasion. Maps are used judiciously to show battles during the British invasion. Maps that show roads, rivers, lakes and provinces are incorporated into the tool to provide an overview of the present situation. The user has options to filter this data by using the timeline and a filtering tool. To quench the users thirst for more information, HTML pages are used judiciously. HTML pages are embedded in key events to provide detailed insight into these events with the help of pictures and videos. An intuitive slider is used to show the people who played a significant role in Afghanistan. The user interface was made intuitive and easy to use, keeping in mind the novice user. A help menu is provided to guide the user on the tool. Spending time researching about Afghanistan has helped me again a new perspective on Afghanistan and its people. With this tool, I hope I can provide a valuable channel for people to understand Afghanistan and gain a fresh perspective into this war ridden nation.

  11. Climate and Weather Analysis of Afghanistan Thunderstorms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    level where it occupies the western center of a 1,676–1,981 m high triangular valley basin surrounded by mountains (Figure 5). Kabul is flanked to the...peak elevation of 5,485 m. The walls of the basin rise steeply into the hills and mountains around Kabul , 9 which average 2,745–3,350 m in...development. We have investigated methods for improving thunderstorm forecasting in and near Kabul , Afghanistan, by: (1) analyzing interannual to hourly

  12. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    Department of Agriculture soybean program INVESTIGATIONS During the reporting period, SIGAR’s ongoing inves- tigations saved the U.S. government...Program • Special Project 14-51-SP: Inquiry Letter: USDA Soybean Program In MeMoriaM Special inSpector general i AfghAnIstAn reconstructIon20 JOeL...AnP Mobile Money Pilot Program • Special Project 14-51-SP: Inquiry Letter: USDA Soybean Program 41 SIGAR OveRSIGht Activities RepoRt to the united

  13. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in Southeastern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for all historical streamgaging stations that have available data in the southeastern Afghanistan provinces of Ghazni, Khost, Logar, Paktya, and Wardak, and a portion of Kabul Province are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgaging station include a station desciption, table of statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, table of monthly and annual flow duration, table of probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, table of probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, table of annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and table of monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  14. Aeromagnetic Survey in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's geologic setting indicates significant natural resource potential While important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information of the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Due to the security situation and the large areas of the country of Afghanistan that has not been covered with geophysical exploration methods a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  15. Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan, Version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an accompanying database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. Included is an accompanying Microsoft? Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan's energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards, currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,462) and unpublished (n = 174) references compiled through September, 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable, interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft? Access is required.

  16. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    Although some bauxite occurrences were sampled in the course of reconnaissance exploration by Soviet workers in the 1960s and 1970s, the bauxite areas in Afghanistan generally are underexplored. The Obatu Sheila area is a known field of bauxite deposits of Late Jurassic age that had been studied in more detail than other known bauxite deposits and occurrences in Afghanistan. Obatu Sheila has an estimated reserve of 7.2 million tons.

  17. Corruption/Anti-Corruption in Afghanistan: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    resources/download/3180.pdf Smith , John T. Corruption in Afghanistan: Somebody Else’s Problem? Strategy Research Project. Carlisle Barracks: U.S...Mark Sedra . "Bribes or Bargains? Peace Conditionalities and ’Post- Conflict’ Reconstruction in Afghanistan." International Peacekeeping 14, no.1...Pretoria), South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2008. 94pp. (JZ4835 .I76 no.154) http://www.iss.co.za/uploads/MONO154FULL.PDF Smith , Daniel J. A

  18. Enhancing the European Union’s Development Strategy in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Program , National Rural Access Program (NRAP), and the Microfinance Program . Thirteen EU member states, as well as the European Commission, use the...Afghanistan, 3. 50 Figure 12. EU Lead Donors – Security Sector Reform141 The primary objective of the Swedish program in Afghanistan is poverty ...Councils could continue to utilize the National Solidarity Program to integrate community poverty reduction plans, but it could also begin to

  19. Bridging Ends to Means: Achieving a Viable Peace in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    GDP. Predictably, 59% of Afghans surveyed view public dishonesty as a greater threat than the lack of security and employment. 7 Yet, corruption...district governor. 13 Defeating an insurgency requires an understanding of its key motivations, sources of power, and modes of operation. Far from being...Afghanistan Opium Survey . United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime, September 2009. http://www.unodc.org/documents/crop- monitoring/Afghanistan

  20. A District Approach to Countering Afghanistan’s Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    the initiative and become sedentary in Afghanistan. This case study analysis considers if ISAF and the U.S. military are appropriately employing the...current disposition of military forces to maximize effects against the insurgency in Afghanistan. This study objectively compares and contrasts the...current ISAF and U.S. strategy with a district level FID/COIN methodology. This study explores why it is necessary to approach the problem at the

  1. From the Byzantine Empire to Afghanistan: A Theme for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    Master of Military Studies Research Paper · September 2009- April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER From the Byzantine Empire to Afghanistan...Corps Combat Development Command Quantico, Virginia 22134-5068 MASTERS OF MILITARY STUDIES From the Byzantine Empire to Afghanistan: A "Theme...34 for Success SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF MILITARY STUDIES MAJOR FRANK DIORIO UNITED STATES

  2. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    interacted 10 with the Afghan media and local communities during the operation, which highlighted the role and ability of Afghan forces to provide...areas of Afghanistan. Despite efforts to build senior leader bureaucracies to oversee other social services, the Taliban made little-to-no...Democratic Institute, the U.S. Government supported the following three Afghan domestic election observation groups: Afghanistan Youth National and Social

  3. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  4. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  5. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  6. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  7. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-02

    moved into Afghanistan to pressure the Taliban around Qandahar, but there were few pitched battles between U.S. and Taliban forces. The Taliban...Afghanistan winds down, the Administration has sought to “normalize” its presence in Afghanistan. From 2009 to 2012, the U.S. civilian presence...widely considered a major factor on the Afghanistan battlefield and has focused primarily on high-profile attacks. A suicide bombing on September 18

  8. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    the severe drought conditions in those years, whereas 2009, 2012 and 2013 registered the largest irrigated area (~ 2.5 million hectares) due to record snowpack and snowmelt in the region. The model holds promise the ability to provide near-real-time (by the end of the growing seasons) estimates of irrigated area, which are beneficial for food security monitoring as well as subsequent decision making for the country. While the model is developed for Afghanistan, it can be adopted with appropriate adjustments in the derived threshold values to map irrigated areas elsewhere.

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  10. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis Afghanistan and its...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  11. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal...

  14. 31 CFR 545.311 - Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territory of Afghanistan controlled... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.311 Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  15. 31 CFR 545.407 - Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.407 Section 545.407 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 545.407 Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The prohibitions on transactions involving...

  16. Factors influencing contraceptive use among women in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Osmani, Ahmad Kamran; Reyer, Joshua A; Osmani, Ahmad Reshad; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The increase in contraceptive use in Afghanistan has been frustratingly slow from 7.0% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2012. Data on contraceptive use and influencing factors were obtained from Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012, which had been collected through interview-led questionnaire from 13,654 current married women aged 12-49 years. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contraceptive use were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When adjusted for age, residence, region, education, media, and wealth index, significant OR was obtained for parity (OR of 6 or more children relative to 1 child was 3.45, and the 95%CI 2.54-4.69), number of living sons (OR of 5 or more sons relative to no son was 2.48, and the 95%CI 1.86-3.29), wealth index (OR of the richest households relative to the poorest households was 2.14, and the 95%CI 1.72-2.67), antenatal care attendance (OR relative to no attendance was 2.13, and the 95%CI 1.74-2.62), education (OR of secondary education or above relative to no education was 1.62, and the 95%CI 1.26-2.08), media exposure (OR of at least some exposure to electronic media relative to no exposure was 1.15, and the 95%CI 1.01-1.30), and child mortality experience (OR was 0.88, and the 95%CI 0.77-0.99), as well as age, residence (rural/urban), and region. This secondary analysis based on AHS 2012 showed the findings similar to those from the previous studies in other developing countries. Although the unique situation in Afghanistan should be considered to promote contraceptive use, the background may be common among the areas with low contraceptive use.

  17. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  18. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  19. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-03-06

    Afghanistan and Pakistan, two of the four remaining countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, represent one epidemiologic reservoir. During 2008, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3) using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Much of Afghanistan remained polio-free in 2008, with the exception of the conflict-affected South Region. In Pakistan, however, WPV transmission increased, particularly after WPV1 reintroduction into polio-free areas of Punjab Province. In total, 149 WPV cases (31 in Afghanistan and 118 in Pakistan) were confirmed in 2008, compared with 49 cases in 2007. Serious security problems in areas along the common border limited access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children in the two countries. In Pakistan, continued managerial and operational problems impeded full implementation of SIAs and adversely affected vaccination coverage in areas not affected by security problems. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January--December 2008. Further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan will require continued measures to overcome access problems in conflict-affected areas of both countries and improvements in the quality of SIAs and delivery of routine immunization services in Pakistan.

  20. Structural violence in Afghanistan: gendered memory, narratives, and food.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Parin

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan has been subject to political amnesia by the occupying powers of the United States and its North Atlantic Treaty Organization allies. Using the Taliban as a reference point, they have ensured that they are not implicated in the everyday and structural violence to which the people of Afghanistan have been subject over the past three decades. But Afghan women remember. Based on my ethnographic research in Kabul (in fall 2008 and 2009), I show how women in Afghanistan engage in memory work through narratives and food preparation within spaces of devastation. I argue that through these mediums, structural violence becomes knowable. I also argue that memory work is a politicized enterprise through which people remember to seek justice, in the process evoking the attention of a listening audience. This focus fosters a conversation on how the anthropology of violence can engage with issues of representation and engaged accountability.

  1. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  2. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, 1979.

    PubMed

    Dupree, L

    1979-01-01

    4 struggles currently dominate Afghan politics: 1) the war being fought by regionally and religously oriented guerrillas to overthrow the Soviet-leaning Amin regime; 2) the competition between conservative and religious leaders in the Pushtun area to monopolize funds from friendly Arabs; 3) the attempts by guerrilla forces to establish localized bases of power, so that any new regime in Kabul must grant the various ethno-linguistic groups some type of regional autonomy; and 4) the internal struggle for power within the Khalq leadership. 2 factions of Khalquis are involved: the liberal nationalists, led by Panjsheri and most military members of the Cabinet and Revolutionary Council; and the pro-Soviet opportunists led by Amin. The author lists these points after recounting the events leading to the coup d'etat against the Daoud regime on April 17, 1978 and the subsequent, but not markedly successful, attempts by leaders of the newly proclaimed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to gain stability and implement land reform. More often, the struggle for security and legitimacy has led to rhetoric and repression--and growing opposition. The Soviet Union, which is currently facing an Islamic revival within its own borders, will only intervene physically against its better judgment, in the opinion of the author; the United States is terminating all aid, including the Peace Corps.

  3. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  4. Afghanistan: A Bibliography of Books and Periodical Articles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-21

    a :uslim Society," CUR S!T, 76:172-175, Apr 1979. Parry, Sidney. "The Armament of Shere Ali’s Army," JORA, 11:140-145, 1881. Routh, G.M. "Afghanistan...1981. Furlong, R.D.M., et al. "The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan," INTL DRVW, 13:168-170, 1980. Gailani, Sayed Ahmed . "Fighting for Freedom: Afahan...1879 !:abu!, Occupation 12 Oct 1879 Sherpur, Rattle of 23 Dec 1879 Ahmed Khel, Battle of 1880 Jalalabad, rattle of 1880 Maiwand (!’aywand), Battle of 27

  5. Risking NATO: Testing the Limits of the Alliance in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    without fully anticipating the wide range 30 See Julian E. Barnes, “U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Shifts Focus to Protect- ing People,” Los Angeles...Times, July 26, 2009. See also Julian E. Barnes, “Petraeus Takes Over as Head of U.S. Central Command,” Los Angeles Times, November 1, 2008; Candace...itself to the mission in Afghanistan, recognized that its commit- ment could not be indefinite. See Julian E. Barnes, “Gates Open to Sending More

  6. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  7. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  8. Education for Demilitarizing Youth in Post-Conflict Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Yukitoshi

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the largely negative role that education has played historically in contributing to conflict in Afghanistan and the ways that education has been purposefully employed as a post-conflict strategy aimed at building peace and social cohesion. The growing attention among academics and policy makers to the role of youth in…

  9. Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Govindasamy, Pav; Aqil, Anwer; Rutstein, Shea; Arnold, Fred; Noormal, Bashiruddin; Way, Ann; Brock, Susan; Shadoul, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in maternal and child mortality. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) provides important new information on the levels and trends in these indicators. The AMS estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 260-394) and 97 deaths before the age of five years for every 1000 children born. Decreases in these mortality rates are consistent with changes in key determinants of mortality, including an increasing age at marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, better immunisation coverage, improvements in the percentage of women delivering in health facilities and receiving antenatal and postnatal care, involvement of community health workers and increasing access to the Basic Package of Health Services. Despite the impressive gains in these areas, many challenges remain. Further improvements in health services in Afghanistan will require sustained efforts on the part of both the Government of Afghanistan and international donors.

  10. Designing Roads and Retaining Structures for Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Transition Command–Afghanistan DOD Department of Defense (U.S.) HMA Hot Mix Asphalt IED Improvised Explosive Device IJC ISAF Joint Command...49 ERDC/CRREL TR-11-01 viii 6.3.5 Wearing surface requirements...Hardnessresistance to scratching or abrasion . Estimate this property by trying to scratch the rock with a steel knife or nails. Soft materials

  11. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  12. 76 FR 66692 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ....) Proposed Timetable (The State Department will follow RSO procedure in reference to security within and... Travel Day, Arrive in Kabul, Afghanistan (afternoon) Evening Event Day Four Security Briefing, Market... single participant for a small- or medium-sized enterprise (SME) \\1\\ and $5,245 for a single...

  13. War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Military Operations, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    efforts are most evident in Herat Province in western Afghanistan. And since Iran is a major destination for Afghan heroin , with all of its...led PRTs. In late 2008, the Zabul PRT introduced a new ionizer-based water purification initiative – a scheme developed and proposed by an American

  14. Deploying the ODIS robot in Iraq and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Bill; Schoenherr, Edward; Andrusz, Henry; Gerhart, Grant

    2005-05-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have shown the importance of robotic technology as a force multiplier and a tool for moving soldiers out of harms way. Situations on the ground make soldiers performing checkpoint operations easy targets for snipers and suicide bombers. Robotics technology reduces risk to soldiers and other personnel at checkpoints. Early user involvement in innovative and aggressive development and acquisition strategies are the key to moving robotic and associated technology into the hands of the user. This paper updates activity associated with rapid development of the Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS) robot for under vehicle inspection and reports on our field experience with robotics in Iraq and Afghanistan. In February of 2004, two TARDEC Engineers departed for a mission to Iraq and Afghanistan with ten ODIS Robots. Six robots were deployed in the Green Zone in Baghdad. Two Robots were deployed at Kandahar Army Airfield and two were deployed at Bagram Army Airfield in Afghanistan. The TARDEC Engineers who performed this mission trained the soldiers and provided initial on site support. They also trained Exponent employees assigned to the Rapid Equipping Force in ODIS repair. We will discuss our initial deployment, lessons learned and future plans.

  15. After 2014: The U.S./NATO Missions in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    councils for the farmers in Kunar Province. There are systems of governance, still under resourced and moving at glacial speeds, which nonetheless...overseas.46 This has been a leading factor in the steady erosion of public support in the U.S. for war in Afghanistan. AQ’s attacks in Madrid

  16. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  17. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce's International Trade Administration is organizing a business development trade mission to Kabul... to port cities such as Karachi. After 30 years of war reconstruction and development efforts...

  18. Winning the Invisible War: An Agricultural Pilot Plan for Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    volunteers for the insurgency. Combining a program for licit sale of poppies, or temporary and massive increases in payments to farmers for cultivating non...such as peppers and tomatoes ). The terrain, climate, and tradition of gardening in Afghanistan make it an excellent place to grow high-value fruits and

  19. Disability Information & Awareness: Afghanistan. Version 2.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This report focuses on a project in Afghanistan that coordinates the efforts of several agencies to develop community-directed disability, rehabilitation, and education services. The program stresses community mobilization aided by skills transfer from expatriate specialists, and includes physical therapy, prosthetics, living skills and mobility…

  20. Afghanistan as a Federal System with Autonomous Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    Perry- Castaneda Map Collection, University of Texas, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/afghanistan_ethnoling_97.jpg (Accessed 28 July...the Conservative 44 Perry- Castaneda Map Collection, University of Texas, http...of a Council of Ministers presided over by a 73 Perry- Castaneda Map Collection

  1. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  2. Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan: A Global, Strategic Nemesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan: A Global, Strategic Nemesis by Colonel G. Joseph Millan United States Army...A Global, Strategic Nemesis FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 07 April 2003 PAGES: 23 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The United States has...states, Russia, Iran, Pakistan and China primarily because these countries are on the distribution routes for the European drug markets . This growing

  3. Repatriation and Reintegration in Afghanistan: The Role of Demiliarisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    their successful repatriation will be contingent on stability, and that an important task to this end will be to demilitarise Afghanistan’s political...level of stability necessary for successful repatriation. The next section introduces militarisation as a factor negatively influencing stability. The...stabilisation of society, and in turn allowing successful repatriation of refugees and exiles while promoting regional peace and security.

  4. Retooling the Nation-Building Strategy in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    reconstruction. 3 Bob Woodward, Bush at War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), 339. 4 Kurt Amend, the Director for Afghanistan on the National Security...Al Qaeda remnants). 27 Perito, 3. 28 Dylan Hendrickson, Michael Bhatia, Mark Knight, and Annabel Taylor, A Review of DFID Involvement in Provincial

  5. The "Only" Solution: Education, Youth, and Social Change in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dana G.; Yousofi, Mohammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on practice theory to examine aspiring youths' pursuit of higher education in Afghanistan. It finds that plans and actions are mediated through youths' families, communities, and solidarity networks. As a result, the personal improvement and enhanced reputational status that aspiring youth seek is structurally connected to…

  6. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  7. War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Military Operations, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-08

    intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre . …While we’ve doubled this capability in recent months, it is still not good enough...been experiencing a renaissance that has gained momentum since 2005. The West is in genuine danger of losing Afghanistan.”75 In

  8. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-03-12

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.

  9. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Home-Based Schools. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Years of conflict and instability have taken a heavy toll on education in Afghanistan. While the government rebuilds its public education system, formal schools fail to reach many of the country's children. Girls remain particularly underserved as a result of the looming effects of the Taliban's sanctions against educating women. Among the reasons…

  10. Teacher Training in Afghanistan: Intersections of Need and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husting, Sheila; Intili, Jo Ann; Kissam, Edward

    2008-01-01

    As post-Taliban Afghanistan moves toward the establishment of a viable educational system, key stakeholders and donors are faced with the formidable challenge of how to most rapidly implement teacher training within an environment of diverse, changing, and largely unassessed training needs. The current article explores the dilemmas inherent in…

  11. [Promising technologies in surgery].

    PubMed

    Kotiv, B N; Maĭstrenko, N A

    2013-06-01

    In modern conditions of local wars and armed conflicts, the basic principle of medical care is to reduce injuries stages of medical evacuation, aimed at accelerating the provision of specialized surgical care. In this regard, significantly increases the need for the development and implementation of new high-tech methods that can improve quality of care, both on the battlefield and on the stages of specialized surgical care. A promising direction is the introduction into clinical practice: minimally invasive technologies, the concept of hybrid navigation surgery, operations with the use of laser technology and robotics, advanced and extremely extensive interventions to cancer patients; technology reduces blood loss, use of cell therapy, transplantation techniques, the development of the concept of organ transplantation, lost in combat trauma, the creation of artificial organs and tissues, the creation of personal protective equipment, integrated with a system of combat, etc.

  12. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-11-29

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest.

  13. Groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taher, Mohammad R.; Chornack, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan Geological Survey, with technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey, established a network of wells to measure and monitor groundwater levels to assess seasonal, areal, and potentially climatic variations in groundwater characteristics in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, the most populous region in the country. Groundwater levels were monitored in 71 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting as early as July 2004 and continuing to the present (2013). The monitoring network is made up exclusively of existing production wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Seventy wells are in unconsolidated sediments, and one well is in bedrock. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, using electric tape water-level meters. Water levels in well 64 on the grounds of the Afghanistan Geological Survey building were measured more frequently. This report provides a 10-year compilation of groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin prepared in cooperation with the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Depths to water below land surface range from a minimum of 1.47 meters (m) in the Shomali subbasin to a maximum of 73.34 m in the Central Kabul subbasin. The Logar subbasin had the smallest range in depth to water below land surface (1.5 to 12.4 m), whereas the Central Kabul subbasin had the largest range (2.64 to 73.34 m). Seasonal water-level fluctuations can be estimated from the hydrographs in this report for wells that have depth-to-water measurements collected under static conditions. The seasonal water-level fluctuations range from less than 1 m to a little more than 7 m during the monitoring period. In general, the hydrographs for the Deh Sabz, Logar, Paghman and Upper Kabul, and Shomali subbasins show relatively little change in the water-level trend during the period of record, whereas hydrographs for the Central Kabul subbasin show water level decreases of several meters to about 25 m.

  14. An experiment with community health funds in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Waters, Hugh; Steinhardt, Laura; Alam, Sahibullah; Hansen, Peter; Naeem, Ahmad Jan

    2009-07-01

    As Afghanistan rebuilds its health system, it faces key challenges in financing health services. To reduce dependence on donor funds, it is important to develop sustainable local financing mechanisms. A second challenge is to reduce high levels of out-of-pocket payments. Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes offer the possibility of raising revenues from communities and at the same time providing financial protection. This paper describes the performance of one type of CBHI scheme, the Community Health Fund (CHF), which was piloted for the first time in five provinces of Afghanistan between June 2005 and October 2006. The performance of the CHF programme demonstrates that complex community-based health financing schemes can be implemented in post-conflict settings like Afghanistan, except in areas of high insecurity. The funds raised from the community, via premiums and user fees, enabled the pilot facilities to overcome temporary shortages of drugs and supplies, and to conduct outreach services via mobile clinics. However, enrolment and cost-recovery were modest. The median enrolment rate for premium-paying households was 6% of eligible households in the catchment areas of the clinics. Cost recovery rates ranged up to 16% of total operating costs and 32% of non-salary operating costs. No evidence of reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures was observed at the community level, though CHF members had markedly higher utilization of health services. The main reasons among non-members for not enrolling were being unaware of the programme; high premiums; and perceived low quality of services at the CHF clinics. The performance of Afghanistan's CHF was similar to other CHF-type programmes operating at the primary care level internationally. The solution to building local capacity to finance health services lies in a combination of financing sources rather than any single mechanism. In this context, it is critical that international assistance for Afghanistan

  15. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan, January 2012-September 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-11-22

    Since 2012, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has been limited to three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 37 WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 80 cases in 2011; nine WPV1 cases were confirmed during January-September, 2013, compared with 26 WPV1 cases during the same period in 2012. Since November 2012, no WPV1 cases have been reported from the Southern Region, previously the main WPV reservoir in Afghanistan; all nine polio cases in 2013 were in the Eastern Region and caused by WPV1 that originated in Pakistan. From October 2012 to March 2013, 14 polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were detected in the Southern Region. During 2012-2013, strategies to improve supplemental immunization activity (SIA)§ effectiveness in 11 low-performing districts (LPDs) in the Southern Region included increasing staff and supervisory training, implementing short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) campaigns, placing transit vaccination teams at the borders of districts inaccessible because of insecurity, and establishing permanent polio vaccination teams to vaccinate children quarterly. From March 2012 to August 2013, the percentage of children unreached during SIAs declined by 43% in the Southern Region but increased by 122% in the Eastern Region. Despite ongoing challenges, the government of Afghanistan continues to expand the application of innovative solutions to reach unvaccinated children in accessible and inaccessible districts.

  16. Latin American Counterinsurgency: Early 20th Century Lessons for Afghanistan Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    counterinsurgencies and their application to Afghanistan. I lived in Venezuela for two years where I learned firsthand how perception became reality when it...show cross-cultural and cross time applicability of the Latin American counterinsurgency‟s lessons to Afghanistan. They show the US is now on the...long-term, strategic guidance and cross governmental focus for counterinsurgency in Afghanistan and proper application of some counterinsurgency best

  17. Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update: Afghanistan in Early 2015 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    to Defeat Taliban,” USA Today, May 19, 2015. Osman, Borham, “The Shadows of ‘ Islamic State’ in Afghanistan: What Threat Does It Hold?” Afghanistan...of Iraqi security forces in the face of the Islamic State threat. Finally, these same two factors were also absent in 2013 and 2011, and both were... Islamic State.5 5 Jeff Eggers, “Afghanistan, Choose Your Enemies Wisely,” Foreign Policy, August 24, 2015. 1 Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update

  18. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-04

    meetings with Karzai. Some of Karzai’s key allies in the National Assembly are former members of Hikmatyar’s mujahedin party. Hikmatyar has expressed a...United Nations , and others donors). Meetings such as the January 28, 2010, meeting in London on Afghanistan are one part of that effort. To date, 25...discussion in Afghanistan, and a focus of an international meeting in London on January 28, 2010, on Afghanistan, is efforts to try to persuade insurgent

  19. Close a Sure Road to Defeat in Afghanistan by Keeping the Lines of Communication Open

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Close a Sure Road to Defeat in Afghanistan by Keeping the Lines 5a...strategy in Afghanistan in the wake of increasing violence and a resurgent Taliban. Comments by the current Democratic and Republican Presidential...candidates, and other senior leaders, indicate that additional U.S. forces will be sent to Afghanistan in the near future. It is, therefore, more

  20. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  1. Repatriation and the reconstruction of Afghanistan: the role of women.

    PubMed

    Wali, S

    1994-01-01

    This update on the consequences of the 14 years of war in Afghanistan and refugee repatriation points out the possible need for humanitarian intervention. The political situation is described as lacking in platform leadership and lacking in leaders' commitment to the people. The US has reduced interests in Afghanistan. The UN and other international agencies rarely mention Afghanistan and repatriation. Pakistan is exercising its self-interests in the country. Saudi Arabia is described as opposing the rising Iranian brand of religious ideology and supplying mercenaries. The formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States has reduced USSR involvement to the increasing flow of Tajik refugees into Afghanistan. Islam is described as a historically strong and positive force in the formation of social and political values. Afghani needs are described as restoration of peace, security, and self-determination and a return to the former Islamic principles and practices. A "new imported ideology packaged as religion" is viewed as detrimental. The international community is urged to commit its resources to supporting a process aimed at creating a popularly elected platform of leadership committed to democratic values and principles and with respect for human rights and equity. Successful repatriation is considered dependent on internal security and financial resources from the international community. Repatriation is hampered by the extensive land mines (estimated to be at least 23 million) scattered across the countryside. At least 75% of the over 3 million refugees in Pakistan and the 2.5 million in Iran are estimated to be women and children. 14 years of political and economic instability resulted in little social development for refugee women and children. The UN urged donations of $45.1 million for repatriation and reconstruction. Only $13.7 million were received. These small sums in foreign aid are viewed as inconsequential when compared to the estimated US military

  2. The Promise Rich vs. The Promise Poor. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The second "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief examines the association between a family's income and the presence of the Five Promises in their child's life. The report documents the Promise gap that exists between children in low-income families and those in higher income families. Although parents in low-income families are typically…

  3. Challenges and opportunities for humanitarian relief in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Trueman W; Burkle, Frederick M; Vaughn, Andrew F; Chotani, Rashid; Brennan, Richard J

    2002-06-15

    Afghanistan is in the midst of a profound humanitarian crisis resulting primarily from long-standing armed conflict, a devastating drought, and massive population migration. The economy, government, and health care system are in shambles. Currently, as many as 5 million Afghans are in camps either as refugees in neighboring countries or as internally displaced persons within Afghanistan. Much of the rest of the population is in dire need of basic essentials such as food, water, shelter, and basic medical care. Those attempting to carry out humanitarian relief face many daunting challenges, such as reaching remote locations, coping with a dangerous security situation, and working with limited resources. However, there are opportunities in the short run to save many lives and substantially improve the plight of Afghans by carrying out appropriate and effective emergency relief programs. Over the long term, effective medical and public health relief efforts will be an essential part of rehabilitating and rebuilding this devastated country.

  4. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  5. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2012-08-01

    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  6. Afghanistan Energy Supply Has Increased but An Updated Master Plan Is Needed and Delays and Sustainability Concerns Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-15

    clean energy . In addition, USAID funds small- 2 The Afghan Energy Information System is a...provide power to an estimated 800,000 people in Helmand and Kandahar provinces; (2) the Afghanistan Clean Energy Program, awarded September 2009...designed to provide clean energy solutions for approximately 300 communities in South and East Afghanistan; (3) the Afghanistan Energy Capacity Building

  7. 31 CFR 545.519 - Payments and transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to the... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN... transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by...

  8. 31 CFR 545.516 - Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.516 Section 545.516 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.516 Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  9. The Prolonged Downfall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    this metaphor to describe the history of political struggle in Afghanistan.1 Buzkashi is a traditional Afghan competition where mounted players...surrounded the conflict. It provided the Soviets with a legal framework to withdraw their troops, left the DRA in control of the country while...the legitimacy of engaging the DRA in the talks based on the legal status they possessed as an accredited Member State of the UN. In contrast, the

  10. Female Political Participation in Afghanistan: Social Realities and Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-15

    Military Studies Research Paper September 2009 -April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Female Political Participation in Afghanistan...rights are hindered by depressingly low literacy rates. Women’s political rights are further curtailed by security factors. Many female politicians...guaranteeing the free exercise of women’s rights, but the Af\\IP is widely known as a corrupt and incompetent organization, with very low female recruitment

  11. Security Implications of ISAF Exit from Afghanistan on South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    became *** U.K, France, Canada, Germany, New Zealand , Romania, Bulgaria and Mongolia. 29 primary...The GWOT and Unipolar world brought new changes in the political atmosphere of the South Asia . Russia, India, and Iran exerted their influence...global politics and supported a more active role of India inside Afghanistan.59 New Delhi has long viewed South Asia as India’s exclusive sphere of

  12. Building Health Security in Afghanistan: A New Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    created approximately 5.5 million refugees. The United States and much of the world community condemned the Soviet Union’s war but did 3 little...still dangerously below international standards, even for developing nations. The mortality rate for kids less than five years old is 20 per cent.26...Government of Afghanistan for the benefit of the Afghan population.34 Funding these projects is a major undertaking of the world community through

  13. United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan: Background and Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-14

    provinces, particularly in the south and east, have contributed to continuing instability and a Taliban resurgence . Afghan officials in the more...Strategic challenges are numerous and continue to put the institution- building effort in Afghanistan at risk . In conjunction with security...reconstruction is seen by many as the single most important factor for sustaining peace. According to many observers, successful development could stem

  14. India’s Changing Afghanistan Policy: Regional and Global Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Regional strategic appraisals; • The nature of land warfare; • Matters affecting the Army’s future; • The concepts, philosophy, and theory of...Afghanistan has also sought Indian aid in agri-technology, which would halt desertifica- tion, deforestation , and water wastage in Afghani- stan.15... affected by the killing in September 2011 of former Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani, the Afghan govern- ment’s chief peace envoy, by the Taliban

  15. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  16. Fixing Intel: A Blueprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Leaders must put time and energy into selecting the best, most extroverted and hungriest analysts to serve in the Stability Operations Information...and allied forces win in Afghanistan. Speaking to the first point, enemy-centric and counter- IED reports published by higher commands are of...soldiers, much less speak with them or offer valuable battlefield and demographic information. The tide began to turn in Nawa on July 2, when 800

  17. An (The?) Explanation of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    conflict not only with the Pakistanis but with the Chinese), very great indeed. The second action that preceded the invasion and could have been seen by...out of the Persian Gulf. A direct threat to the interest obviously entailed great risks. An Indirect threat to the oil flow, on the other hand, - 30...litical situation). For a concise treatment of British-Rus- sian interaction in Afghanistan, see: David Fromkin, "The Great Game in Asia," Foreign Affairs

  18. USGS Training in Afghanistan: Modern Earthquake Hazards Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlin, J. D.; Garthwaite, M.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.; Bergen, K.; Vincent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can present a significant hazard, not only from strong ground shaking, but also from liquefaction and extensive land sliding. The magnitude 6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghanistan to such hazards, and resulted in over 1000 fatalities. The USGS has provided the first of a series of Earth Science training courses to the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS). This course was concerned with modern earthquake hazard assessments, and is an integral part of a larger USGS effort to provide a comprehensive seismic-hazard assessment for Afghanistan. Funding for these courses is provided by the US Agency for International Development Afghanistan Reconstruction Program. The particular focus of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 in Kabul, was on providing a background in the seismological and geological methods relevant to preparing for future earthquakes. Topics included identifying active faults, modern tectonic theory, geotechnical measurements of near-surface materials, and strong-motion seismology. With this background, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the community and be actively involved in earthquake hazard assessments themselves. The December, 2006, training course was taught by four lecturers, with all lectures and slides being presented in English and translated into Dari. Copies of the lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. Class participants included many of the section leaders from within the AGS who have backgrounds in geology, geophysics, and engineering. Two additional training sessions are planned for 2007, the first entitled "Modern Concepts in Geology and Mineral Resource Assessments," and the second entitled "Applied Geophysics for Mineral Resource Assessments."

  19. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Afghanistan Disposal Process Needed Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    properly disposing of equipment during the drawdown in Afghanistan. We determined whether adequate controls existed over the receipt, inspection , coding...adequate controls existed over the receipt, inspection , coding, and disposal of equipment. See the appendix for discussion of the scope and methodology...Although our specific audit objective focused on controls over the receipt, inspection , coding, and disposal of equipment, we determined during the

  20. Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a significant public health concern in Afghanistan. Currently, approximately 60% of the population, or nearly 14 million people, live in a malaria-endemic area. Afghanistan's diverse landscape and terrain contributes to the heterogeneous malaria prevalence across the country. Understanding the role of environmental variables on malaria transmission can further the effort for malaria control programme. Methods Provincial malaria epidemiological data (2004-2007) collected by the health posts in 23 provinces were used in conjunction with space-borne observations from NASA satellites. Specifically, the environmental variables, including precipitation, temperature and vegetation index measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer, were used. Regression techniques were employed to model malaria cases as a function of environmental predictors. The resulting model was used for predicting malaria risks in Afghanistan. The entire time series except the last 6 months is used for training, and the last 6-month data is used for prediction and validation. Results Vegetation index, in general, is the strongest predictor, reflecting the fact that irrigation is the main factor that promotes malaria transmission in Afghanistan. Surface temperature is the second strongest predictor. Precipitation is not shown as a significant predictor, as it may not directly lead to higher larval population. Autoregressiveness of the malaria epidemiological data is apparent from the analysis. The malaria time series are modelled well, with provincial average R2 of 0.845. Although the R2 for prediction has larger variation, the total 6-month cases prediction is only 8.9% higher than the actual cases. Conclusions The provincial monthly malaria cases can be modelled and predicted using satellite-measured environmental parameters with reasonable accuracy. The Third Strategic Approach of the WHO EMRO Malaria Control and

  1. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    mortality, life expectancy, and literacy.9 The high rate of return on investment from opium poppy cultivation has driven an agricultural shift in...Afghanistan from growing traditional crops to growing opium poppy . Despite the fact that only 12 percent of its land is arable, agriculture is a way of...years, many poor farmers have turned to opium poppy cultivation to make a living because of the relatively high rate of return on investment compared

  2. Reintegration and Reconciliation in Afghanistan. Time to End the Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Mohammad, the bat- talion commander of the Afghan Na- tional Army’s 2d Kandak, 2d Brigade, 215th Corps, during a reintegration ceremony at Forward...symbolize him giving up his arms and rejoining the community. At the event, five other individuals were also reintegrated into Afghan society...USMC photo by LCpl Tommy Bellegarde) THERE HAS BEEN much discussion as of late about reintegration and reconciliation in Afghanistan and the impact it

  3. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Afghanistan Sand Extract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-05

    Kaul S , Kanthasamy A, Kitazawa M, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy AG (2003). Caspase-3 dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta mediates...In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Afghanistan Sand Extract 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) K...Prabhakaran; P. Gunasekar 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 60769 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Medical

  4. Improving Effectiveness of Monetary Weapon Systems in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering Management Seth M...contracting development and reconstruction projects across U.S. controlled provinces in Afghanistan. This chapter offers a background about COIN, CERP...during an 18 month Master’s Degree program at the Air Force Institute of Technology and must be concluded within this window of time as a

  5. Long Hard Road: NCO Experiences in Afghanistan and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    desert operations, night vision training, GPS training, and dismounted strategic reconnaissance. We ended our training with an unsupported 1036...overnight stays at different objectives with daily re-supply by Chinook helicopters . In Afghanistan, the temperature was very cold at night in...to familiarize themselves with the surrounding area and to confirm weapon systems zeroes and night vision devices. This small task played an

  6. Who owns the peace? Aid, reconstruction, and peacebuilding in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan; Sedra, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear how international donors' stated commitment to ownership and partnership 'translates' in fragile state or 'post-conflict' settings. The very notion of ownership is violently contested in Afghanistan and donors have to negotiate with, and choose between, multiple state and non-state interlocutors. The developmentalist principles outlined in the 2005 Paris Declaration may carry little meaning in such contexts and their application can have paradoxical effects that impede the emergence of broad-based ownership. The limitations of, and alternatives to, developmentalist approaches in fragile states, are explored here with reference to donor policies and practices in Afghanistan, focusing on the period following the 2001 Bonn Agreement. This paper examines how aid policies and programmes have become part of a complex bargaining game involving international actors, domestic elites, and societal groups. It argues that international donors' failure to appreciate or engage sensitively and strategically with these bargaining processes, when combined with contradictory intervention objectives, has contributed to the steady unravelling of a fragile war-to-peace transition in Afghanistan.

  7. Documentation of a heroin manufacturing process in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Zerell, U; Ahrens, B; Gerz, P

    2005-01-01

    The present article documents an authentic process of heroin manufacturing in Afghanistan: white heroin hydrochloride produced using simple equipment and a small quantity of chemicals. The quantities of chemicals actually used corresponded to the minimum needed for manufacturing heroin. The only organic solvent used was acetone, and only a very small quantity of it was used. Because the chemicals used in the demonstration were from actual seizures in Afghanistan, some of the chemicals had been disguised or repackaged by smugglers. Others had been put into labelled containers that proved to be counterfeit, and some glass containers used were not the original containers of the manufacturer displayed on the label. The brown heroin base prepared as an intermediate step in the process shares some of the characteristics of the South-West Asia type of heroin preparations often seized in Germany. The final product of the documented heroin manufacturing process was white heroin hydrochloride, which shares the key characteristics of the white heroin occasionally seized in Germany and other countries in Western Europe since 2000. The present article demonstrates that this kind of heroin can be produced in Afghanistan.

  8. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-03-28

    Of the four countries worldwide where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, Pakistan and Afghanistan are considered a single epidemiologic block. Use of intense poliomyelitis eradication measures, including close coordination between the two countries and increased use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccines (mOPVs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3), has reduced WPV transmission to historically low levels. However, despite these efforts, in 2007 both types of WPV continued to circulate in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Ongoing conflicts and security concerns in remote areas with rugged terrain limit access to children and decrease vaccination coverage from routine and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in border areas of both countries where WPV transmission is endemic. In other WPV-endemic areas of Pakistan, where security and access concerns do not exist, operational problems in implementing SIAs resulted in inadequate vaccination of children, which failed to interrupt WPV transmission. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan during January-December 2007 (data as of March 22, 2008). Further progress toward polio eradication will require continued measures to address security concerns in portions of both countries and problems with implementing SIAs in secure areas of Pakistan.

  9. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan: United States Plan for Sustaining the Afghanistan National Security Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    endemic polio ; the other two are Pakistan and Nigeria. After years of declining numbers, Afghanistan experienced a major outbreak of polio in 2011 with 80...Emergency Polio Action Plan is being developed by the MoPH in coordination with international partners (including the World Health Organization, USAID...United Nations Children’s Fund, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control), with the goal of ending polio

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for products or services... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan... solicitation entitled “Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan” (DFARS 252.225-7024)....

  11. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    of pomegranates and of saffron rice as alternative crops that draw buyers outside Afghanistan. Encouraging alternative livelihoods has always been...pomegranate juice called Anar. Other crops now substituting for poppy include wheat and saffron . To help Afghanistan develop this sector, the U.S

  12. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-18

    pomegranates and of saffron rice as alternative crops that draw buyers outside Afghanistan. Encouraging alternative livelihoods is the preferred emphasis of...Afghan exports of high quality pomegranate juice called Anar. Other crops now substituting for poppy include wheat and saffron . To help Afghanistan

  13. Expanding the Qawm: Culturally Savvy Counterinsurgency and Nation-Building in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    the general election. 58Michael Bhatia and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan, Arms, and Conflict...threat.73 73Bhatia and Sedra , xxvi. Another punitive option is castigation. Castigation is a...Khoury and Joseph Kostiner, 153-182. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990. Bhatia, Michael, and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan, Arms and Conflict

  14. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-20

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis RAND issue papers explore...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  15. Education and Politics in Afghanistan: The Importance of an Education System in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Jeaniene

    2005-01-01

    Afghanistan has a long history of social unrest and ethnic conflict, and the manipulation of the education system by internal and external powers for political purposes has been one of the major contributors to these divisions. As Afghanistan attempts to build peace and maintain co-existence after more than 20 years of violence, there continues to…

  16. The Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan - A Model for Future Nation Building Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    58 Hett, Julia Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan: Das amerikanische, britische und deutsche Modell, Center... Cameron Assessing ISAF: A Baseline Study of NATO’s Role in Afghanistan, BASIC Research Report 2007.2 – March 2007, http://www.basicint.org/europe/NATO

  17. A Lifetime of Trauma: Mental Health Challenges for Higher Education in a Conflict Environment in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as a…

  18. PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan Jill Finnie In the business world, it is common knowledge that superior...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-25

    countries in Afghanistan’s region, the United Nations , and other donors). Meetings such as the January 28, 2010, meeting in London on Afghanistan... meeting on Afghanistan held in London on January 28, 2010—has been the effort to persuade insurgent fighters and leaders to end their fight and join...and Operation Enduring Freedom .................................................8 Post-Taliban Nation -Building Efforts

  20. Russian Organizational Learning in the Context of the Afghanistan and Chechnya Counterinsurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Russian Organizational Learning in the Context of the Afghanistan and Chechnya Counterinsurgencies A Monograph By MAJ Anthony M. Roh...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Russian Organizational Learning in the Context of the Afghanistan and Chechnya Counterinsurgencies 5b

  1. The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Bear Versus the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, 1979-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Alexievich , Svetlana . Zinky Boys: Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War. Translated by Julia and Robin Whitby. New York: WW Norton and Company... Alexievich , Zinky Boys. Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War, trans. Julia and Robin Whitby (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990): 18. 171Heinämaa

  2. BRAC in Afghanistan: Building South-South Partnerships in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mir Nazmul; Anwar, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Training paraprofessionals such as teachers is one of many significant challenges facing Afghanistan's educational system. This case study focuses on the innovations offered in that regard by BRAC, a large NGO based in Bangladesh that brought its many years of development experience to Afghanistan in 2002 and established itself there as the…

  3. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-08

    President stated that the number of troops in Afghanistan would halve to about 4,900 and then by the beginning of 2017 , settle at an embassy presence...10 Changing Troop Levels in Afghanistan, 2001- 2017 ...several revisions, including sunsetting the authority on December 31, 2016, rather than September 30, 2017 . The bill endorses the Administration cost

  4. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 AGENCY... the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal year 2008 (Pub. L. 110-181), the Secretary of... the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to...

  5. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  6. 76 FR 36167 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2... the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Afghanistan, and I hereby waive...

  7. Literature review: Afghanistan women's health crisis, health service delivery, and ethical issues for international aid.

    PubMed

    Turner, Helen

    2006-09-01

    The literature indicates that the health of women in Afghanistan is poor. In 1997 maternal mortality in Afghanistan was one of the worst in the world. Difficulties in establishing health services revolve around fundamentalist Islamic ideas and ongoing violence within Afghanistan. The literature holds advice on key behaviours for health professionals who may chose to work in Afghanistan. The literature also identifies the local level action that is occurring as the issue of women's health is recognised. Humanitarian assistance has been provided, with international aid agencies having to weigh the ethical responsibilities they hold and one agency tragically facing the violent loss of its own staff. Easy answers are not in the literature, merely an opportunity to understand, consider, and take action about what is facing women in Afghanistan and those who try to help.

  8. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Noor, Ayan Ahmed; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Kakar, Faizullah K; Hansen, Peter M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services. Although frequently used in other health-care settings, this represents the first time that the BSC has been employed in a developing country. The BSC was designed via a collaborative process focusing on translating the vision and mission of the MOPH into 29 core indicators and benchmarks representing six different domains of health services, together with two composite measures of performance. In the absence of a routine health information system, the 2004 BSC for Afghanistan was derived from a stratified random sample of 617 health facilities, 5719 observations of patient-provider interactions, and interviews with 5597 patients, 1553 health workers, and 13,843 households. Nationally, health services were found to be reaching more of the poor than the less-poor population, and providing for more women than men, both key concerns of the government. However, serious deficiencies were found in five domains, and particularly in counselling patients, providing delivery care during childbirth, monitoring tuberculosis treatment, placing staff and equipment, and establishing functional village health councils. The BSC also identified wide variations in performance across provinces; no province performed better than the others across all domains. The innovative adaptation of the BSC in Afghanistan has provided a useful tool to summarize the multidimensional nature of health-services performance, and is enabling managers to benchmark performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in the Afghan context.

  9. Modern Earthquake Hazard Assessments in Afghanistan: A USGS Training Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthwaite, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Medlin, J.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region at the western extent of the Indo-Asian collision zone, where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can cause damage, not only from strong ground shaking and surface rupture, but also from liquefaction and extensive landsliding. The M=6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghan communities to such hazards, and resulted in at least 1000 fatalities. This training course in modern earthquake hazard assessments is an integral part of the international effort to provide technical assistance to Afghanistan using an "end-to-end" approach. This approach involves providing assistance in all stages of hazard assessment, from identifying earthquakes, to disseminating information on mitigation strategies to the public. The purpose of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 at the Afghan Geological Survey in Kabul, was to provide a solid background in the relevant seismological and geological methods for preparing for future earthquakes. With this information, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the Afghan community. In addition, they are better prepared to conduct earthquake hazard assessments and to build the capabilities of the Afghan Geological Survey. The training course was taught using a series of Power Point lectures, with all lectures being presented in English and translated into Dari, one of the two main languages of Afghanistan. The majority of lecture slides were also annotated in both English and Dari. Lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. As part of the on-going USGS participation in the program, additional training sessions are planned in the subjects of field geology, modern concepts in Earth science, mineral resource assessments and applied geophysics.

  10. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in the Helmand Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A majority of the Afghan population lacks adequate and safe supplies of water because of contamination, lack of water-resources management regulation, and lack of basic infrastructure, compounded by periods of drought and seasonal flooding. Characteristics of historical streamflows are needed to assist with efforts to quantify the water resources of the Helmand Basin. The Helmand Basin is the largest river basin in Afghanistan. It comprises the southern half of the country, draining waters from the Sia Koh Mountains in Herat Province to the eastern mountains in Gardez Province (currently known as the Paktia Province) and the Parwan Mountains northwest of Kabul, and finally draining into the unique Sistan depression between Iran and Afghanistan (Favre and Kamal, 2004). The Helmand Basin is a desert environment with rivers fed by melting snow from the high mountains and infrequent storms. Great fluctuations in streamflow, from flood to drought, can occur annually. Knowledge of the magnitude and time distribution of streamflow is needed to quantify water resources and for water management and environmental planning. Agencies responsible for the development and management of Afghanistan's surface-water resources can use this knowledge for making safe, economical, and environmentally sound water-resource planning decisions. To provide the Afghan managers with necessary streamflow information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), computed streamflow statistics for data collected at historical gaging stations within the Helmand Basin. The historical gaging stations used are shown in figure 1 and listed in table 1.

  11. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  12. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  13. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  14. Suicide risk in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with mental health problems in VA care.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Madden, Erin; Cohen, Beth E; Bertenthal, Daniel; Neylan, Thomas C; Seal, Karen H

    2015-09-01

    Suicide rates among U.S. military personnel and veterans are a public health concern, and those with mental health conditions are at particular risk. We examined demographic, military, temporal, and diagnostic associations with suicidality in veterans. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression, received a suicide risk assessment, and endorsed hopelessness about the present or future after their last deployment and between January 1, 2010 and June 29, 2014 (N = 45,741). We used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to examine variables associated with having endorsed suicidal thoughts and a plan. Multiple factors were associated with suicidality outcomes, including longer time from last deployment to screening (proxy for time to seeking VA care), an alcohol use disorder diagnosis, further distance from VA (rurality), and being active duty during military service. Hispanic veterans were at decreased risk of having suicidal ideation and a plan, compared to their white counterparts. In high-risk veterans, some of the strongest associations with suicidality were with modifiable risk factors, including time to VA care and alcohol use disorder diagnoses. Promising avenues for suicide prevention efforts can include early engagement/intervention strategies with a focus on amelioration of high-risk drinking.

  15. Beyond individual war trauma: domestic violence against children in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Catani, Claudia; Schauer, Elisabeth; Neuner, Frank

    2008-04-01

    To date, research on the psychosocial consequences of mass trauma resulting from war and organized violence on children has primarily focused on the individual as the unit of treatment and analysis with particular focus on mental disorders caused by traumatic stress. This body of research has stimulated the development of promising individual-level treatment approaches for addressing psychological trauma. In contrast, there is virtually no literature addressing the effects of mass trauma on the family and community systems. Research conducted in Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, two long-standing war-torn societies, found that in addition to multiple exposure to war or disaster-related traumatic events children also indicated high levels of exposure to family violence. These findings point to the need for conjoint family- and community-based programs of prevention and intervention that are specifically tailored for the context of the affected society. In particular, programs should take issues such as poverty, child labor, and parental alcohol use into account in assessing and treating children in the aftermath of mass trauma.

  16. Life during wartime: women and conflict in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Mclachlan, F

    1993-06-01

    The civil war in Afghanistan has caused women to suffer psychosomatic disorders and trauma through the loss of relatives and sons. In addition, war-widows face new economic responsibilities for their households and often have had to deal with destruction of their homes and livestock. The women are so depressed that they can no longer enjoy social functions like weddings or trust their neighbors. The only hope the women have is in their children, many of whom were sent to the former Soviet Union to school. For many of the women, the emotional trauma they suffered and the poverty they face combine to make life an ordeal.

  17. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  18. Technology Supported Self-Development for Soldiers Deploying to Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Charlie Wilson’s War is based on the bestseller by George Crile and features Julia Roberts, Philip Seymour Hoffman, and Tom Hanks. Hanks...Minutes Plight of Afghan Refugees DVD rental from Netflix Sex and drugs 48 3. What is Pakistan’s interest in Afghanistan? 4. How could the Afghan...War, which is full of sex and drugs, or a game, such as Tropico 3, to hold the Soldier’s interest. The language training on uTalk Dari and Dari

  19. Streamflow characteristics at streamgages in northern Afghanistan and selected locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.; Williams-Sether, Tara

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for 79 historical streamgages in Northern Afghanistan and other selected historical streamgages are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgage include (1) station description, (2) graph of the annual mean discharge for the period of record, (3) statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, (4) monthly and annual flow duration, (5) probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, (6) probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, (7) probability of occurrence of seasonal low discharges, (8) annual peak discharges for the period of record, and (9) monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  20. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  1. Canada in Afghanistan: 2001-2010. A Military Chronology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Canadian Strategic Advisory Team. 11 January • Operation Sextant : Deployment of HMCS Athabascan as a flagship [11 January-31 July 2006] of the...at http://www.cefcom.forces.gc.ca/pa-ap/nr-sp/doc-eng.asp?id=2596 on 9 February 2010. 176 DND, Operation Sextant , DND-CF, 5 January 2010, accessed at...http://www.cefcom.forces.gc.ca/pa- ap/ops/ sextant /index-eng.asp on 25 February 2010. 177 Pigott, Canada in Afghanistan, p. 107. 178 Teeple

  2. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  3. Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groninger, John W.

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  4. Reforestation strategies amid social instability: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Groninger, John W

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  5. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  6. 75 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan; Supplemental Regulatory Flexibility Analysis AGENCY... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for the previously published proposed rule entitled, Prohibition Against.... To address these concerns, the FAA is publishing the below Supplemental Regulatory...

  7. 76 FR 65498 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration is organizing a business...

  8. 76 FR 67416 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan, September 2011 (Dates Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... equipment, technology, and services); agribusiness; and information and communications technology. The... production and earnings, promoting technology transfer, improving national prosperity and advancing Afghans..., equipment and technology would enhance development of Afghanistan's industrial sector and lead to...

  9. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-30

    of September 16, 2012, $5 million has been obligated to AWDP, and $965,000 disbursed.411 HEALTH Although most of Afghanistan is polio -free, the... polio vaccination program. The World Bank is also conducting a study on HIV/AIDS prevention in Afghanistan. Polio Eradication Afghan and Pakistani...officials met July 23–24 in Kabul to discuss coor- dinating efforts to eradicate polio , including vaccinating people moving Source: USAID, response to

  10. U.S. Government Initiatives in Afghanistan: An Application of Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    first examine the literature concerning diffusion of innovations. The rest of the monograph is organized utilizing three of the four elements of...understand the major elements of the concept. Rogers identifies four main elements of diffusion of innovations. These elements are the social system in...in Afghanistan is radio. Radio is the most accessible media for Afghan households with eighty -two percent of respondents to the Afghanistan Survey

  11. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    leaning toward the low end of that range. 34 U.S. officials say the Islamic State’s goal in Afghanistan is likely to expand its presence further in...Afghanistan force levels asserted that the decision to leave no significant residual troop force in Iraq after 2011 contributed to the growth of the Islamic ...Rehabilitation and Development—that promotes local decision making on development—the “National Solidarity Program” (NSP). Donors have provided the

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, C.J.; Kosti, Amir Zada; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Omari, Mohammad Karim; Muty, Salam Abdul; Nakshband, Haidari Gulam; Hosine, Abdul Aminulah; Wahab, Abdul; Hamidi, Abdul Wasy; Ahmadi, Nasim; Agena, Warren F.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Drenth, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey--Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit (AU) (80230101).

  13. Better Contract Oversight Could Have Prevented Deficiencies in the Detention Facility in Parwan, Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    OFFICER COMMANDER, U.S. CENTRAL COMMAND COMMANDER, U.S. FORCES-AFGHANISTAN COMMANDER, U.S. ARMY CENTRAL COMMANDING GENERAL, COMBINED SECURITY...TRANSITION COMMAND- AFGHANISTAN COMMANDING GENERAL, U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS COMMANDER, TASK FORCE PROTECTOR COMMANDER, COMBINED JOINT...requiring replacement or repair. These deficiencies increased safety and security risks to DoD personnel and detainees. The Commander, Combined Joint

  14. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    Afghanistan’s region, the United Nations , and others donors). Meetings such as the January 28, 2010, meeting in London on Afghanistan are one part of that...Washington DC, and an international meeting on Afghanistan held in London on January 28, 2010—has been the effort to persuade insurgent fighters and leaders...7 September 11 Attacks and Operation Enduring Freedom .................................................8 Post-Taliban Nation -Building Efforts

  15. Prehospital Pain Medication Use by U.S. Forces in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 180, 3:304, 2015 Prehospital Pain Medication Use by U.S. Forces in Afghanistan Col Stacy A. Shackelford, USAF MC*; Marcie Fowler...a process improvement initiative to examine the current use and safety of prehospital pain medications by U.S. Forces in Afghanistan. Prehospital pain ...casualties (39%) received pain medication during POI care and 283 (92%) received pain medication during tactical evacuation (TACEVAC). Morphine and

  16. Nation Building in Afghanistan - A Disconnect Between Security Means and Political Ends?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    171. 15 Anna Lindh , "Challenges of Peace Operations: Into the 21st Century," Challenges Project Concluding Report 1997 - 2002, (Sweden, 2002), 5...Peace Policy Brief, (12 January 2002): 2-4. 25 IBID, 3. 26 IBID, 3-4. 27 Lindh , 257. 28 "Afghanistan and the United Nations," UN News Service, available...reports/peace_operations/>; Internet; accessed 17 February 2003. 33 Lindh , 260. 34 United Nations Secretary-General, "The Situation in Afghanistan

  17. The Nature of Insurgency in Afghanistan and the Regional Power Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    August 5, 2009. http://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/2009/08/the-war-we-cant-win/ (accessed December 17, 2009). 32 John K. Cooley, Unholy Wars...Accordingly, in 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand concluded an agreement with Amir Abdul Rehman of Afghanistan, fixing the present boundary line.59 This...77 Khan, “History of Afghanistan.” 78 Nawaz, FATA, 10. 79 Ibid. 80 Foreword by John A. Nagal in Galula, Counterinsurgency

  18. The deployed military orthopaedic surgeon: experiences of a recent Iowa graduate in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Malin, Andrew S; Brannan, Patrick S

    2012-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons deployed to Afghanistan are primarily responsible for the provision of care to injured Us and coalition soldiers. A vast and well-coordinated system of echeloned care has evolved to rapidly treat and evacuate injured soldiers. Orthopaedic care of injured Afghan civilians represents a common secondary mission performed by deployed orthopaedic surgeons. In this article, I describe my experiences while deployed to Afghanistan in 2011 as part of the special Operations surgical team.

  19. Effectiveness of Interagency Cooperation at the Provincial Reconstruction Team Level in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-07

    Approved: ___ __.::..,,JL~~~---;;~~~~~~(._-;;;:--~1-:::--=-h.--;--;,------:----- D&e: ___________________ ~~~~~~-L+-------- . r . DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS AND...Reconstruction Teams I was quickly overwhelmed by the massive amount of material on the subject as well as the complexity ’ , r of the interagency...rec;:onstruction and counterinsurgency efforts in " ’ • r Afghanistan.3 The Provincial ReconstrUction Team concept has been active in Afghanistan

  20. Scrutinizing and Assessing the Performance of the German and U.S.-Led Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Gardez, Paktia province against Taliban and Al-Qaeda forces. 58 Ibid.; Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban...Council, Resolution 1386 (2001), 2. 65 Hodes and Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan, 43. 66 NATO, ISAF Key Figures: Factsheet, 1...67 Hodes and Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan, 45. 68 NATO, NATO Briefing: Helping Secure Afghanistan, 5-6. 69 Katzmann

  1. Afghanistan Equipment Drawdown: Progress Made, but Improved Controls in Decision Making Could Reduce Risk of Unnecessary Expenditures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Afghanistan. As of summer 2013, the Army and Marine Corps had substantial amounts of equipment in Afghanistan. The efficiency and effectiveness of...interviewing DOD officials in the United States and Afghanistan. What GAO Recommends GAO recommends that DOD ensure that the Army and Marine ...potential savings when compared with trucking costs. However, due to ineffective internal controls, the Army and Marine Corps may be incurring

  2. The Army Needs To Improve Property Accountability and Contractor Oversight at Redistribution Property Assistance Team Yards in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-04

    processing and safeguarding retail and wholesale equipment at the RPAT yards in Bagram and Kandahar, Afghanistan. Specifically, RPAT personnel did not...Investigations of Property Loss reports from May 2012 through May 2013 in retail and wholesale equipment at the nine RPAT yards in Afghanistan. Included...for processing and safeguarding retail and wholesale equipment at the Redistribution Property Assistance Team yards in Afghanistan. We considered

  3. Radiometric Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric (uranium content, thorium content, potassium content, and gamma-ray intensity) and related data were digitized from radiometric and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan published in 1976. The uranium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Uranium (Radium) Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The thorium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Thorium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The potassium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Potassium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The gamma-ray intensity data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Gamma-Field of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  4. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  5. Washington Promise Scholarship Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The Washington Promise Scholarship program was established to encourage excellent academic performance and to reward low- and middle-income students who demonstrate meritorious achievement in high school by providing them a 2-year scholarship. An evaluation was conducted to study the program and its impact on college attendance and student…

  6. The Promise of Transformative Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…

  7. Is Technology Fulfilling Its Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.

  8. Void-Filled SRTM Digital Elevation Model of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barrios, Boris

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The purpose of this data set is to provide a single consistent elevation model to be used for national scale mapping, GIS, remote sensing applications, and natural resource assessments for Afghanistan's reconstruction. For 11 days in February of 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Afghanistan DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are as a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:200,000 - scale Soviet General Staff Topographic Maps which date from the middle to late 1980's. Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and image processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes SRTM DEM quadrangles projected and clipped in geographic coordinates for the entire country. An index of all available SRTM DEM quadrangles is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. Also

  9. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima

    2016-01-01

    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  10. Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment. PMID:26366328

  11. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  12. A successful response to an outbreak of cholera in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Faizullah; Ahmadzai, Abdul Hamid; Habib, Najibullah; Taqdeer, Asadullah; Hartman, A Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Although postconflict Afghanistan has some of the worst health indicators in the world, the government is working hard to rebuild the health infrastructure, extend services to underserved areas and improve the quality of health services. An outbreak of cholera ElTor O1 that struck Kabul and spread nationwide in 2005, prompted a collaborative response from the Afghan Ministry of Public Health, partner agencies, and the system established to provide the Basic Package of Health Services, of which diarrhoeal disease control is an essential component. This response illustrates that, with good preparation, it is possible to respond to an outbreak of cholera effectively. The very low mortality rate during the outbreak (0.1%) shows how a resource-poor country can succeed in providing high-quality health services with government commitment, coordinated action by partners, proper case management and treatment and expanded access to services.

  13. Daily stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Rasmussen, Andrew; Yaqubi, Aziz; Daudzai, Haqmal

    2008-12-01

    Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, daily stressors were a better predictor than war experiences of all mental health outcomes except for PTSD; for men, daily stressors were a better predictor of depression and functional impairment, while war experiences and daily stressors were similarly predictive of general distress. For men, daily stressors moderated the relationship between war experiences and PTSD, which was significant only under conditions of low daily stress. The study's implications for research and intervention in conflict and post-conflict settings are considered.

  14. An epidemic of scurvy in Afghanistan: assessment and response.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Edith; Mutahar, Roya; Assefa, Fitsum; Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Nasiri, Shah Mahmood; Borrel, Annalies; Salama, Peter

    2003-09-01

    In March 2002, there were reports of a hemorrhagic fever outbreak in western Afghanistan. It was later confirmed that the hemorrhagic symptoms and increased mortality were actually due to scurvy. Most aid workers did not include scurvy in the initial differential diagnosis because it is uncommon throughout the world and has mainly been reported in refugee populations in recent times. A rapid assessment confirmed the cases clinically, estimated a prevalence rate of 6.3% (a severe public health problem), and determined that the attack rates peaked each year in January and February (the end of the winter). Many Afghans have limited dietary diversity due to isolated locations, lengthy winters, the continuing drought of the last four years, asset depletion, and loss of livelihood. After numerous food and fortification options to prevent future outbreaks had been considered, vitamin C tablet supplementation was selected because of the relatively rapid response time as compared with other prevention methods. A three-month course of vitamin C tablets was distributed to 827 villages in at-risk areas. The tablets were acceptable and compliance was good. No cases of scurvy were reported for the winter of 2002-03. The case study from Afghanistan demonstrates that scurvy can occur in nonrefugee or nondisplaced populations; vitamin C supplementation can be an effective prevention strategy; there is an urgent need to develop field-friendly techniques to diagnose micronutrient-deficiency diseases; food-security tools should be used to assess and predict risks of nutritional deficiencies; and the humanitarian community should address prevention of scurvy in outbreak-prone areas.

  15. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  16. The promise of quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  17. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  18. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    gouvernement afghan maintienne une orientation pro-soviétique.2 Les forces soviétiques sont demeurées en Afghanistan jusqu’en 1989. Tout au long de...cette période, les gouvernements soviétique et afghan ont dû faire face à une résistance généralisée et multiforme. Outre les moyens strictement...protéger le régime en place. La question est cependant de savoir si le gouvernement afghan avait les moyens d’assumer les coûts élevés liés aux

  19. Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection's pool: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sanaullah; Attaullah, Sobia

    2011-05-11

    There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. Awareness program and research capacity in the field of hepatitis are very limited in Afghanistan. Number of vulnerabilities and patterns of risk behaviors signal the need to take action now. Thirty one studies dating from October 2003 to 2011 were included, consisting the data of 132,981 individuals for HBV and 132,500 individuals for HCV. Percentage prevalence was 1.9% for HBV and 1.1% for HCV in all available Afghanistan population. Most at risk population to hepatitis include injecting drug users who share needles and female sex workers, while truck drivers, prisoners and homosexual men needs attention, as their statistical figure are missing. Data suggests that high incidence of intravenous drug use, sexual activities, unsafe blood transfusion procedures and mobility are major risk factors for hepatitis transmission. This review is based on analysis of the limited available data in Afghanistan. Although there are many underlying vulnerability factors, it appears that Afghanistan remains at an early epidemic phase. Further research is required to determine the seroprevalence and prevalent genotype(s) of HBV and HCV in all provinces in Afghanistan. This article provides some key insights into the potential and likely future transmission dynamics of hepatitis which will serve as a guide in the identification of priority areas in term of high risk groups and risk behaviours in the country and will assist to develop urgent strategic plans to combat the future burden of hepatitis in Afghanistan.

  20. Problems and promises of NODC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), the nation's warehouse for ocean data, often hears complaints from its users that requests for data from recent oceanographic cruises cannot be filled. The complaint highlights both sides of the data traffic problem that besets NODC: Researchers delay sending their data to the center, and NODC has had difficulties in processing some data, especially when changes in the computer systems are made or when data is submitted in incomplete form. Plans within NODC promise to minimize the data processing problems with eventual direct communication from desktop to data base.

  1. The INSPIRE Project: Using the "Unknown" to Co-Construct a Training Course on Humanistic Counselling in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdondini, Lucia; Grieve, Sandra; Kaveh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article details a collaborative project between the University of Strathclyde (UK) and the University of Herat (Afghanistan). The aim was to co-construct a model of training, based on humanistic approaches, in order to enhance counselling services in Afghanistan and to establish counselling training at the University of Herat. Two groups of…

  2. 31 CFR 545.412 - Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 545.412... from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 545.205 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled...

  3. Class 6 Proficiency in Afghanistan 2013: Outcomes of a Learning Assessment of Mathematical, Reading and Writing Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Tom; Mendelovits, Juliette; Stanyon, Rachel; Turner, Ross; Walker, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Ministry of Education, Afghanistan, engaged the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) as a partner to support the development of a national learning assessment program in Afghanistan. To achieve this goal, the Learning Assessment unit of the Ministry of Education and ACER have collaborated to design and implement the…

  4. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Kovaleva, O N; Lialina, E V

    2010-11-01

    Polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the HrdA, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci was analyzed in 84 accessions of local barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties from major agricultural regions of Afghanistan using starch gel electrophoresis. Forty alleles of the Hrd A locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 32.73%, 62 alleles of the Hrd B locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 14.29%, and five alleles of the Hrd Flocus with the frequencies from 0.59 to 32.15% have been identified. The conclusion about genetic similarity of barley populations from different regions of Afghanistan is made on the basis of cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in barley populations from 31 localities. The local barley populations form four unequal clusters. The largest cluster I includes populations from 14 localities of Afghanistan. The second largest cluster IV consists of populations from ten localities, and clusters II and III comprise populations from four and three localities, respectively. Each of the four clusters includes populations from different regions of northern and southern Afghanistan. Based on our results, we conclude that the diversity of hordein-coding loci and the distribution of their alleles among different regions of Afghanistan are the consequences of introduction of barley landraces and their distribution over trade routes.

  5. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  6. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  7. Y-chromosomal STR analysis in the Pashtun population of Southern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Achakzai, Niaz M; Rahman, Z; Shahzad, M S; Daud, S; Zar, M S; Israr, M; Husnain, T; Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country in the heart of Asia and since the dawn of humankind Afghanistan has faced centuries of turmoil, strife, conflict, warfare, distress, social unrest, difficult climate, harsh terrain and due to its unique geostrategic position in Eurasia which has historically attracted commerce and conflict. It is an important stop along the Silk Road, connecting the far eastern civilizations to the western world. A 5000-year history of constant invasion. Afghanistan has been repeatedly invaded and conquered by rulers and super powers, neighboring interference in this conflict-tattered land for centuries yet rarely leading to the conquest of this rugged and challenging terrain nation. Afghans are not only shepherds, farmers and nomads but also intense fighters and fierce warriors. Currently very limited genetic studies have been performed in Afghan populations. 17 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) were analyzed in 125 unrelated Pashtun (in hindi: Pathan) males residing in the Kandahar region of Southern Afghanistan. A total of 92 unique haplotypes were observed. The predominant haplotype reached a frequency of 9.6%. The haplotype diversity was 0.987 and the discrimination capacity 73.6%. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals a considerable regional stratification within the country as well as between different Pashtun (Pathan) groups from Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.

  8. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  9. Afghanistan [population education in countries of the region].

    PubMed

    Zafarsai, B; Khamar, S M

    1982-06-01

    In Afghanistan population education began as an organized program in the nonformal education sector with the initiation of a Unesco/UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) supported project--Family Health and Adult Education. The project, which aimed to integrate family health and family life education, was carried out over a 30-month period in 26 experimental classes in the province of Kohdaman, Shakardara, and the neighboring subdistricts of Kabul. The total enrollment was 479 women. In 1978 a new project was proposed for UNFPA funding, Family Health and Family Life Education through Mass Education Program. It was planned to integrate population education in all 6 education programs of the General Agency for Literacy Campaign (GALC). These programs are: general literacy program; women's program; agriculture and cooperative program; complementary education program; out-of-school children program; and follow-up materials program. The 1st national seminar on population education was organized in September 1979. 17 government and semigovernment agencies involved in population related activities participated. The seminar arrived at a definition and goal of population education. Population education is defined as an educational program which provides for study of the population situation affecting the way of life of the individual, the family, community, and the country. The seminar identified the following as the goal of population education: to provide young people and adults with a knowledge and understanding of population dynamics, causes and consequences of population growth, and the impact of population change/growth on aspects of quality of life. There are now about 26 key personnel in the Ministry of Education who have participated in regional seminars, workshops, and training programs organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Key personnel involved in population education in Afghanistan went on study tours in India, Cuba

  10. Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin.

  11. Resveratrol analogs: promising chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    Ogas, Talysa; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-07-01

    Although resveratrol can modulate multiple stages of carcinogenesis, by most common standards it is not a good drug candidate. Resveratrol lacks potency, high efficacy, and target specificity; it is rapidly metabolized and serum concentrations are low. Using resveratrol as a scaffold, we produced over 100 derivatives, some of which have target specificity in the nanomolar range. Aromatase inhibition was enhanced over 6000-fold by using 1,3-thiazole as the central ring of resveratrol. Optimizing the substitution pattern of the two phenyl rings and the central heterocyclic linker led to selective QR1 induction with a CD value of 87 nM. Several derivatives have been selected for evaluation of synergistic effects. Preliminary results with pairs of compounds are promising and further experiments, in a constant multidrug manner, will allow us to create polygonograms for larger combinations of derivatives. The objective is to develop a highly efficacious cocktail of derivatives based on the structure of resveratrol.

  12. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  13. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  14. Aeromagnetic surveys in Afghanistan: An updated website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenwary, Ghulam Sakhi; Kohistany, Abdul Hakim; Hussain, Sardar; Ashan, Said; Mutty, Abdul Salam; Daud, Mohammad Ahmad; Wussow, Michael D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Kucks, Robert P.; Finn, Carol A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Liang, Robert T.; Jarvis, James L.; Gardner, Joan M.; Childers, Vicki A.; Ball, David C.; Brozena, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its geologic setting, Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial natural resources. Although valuable mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information about the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Owing to the current security situation and the large areas of the country that have not been evaluated by geophysical exploration methods, a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  15. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  16. A comprehensive population dataset for Afghanistan constructed using GIS-based dasymetric mapping methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Allyson L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the application of dasymetric methods for mapping the distribution of population throughout Afghanistan. Because Afghanistan's population has constantly changed through decades of war and conflict, existing vector and raster GIS datasets (such as point settlement densities and intensities of lights at night) do not adequately reflect the changes. The purposes of this report are (1) to provide historic population data at the provincial and district levels that can be used to chart population growth and migration trends within the country and (2) to provide baseline information that can be used for other types of spatial analyses of Afghanistan, such as resource and hazard assessments; infrastructure and capacity rebuilding; and assisting with international, regional, and local planning.

  17. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  18. The neural circuitry of a broken promise.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Fischbacher, Urs; Feierabend, Anja; Lutz, Kai; Fehr, Ernst

    2009-12-10

    Promises are one of the oldest human-specific psychological mechanisms fostering cooperation and trust. Here, we study the neural underpinnings of promise keeping and promise breaking. Subjects first make a promise decision (promise stage), then they anticipate whether the promise affects the interaction partner's decision (anticipation stage) and are subsequently free to keep or break the promise (decision stage). Findings revealed that the breaking of the promise is associated with increased activation in the DLPFC, ACC, and amygdala, suggesting that the dishonest act involves an emotional conflict due to the suppression of the honest response. Moreover, the breach of the promise can be predicted by a perfidious brain activity pattern (anterior insula, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus) during the promise and anticipation stage, indicating that brain measurements may reveal malevolent intentions before dishonest or deceitful acts are actually committed.

  19. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2011-August 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-05

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio, which led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In 2012, however, the transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continued uninterrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, leading the World Health Assembly to declare completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2011-August 2012, as of September 9, 2012. During 2011, 80 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 25 WPV cases in 2010; 17 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 34 WPV cases for the same period in 2011. In Pakistan, 198 WPV cases were confirmed in 2011, compared with 144 WPV cases in 2010; 30 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 88 WPV cases during the same period in 2011. During January 2011-August 2012, no WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, and four confirmed WPV3 cases and one case with coinfection of WPV3 and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported in Pakistan. Violence targeting vaccinators has occurred previously in Afghanistan and recently in Pakistan. To progress further toward interruption of WPV transmission within their countries and across their shared border, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan might consider reviewing the implementation of their national emergency action plans and determine how to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within conflict-affected areas of both countries.

  20. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2010-September 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Among those countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan represent a common epidemiologic reservoir. This report updates previous reports (1,4) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2010--September 2011, as of October 31, 2011, and planned activities during 2011--2012 to address challenges to polio eradication. In Afghanistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011 predominantly occurred in the conflict-affected South Region and the adjacent Farah Province of the West Region. During 2010, 25 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 38 in 2009; 42 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 19 for the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011occurred both in conflict-affected, inaccessible areas along the common border with Afghanistan and in accessible areas; 144 WPV cases were confirmed in 2010, compared with 89 in 2009, and 120 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 93 during the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, the president launched a National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication in January 2011, emphasizing the key role and responsibility of political and health-care leaders at the district and subdistrict (union council) levels. Enhanced commitment, management, and oversight by provincial and district authorities will be needed to achieve further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan. Continued efforts also will be needed to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within insecure areas of both countries.

  1. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach.

  2. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Houben, R. M.; Grede, N.; de Pee, S.; Boccia, D.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  3. Afghanistan's national strategy for improving quality in health care

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzai, Mirwais; Amiri, Mirwais; Burhani, Nadera Hayat; Leatherman, Sheila; Hiltebeitel, Simon; Rahmanzai, Ahmed Javed

    2013-01-01

    Quality problem or issue When the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan began reconstructing the health system in 2003, it faced serious challenges. Decades of war had severely damaged the health infrastructure and the country's ability to deliver health services. Initial assessment A national health resources assessment in 2002 revealed huge structural and resource disparities fundamental to improving health care. For example, only 9% of the population was able to access basic health services, and about 40% of health facilities had no female health providers, severely constraining access of women to health care. Multiple donor programs and the MoPH had some success in improving quality, but questions about sustainability, as well as fragmentation and poor coordination, existed. Plan of action In 2009, MoPH resolved to align and accelerate quality improvement efforts as well as build structural and skill capacity. Implementation The MoPH established a new quality unit within the ministry and undertook a year-long consultative process that drew on international evidence and inputs from all levels of the health system to developed a National Strategy for Improving Quality in Health Care consisting of a strategy implementation framework and a five-year operational plan. Lessons Learned Even in resource-restrained countries, under the most adverse circumstances, quality of health care can be improved at the front-lines and a consensual and coherent national quality strategy developed and implemented. PMID:23485422

  4. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP.

  5. Hydrogeology of the Kabul Basin (Afghanistan), part II: groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Georg; Tünnermeier, Torge; Eqrar, Naim; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Shallow groundwater is the main source for drinking water in Kabul, Afghanistan. It comes from a multitude of shallow hand-pumped wells spread over the whole city area. The groundwater is characterised by slightly oxic redox conditions. Interactions with aquifer carbonates lead to near-neutral pH and high degrees of hardness. The mostly negative water budget of the Kabul Basin is the result of strong evaporation which leads to an increase in salt and also of some undesirable constituents, e.g. borate. Several years of drought have aggravated this problem. The shallow groundwater in the city has received tremendous amounts of pollution due to a lack of proper waste disposal and sewage treatment. Common indicators are elevated concentrations of nutrients such as nitrate and faecal bacteria. The high infant mortality can at least partially be attributed to the insufficient water hygiene. Acid generated during the mineralisation of the wastewater is hidden due to the strong pH buffering capacity of the groundwater system. Redox and pH conditions preclude significant mobilisation of trace metals and metalloids.

  6. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity.

  7. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment.

  8. Combating Corruption: How the Rule of Law Can Defeat a Culture of Impunity in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Afghanistan,” Report to Congress, November 2010. 2 Michael Hastings, The Operators (Blue Rider Press: New York, New York, 2012) 176. 3 Nathan Hodge and...Kalashnikov, and the Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press: New York, 2008. Grono, Nick . “Rule of Law and the...Rage at Young Lover.” The New York Times, July 30, 2011: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/31/world/asia/31herat.thml_r=1&em=&pagewanted=al Hodge

  9. [Environmental risk factors in the territory of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-07-01

    Military service in Iraq and Afghanistan is burdened by series of environmental factors such as high and low air temperature, wind, sand, dust, and local fauna. In summertime the main hazard are heat injuries. Sand and dust storms also become troublesome. In the winter another health problem is effect of low temperature. In Afghanistan additional threat pose mountain conditions, especially in wintertime when appear intense snowfalls. Hard conditions more than once characteristic for duty of Stabilization Forces soldiers in both countries can cause significant threat for health and life.

  10. Experiences of military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars: review of research report.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Scannell-Desch and Doherty's (2010) research study findings are important to evidence-based nursing practice experiences of United States military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars to expand the research research findings identified common experiences and reoccurring stories and struggles of nurses pre, during, and postemployment in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. These findings can be used for the education of future deploying military nurses and set the groundwork for further in-depth research studies on military nursing. One suggestion for future research would be a more in-depth study on the challenges faced by military nurses postemployment and interventions to assist in overcoming these challenges.

  11. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  12. A new species of the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V

    2015-10-02

    A new species from the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group--C. succuba sp. n.--is described from the mountains of Central Afghanistan, Bamyan Province. The new species differs from the geographically close C. p. jomuda Nekrutenko & Tshikolovets in morphology of the male and female genitalia along with the distinct wavy shape of the postdiscal white line on the hindwing underside. Discovery of the new species from C. paulae species group extends known distribution range of the group to the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau in Central Afghanistan.

  13. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398

  14. Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John; Wynn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study to identify the potential for phosphate deposits in Afghanistan. As part of this study, a geographic information system was constructed containing a database of phosphate occurrences in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, and a database of potential host lithologies compiled from 1:1,000,000 scale maps. Within Afghanistan, a handful of known occurrences and reports indicate the presence of phosphate in Permian, Cretaceous, and Paleogene sediments and in carbonatite. With the exception of the Khanneshin carbonatite, very little is known about these occurrences. In the countries surrounding Afghanistan, economic phosphate is known to occur in Cambrian, Devonian, and Paleogene sediments and in Kiruna-type Fe-apatite deposits. Many of the host units may extend into Afghanistan or equivalent units may be present. Although the possibility of economic phosphate deposits exist for Afghanistan, the need for detailed exploration for phosphate, the remoteness of some locations, and the probability that a deposit would not be exposed at the surface mean that one or more deposits are not likely to be identified in the near future. Even if a phosphate-bearing deposit is identified in Afghanistan, it is not clear if the probable size, thickness, and grade ranges would allow economic development of the hypothesized resource.

  15. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called 'Mental Health Gap'. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store-forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps < .05) and greater reductions in PTSD symptoms, distress, anger, physical complaints, and reintegration difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes.

  17. AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    optical characterization of the AMLCDs used in this simulator and the cockpit design are described. Display formats under consideration for test in this cockpit are described together with some of the basic human factors engineering issues involved. Studies conducted in this cockpit will be part of an ongoing joint effort of the hardware-focused aerospace displays team and the pilot-focused human factors team in the Air Force Research Laboratory's Crew System Interface Division. The objective of these studies is to ascertain the payoffs of the large AMLCD promise in combat cockpits.

  18. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  19. Epidemiology and Control of Plasmodium vivax in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Toby; Nahzat, Sami; Sediqi, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease—in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80–95% of malaria is P. vivax. Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts. Pressure on the disease is maintained through case management, surveillance, and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Plasmodium vivax treatment is hampered by the inability to safely treat latent hypnozoites with primaquine because G6PD deficiency affects up to 10% of males in some ethnic groups. The risk of vivax malaria recurrence (which may be as a result of reinfection or relapse) is around 30–45% in groups not treated with primaquine but 3–20% in those given 14-day or 8-week courses of primaquine. Greater access to G6PD testing and radical treatment would reduce the number of incident cases, reduce the infectious reservoir in the population, and has the potential to reduce transmission as a result. Alongside the lack of G6PD testing, under-resourcing and poor security hamper the control of malaria. Recent gains in reducing the burden of disease are fragile and at risk of reversal if pressure on the disease is not maintained. PMID:27708189

  20. Hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Kajakai Reservoir, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Don C.; Culbertson, James K.

    1970-01-01

    A hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Band-e Kajakai (Kajakai Reservoir) on the Darya-ye Hirmand (Helmand River) was carried out during the period September through December 1968. Underwater mapping techniques were used to determine the reservoir capacity as of 1968. Sediment range lines were established and monumented to facilitate future sedimentation surveys. Afghanistan engineers and technicians were trained to carry out future reservoir surveys. Samples were obtained of the reservoir bed and in the river upstream from the reservoir. Virtually no sediments coarser than about 0.063 millimeter were found on the reservoir bed surface. The median diameter of sands being transported into the reservoir ranged from 0.040 to 0.110 millimeter. The average annual rate of sedimentation was 7,800 acre-feet. Assuming an average density of 50 pounds per cubic foot (800 kilograms per cubic meter), the estimated average sediment inflow to the reservoir was about 8,500,000 tons (7,700,000 metric tons) per year. The decrease in capacity at spillway elevation for the period 1953 to 1968 due to sediment deposition was 7.8 percent, or 117,700 acre-feet. Redefinition of several contours above the fill area resulted in an increase in capacity at spillway elevation of 13,600 acre-feet; thus, the net change in capacity was 7.0 percent, or 104,800 acre-feet. Based on current data and an estimated rate of compaction of deposited sediment, the assumption of no appreciable change in hydrologic conditions in the drainage area, the leading edge of the principal delta will reach the irrigation outlet in 40-45 years. It is recommended that a resurvey of sediment range lines be made during the period 1973-75.

  1. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: Resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11–16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their “broken economy,” the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future. PMID:20452111

  2. A new plan for the 800-pound Gorilla (Guerrilla): perinatal mortality in Afghanistan: a 21st century counterinsurgency model for Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas C

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the highest perinatal mortality rate in the entire world. One Afghani woman dies every 30 minutes from perinatal- related event. One of eight Afghani women will die from perinatal events. Maternal mortality is (use percentage, not fractions) 1600/100,000 vs 13 /100,000 in the United States. Afghanistan is one of the only countries in the world in which the average woman?s life expectancy is shorter than a males- despite the active, nationwide combat fought primarily by Afghani males. Meaning, women in Afghanistan are not routinely involved in combat, yet are more likely to die than a man of the same age. This article presents an alternative model Medical Seminar (MEDSEM) for a successful Special Forces (SF) medical counterinsurgency (COIN) plan that can obtain real results by addressing the mission of the Afghan Ministry of Health versus clinging to old notions. This model forms around the medical capabilities of the SF Operational Detachment (ODA)- Alpha (A) and preventinmaternal-infant complications.

  3. Communication Management Guidelines for Software Organizations in Pakistan with clients from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Shah, Muhammad; Hashim, Rathiah; Shah, Adil Ali; Farooq Khattak, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Developing software through Global Software Development (GSD) became very common now days in the software industry. Pakistan is one of the countries where projects are taken and designed from different countries including Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to identify and provide an analysis on several communication barriers that can have a negative impact on the project and to provide management guidelines for medium size software organizations working in Pakistan with clients from Afghanistan and to overcome these communication barriers and challenges organizations face when coordinating with client. Initially we performed a literature review to identify different communication barriers and to check if there are any standardized communications management guidelines for medium size software houses provided in the past. The second stage of the research paper involves guidelines with vendor's perspective that include interviews and focus group discussions with different stakeholders and employees of software houses with clients from Afghanistan. Based on those interviews and discussions we established communication management guidelines in order to overcome the communication problems and barriers working with clients from Afghanistan. As a result of the literature review, we have identified that barriers such as cultural barriers and language barrier were one of the main reasons behind the project failure and suggested that software organizations working in Pakistan should follow certain defined communication guidelines in order to overcome communication barriers that affect the project directly.

  4. Distinct Circulating Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Among Injecting Drug Users and Sex Workers in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    strains from IDUs in Iran, Tagliamonte et al.5 identified greater homology within the isolated subtypes from Tehran than those from Mashad , providing some...were compared with those described from IDUs in Iran, both in Mashad and in Tehran.4,5 Although genotypes for IDU in Iran and Afghanistan are quite

  5. Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan (Leavenworth Papers, Number 20)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    tactical guide for engaging Soviet helicopters. Actually a schematic diagram done in watercolor , the document advised rebel fighters to let the first...Publication Paints Bleak Picture of War in Afghanistan." The Christian Science Monitor, 21 July 1988. Rafikov, R. "Helicopters over the Battlefield

  6. Localizing OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Lauryn; Hashimi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    The Darakht-e Danesh ("knowledge tree") Online Library is the first open educational resource (OER) initiative in Afghanistan, established to enhance teacher subject-area knowledge, access and use of learning materials, and to foster more diverse teaching methodologies in order to improve learning outcomes in Afghan classrooms. This…

  7. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    promoting alternative crops and are reporting good results by encouraging the growing of pomegranates and of saffron rice as alternative crops that draw...Afghan exports of high quality pomegranate juice called Anar. Other crops now substituting for poppy include wheat and saffron . To help Afghanistan

  8. Importation of malaria into the USSR from Afghanistan, 1981-89.

    PubMed Central

    Sergiev, V. P.; Baranova, A. M.; Orlov, V. S.; Mihajlov, L. G.; Kouznetsov, R. L.; Neujmin, N. I.; Arsenieva, L. P.; Shahova, M. A.; Glagoleva, L. A.; Osipova, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1981 and 1989, a total of 7683 cases of Plasmodium vivax [corrected] malaria were imported into the USSR from Afghanistan, mainly by demobilized military personnel. For 23.8% of these cases the clinical manifestations appeared within a month of returning to the USSR, for 22.5% after 1-3 months, for 20% after 4-6 months, for 2% after > 1 year, and for 0.6% after > 2 years. For 13 patients the clinical manifestations of malaria appeared 3 years after returning from Afghanistan (up to 38 months). Nearly 69% of the patients did not take malaria prophylaxis at all while they were in Afghanistan, and 19% took chloroquine irregularly. Only 12.5% of the patients received a full course of prophylactic treatment with primaquine before leaving Afghanistan. A total of 56% of the cases were detected during the period most favourable for malaria transmission in the USSR (May-September) and of these, half were imported into formerly malarious areas of the country. Activation of a surveillance system greatly reduced the consequences of the massive importation of malaria, to which the local vectors were susceptible. PMID:8324858

  9. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    lapis lazuli gems, marble tile, timber products (Kunar, Nuristan provinces). July 2010 Afghanistan-Pakistan trade agreement. Oil Proven Reserves 3.6...that not enough has been done to revive such potentially lucrative industries as minerals mining, such as of copper and lapis lazuli (a stone used in

  10. Integrating Learning, Leadership, and Crisis in Management Education: Lessons from Army Officers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayes, D. Christopher; Allen, Nate; Self, Nate

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model and case study used to teach crisis leadership as a management education topic. The materials emerge from studies of U.S. Army leaders (company commanders and platoon leaders) working in Iraq and Afghanistan. The authors explain how examples and cases from military combat provide tools to teach about crisis…

  11. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul Ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-03-31

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil.

  12. Images, Imagination and Impact: War in Painting and Photography from Vietnam to Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    and sets it into context. 29 Ron Harley , “Afghanistan: A Photo Essay,” War, Literature & the Arts, no...provide crucial social, emotional, and mnemonic materials for democratic identity, thought, and action.”54 The photograph by Nick Ut of the naked Kim

  13. Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael Jessee

    2016-01-01

    Afghanistan's public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially…

  14. Drug Treatment Centers in Afghanistan: Creating a Participatory Approach to Tackling the Drug Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Approaches , by Reid K Hester and William R Miller, 13–63. Boston: Allyn and Bacon , 2003. Mojumdar, Aunohita. “In Afghanistan, Drug Rehab for Children.” The...from a Cross-Cultural Perspective.” Third World Quarterly (Taylor & Francis , Ltd.) 23, no. 5 (2002): 961–975. Pain, Adam. Opium Poppy Strikes Back

  15. 75 FR 29466 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ...: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action would permit certain U.S. civil aircraft.... civil aircraft operating within Afghan airspace and overflying the territory of Afghanistan. This... insurgents, armed with various weapons, pose a serious threat to U.S. civil aircraft at local airports and...

  16. Development knowledge and experience--from Bangladesh to Afghanistan and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Aminul Alam, M.; Ahmed, Jalaluddin

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: In Afghanistan the challenges of development are daunting, mainly as a result of many years of conflict. The formation of a new government in 2001 paved the way for new initiatives from within and outside the country. BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), a Bangladeshi nongovernmental organization with a long history of successful work, extended its development model to Afghanistan in 2002. LOCAL SETTING: Provincial Afghanistan. APPROACH: BRAC has implemented programmes in Afghanistan in the areas of health, education, microfinance, women's empowerment, agriculture, capacity development and local government strengthening, and has taken many of these programmes to scale. RELEVANT CHANGES: With a total staff of over 3000 (94% Afghan and the rest Bangladeshis), BRAC now works in 21 of the country's 34 provinces. BRAC runs 629 non-formal primary schools with 18 155 students, mostly girls. In health, BRAC has trained 3589 community workers who work at the village level in preventive and curative care. BRAC runs the largest microfinance programme in the country with 97 130 borrowers who cumulatively borrowed over US$ 28 million with a repayment rate of 98%. LESSONS LEARNED: Initial research indicates significant improvement in access to health care. Over three years, much has been achieved and learned. This paper summarizes these experiences and concludes that collaboration between developing countries can work, with fine-tuning to suit local contexts and traditions. PMID:16917659

  17. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-30

    quarter, Citibank announced that its Global Transaction Services division had entered into an agreement with the privately owned Afghanistan...fund transfers, according to Citibank .259 More than half of all Afghan civil servants now receive their salaries through electronic fund trans- fers

  18. Intercultural Teaching through Translation: An Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy Course Case in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkilic, Alaattin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach and evaluate the effectiveness of an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course through translation to students in Afghanistan. First, an interview was conducted to determine students' computer skills. It was concluded that the students had almost no computer skills. The course was delivered to…

  19. CLINICAL FEATURES, CURRENT TREATMENTS AND OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSAIA/ECLAMPSIA IN NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN

    PubMed Central

    AHADI, SAYED SHIR MOHAMMAD; YOSHIDA, YOSHITOKU; RABI, MIRWAIS; SARKER, MOHAMMAD ABUL BASHAR; REYER, JOSHUA A.; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Afghanistan, preeclampsia/eclampsia is the second leading cause of maternal deaths following maternal hemorrhage. This study aimed to describe clinical features, current treatments, and outcome among preeclampsia and eclampsia patients in the north region of Afghanistan. This was a retrospective study based on medical records of four center hospitals (one regional hospital and three provincial hospitals) in the north region of Afghanistan. Subjects were 322 patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia, admitted from March 2012 to March 2013. Out of 322 cases, 72.7% were diagnosed as preeclampsia and the rest as eclampsia. Those aged 30–39 years were 41.0% among preeclampsia patients and 29 years and younger were 35.2% among eclampsia patients (p= 0.002). The first delivery was significantly higher (p=0.045) among eclampsia patients (51.1%) than among preeclampsia patients (36.8%). While none died among the preeclampsia patients, 12 out of 88 eclampsia patients died in the hospitals. The causes of the 12 deaths were pulmonary edema (6 patients), renal failure (3 patients), cerebrovascular attack (2 patients), and hemorrhage (1 patient). There were no clinical findings at admission significantly associated with the deaths within the eclampsia patient group. Although the sample size was not large enough, patients admitted to the regional/provincial hospitals at the stage of preeclampsia had a low risk of death. Access at the stage of preeclampsia and improvement in treatments for eclampsia would reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan. PMID:25797975

  20. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, Hakim; Azizi, Masood; Mogren, Saad

    2016-08-01

    This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.

  1. If You Believe in Faith: An Interview with Afghanistan's Minister of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Angie

    2004-01-01

    New construction springs up like hope in Afghanistan's capital: rampant, haphazard, and, too often, quick to deteriorate in Kabul's harsh climate. But one closely watched building project has come to symbolize so much--the renovation of the bombed-out, abandoned women's dormitories at Kabul University. When completed, they will house two thousand…

  2. Afghanistan’s Path to Reconstruction: Obstacles, Challenges, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-20

    protection needs. The weather, like the terrain, is varied and harsh and creates “pockets of need” which are difficult to reach by relief agencies. Food ... insecurity is likely to continue in many parts of Afghanistan. This in turn may contribute to existing ethnic tensions and encourage further

  3. Opium in Afghanistan: Lessons Learned from the Counterdrug Strategies of Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Afghanistan................50 Figure 9. Illegal armed groups and coca cultivation in Colombia 2008...................................55 Figure 10...Drug Abuse Resistance Education FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia GDP Gross Domestic Product NIU National Interdiction Unit PCIM...States.21 This problem contains four major players: the coca farmers; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC); the Colombian Government

  4. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  5. Afghanistan and Multiculturalism in Khaled Hosseini's Novels: Study of Place and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary F.; Todd, Reese H.; Olaniran, Bolanle; Lucey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to frame Khaled Hosseini's novels, "The Kite Runner" and "A Thousand Splendid Suns", as literature to expand and enhance the American secondary curriculum with multicultural themes based on Afghanistan as a geographical and cultural place in a dynamic, diverse, and complex world more…

  6. The Genetic Basis of Fusarium Root Rot Tolerance in the Afghanistan Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic basis of tolerance to Fusarium root rot found in many landraces grown in the region that includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and northwestern India was examined in a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a tolerant accession. Three loci appear to be primarily resp...

  7. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  8. Wielding the Military Shield and the Civilian Sword: Norwegian Civil-Military Interagency Cooperation in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    and Mads A. Andersen, “SV: Vi boer sette dato for uttrekning fra Afghanistan” [SV: We should set a date for pulling out of Afghanistan], Verdens Gang......Norwegian context, the research had to be based on other sources. The obvious solution to the problem was to interview professionals with practical

  9. Advising the Command: Best Practices from the Special Operations Advisory Experience in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    of SOF partnering at the tactical level, please see Austin Long, Todd C. Helmus, S. Rebecca Zimmerman, Christopher M. Schnaubelt, and Peter Chalk ...headquarters level. 8 Austin Long, Todd C. Helmus, Rebecca Zimmerman, Christopher Schnaubelt, and Peter Chalk , Building Special Operations Partnerships...Rebecca Zimmerman, Christopher M. Schnaubelt, and Peter Chalk , Building Special Operations Partnerships in Afghanistan and Beyond: Challenges and Best

  10. Afghanistan Drug Control: Despite Improved Efforts, Deteriorating Security Threatens Success of U.S. Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    earlier in the south and later in the north of Afghanistan. It is planted between September and December and flowers approximately three months...after planting. After the flower’s petals fall away, the opium, an opaque, milky sap found in the plant’s seed capsule, is harvested between April and

  11. Afghanistan’s Post-Taliban Transition: The State of State-Building After War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    JOHNSON 24 44. Nicholas Kralev, ‘U.S. backs intention to work with ex-Taliban’, Washington Times, 15 June 2004. 45. For example, see ‘Afghanistan: President...E9ExecLegisElectoralOptionsMaley.pdf (accessed 10 June 2005). 54. Anne Marie Goetz, Mary Kaldor and Robin Luckham, ‘Democratic institutions and democratic politics’, in

  12. Feasibility of Open Schooling in Disturbed Societies: The Case of Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Most countries have enshrined the right to education in their constitution but, in reality, to fulfil this commitment, countries do face a number of challenges. And this is true with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which unlike other countries has a long history of war, conflicts, insurgency, and hence insecurity. Although there have been…

  13. Good Governance Matters: Optimizing U.S. PRTs in Afghanistan to Advance Good Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Analysis. (CRM D0019230.A1/SR1 October 2008), 6. 26 Dylan Hendrickson, Michael Bhatia, Mark Knight, and Annabel Taylor, A Review of DFID Involvement...Michael Bhatia, Mark Knight, and Annabel Taylor, A Review of DFID Involvement in Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanistan, Report

  14. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  15. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  16. An outbreak of human external ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus ovis in southern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, James; Cooper, Ben; Hodgetts, Tim; Yskandar, Halabi; van Thiel, Pieter; Whelan, Steve; Taylor, Justin; Woods, David R

    2008-06-01

    Oestrus ovis is the most common cause of human ophthalmomyiasis, and infection is often misdiagnosed as acute conjunctivitis. Although it typically occurs in shepherds and farmers, O. ovis ophthalmomyiasis has also been reported in urban areas. We report the first case study of O. ovis infection from Afghanistan.

  17. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  18. 78 FR 54947 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  19. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  20. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan women…

  1. Muslim and Western Influences on School Curriculum in Post-War Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.

    2007-01-01

    In Afghanistan, education has largely been destroyed, partly in the name of Islam, by the wars fought on its behalf, or by different ethnic groups vying for control of this Islamic country. Similarly, curriculum has been used to promote political and/or religious viewpoints and to strengthen positions of power. War dominated the language of…

  2. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  3. Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plane, Jandelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

  4. Geologic and topographic maps of the Kabul South 30' x 60' quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with three highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in Geospatial PDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts

  5. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Afghanistan, January 2014‒August 2015.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-10-23

    Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.

  6. 76 FR 76382 - Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February 2012* Dates Are Withheld

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February 2012* Dates Are Withheld AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce's International Trade...

  7. Natural Resource Assessments in Afghanistan Through High Resolution Digital Elevation Modeling and Multi-spectral Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirico, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides USGS/USAID natural resource assessments in Afghanistan through the mapping of coal, oil and natural gas, minerals, hydrologic resources and earthquake and flood hazards.

  8. Taxonomic notes on the genus Satyrium Scudder, 1876 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) of Afghanistan with description of two new taxa.

    PubMed

    Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V

    2015-07-13

    А new species and a new subspecies of Satyrium Scudder, 1876 (subfamily Theclinae, tribe Eumaeini) from the subgenera Superflua Strand, 1910 and Armenia Dubatolov & Korshunov, 1984 respectively are described from Bamyan Province, Central Afghanistan-S. (S.) skrylniki sp. n. and S. (A.) hyrcanica bamiana ssp. n. The new species of Superflua belongs to the Iranian complex of species. It inhabits the territory of Afghanistan, being isolated from two other species of the subgenus known from the territory in question. The new subspecies of Armenia is also found in isolation both from the nominate subspecies and two Middle and Central Asian subspecies. Both findings clarify some aspects of zoogeography of the Central Afghanistan mountains.

  9. Modeling, Simulation, and Operations Analysis in Afghanistan and Iraq: Operational Vignettes, Lessons Learned, and a Survey of Selected Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    obtain more, and more granular, sociocultural data so he could learn more about the population. He felt it necessary to have people with experience in...and Operations Analysis in Afghanistan and Iraq: Operational Vignettes, Lessons Learned , and a Survey of Selected Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...C O R P O R A T I O N Modeling, Simulation, and Operations Analysis in Afghanistan and Iraq Operational Vignettes, Lessons Learned , and a Survey

  10. A Case Study in Security Sector Reform: Learning from Security Sector Reform/Building in Afghanistan (October 2002-September 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2008. Rashid, Ahmed. Descent Into Chaos, New York, Viking, 2008. Sedra , Mark. “Confronting Afghanistan’s Security... Sedra , “Confronting Afghanistan’s Security Dilemma,” e conference, June 4-11, 2003, www.bicc.de/publications/ briefs/brief28/content.php, accessed April...Progress in Afghanistan, Bucharest Summit 2-4 April 2008, Brussels: NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2008, www.nato.int; Sedra ; Thier, Afghanistan

  11. Development of Empirically Based Time-to-death Curves for Combat Casualty Deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Development of Empirically Based Time-to- death Curves for Combat Casualty Deaths In Iraq and Afghanistan Edwin...10.1177/1548512914531353 dms.sagepub.com Development of empirically based time-to- death curves for combat casualty deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan...casualties with life-threatening injuries. The curves developed from that research were based on a small dataset (n = 160, with 26 deaths and 134

  12. Iraq and Afghanistan: Security, Economic, and Governance Challenges to Rebuilding Efforts Should Be Addressed in U.S. Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq, Nov. 17, 2008. The agreement took effect Jan . 1, 2009...Stability in Afghanistan (Washington, D.C.: Jan . 2009). Figure 1: Enemy-Initiated Attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan Per Month, May 2003...Forward ( Jan . 2007 – July 2008) • President Obama outlined a new U.S. strategy in Feb. 2009 • Security forces development plan • Integrated energy plan

  13. Relation of Topography to Airborne Gravity in Afghanistan and the Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a multi-sensor, multi-disciplinary aerogeophysical survey, the US Naval Research Laboratory collected airborne gravity over most of Afghanistan in 2006 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1089/Afghan_grv.html). The data were measured using a pair of ZLS Corporation air-sea gravimeters 7 km altitude above mean sea level aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft operated by the US Navy's Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1). Aircraft positions were determined from kinematic GPS measurements in the aircraft relative to five base stations using differential interferometric techniques. Track spacing was set to 4 km over much of Afghanistan, but was increased to 8 km in the northern block of the survey area. Aircraft ground speed averaged between 300 and 380 knots, faster than ideal for high resolution gravity, but enabled approximately 113,000-km of data tracks to be flown in 220 flight hours, covering more than 330000 km2. In this presentation, we investigate the implications of the airborne gravity data for the tectonic development history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is described as comprising three different platforms (Wheeler et al., 2005): 1) the north Afghanistan platform north of the Hari-Rud fault (HRF), a part of the Eurasian plate for 250-350 my; 2) the accreted terranes south of the HRF including low flats, formed as island arcs and fragments of continental and oceanic crust collided with the Eurasian plate during the closure of the Tethys Ocean in the past 250 my; and 3) the transpressional plate in the east, formed as the Indian plate moves northward since Cretaceous. The Bouguer anomaly map reveals elongated negative values along the east-west striking HRF, which seems to manifest different tectonic developmental histories across the boundary. Over the southern flats in the accreted terranes platform, the Bouguer anomaly map appears to show a continuation of alternating southwest-northeast trending highs and lows like those over the northern high

  14. Geologic and Topographic Maps of the Kabul North 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with two highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in GeoPDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts to rebuild

  15. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  16. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...

  17. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...

  18. After the parade: military nurses' reintegration experiences from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary Ellen; Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe reintegration experiences of U.S. military nurses returning from deployments in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. A qualitative study using a phenomenological method was conducted. The population comprised nurses who served in the U.S. Army, Navy, or Air Force in Iraq or Afghanistan during 2003-2013, including Active Duty, National Guard, and Reserve nurses. Purposive sampling with Veteran and professional nursing organizations yielded a sample of 35 nurses. Nine themes emerged from analysis: (a) homecoming; (b) renegotiating roles; (c) painful memories of trauma; (d) getting help; (e) needing a clinical change of scenery; (f) petty complaints and trivial whining; (g) military unit or civilian job: support versus lack of support; (h) family and social networks: support versus lack of support; and (i) reintegration: a new normal.

  19. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD.

    PubMed

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Conybeare, Daniel; Phelps, Lori; Hunt, Stephen; Holmes, Hollie A; Felker, Bradford; Klevens, Michele; McFall, Miles E

    2007-12-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were grouped by level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and compared on self-report measures of trait anger, hostility, and aggression. Veterans who screened positive for PTSD reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the subthreshold-PTSD and non-PTSD groups. Veterans in the subthreshold-PTSD group reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD and subthreshold-PTSD groups did not differ with respect to aggression, though both groups were significantly more likely to have endorsed aggression than the non-PTSD group. These findings suggest that providers should screen for anger and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who exhibit symptoms of PTSD and incorporate relevant anger treatments into early intervention strategies.

  20. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  1. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    PubMed

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  2. Preliminary findings from a clinical demonstration project for veterans returning from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Jean C; Becker, Mary E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W; Drury, Pamela D; Kang, Han K; Wiley, Matthew T; Calhoun, Patrick S; Moore, Scott D; Bright, Mary Anne; McFall, Miles E

    2008-05-01

    Military veterans are at high risk for nicotine dependence. This clinical demonstration project used invitational letters, referral to the National Cancer Institute's Smoking Quitline, and local Veteran Affairs prescriptions for tobacco cessation to evaluate whether this low-cost method would potentially reduce smoking in separated veterans who served in Afghanistan and Iraq. Three cohorts (500 each) of recently separated veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq were contacted by survey letters. Interested veterans received follow-up telephone calls using standardized scripts. They were referred to the National Cancer Institute's Smoking Quitline (1-877-44U-QUIT) and offered local Veteran Affairs pharmacologic treatment for smoking cessation. Forty-three percent of respondents who were smokers were interested in the clinical program; of these, 77% participated. At 2 months follow-up, 38% of participants self-reported maintained smoking abstinence. Results suggested that the intervention was feasible and assisted the small number of veterans who participated.

  3. Suspected pulmonary tuberculosis exposure at a remote U.S. army camp in northeastern Afghanistan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Remington L; Silvestri, John W; Hu, Zheng; Tobler, Steven K; Trotta, Richard F

    2008-07-01

    Military personnel serving at remote camps in the border regions of northeastern Afghanistan may experience crowded living conditions and may have frequent interaction with local national (LN) workers, increasing the risk of exposure to multiple endemic diseases including tuberculosis (TB). In January 2007, pulmonary TB was clinically suspected in a LN worker who had close contact with a company of 92 U.S. Army personnel at a remote camp in Konar province, Afghanistan, over 4 months. This report describes the results of the contact investigation conducted by the U.S. Army, in which four U.S. personnel were found to have evidence of TB exposure. This investigation raises concerns arising from the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB in the region and in neighboring North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, and demonstrates the challenges of conducting contact investigations and using LN workers in deployed wartime environments.

  4. Notes on interpretation of geophysical data over areas of mineralization in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial metallic mineral resources. Although valuable mineral deposits have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Geophysical surveys, particularly those conducted from airborne platforms, are a well-accepted and cost-effective method for obtaining information on the geological setting of a given area. This report summarizes interpretive findings from various geophysical surveys over selected mineral targets in Afghanistan, highlighting what existing data tell us. These interpretations are mainly qualitative in nature, because of the low resolution of available geophysical data. Geophysical data and simple interpretations are included for these six areas and deposit types: (1) Aynak: Sedimentary-hosted copper; (2) Zarkashan: Porphyry copper; (3) Kundalan: Porphyry copper; (4) Dusar Shaida: Volcanic-hosted massive sulphide; (5) Khanneshin: Carbonatite-hosted rare earth element; and (6) Chagai Hills: Porphyry copper.

  5. Management of paediatric tuberculosis in provincial and district hospitals in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Delawer, F M; Isono, M; Ueki, H; Zhuben, M; Zafari, M; Seddiq, M K; Habib, H; Ayoubi, M K

    2013-08-01

    Case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis 1 B) in children are challenging issues vorldwide. This study in Afghanistan aimed to evaluate paediatric TB case management, including contact investigation, at health facilities where all diagnostic processes were available. In 7 out of 8 regions of the country 1 province was selected. Documents used for management of paediatric TB cases were reviewed in 15 distinct hospitals and 8 provincial hospitals in the selected provinces. The key issues which emerged were: a low suspect rate among total outpatients (0.4%) and a very low suspect rate among children aged < 5 years; low performance of suspect management (68.5% suspects received further examinations); low utilization of other diagnostic methods; a high early defaulter rate (14.0%); and insufficient coverage of contact management (74.0%). This survey indicated that the Afghanistan national TB programme needs to develop plans to improve the quality of diagnosis, suspect management and contact management in paediatric TB cases.

  6. Lessons from the Past: Vital Factors Influencing Military Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Military Advisory Group ROK Republic of Korea RVNAF Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces SAO Security Assistance Operations SCO Security Cooperation...Reconstruction. 2010. Quarterly report to the United States Congress. Third Quarter. 14 3 Rod Norland. “Showcase Afghan Army Mission Turns Into Debacle...Assistance Operations ( SAO ), such as those conducted by the United States and NTM-A in Afghanistan, military advisors play a key role. In order to assess

  7. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-30

    and other illegal armed groups. SIGAR is also initiating a new series of lessons- learned reports to extract useful guid- ance for future operations of... learned reports will assess the extent to which spending in Afghanistan did or did not help the United States achieve its recon- struction goals. As...in a timely, successful way, reducing the risk of fraud, waste, and abuse of Afghan reconstruction funds. A second performance audit found that poor

  8. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  9. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  12. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  13. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  14. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  15. Back to the Future: Making a Modern Day Air Corps in a Stone Age Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    for surveillance and reconnaissance with the Iraqi Ministry of oil and electricity. 38 Organization Organization of the Iraqi Air Force is...lived a peppered life of growth and contraction. Alliances for the Air Corps shifted from one controlling body to another, eventually fracturing an...compared to 79.96% white, 15.1% Hispanic and 12.85% black in the US. 72 The lack of commonality in Afghanistan exacerbates the difficulties

  16. Department of Defense Environmental Policy in Afghanistan During Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-31

    impact mentioned in the report. 72 Finally, the UNEP PCA expressed concern that "western aid workers and soldiers" purchasing snow leopard skins from...Kabul street vendors could further "increase the snow leopard hunt, driving the species closer to extinction in Afghanistan. ’ 73 While not mentioned in...34 160 For both kinds of installations, DoD components are required to take "prompt action to remedy known imminent and substantial endangerments to

  17. Policing in Afghanistan-Reform that Respects Tradition: Need for a Strategic Shift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    118. 35 Nathan Hodge , “Army Researchers: Why the Kandahar Offensive Could Backfire,” Danger Room (16 April 2010), www.wired.com/dangerroom/2010/04...can win the war and lose the battle at home.38 Nick Grono, the Deputy President for Operations of the International Crisis Group, Brussels, has also...graduates re- 40 Nick Grono, “Policing in Conflict Studies – Lessons from Afghanistan,” International

  18. Counterinsurgency: Clear-Hold-Build and the Pashtun Tribes in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Taliban. The roads allowed access to more remote areas. A statement by General Karl Eikenberry left no doubt about the idea of roads being critical...counterinsurgency_field_manual_afghanistan_edition?page=0,1 (accessed 13 March 2012). 83Andrew Wilder, “Winning Hearts and Minds?” http://afghanistanforum.wordpress.com/tag/ karl -eikenberry...Wilder, Andrew. “Winning Hearts and Minds?” http://afghanistanforum.wordpress.com/tag/ karl - eikenberry/ (accessed 13 March 2012). World Food

  19. A Contemporary "Blueprint" for North Atlantic Treaty Organization Provisional Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    means of keeping a lid on the situation in Afghanistan, while coalition forces and resources moved to Iraq. 13 Mark Sedra . May/June 2005. “The...58 Mark Sedra . May/June 2005. “The Provincial Reconstruction Team: The Future of Civil- Military Relations?” Article in SITREP, A Publication of the...challenge. 105 Mark Sedra . May/June 2005. “The Provincial Reconstruction Team: The Future of

  20. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  1. Information and Communication Technologies for Reconstruction and Development: Afghanistan Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    schooled in the use of each has reshaped enterprises and activities throughout the world. Experiences from recent U.S. government ( USG ) and... GPRS , Internet), satellite access (VSAT, INMARSAT RBGAN, and BGAN terminals), wireless networking (WiFi and WiMax), Public Call Offices (individuals...working Afghanistan reconstruction and development are beginning to perceive that the USG , the international community, and the Karzai government may

  2. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    a $300 million project , mentioned above, to bring electricity from Central Asia to Afghanistan. It has also renovated the well-known Habibia High...gas. Current oil production negligible, but USAID funding project to revive oil and gas facilities in the north. Cellphones/Tourism About 6.5...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  3. Treatment-seeking veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan: comparison with veterans of previous wars.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Differences in the characteristics and mental health needs of veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war when compared with those of veterans who served in the Persian Gulf war and in the Vietnam war may have important implications for Veterans Affairs (VA) program and treatment planning. Subjects were drawn from administrative data bases of veterans who sought treatment from specialized VA programs for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Current Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were compared with 4 samples of outpatient and inpatient Persian Gulf and Vietnam veterans whose admission to treatment was either contemporaneous or noncontemporaneous with their admission. A series of analyses of covariance was used hierachically to control for program site and age. In analyses of contemporaneous veterans uncontrolled for age, Iraq/Afghanistan veterans differed most notably from Vietnam veterans by being younger, more likely to be female, less likely to be either married or separated/divorced, more often working, less likely to have ever been incarcerated, and less likely to report exposure to atrocities in the military. Regarding clinical status, Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were less often diagnosed with substance abuse disorders, manifested more violent behavior, and had lower rates of VA disability compensation because of PTSD. Differences are more muted in comparisons with Persian Gulf veterans, particularly in those involving noncontemporaneous samples, or those that controlled for age differences. Among recent war veterans with PTSD, social functioning has largely been left intact. There is a window of opportunity, therefore, for developing and focusing on treatment interventions that emphasize the preservation of these social assets.

  4. The Rule of Law Effort in Afghanistan: A Success Story in the Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    USA 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND...Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a United States led invasion toppled the regime for providing...volunteered as the lead nation for a rule of law program. The Afghan legal system was historically a mix of civil, customary, and Islamic law. In

  5. Firm Fixed Price and Cost Plus Fixed Fee Construction Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    others 2006, Hutton 2006, Walker 2007). In Afghanistan and Iraq a number of lessons learned were highlighted and documented through Government...manager/apps/PTS/Reports/metrics/schedGrowthMetric.aspx (accessed May 2011). Hutton , John P. "Rebuilding Iraq: Status of Competition for Iraq...downloads.php (accessed April 2011). Vaccari, David A., Peter F. Strom, and James E. Alleman. Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists. Hoboken

  6. Joint Mental Health Advisory Team 7 (J-MHAT 7) Operation Enduring Freedom 2010 Afghanistan (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-22

    Marine platoons. Eighty -five surveys were collected from behavioral health personnel in the Afghanistan Theater of Operations (ATO). From 27 July to 14...with Soldiers, Marines and behavioral health personnel, and (d) wrote the technical briefing and draft report. The report contains four key...Factors In the conceptual model, behavioral health rates are driven by risk factors. In this report, risk factors are broken down into four major

  7. Ahmad Shah Massoud: A Case Study in the Challenges of Leading Modern Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    operation would be perceived as a failure by the government and the ISI discredited.65 Bhutto wanted Major General Nasrullah Babar to try a parallel track... Babar realized that there was significant disillusionment within the Afghan refugee community concerning the inter Mujihadeen civil war in Afghanistan...The Pakistani Madrassas or religious schools were predominantly filled with Afghan refugees and provided General Babar a steady supply of

  8. Corruption in Conflict: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    anticorruption599 To share information on anticorruption regarding political engagement with GIROA and messaging. Not a decision - making body600... Bank , World Development Indicators: GDP at market prices, World Bank Databank. 35 Hussman, Working towards common donor responses to corruption, p. 3...virulently anti-U.S. ideologies, and supports making Afghanistan an Islamic state rooted in sharia.” (U.S. Department of State, Office of the

  9. Value Focused Thinking for Nation Building in Afghanistan: A Regional Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of...repercussions of cold -war coups in Iran and Guatemala haunt Washington to this day. As President Bush draws up plans to deal with Afghanistan...Integrate measures to protect US citizens abroad v. Ensure an integrated incident management capability It is clearly evident from these objectives

  10. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Sanaie, A.; Nasrat, A.; Seddiq, M. K.; Mahmoodi, S. D.; Stevens, R. H.; Creswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won’t receive proper care. Methods From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification. Results We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125) were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified. Discussion While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can

  11. U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan-Pakistan: Chinese Views and Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Daobao (liH^^t SE^ffi), article by Wang Shida, researcher at CICIR, December 10, 2010. Open Source Center CPP20100304671001. IAAt least one...long-term economic and security interests could suffer if China remains passive in the region while "hiding behind 44 Wang Shida, "PRC Daily Article...Suggests Things China Should Do in Afghanistan." 45 Beijing also replaced the long-serving, hard-line Party Secretary for Xinjiang, Wang Lequan, with

  12. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-19

    experts described as “ nation -building,”was supported by major international institutions and U.S. partners in several post-Taliban international meetings ...in the Afghanistan issue (NATO, Afghanistan’s neighbors, other countries in Afghanistan’s region, the United Nations , and other donors). Meetings ...such as the January 28, 2010, meeting in London and the July 20, 2010, Kabul Conference are part of that effort. To date, at least 25 nations have

  13. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  14. Stabilization Operations Beyond Government: Joint Venture Public-Private Partnerships in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Defense Intelligence Agency. This article won the inaugural young Professionals in Foreign Policy Essay competition. Joint Venture Public - Private Partnerships in...Beyond Government: Joint Venture Public - Private Partnerships in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...joint venture public - private partnerships hold the best possibility to achieve the goals of A Unique Private Sector Methodology Eurasia Group brings

  15. Construction and Reconstruction Efforts in Nation Building: Planning for Everything in Afghanistan Except the Afghans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    paradigm for nation reconstruction efforts. An expenditure of over 100 billion dollars in 2014 money between 1948 – 1952 was the foundation that... money from a whole lot of poor people in U.S. and gave a whole lot of money to a few very rich people in Afghanistan.” The meeting included...looked forward to new rotations of personnel, knowing it would be accompanied by a new focus and another windfall of money and assets. This was all made

  16. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counter-Narcotics Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    opium poppy cultivation has driven an agricultural shift in Afghanistan from growing traditional crops to growing opium poppy . Despite the fact that...conflict, drought, and deteriorating infrastructure. In recent years, many poor farmers have turned to opium poppy cultivation to make a living because...Figure 1. Opium Poppy Capsule12 4 Opium Opium poppy is a hardy, drought-resistant plant that is easily grown in most parts of

  17. U.S. Military Information Operations in Afghanistan: Effectiveness of Psychological Operations 2001-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    democracy and participation in elections seemed to have better audience reception during 2001–2005 than they had in later years, including the most...opinion polls conducted in Afghanistan during the period. Also, interviews with IO and PSYOP officers return- ing from the field often indicate that...caves. The Taliban and al Qaeda live largely among the people. They intimidate and control and communicate from within. . . . No, our biggest problem

  18. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Afghanistan’s Highways 1960-1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    was being done. The Ken R. White Company, an American firm under contract to the International Cooperation Administration, was responsible for the...crossings. The roadbed followed a gradual rise from Kandahar to the border, crossing minor ridges on gentle slopes {History 1965; Wilber 1962). This...Walters, R. S. (1970). American and Soviet Aid: A comparative analysis. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pa. Wilber , D. N. (1962). Afghanistan

  19. Afghanistan Security Forces Fund Phase III-U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Real Property Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    None A.1., B.1. Commander, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Afghanistan Engineer District None A.1., A.2., B.1., B.2., B.3. ii Table of Contents...requirement for an oxygen supply system at NMH. The NMH phase II contract, awarded on August 1, 2006, included option 0016 to replace the oxygen supply...Proposals (RFP). The Kabul NMH phase II contract file did not document that this planning coordination took place. AED exercised this contract

  20. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil. PMID:28321006

  1. New-onset asthma among soldiers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Peters, Michael C; Weissinger, Kristen M; Gagliano, Christy A; Chen, John J

    2010-01-01

    Since June 4, 2004, asthma diagnosed and symptomatic after the age of 12 years has been an exclusion criterion for military enlistment unless exempted via medical waiver. The Department of Defense determined that 13% of U.S. Army Medic visits in Iraq are for new-onset acute respiratory illness; case reports of veterans with asthma that began in Iraq and Afghanistan War zones have surfaced. This prompted our study to determine whether new asthma is diagnosed more frequently among Iraq/Afghanistan War troops versus stateside-based troops. Retrospective review of asthma diagnoses among computerized charts for military personnel discharged from active duty and examined between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007, at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Northport, NY, classified soldiers by (1) deployment status-whether they were stationed in Iraq/Afghanistan for a 1-year tour of duty or stationed in the United States, and (2) VA diagnosis of asthma per International Classification of Disease codes. Associations between deployment and asthma statuses were evaluated/stratified by gender/age group. Eligibility criteria entailed (1) residence in Long Island, (2) aged 18-45 years, and (3) both U.S. military service and discharge dates between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007. Out of 6233 patients who served between 2004 and 2007 and were followed at the Northport VAMC, 290 new-onset/prevalent asthma cases were identified. Deployment to Iraq was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma compared with stateside soldiers (6.6% versus 4.3%; with a crude odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.11). These associations persist when stratified by gender and age group. Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan is associated with new-onset asthma. Etiologic studies, surveillance, incidence, epidemiology, and assessing response to therapy are recommended.

  2. Airpower in Afghanistan 2005-10: The Air Commanders’ Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    legitimacy), international law ( legality ), and strategy as being but one of many sources of power to influence the situation at hand. This is perhaps...with Afghanistan and Iraq. An example: the borders of both countries were (and remain) relatively porous. Some people entered through the legal ...Aviation Administration worked AIRPOWER: THE THEATER PERSPECTIVE │ 35 to send Afghan citizens to English language and air traffic con- trol training

  3. Ditching Career Centric COIN: Exhuming Robert Komer with the Drawdown in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-10

    there remains a void, virtually ignored by scholars and pundits alike. That void is filled by the questions surrounding the actual organization of COIN...enemy centric, and leader centric COIN are sill in common and official use by the community at large. Their usefulness, however, has been diminished by...could they learn and adapt.17 While Afghanistan experts are realistically wary of centralization, they might do well to look at the conduct of the

  4. Wartime vascular injuries in the pediatric population of Iraq and Afghanistan: 2002-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Wartime vascular injuries in the pediatric population of Iraq and Afghanistan: 2002–2011☆ Carole Y. Villamaria a,b,⁎, Jonathan J. Morrison b, Colleen...Accepted 4 October 2013 Key words: Vascular injury Trauma Children Pediatric Wartime Reconstruction Background: Contemporary war-related studies focus...primarily on adults with few reporting the injuries sustained in local pediatric populations. The objective of this study is to characterize pediatric

  5. Selected epidemiological aspects of fresh whole blood application in the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Adam; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Lass, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Minimisation of blood transmitted diseases is a basic element of all blood transfusion strategies. Civilian health service standards used in peacetime may be difficult to implement in a battlefield. The risk of blood-borne diseases depends on the applied donor qualification procedures and the epidemiological situation in the areas of military operations. The authors discuss various epidemiological aspects considered when selecting potential donors of fresh whole blood for a Walking Blood Bank at the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

  6. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-07

    post-Taliban transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005; a new constitution was adopted in January 2004...2001 the State Department ordered the Taliban representative office in New York closed, although the Taliban representative continued to operate...past schisms to rest in building a new Afghanistan. The law was rewritten to give victims the ability to bring accusations of past abuses forward, but

  7. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-28

    transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005; a new constitution was adopted in January 2004, successful presidential...office in New York closed, although the Taliban representative continued to operate informally. In March 2001, Administration officials received...illegitimate. create a new position of “super envoy” that would represent the United Nations, the European Union, and NATO in Afghanistan. This would

  8. Modelling the Incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Afghanistan 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Wright, Jim A.; Nahzat, Sami M.; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W.; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. Methods To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. Findings From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours’ travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes’ travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2–9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4–2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. Conclusion This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan. PMID:25033452

  9. U.S. Policy in Pakistan as U.S. Begins to Transition Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized...Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street...the most significant efforts associated with Afghanistan and Pakistan Regional Stabilization Strategy is the Kerry- Lugar -Berman (KLB) legislation.32

  10. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-17

    bilateral agenda item with Afghanistan.5 After the August 7, 1998, Al Qaeda bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania , the Clinton...in retaliation for the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania . ! On July 4, 1999, because of the Taliban’s hosting of bin Laden, President Clinton...17, 2004, the Bush CRS-19 23 (...continued) November 2, 2004. 24 IAF Choppers to Fight Afghan Drugs. Jerusalem Post, February 11, 2005. 25 This is

  11. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-15

    retaliation for the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania . Clinton Administration Relations With the Taliban The Clinton Administration diplomatically engaged...August 7, 1998, Al Qaeda bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania , the Clinton Administration placed progressively more pressure on the Taliban...Reuters, November 2, 2004. 25 “IAF Choppers to Fight Afghan Drugs.” Jerusalem Post, February 11, 2005. in place to have them extradited from Afghanistan

  12. New Record and Updated Checklists of the Mosquitoes of Afghanistan and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-12

    claviger (Meigen). Although Buck et al. (1972), Ward (1972), Danilov (1985a, 1985b) reported Cx. univittatus Theobald from Afghanistan, it actually...refers to Cx. perexiguus Theobald according to Harbach (1988). Danilov (1978) stated that Ae. versicolor (Barraud) “may be expected in the mountain...K Ae.(Och. pulcritarsis (Rondani) D - Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) - Anopheles (Anopheles) algeriensis Theobald A3, D, G, W, X A2, G, P An

  13. Agriculture and Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisor Projects in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    information that inform an MOP or MOE.20 20U.S. Army, Field Manual (FM) 3-07, Stability Operations...Assessment. Washington, DC: USAID, June 2006. U.S. Army. Field Manual (FM) 3-07, Stability Operations. Washington, DC: Department of the Army...9Michael McNerney, “Stabilization and Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Are PRTs a Model or a Muddle?” Parameters (Winter 2005-06): 34. to date it

  14. Authority, Legitimacy, and the Qawm: Historical Perspectives on Emergent Governance in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Afghanistan along these criteria, the discourse serves as a guide to strategy development that will not run counter to the predisposition of the Afghan...between the Afghan government and Britain, a series of misunderstandings and incoherent guidance from the British government led to the interjection of...For most of the remainder, the recent history has been the interjection of foreign powers acting outside their best interests. While the rule of law

  15. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data for geothermal reconnaissance in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, H.; Aboud, E.; Gottsmann, J.

    2015-11-01

    The geologic setting of Afghanistan has the potential to contain significant mineral, petroleum and geothermal resources. However, much of the country's potential remains unknown due to limited exploration surveys. Here, we present countrywide aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) and to evaluate the geothermal exploration potential. CPD is an isothermal surface at which magnetic minerals lose their magnetization and as such outlines an isotherm of about 580 °C. We use spectral analysis on the aeromagnetic data to estimate the CPD spatial distribution and compare our findings with known geothermal fields in the western part of Afghanistan. The results outline four regions with geothermal potential: 1) regions of shallow Curie point depths (∼16-21 km) are located in the Helmand basin. 2) regions of intermediate depths (∼21-27 km) are located in the southern Helmand basin and the Baluchistan area. 3) Regions of great depths (∼25-35 km) are located in the Farad block. 4) Regions of greatest depths (∼35-40 km) are located in the western part of the northern Afghanistan platform. The deduced thermal structure in western Afghanistan relates to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, while the shallow CPDs are related to crustal thinning. This study also shows that the geothermal systems are associated with complex magmatic and tectonic association of major intrusions and fault systems. Our results imply geothermal gradients ranging from 14 °C/km to 36 °C/km and heat-flow values ranging from 36 to 90 mW/m2 for the study area.

  16. Viability of karezes (ancient water supply systems in Afghanistan) in a changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, G. L.; Johnson, W. C.; Liu, Huan

    2015-09-01

    The Afghanistan population living far from rivers relies upon groundwater delivered from karezes (sub-horizontal tunnels). Karezes exploit unconfined groundwater in alluvial fans recharged largely by snowmelt from the Hindu Kush, the central mountain range of the country. Since the multi-year drought that began in 1998, many karezes have stopped flowing. This study characterizes the hydraulics of a kariz, the potential for reduced groundwater recharge because of climate change, and the impact of increasing population on kariz water production. A typical kariz in Afghanistan is 1-2 km long with a cross-section of 1-2 m2 and gradient of 1 m km-1. MODFLOW simulations show that water delivery from a kariz can be modeled by imposing a high ratio of kariz hydraulic conductivity to aquifer hydraulic conductivity on the cells representing the kariz. The model is sensitive to hydraulic conductivity, kariz gradient, and length of the kariz in contact with the water table. Precipitation data are scarce in Afghanistan, but regional data show a long-term trend of decreased snow cover, and therefore strong likelihood of decreased aquifer recharge. Population in Afghanistan has increased at a rate of about 2.2 % over the past several decades. An assessment of a six-district region within Kandahar Province where karezes are the most likely source of water indicates that water demand could have caused water tables to decline by 0.8-5.6 m, more than enough to cause karezes to stop flowing. These results suggest that kariz water production is not sustainable under current climate- and population-growth trends.

  17. Adits, Caves, Karizi-Qanats, and Tunnels in Afghanistan: An Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-30

    Bearden, who headed up the CIA’s Soviet and Eastern European division during the 1980s, is an authority on the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Blaise ...A tentative comparison is made with deposits of lazurite in Russia north of Mongolia which are similar in petrogenesis. Blaise , Jacques, Lardeux H...tectonic maps. Map Scale: 1:2,500,000. Reference includes data from PASCAL , Institute de l’Information Scientifique et Technique, Vandoeuvre-les

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  19. A new species of Bryoleuca Hampson, 1908 from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae).

    PubMed

    Pekarsky, Oleg

    2015-11-13

    A new species of the raptricula species-group, Bryoleuca pljushtchi sp. n. is described. A diagnostic comparison is made with Bryoleuca raptricula ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), Bryoleuca felina (Eversmann, 1852), Bryoleuca orthogramma (Boursin, 1954), Bryoleuca volodia An, Choi & Ronkay, 2013 and Bryoleuca nahnybidai Pekarsky, 2014. Adults and female genitalia of the new species and its closest relatives are illustrated. Modern taxonomic studies of the raptricula-group started by Fibiger et al. (2009) and got progress by the clarification of the taxonomic status of B. felina (Pekarsky & Ronkay 2010). Subsequently, further two newly recognised species were described in the last two years, B. volodia and B. nahnybidai. The first attempt to prepare the checklist of the subfamily was made by Hacker (1990) and, later, European check list was given in the Noctuidae Europaeae, Vol. 11 (Fibiger et al. 2009). As for the fauna of Afghanistan, Koçak and Kemal (2012) listed twelve Bryophilinae species one of which, B. raptricula, belongs to the genus Bryoleuca. The taxonomic situation of the raptricula species-complex is far not completely known yet. Present paper contains the description of a new Bryoleuca species from Afghanistan. The single female of this new species was collected by Ukrainian entomologists Igor Pljushtch and Oleg Pak in Central Afghanistan in 2013.

  20. Prevalence of acute respiratory tract diseases among soldiers deployed for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Konarski, M; Guzek, A; Prokop, E; Bieniuk, K

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are one of the most common health problems among service personnel assigned to contemporary military operations which are conducted in areas characterized by adverse environmental conditions. This article reviews the results of the studies into the prevalence of acute respiratory tract diseases among soldiers of the Polish Military Contingent deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The article also discusses a number of factors which increase the prevalence of diseases diagnosed in the population of soldiers on a military mission in different climatic and sanitary conditions. Retrospective analysis was based on medical records of Polish troops treated on an outpatient basis in Iraq in 2003-2004 (n = 871) and in Afghanistan in 2003-2005 (n = 400), 2009 (n = 2,300), and 2010 (n = 2,500). The intensity rates were calculated and were then used to calculate the prevalence of diseases per 100 persons in a given population of the military personnel. We found that acute respiratory tract diseases were one of the most common health problems treated in outpatient medical facilities in all four study populations. The incidence rate was 45.6 cases in Iraq in 2003-2004, and in Afghanistan it amounted to 61.8 in 2003-2005, 45.3 in 2009, and 54.8-100 persons in 2010. In conclusion, the prevalence of respiratory diseases was closely related to the environmental factors, such as sand and dust storms, extreme temperature changes, unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, and common disregard of basic principles concerning disease prevention.

  1. Karez (qanat) irrigation in the Helmand River Basin, Afghanistan: a vanishing indigenous legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, B. J. M.; Parajuli, U. N.; Haq, Mohammad; Wardlaw, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    A karez is a gently sloping tunnel into a hillside with a series of vertical shafts. At the upstream end, the karez depresses the water table such that groundwater enters the tunnel. Farmers all over Afghanistan have built and managed karezes for centuries using indigenous knowledge. This report focuses on karezes in the Helmand River Basin in southern Afghanistan, and describes the location of karezes in relation to geology, technological and managerial aspects of karez irrigation, and their current status. Karez irrigation has declined in recent decades due to the following: a prolonged reduction in precipitation, increase in number of boreholes that lower the water table below the karez tunnel, breakdown in community-based management, and reduced maintenance. Systematic field measurements are a challenge in the Helmand Basin due to security constraints. The current condition and management of the karezes have been assessed through short field visits and structured focus-group discussions with karez farmers and staff from provincial departments. The surveys indicate that over half of the karezes in the Helmand Basin have gone dry. Furthermore, the flow in karezes that are still operational has also declined significantly. The report demonstrates the value of using data from the US National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis 1 project, to estimate historic precipitation for various karez zones in this data-poor basin. Strategies for rehabilitating karezes are discussed. Rehabilitation is financially expensive in comparison to drilling new boreholes, but karezes are part of the national heritage of Afghanistan and can facilitate social cohesion.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable conventional petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Wandrey, C.J.; Agena, Warren F.; Steinshouer, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey - Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum in northern Afghanistan; the resulting estimates are 1.6 billion barrels (0.2 billion metric tons) of crude oil, 16 trillion cubic feet (0.4 trillion cubic meters) of natural gas, and 0.5 billion barrels (0.8 billion metric tons) of natural gas liquids. Most of the undiscovered crude oil is in the Afghan-Tajik Basin and most of the undiscovered natural gas is in the Amu Darya Basin. Four total petroleum systems were identified, and these were subdivided into eight assessment units for the purpose of this resource assessment. The area with the greatest potential for undiscovered natural gas accumulations is in Upper Jurassic carbonate and reef reservoirs beneath an impermeable salt layer in relatively unexplored parts of northern Afghanistan. The Afghan-Tajik Basin has the greatest potential for undiscovered crude oil accumulations, and these are potentially in Cretaceous to Paleogene carbonate reservoir rocks associated with thrust faulting and folding.

  3. Karez (qanat) irrigation in the Helmand River Basin, Afghanistan: a vanishing indigenous legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, B. J. M.; Parajuli, U. N.; Haq, Mohammad; Wardlaw, R. B.

    2017-03-01

    A karez is a gently sloping tunnel into a hillside with a series of vertical shafts. At the upstream end, the karez depresses the water table such that groundwater enters the tunnel. Farmers all over Afghanistan have built and managed karezes for centuries using indigenous knowledge. This report focuses on karezes in the Helmand River Basin in southern Afghanistan, and describes the location of karezes in relation to geology, technological and managerial aspects of karez irrigation, and their current status. Karez irrigation has declined in recent decades due to the following: a prolonged reduction in precipitation, increase in number of boreholes that lower the water table below the karez tunnel, breakdown in community-based management, and reduced maintenance. Systematic field measurements are a challenge in the Helmand Basin due to security constraints. The current condition and management of the karezes have been assessed through short field visits and structured focus-group discussions with karez farmers and staff from provincial departments. The surveys indicate that over half of the karezes in the Helmand Basin have gone dry. Furthermore, the flow in karezes that are still operational has also declined significantly. The report demonstrates the value of using data from the US National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis 1 project, to estimate historic precipitation for various karez zones in this data-poor basin. Strategies for rehabilitating karezes are discussed. Rehabilitation is financially expensive in comparison to drilling new boreholes, but karezes are part of the national heritage of Afghanistan and can facilitate social cohesion.

  4. Associations between proteinuria and cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensive patients in Andkhoy, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Shoaib Hamrah, Mohammad; Hashem Hamrah, Mohammad; Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Susumu; Hussain Hamrah, Mohammad; Hassan Hamrah, Mohammad; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Kano, Naoaki; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Sakamoto, Junichi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteinuria in hypertension is an early marker of renal disease and a predictor for the progression of end stage renal disease, and cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of proteinuria and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adult hypertensive patients in Afghanistan. Five hundred fifty-five patients with a high blood pressure recorded in an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan from December 2014 to May 2015, were included in this study. Data obtained from each patient, included demographic characteristics, body mass index, blood pressure patterns, cardiovascular history, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and current drug-therapy. Dipstick screening for proteinuria was performed with reagent test strips. The mean age of the patients was 57.9 ± 13.3 years, and a female predominance was observed (n = 333, 60%). The prevalence of proteinuria was 67.2%. The predictors of proteinuria were found to be age ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.04), smoking (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.17–3.02), heart failure (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.13–4.41), and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.49–7.81). In conclusion, this study shows that proteinuria is highly prevalent among hypertensive outpatients in an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan, especially in those with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:28008193

  5. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program--Implementation Grant Competition; Promise Neighborhoods Program--Planning Grant Competition AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Education (Department) reopens the competition for...

  6. Food and Education in the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Final Proceedings Report: AIA-NGO-WFP-CAII Workshop (Islamabad, Pakistan, February 17-20, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Bronwen

    The civil war and desperate humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has severely limited human capacity development over the past 23 years. Human development indicators for Afghanistan are among the worst in the world, and the fighting has deprived more than a generation of even a basic education. To support and build on the indigenous early efforts…

  7. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  8. New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163883.html New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...

  9. Tetrazole Derivatives as Promising Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Popova, Elena A; Protas, Aleksandra V; Trifonov, Rostislav E

    2017-03-27

    Tetrazole cycle is a promising pharmacophore fragment frequently used in the development of novel drugs. This moiety is a stable, practically non-metabolized bioisosteric analog of carboxylic, cis-amide, and other functional groups. Over recent 10-15 years, various isomeric forms of tetrazole (NH-unsubstituted, 1H-1-substituted, and 2H-2-substituted tetrazoles) have been successfully used in the design of promising anticancer drugs. Coordination compounds of transition metals containing tetrazoles as ligands, semisynthetic tetrazolyl derivatives of natural compounds (biogenic acids, peptides, steroids, combretastatin, etc.), 5-oxo and 5-thiotetrazoles, and some other related compounds have been recognized as promising antineoplastic agents. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of modern approaches to synthesis of these tetrazole derivatives as well as their biological (anticancer) properties. The most promising structure types of tetrazoles to be used as anticancer agents have been picked out.

  10. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  11. Panspermia: A Promising Field of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, P. H.

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of Panspermia have been demolished and this hypothesis emerges as a promising field of research. In this work, recent discoveries and the principal advances in Panspermia are discussed.

  12. AmeriCorps Promise Fellows Handbook: Delivering on America's Promise to Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides AmeriCorps Promise Fellows with important information about their participation in this special initiative of AmeriCorps and America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth. Section 1 is an overview of AmeriCorps, including its mission, the mission of America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth, and the role of AmeriCorps Promise…

  13. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  14. Mapping Irrigated Areas Using Remote Sensing over the Past Decade in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural production capacity and food security in Afghanistan largely depend on irrigated farming, mostly utilizing surface water fed by snowmelt. Over 80 percent of Afghanistan's food supply comes from irrigated crops. Knowing the spatial distribution and year-to-year variation in irrigated areas is imperative to monitoring food security for the country. We used 16-day composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to create a set of 12-year time series. Time series were used in a threshold dependent decision tree algorithm to map irrigated areas in Afghanistan from 2000 through 2011. In an effort to evaluate these maps of irrigated lands, we created higher resolution maps of irrigated areas from growing-season visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared bands of Landsat data over six predefined, highly irrigated sites across Afghanistan for 2000 and 2010. We were able to effectively separate irrigated areas from non-irrigated areas using Landsat imagery by selecting as irrigated those areas with Landsat-derived NDVI greater than 0.45 and surface temperature less than or equal to 310 Kelvin. The MODIS-derived maps agreed well with the Landsat irrigated area maps for all six sites for both years, providing confidence in the MODIS-derived maps for other years. The maps portrayed a highly dynamic irrigated agriculture practice in Afghanistan, where irrigated areas can vary by as much as 40% depending on the availability of water for irrigation. During the past decade, 2001, 2004 and 2008 had among the lowest levels of irrigated areas, attesting to the severe drought conditions in those years. Irrigation was at its peak in 2009 when snowpack and snowmelt were well above the 10-year average. However, it has declined in subsequent years, with below average snowmelt in much of the country. This model not only provides the capability to map irrigated areas for past years, but also to map

  15. Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from Afghanistan in 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Kate R; Knowles, Nick J; Davies, Paul R; Midgley, Rebecca J; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Raoufi, Abdul Quader; McKenna, Thomas S; Hurtle, William; Burans, James P; Martin, Barbara M; Rodriguez, Luis L; Beckham, Tammy R

    2008-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from various geographic locations in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 coding region. Three serotypes of FMDV (types A, O, and Asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in Afghanistan during this period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type A viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in Iran during 2002-2004. This is the first published report of serotype A in Afghanistan since 1975, therefore indicating the need for inclusion of serotype A in vaccine formulations that will be used to control disease outbreaks in this country. Serotype O virus isolates were closely related to PanAsia strains, including those that originated from Bhutan and Nepal during 2003-2004. The Asia 1 viruses, collected along the northern and eastern borders of Afghanistan, were most closely related to FMDV isolates collected in Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. Data obtained from this study provide valuable information on the FMDV serotypes circulating in Afghanistan and their genetic relationship with strains causing FMD in neighboring countries.

  16. Map and Database of Probable and Possible Quaternary Faults in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Haller, K.M.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in Afghanistan, has prepared a digital map showing the distribution of probable and suspected Quaternary faults in Afghanistan. This map is a key component of a broader effort to assess and map the country's seismic hazards. Our analyses of remote-sensing imagery reveal a complex array of tectonic features that we interpret to be probable and possible active faults within the country and in the surrounding border region. In our compilation, we have mapped previously recognized active faults in greater detail, and have categorized individual features based on their geomorphic expression. We assigned mapped features to eight newly defined domains, each of which contains features that appear to have similar styles of deformation. The styles of deformation associated with each domain provide insight into the kinematics of the modern tectonism, and define a tectonic framework that helps constrain deformational models of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The modern fault movements, deformation, and earthquakes in Afghanistan are driven by the collision between the northward-moving Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. The patterns of probable and possible Quaternary faults generally show that much of the modern tectonic activity is related to transfer of plate-boundary deformation across the country. The left-lateral, strike-slip Chaman fault in southeastern Afghanistan probably has the highest slip rate of any fault in the country; to the north, this slip is distributed onto several fault systems. At the southern margin of the Kabul block, the style of faulting changes from mainly strike-slip motion associated with the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, to transpressional and transtensional faulting. North and northeast of the Kabul block, we recognized a complex pattern of potentially active strike-slip, thrust, and normal faults that form a

  17. SWOT analysis of program design and implementation: a case study on the reduction of maternal mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Qudratullah; Danesh, Homayoon; Makharashvili, Vasil; Mishkin, Kathryn; Mupfukura, Lovemore; Teed, Hillary; Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2016-07-01

    This case study analyzes the design and implementation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan by synthesizing the literature with a focus on maternal health services. The authors are a group of graduate students in the Brandeis University International Health Policy and Management Program and Sustainable International Development Program who used the experience in Afghanistan to analyze an example of successfully implementing policy; two of the authors are Afghan physicians with direct experience in implementing the BPHS. Data is drawn from a literature review, and a unique aspect of the case study is the application of the business-oriented SWOT analysis to the design and implementation of the program that successfully targeted lowering maternal mortality in Afghanistan. It provides a useful example of how SWOT analysis can be used to consider the reasons for, or likelihood of, successful or unsuccessful design and implementation of a policy or program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life.

  19. Prospects for the sustainability of delivering the Basic Package of Health Services in Afghanistan: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Haidari, A M; Zaidi, S; Gul, R

    2014-06-09

    This study explored the readiness of stakeholders in Afghanistan for sustaining delivery of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) without external technical and financial assistance. A stakeholder analysis was applied using qualitative methods. Fifteen stakeholders were purposively drawn from the Afghanistan ministries of public health and finance, political representatives, development partners, nonprofit organizations and public health experts. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with the stakeholders and desk review of pertinent documents. We found that sustainability of the BPHS in Afghanistan is questionable as stakeholders are suboptimally organized to come up with effective alternatives. Uneven ownership and divisive positioning are bottlenecks to the evolution of a realistic continuation plan. Those with the most significant influence are lukewarm, while those who are most supportive have the least influence. Sustainability needs to be tackled at the start in designing the BPHS rather than in the wake of eventual donor withdrawal.

  20. Do promises matter? An exploration of the role of promises in psychological contract breach.

    PubMed

    Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David

    2009-09-01

    Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.

  1. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  2. Realising the Promise of Cancer Predisposition Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    Genes in which germline mutations confer high or moderate increased risks of cancer are called cancer predisposition genes (CPG). Over 100 CPGs have been identified providing important scientific insights in many areas, particularly mechanisms of cancer causation. Moreover, clinical utilisation of CPGs has had substantial impact in diagnosis, optimised management and prevention of cancer. The recent transformative advances in DNA sequencing bring the promise of many more CPG discoveries and greater, broader clinical applications. However, there is also considerable potential for incorrect inferences and inappropriate clinical applications. Realising the promise of cancer predisposition genes for science and medicine will thus require careful navigation. PMID:24429628

  3. Topographic and hydrographic GIS dataset for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Minerals Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, P.G.; Moran, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains a collection of 24 folders, each representing a specific U.S. Geological Survey area of interest (AOI; fig. 1), as well as datasets for AOI subsets. Each folder includes the extent, contours, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and hydrography of the corresponding AOI, which are organized into feature vector and raster datasets. The dataset comprises a geographic information system (GIS), which is available upon request from the USGS Afghanistan programs Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/minerals.php), and the maps of the 24 areas of interest of the USGS AOIs.

  4. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  5. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  6. Promising Practices in Instruction of Discovery Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…

  7. Implementing Performance Assessment: Promises, Problems, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and…

  8. Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

    Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

  9. Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordis, Enoch

    Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…

  10. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  11. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  12. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... education at the State and local levels and to help all children meet challenging State academic content and... community supports (both as defined in this notice), with great schools at the center; (3) Integrating...) Learning about the overall impact of the Promise Neighborhoods program and about the relationship...

  13. Promising Strategies for Improving Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Denise C.

    In response to growing public concern over declining educational quality and discipline problems in today's schools, this paper reviews research on the causes of school disruption and student misbehavior, identifies promising ameliorative strategies, and examines specific research-practitioner collaborations that have successfully reduced school…

  14. Collaboration: Perks, Problems, and Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria; And Others

    1994-01-01

    General educator-special educator collaboration is discussed. Advantages include professional exchange of ideas and sharing of resources; barriers include a feeling by staff of lack of ownership and lack of power in decision making, and the perception that goals are incompatible; promising practices include clarifying goals and developing…

  15. Large-Scale Digital Geologic Map Databases and Reports of the North Coal District in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hare, Trent M.; Davis, Philip A.; Nigh, Devon; Skinner, James A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Bolm, Karen S.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Galuszka, Donna; Stettner, William R.; Sultani, Shafiqullah; Nader, Billal

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the Afghanistan coal resource maps and associated databases that have been digitally captured and maps that have been thus far converted to GIS databases. Several maps by V/O Technoexport, USSR (VOTU) and Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung (BGR), Hannover, Germany, are captured here. Most of the historical coal exploration is concentrated in north-central Afghanistan, a region referred to as the 'North Coal District', and almost all of the coal-related maps found Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archives to date cover various locations within that district as shown in the index map. Most of the maps included herein were originally scanned during U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) site visits to Kabul in November 2004 and February 2006. The scanning was performed using equipment purchased by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) and installed at the AGS by USGS. Many of these maps and associated reports exist as single unpublished copies in the AGS archives, so these efforts served not only to provide a basis for digital capturing, but also as a means for preserving these rare geologic maps and reports. The data included herein represent most of the coal-related reports and maps that are available in the AGS archives. This report excludes the limited cases when a significant portion of a report's text could not be located, but it does not exclude reports with missing plates. The vector files are released using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Personal Geodatabase, ESRI shapefile vector format, and the open Geography Markup Language (GML) format. Scanned images are available in JPEG and, when rectified, GeoTIFF format. The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions made by the staff of the AGS Records and Coal Departments whose valuable assistance made it possible to locate and catalogue the data provided herein. We especially acknowledge the efforts of particular

  16. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and other materials having diagnostic absorptions at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These absorptions result from electronic processes in the minerals. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  17. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of minerals that have diagnostic absorption features in the shortwave infrared wavelengths. These absorption features result primarily from characteristic chemical bonds and mineralogical vibrations. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  18. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder post Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence among military subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-09-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD.

  6. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  7. Inventory of ground-water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, Robert E.; Akbari, M. Amin; Chornack, Michael P.; Mueller, David K.; Ruddy, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey began working with engineers at the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide hydrologic training and equipment and to apply these tools to build an inventory of water wells in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan. An inventory of 148 wells now includes information on well location, depth, and access. Water-level and water-quality measurements have been made at most of these wells. A water-level elevation map has been constructed, and general directions of ground-water flow have been defined. Ground-water flow in the Kabul Basin is primarily through saturated alluvium and other basin-fill sediments. The water-table surface generally mirrors topography, and ground water generally flows in the directions of surface-water discharge. The quality of ground water in the Kabul Basin varies widely. In some areas, ground-water quality is excellent, with low concentrations of dissolved solids and no problematic constituents. In other areas, however, high concentrations of dissolved solids and the presence of some constituents at concentrations deemed harmful to humans and crops render untreated ground water marginal or unsuitable for public supply and/or agricultural use. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of nitrate, boron, and dissolved solids, and an indication of fecal pollution in some parts of the basin. As Afghanistan emerges from years of conflict, as institutional capacities rejuvenate and grow, and as the need for wise water-management decisions continues, adequate data and a fuller understanding of the ground-water resource in the Kabul Basin will be imperative. The work described in this report represents only a modest beginning in what will be a long-term data-collection and interpretive effort.

  8. Validation of a Simplified Energy Balance Model for Estimating Irrigated Cropland and Water use in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    A simplified energy balance model was developed to estimate cropped area and water use for two major irrigated areas in Afghanistan. The model utilized Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1- km land surface temperature data to calculate a thermal-based evapotranspiration (ET) fraction. The fraction, based on temperature differences between "hot" and "cold" pixels in the study area, was used in conjunction with coarse resolution reference ET to estimate seasonal ET from irrigated lands for the 2000 2005 growing seasons. Irrigated areas in the Helmand River basin of southwestern Afghanistan and near the city of Kabul were analyzed. Model results compared well with field reports for irrigated watersheds which identified 2003 as a good year for crop production in Afghanistan. An advantage of this method over the crop water balance method is that it identifies irrigated areas directly and thus helps estimate total irrigated area and its spatial distribution in a given region. In an effort to validate the annual spatial variability of irrigated areas and associated water use, we utilized a combination of multi-date high resolution images acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument and the QuickBird satellite along with time series of MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Assessment of the spatial variability of irrigated lands in each of the study locations showed good agreement between the model output and these ancillary image data. In addition, time series NDVI provided seasonal profiles of vegetation productivity that could be compared to both the timing and magnitude of the modeled seasonal ET. We found that the timing of peak seasonal water use corresponded more with atmospheric demand than with timing of maximum NDVI.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Post Iraq and Afghanistan: Prevalence Among Military Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; FFPH; Wessely, Simon; FMedSci; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD. PMID:25569079

  10. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2013-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Farag, Noha H; Alexander, James; Hadler, Stephen; Quddus, Arshad; Durry, Elias; Wadood, Mufty Zubair; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2014-10-31

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. Afghanistan and Pakistan are two of the three remaining countries (the other is Nigeria) where circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2013-August 2014. In Afghanistan, 14 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 37 cases in 2012; nine cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with six cases during the same period in 2013. In Pakistan, 93 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 58 cases in 2012; 170 cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with 33 cases during the same period in 2013. All WPV cases reported during January 2013-August 2014 were WPV type 1 (WPV1). Vaccination campaigns have been banned since June 2012 in specific areas in Pakistan, where an estimated 300,000 children aged <5 years reside and where 69% of WPV cases have occurred in 2014. To accomplish the objectives of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018 both countries should continue to negotiate access of vaccinators to insecure and temporarily inaccessible areas, improve immunization program performance to reach more children in accessible areas, and ensure that political and health leaders at all levels are fully committed to the program, including being committed to providing financial resources needed to fully implement all the recommendations of external technical advisory groups. Both countries should also continue to strengthen cross-border collaboration to improve surveillance and case detection, coordinate outbreak response, and maximize vaccination coverage of children moving between the two countries.

  11. Hepatitis C genotype distribution and homology among geographically disparate injecting drug users in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Buell, Eric; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Todd, Catherine S; Nasir, Abdul; Bradfield, Andrea; Lei, Esther; Poltavee, Kultida; Savadsuk, Hathairat; Kim, Jerome H; Scott, Paul T; de Souza, Mark; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2013-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence is high among injecting drug users in Afghanistan, but transmission dynamics are poorly understood. Samples from HCV-infected injecting drug users were sequenced to determine circulating genotypes and potential transmission linkages. Serum samples were obtained from injecting drug user participants in Hirat, Jalalabad, and Mazar-i-Sharif between 2006 and 2008 with reactive anti-HCV rapid tests. Specimens with detected HCV viremia were amplified and underwent sequence analysis. Of 113 samples evaluated, 25 samples (35.2%) were only typeable in NS5B, nine samples (12.7%) were only typeable in CE1, and 37 samples (52.1%) were genotyped in both regions. Of those with typeable HCV, all were Afghan males with a mean age of 31.1 (standard deviation [SD] ± 8.0) years and mean duration of injecting of 3.9 (SD ± 4.3) years. Most reported residence outside Afghanistan in the last decade (90.1%) and prior incarceration (76.8%). HCV genotypes detected were: 1a, (35.2%, n = 25), 3a (62.0%, n = 44), and 1b (2.8%, n = 2). Cluster formation was detected in NS5B and CE1 and were generally from within the same city. All participants within clusters reported being a refugee in Iran compared to 93.5% of those outside clusters. Only 22.2% (4/11) of those within clusters had been refugees in Pakistan and these four individuals had also been refugees in Iran. Predominance of genotype 3a and the association between HCV viremia and having been a refugee in Iran potentially reflects migration between Afghanistan and Iran among IDUs from Mazar-i-Sharif and Hirat and carry implications for harm reduction programs for this migratory population.

  12. Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Rudavsky, Rena; Grant, Sean; Tanielian, Terri; Jaycox, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems among persons who served in the armed forces during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, as reflected in the literature published between 2009 and 2014. One-hundred and sixteen research studies are reviewed, most of which are among non-treatment-seeking US service members or treatment-seeking US veterans. Evidence is provided for demographic, military, and deployment-related risk factors for PTSD, though most derive from cross-sectional studies and few control for combat exposure, which is a primary risk factor for mental health problems in this cohort. Evidence is also provided linking PTSD with outcomes in the following domains: physical health, suicide, housing and homelessness, employment and economic well-being, social well-being, and aggression, violence, and criminality. Also included is evidence about the prevalence of mental health service use in this cohort. In many instances, the current suite of studies replicates findings observed in civilian samples, but new findings emerge of relevance to both military and civilian populations, such as the link between PTSD and suicide. Future research should make effort to control for combat exposure and use longitudinal study designs; promising areas for investigation are in non-treatment-seeking samples of US veterans and the role of social support in preventing or mitigating mental health problems in this group.

  13. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  14. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  15. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  16. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  17. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Yount, James

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  18. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, Charles R.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  19. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  20. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, David A.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  1. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yount, James C.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  2. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  3. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  4. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Sawyer, David A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  5. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  6. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  7. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jarm-Keshem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  8. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  9. Women and men who have served in Afghanistan/Iraq: coming home.

    PubMed

    Beder, Joan; Coe, Ray; Sommer, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The experience of war changes people - some will acknowledge that the changes are positive and some will feel the opposite or a combination, but that it changes a person cannot be disputed. For those who return, the experience of reintegration to civilian life or as a respite before redeployment can present numerous challenges. The research presented in this article reports the findings on interviews with over 800 service members who had returned from either Afghanistan or Iraq. The Post Deployment Reintegration Scale was used to refine the areas that respondents identified as positive or negative in their reintegration experience. Implications for practice with returning service members are noted.

  10. The Afghanistan Question and the Reset in U.S.-Russian Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    LetortThePapers U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE Th e A fghanistan Q uestion and the Reset in U . S .-Russian Relations...Afghanistan Question and the Reset in U.S.-Russian Relations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Strategic Studies Institute

  11. US Military Nurses: Experience of Coming Home after Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-25

    BSN 36 40 10 14 CPT MAJ Critical Care NA NA 3 1991 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN 25 41 11 MAJ FNP NA 13,15 4 2002 2005 Iraq Iraq 6...MAJ MAJ LTC LTC LTC COL Behavioral Health ** 7 2007 Iraq 6 MSN 33 12 MAJ Med/Surg NA 8 2006 Iraq 12 MSN 46 21 LTC FNP 10 9 2009 Afghanistan...1LT Med/Surg NA 13 2004 Iraq 8 MSN 39 11 MAJ FNP 7, 9, 11 14 2004 2008 Iraq Iraq 7 12 MSN MSN 43 47 20 24 LTC COL Critical Care 13

  12. U.S. Military Nurses’ Experience of Coming Home after Iraq & Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    CPT MAJ Critical Care NA NA 3 1991 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN 25 41 11 MAJ FNP NA 13,15 4 2002 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN MSN 44 47...LTC COL Behavioral Health ** 7 2007 Iraq 6 MSN 33 12 MAJ Med/Surg NA 8 2006 Iraq 12 MSN 46 21 LTC FNP 10 9 2009 Afghanistan 6 BSN 28 5.5 ILT...2004 Iraq 8 MSN 39 11 MAJ FNP 7, 9, 11 14 2004 2008 Iraq Iraq 7 12 MSN MSN 43 47 20 24 LTC COL Critical Care 13, 15, 17, 19 15 2003

  13. Validation of a Measure of Family Resilience among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Erin P.; Pugh, Mary Jo; Palmer, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Although interactions within veterans’ families may support or inhibit resilient coping to stress and trauma across the deployment cycle, research on family resilience has been hampered by the lack of a brief assessment. Using a three-stage mixed-method study, we developed and conducted preliminary validation of a measure of family resilience tailored for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAV), the Family Resilience Scale for Veterans (FRS-V), which was field-tested using a survey of 151 IAV. Our findings indicate the resulting 6-item measure shows strong initial reliability and validity and support the application of existing models of family resilience in this population. PMID:28168094

  14. Aeromagnetic and Gravity Surveys in Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data were digitized from aeromagnetic maps created from aeromagnetic surveys flown in southeastern and southern Afghanistan in 1966 by PRAKLA, Gesellschaft fur praktische Lagerstattenforschung GmbH, Hannover, Germany, on behalf of the 'Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung', Hannover, Germany. The digitization was done along contour lines, followed by interpolation of the data along the original survey flight-lines. Survey and map specifications can be found in two project reports, 'prakla_report_1967.pdf' and 'bgr_report_1968.pdf', made available in this open-file report.

  15. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    Chivers. “Afghan Conflict Losing Air Power as U.S. Pulls Out.” New York Times, July 7, 2012. 34 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/12/world/ asia ...Administration is emphasizing development of a Central Asia -South Asia trading hub—part of a “ New Silk Road” (NSR)—in an effort to keep Afghanistan... new privately run airlines, such as Safi Air (run by the Safi Group, which has built a modern mall in Kabul), and Kam Air . Another, Pamir, was ordered

  16. Approaching gender parity: Women in computer science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, Jandelyn

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in Afghanistan, they appear to hinder advancement to degree to a lesser extent. Women comprise at least 36% of each graduating class from KU's Computer Science Department; however, in 2007 women were 25% of the university population. In the US, women comprise over 50% of university populations while only graduating on average 25% women in undergraduate computer science programs. Representation of women in computer science in the US is 50% below the university rate, but at KU, it is 50% above the university rate. This mixed methods study of KU was conducted in the following three stages: setting up focus groups with women computer science students, distributing surveys to all students in the CS department, and conducting a series of 22 individual interviews with fourth year CS students. The analysis of the data collected and its comparison to literature on university/department retention in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics gender representation and on women's education in underdeveloped Islamic countries illuminates KU's uncharacteristic representation of women in its Computer Science Department. The retention of women in STEM through the education pipeline has several characteristics in Afghanistan that differ from countries often studied in available literature. Few Afghan students have computers in their home and few have training beyond secretarial applications before considering studying CS at university. University students in Afghanistan are selected based on placement exams and are then assigned to an area of study, and financially supported throughout their academic career, resulting in a low attrition rate

  17. A land untouched by dentistry - singapore brings dental care to afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng Hui; Chew, Bertrand; Wee, Wee Chee; Tan, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Singapore Armed Forces deployed a Dental Project Team (DPT) to the capital city of the Bamiyan Province in Afghanistan. The team set up the province's first modern dental facility. Besides providing primary dental care to the 60,000 population there, the Singaporeans also trained and prepared a team of Afghan dentist and dental assistants. The Afghan dental team took over the dental clinic and continued to provide care when it was time for the DPT to depart for home. Braving challenging security and austere living conditions, the DPT completed its mission successfully.

  18. Impact of Illness and Non-Combat Injury During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-25

    reported, with the back being the most common single site of injury. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was reported by 2.1% of the respondents (95% CI 1.1–3.5... visceral leishmaniasis in U.S. military person- nel – Afghanistan, 2002–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53: 265–268. 13. Schlagenhauf P, 2003. Malaria in... leishmaniasis (2.1%) were commonly reported. For all causes, 25.2% reported that they required intravenous fluids, 10.4% required hospi- talization, and 5.2

  19. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

    2015-07-01

    We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs.

  20. Shari’a Compliant Finance: The Overlooked Element for Developing an Effective Financial System in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY) 12. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 16 Januari 2012 SAMS Monograph July 2011 -May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Coughlin, Paul. "Islamic Finance Outlook 2010." Reportfor Standard and Poor’s (19 April 2011 ), http://www2.standardandpoors.com/ spf /pdf/media...Afghanistan and its Implications for International Peace and Security." General Assembly 56th sess., 18 March 2002. http://daccess- dds -ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC