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  1. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  2. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1983-05-01

    In this discussion of Afghanistan, attention focuses on: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Only recently has there been a population census in the country; consequently, there has been relatively little reliable demographic information available, especially in a historical context. Afghanistan's total population was officially estimated at nearly 16 million in late 1967. According to UN estimates, the population totaled 8.3 million in 1960 and increased to 9.8 and 12.3 million in the following 2 decades to over 14 million by 1975. The rate of population growth, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have increased from 1.6% during 1950-55 to 2.4% by the following decade, reaching 2.9% during 1970-75. The crude birthrate declined slightly from 50.4 births/1000 during 1950-55 to 49.2 during 1970-75. The crude death rate declined from 34.6/1000 to 23.4 deaths/1000 during the same period. Although the rate of population growth is considered to be fairly high, the government does not perceive this as presenting a population problem for the country as a whole since the overall population density is relatively low (approximately 20 persons per square kilometer). A national statistical information system has been developed in Afghanistan over the past decades. The government has no explicit population policy, and a clear association between population and development issues has not been expressed. Policies in the area of population distribution indicate the government's concern with settlement and resettlement of certain segments of the population in connection with the overall economic and social development of sparsely

  3. Spotlight: Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Felt, J C

    1988-05-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country approximately the size of Texas with an estimated population of 14.5 million. The fertility level (6.7 children per women) is estimated to be very high, as is the mortality rate (183 infant deaths/1,000 live births). Demographic data sources are scarce, and current estimates are based on a 1972-1974 series of surveys and a 1979 census which enumerated only 55-60% of the population. The government of Afghanistan, a Marxist state, has asked for international aid to improve data collection and analysis. Compounding the problems of accurate data collection is the state of civil war that has existed in Afghanistan since the Marxist coup in in 1978 and Soviet occupation in 1979. The war impelled the emigration of 5 million refugees, who live in camps in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. Although the population decline that resulted from this emigration is significant, the repatriation of the refugees will play a role in determining the population dynamics for the next decade, as will the withdrawal of Soviet troops -- expected in 1990. Because of Afghanistan's central-Asia location, there is a unique ethnic and linguistic mixture of tribes. The largest group is the Pushtus, who make up 40% of the population. Afghan Persian and Pushtu are the dominant languages, and 98% of all Afghans are Moslem. The economy is largely agricultural and half the cultivated land must be irrigated. 85% of the population live in rural areas and another 2.5 million are nomads. The low status of women and female children, low levels of health care, and high fertility contribute to the lower life expectancy of females over males. Although the government supports contraceptive services, such services are inadequate, and sterilization is illegal. The withdrawal of Soviet troops and the possible end to civil war between the Kabul government and the rebel factions, and the effects of repatriation of refugees will determine the direction of Afghanistan's future

  4. Afghanistan: A Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.

    Afghanistan and its people are not well known or understood by the United States, yet many U.S. people now consider the U.S. and Afghanistan to be at war. How is it possible to know the enemy? This book offers a complete, but not exhaustive source of information about Afghanistan, the land and its people. The book is intended as a guide for anyone…

  5. Women's network in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Violence and discrimination against women have been part of the Afghan culture for thousands of years, but recently this situation has grown worse. In response, Afghan women have recently formed the Afghan Women's Network. The main objective of this organization is to work for peace and human rights in Afghanistan where the Taliban sect has been especially oppressive of women's rights. In a declaration issued late last year, the Network, which includes women in Pakistan as well as Afghanistan, requested international support for their work to guarantee the right of women to work outside the home, as well as their right to education and personal safety. PMID:12179739

  6. Afghanistan Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Save the Children, Westport, CT.

    This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

  7. Pistacia in Afghanistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Pistacia have been reported within Afghanistan: Pistacia vera L., P. Khinjuk Stocks, P.atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech. f., and P. integerrima (=P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. f.). Information on their identification is provided based on recent literat...

  8. Why Is Afghanistan Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    As a former Peace Corps volunteer, avid traveler, classroom geography teacher, and writer, the author has been interested in Afghanistan for decades. Sparked by her own travel experiences in Kabul in February 1970, she made certain that her ninth grade World History/Geography students in south Central Los Angeles not only knew where Afghanistan…

  9. Afghanistan Glacier Diminution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of melt water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with glacierized drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped glacier regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for glacier-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that glaciers, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many glaciers declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock glaciers, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of glacier location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest glaciers occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 glaciers from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 glacier-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated glacier forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent glacier-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and glacier retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary

  10. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  11. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balwanz; David

    2007-01-01

    From 1979 to 2002, Afghanistan was in a near constant state of war and exhibited some of the lowest levels of development in the world. While local conflicts and Taliban remnants continue to challenge Afghanistan's reconstruction and stabilization, significant progress has been made since the 2001 U.S. led invasion and subsequent fall of the…

  12. Consanguineous marriages in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Afghanistan populations. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 7140 from the following provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunduz, Samangan and Takhar. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The proportion of consanguineous marriages in the country was 46.2%, ranging from 38.2% in Kabul province to 51.2% in Bamyan province. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was 0.0277, and ranged from 0.0221 to 0.0293 in these two regions. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (p<0.001). First cousin marriages (27.8%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (6.9%), second cousin (5.8%), beyond second cousin (3.9%) and first cousin once removed (1.8%). There were significant differences between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (χ2=177.6, df=25, p<0.001). Tajiks (Soni) and Turkmens (also Pashtuns) showed the lowest (α=0.0250) and highest (α=0.0297) mean inbreeding coefficients, respectively, among the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The study shows that Afghanistan's populations, like other Islamic populations, have a high level of consanguinity.

  13. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  14. USSR and Afghanistan mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shroder, J.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Afghanistan is a geological complex in which plentiful minerals and fuels were formed. Western geologists explored that country during the last 100 years and produced many reports and maps. Real progress in a systematic analysis, however, was not made until the intensive efforts of the Soviet Union during the past two decades. By diplomatic and economic maneuvers, the Soviets took control of Afghanistan's nascent hydrocarbon indusry during the 1960s. Following the 1973 coup, the Soviets and Afghan supporters replaced pro-Western technical advisors and hampered Western-linked development. Intensive field investgations led to the discovery of hundreds of mineral deposits and several good petroleum prospects. The current Russian military occupation is partially subsidized with Afghanistan resources. 83 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This publication describes the seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity and is intended for use in seismic hazard studies of that nation. Included are digital files with information on earthquakes that have been recorded in Afghanistan and vicinity through mid-December 2004. Chapter A provides an overview of the seismicity and tectonics of Afghanistan and defines the earthquake parameters included in the 'Summary Catalog' and the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects.' Chapter B summarizes compilation of the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' and documents their formats. The 'Summary Catalog' itself is presented as a comma-delimited ASCII file, the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects' is presented as an html file, and the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' are presented as flat ASCII files. Finally, this report includes as separate plates a digital image of a map of epicenters of earthquakes occurring since 1964 (Plate 1) and a representation of areas of damage or strong shaking from selected past earthquakes in Afghanistan and vicinity (Plate 2).

  16. Progress and Pain in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoepf, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Academics in Afghanistan, with help from abroad, are struggling to repair the damage done to the country's higher-education system by decades of occupation, civil war, and fundamentalist Taliban rule. However, sporadic foreign aid, a lack of basic resources, and overwhelming demand leave plenty of room for improvement in the otherwise remarkable…

  17. Loess failure in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Schettler, Megan Jensen; Weihs, Brandon J.

    Mass movements in northeastern Afghanistan include large-scale rockslides and complex slope failures, as well as failures in loess. The loess region in northeastern Afghanistan occurs in the Badakhshan and Takhar provinces and was likely created by dust blown to the east from the Karakum Desert and the alluvial plains of northern Afghanistan. This loessic dust was deposited against the Hindu Kush mountain range which rises up along the eastern half of Afghanistan as a result of transpressional tectonism. It overlies less permeable crystalline and sedimentary bedrocks such as Triassic granite, Proterozoic gneiss, and Miocene and Pliocene clastics in the area with the largest concentration of slope failures. Thirty-four loess slides and flows were mapped and analyzed using remote satellite imagery over digital elevation models on Google Earth™. This source enabled location, classification, and measurement of failures. Findings revealed that most failed slopes faced north, west, and northwest. This trend can be explained possibly as different moisture contents resulting from the primarily westerly wind direction, which may cause more precipitation to be deposited on west-facing slopes, and sun position during the hottest part of the day. Additionally, the easterly rising Hindu Kush range may cause more slope area to face west in the study region. Other contributing factors could be the very high seismicity of the area, which may cause rapid dry fluidized loess flows, and landscape modification by humans. Several loess slope failures appear to be generated by water concentration through irrigation ditches and possible rutted tire tracks, which can create tunneling between the loess and its less permeable bedrock. Causes and effects of loess failure in Afghanistan need to be investigated in more depth. Further study may lead to the adoption of more sustainable and safe farming practices and more informed housing locations, which may prevent loss of property, crop, and

  18. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Weihs, Brandon J.; Schettler, Megan Jensen

    Mass movements of nearly all types occur in Afghanistan but in the high relief, rugged Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, mass-movement threats to lives and property necessitated study to elucidate problems to development. Twenty-two different mass movements in bedrock in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan were studied for this paper, including large rock falls and rock slides, along with massive slope-failure complexes with many types and rates of movement. Where higher altitudes prevail in the region, ice-cemented and ice-cored rock glaciers are also common and overlie some of the other mass movements. Inasmuch as seismic energy sources in the Eastern Hindu Kush are maximal in southern Badakhshan, and relief, slope angles and precipitation all increase from west to east as well, the causes of the pervasive mass movement are plentiful enough, although direct cause and slope-failure effect are not known. Some weak sedimentary lithologies downfaulted into, or draped across crystalline rocks, also failed. Some intermixed tills also occur but are not easily differentiated, even with analysis on the ground. Using high resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation models, we assessed geomorphologic parameters to characterize spatial-organization structures related to zones of erosion, deposition and further hazard potential. Analyses indicate that many of the massive slope failures can be characterized and differentiated into various process domains and chronologic-development zones with their different impacts upon the landscape. Mass movements in Afghanistan can exhibit unique topographic signatures that can be used to better assess hazards in other mountain areas, especially where landslide-dam breakout floods threaten. Development of roads, bridges, buildings, and irrigation networks should be done with care in these regions of Afghanistan.

  19. Environmental management dilemma in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Amanullah, N.

    1995-11-01

    This article outlines the author`s views concerning the main issues regarding solid waste management in Kabul, Afghanistan, and is based on his experience as an environmental manager with the Kabul Environmental Engineering Department (EED) from 1978 to 1988, during the War for Freedom Resistance. Environmental policy and regulation in Afghanistan can be characterized as minimal to poor, even by developing countries` standards. Even before the war (pre-1978) which ravaged the country`s infrastructure, environmental policies and regulations were poor, without guidelines for implementation and without enforcement. There was no comprehensive monitoring of industrial effluents or discharges and no financial penalties or consequences for environmental pollution. This lack of policies was largely due to a widespread belief that any attempt to regulate industry might affect future industrial growth and economic activity. Unfortunately, a decade and a half of war further hindered any progress in the area of solid waste management. In fact, the situation deteriorated.

  20. Primary and Secondary Curriculum Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgescu, Dakmara

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes curriculum processes and products pertaining to the overall reconstruction of Afghanistan's education system after 2002. With the support of several international agencies, including UNESCO's International Bureau of Education (IBE), as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Afghanistan's Ministry of Education succeeded…

  1. The Afghanistan National Institute of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article, David Forrest probes Ahmad Sarmast (Founder and Director of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music, Ministry of Education, Afghanistan) about the development of the Institute, its sponsorship, the range of local musicians and music educators that work there, and the student population.

  2. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  3. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper. PMID:20190697

  4. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper.

  5. Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Ludington, Stephen; Orris, Greta J.; Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.; Rytuba, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines to assess the undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan between 2006 and 2007. This report presents the results of this work and contains chapters describing and assessing the mineral resources of Afghanistan. An accompanying Geographical Information System (GIS) is an accompanying disk that includes supporting data. Funding for this effort was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

  6. Quaternary deposits in southwestern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    Geologic evidence in the closed Seistan Basin of southwestern Afghanistan and adjacent parts of Iran and Pakistan indicates that a lake as much as 65,000 sq km in size occupied this closed depression during Pleistocene time. The deposits consist mostly of lacustrine silt and clay and have a maximum observed thickness of about 250 m. A layer of alluvial gravels overlies the sequence. The deposits are probably early or middle Pleistocene in age; they are old enough to have sustained nearly 300 m of erosion over large areas but are not faulted or detectably folded in the central part of the basin although they are upwarped along the west edge of the basin. Sand dunes cover extensive areas of the basin. Dune orientation shows that the strong surface winds enter the basin blowing toward the south-southeast and then are deflected to the east, apparently as a response to mountains bordering the basin on its south side. The Gawdezereh, a large deflation depression, may be a result of an augmented excavation ability of winds that oc urs where turbulence is created along a zone of deflection. ?? 1974.

  7. Afghanistan environmental profile. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Afghanistan's environment, already scarred by 12 years of conflict, is likely to undergo severe stress as external and internal refugees are resettled, according to this preliminary environmental profile. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 discusses the state of Afghanistan's environment in 1978 prior to the Soviet invasion, while Chapter 3 documents the environmental impacts of events since that time, including population relocation, deforestation, and locust and sunn-pest infestations. Chapter 4 examines major environmental areas (vegetation, wildlife, soil erosion, pesticides, public health, environmental infrastructure, energy, and air quality) with respect to both existing conditions and what is likely to occur when resettlement begins in earnest. Chapter 5 presents potential mitigation measures, including a set of environmental guidelines for the Government of Afghanistan. Chapter 6 discusses the Geographic Information System being developed under USAID's Agricultural Services Support Program; it discusses the extent to which GIS data can contribute to environmental studies, and vice versa.

  8. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  9. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  10. Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply.

  11. Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    This report is USGS Afghanistan Project No. 155. This study was funded by an Interagency Agreement between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Geological Survey. Afghanistan is located in the geologically active part of the world where the northward-moving Indian plate is colliding with the southern part of the Eurasian plate at a rate of about 1.7 inches per year. This collision has created the world's highest mountains and causes slips on major faults that generate large, often devastating earthquakes. Every few years a powerful earthquake causes significant damage or fatalities. New construction needs to be designed to accommodate the hazards posed by strong earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a preliminary seismic-hazard map of Afghanistan. Although the map is generalized, it provides government officials, engineers, and private companies who are interested in participating in Afghanistan's growth with crucial information about the location and nature of seismic hazards.

  12. [Operational fatigue: debriefing from Kapisa, Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Houel, Jean-Guillaume; Vautier, Virginie; Gallineau, Cyrille; Papillault des Charbonneries, Laurent; Clervoy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The concept of operational fatigue, a term first used during the Second World War, was subsequently extended to encompass a vague series of psychological disorders. This article looks back at an overseas operation in Afghanistan, during the summer of 2011, where the tense background situation, casualties and fatalities resulted in some members of the commando parachute units suffering from such conditions. PMID:26564493

  13. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  14. Intermediate Dari for Peace Corps Volunteers. Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enteser, M. Ehsen

    This more advanced Dari text was designed for Peace Corps Volunteers in Afghanistan who desired to speak the language on higher levels, but it could also be used during the last part of the training programs in the United States. It follows the author's elementary text, "Farsi Reference Manual Basic Course," which has been used in all the Afghan…

  15. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Toby; Kolaczinski, Kate; Mohsen, Engineer; Mehboob, Najeebullah; Saleheen, Sarah; Khudonazarov, Juma; Freeman, Tim; Clements, Archie; Rowland, Mark; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission. Remote sensing enabled development of a risk map, thereby providing a valuable tool to help guide malaria control strategies. PMID:17176583

  16. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  17. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market.

  18. Strategic Planning for Literacy Education in Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Harrison J.; Henry, Doris A.

    1993-01-01

    After crisis conditions abated, directors of a U.S. Agency for International Development/University of Nebraska at Omaha joint project resolved to implement strategic planning for literacy education (including curriculum development, teacher education, and assessment) in Afghanistan. This article describes the rigors of educational planning in a…

  19. 76 FR 31470 - Taliban (Afghanistan) Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... control in Afghanistan to be used as a safe haven and base of operations for Usama bin Ladin and Al-Qaida..., 1999, the President issued Executive Order 13129 (64 FR 36759, July 7, 1999), invoking the authority of... 13219 (66 FR 2726, January 11, 2001). On September 23, 2001, the President issued Executive Order...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7703 Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  1. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7703 Enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  2. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  3. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  4. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  5. [Managing an influx of casualties in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Planchet, Mathieu; Cazes, Nicolas; Pudupin, Alain; Leyral, Jarome; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-09-01

    Forward medical support is a fundamental principle of French army health service doctrine. During operations, the mission of army doctors and nurses is to treat casualties as high up the rescue chain as possible. This article describes the example of Afghanistan, in 2012, when the French army had to manage in a hostile environment an influx of casualties, sometimes massive and causing resources to become saturated. PMID:25464629

  6. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  7. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  8. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  9. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  10. Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This interim report is an updating of the 1977 Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. The interim report reflects the significant changes in policies brought about by the Saur Revolution establishing the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978. A comprehensive revision of the report is expected when the new government's…

  11. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  12. At American U. of Afghanistan, Turmoil at the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Billed as the country's first independent university, the American University of Afghanistan was established in 2004 with financial support from the highest levels of the American and Afghan governments. But its development has been rockier than anticipated, even taking into account Afghanistan's growing instability. A number of current and former…

  13. Back to School in Afghanistan: Determinants of School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimbert, Stephane; Miwa, Keiko; Nguyen, Duc Thanh

    2008-01-01

    One of the first achievements of post-conflict Afghanistan was to bring almost 4 million children back to school. Issues remain daunting, however, with low primary enrollment especially for girls and in rural areas and very weak learning achievements. We review some key features of the education system in Afghanistan. By matching household and…

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan... Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. “Product from Afghanistan” and “service from Afghanistan,” as used...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan... Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. “Product from Afghanistan” and “service from Afghanistan,” as used...

  16. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-10-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry. PMID:22510847

  17. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry. PMID:22510847

  18. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in Southeastern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for all historical streamgaging stations that have available data in the southeastern Afghanistan provinces of Ghazni, Khost, Logar, Paktya, and Wardak, and a portion of Kabul Province are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgaging station include a station desciption, table of statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, table of monthly and annual flow duration, table of probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, table of probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, table of annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and table of monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  19. Afghanistan, history and beyond - GIS based application tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Rahul Chidananda

    The emphasis of this tool is to provide an insight into the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a warring nation for decades; this tool provides a brief account of the reasons behind the importance of Afghanistan, which led to its invasion by Britain, Russia and USA. The timeline for this thesis was set from 1879 to 1990 which ranges from Barakzai Dynasty to the soviet invasion. Maps are used judiciously to show battles during the British invasion. Maps that show roads, rivers, lakes and provinces are incorporated into the tool to provide an overview of the present situation. The user has options to filter this data by using the timeline and a filtering tool. To quench the users thirst for more information, HTML pages are used judiciously. HTML pages are embedded in key events to provide detailed insight into these events with the help of pictures and videos. An intuitive slider is used to show the people who played a significant role in Afghanistan. The user interface was made intuitive and easy to use, keeping in mind the novice user. A help menu is provided to guide the user on the tool. Spending time researching about Afghanistan has helped me again a new perspective on Afghanistan and its people. With this tool, I hope I can provide a valuable channel for people to understand Afghanistan and gain a fresh perspective into this war ridden nation.

  20. Petroleum geology and resources of Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.; Clarke, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    Afghanistan consists largely of a series of continental fragments that, moving northward, docked and accreted to the southern proto-Asia continent. The tectonization of the accreted terranes is generally severe and prospects are limited essentially to the 48, 000 mi{sup 2} (124,000 km{sup 2}) North Afghanistan basin. This basin represents the Afghan portion of the Turanian platform, plus the orogenic belt around its southern and eastern perimeter. Exploration to date is judged to be preliminary in character, with some 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas and 80 million barrels of oil being discovered by 1980. There are two types of traps: Mesozoic low-amplitude drapes or tilted fault blocks, and Neogene high-amplitude folds. Appreciable reservoirs are limited to three horizons - Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene - of which the lower Cretaceous is considered to be the best. Source rock is confined largely to the Lower and Middle Jurassic shales. Upper Jurassic evaporites form a barrier between the Jurassic source shales and the Lower Cretaceous reservoirs and Neogene folds. There appear to be five principal plays, and estimated total recoverable petroleum in them is 300 million barrels of oil, 9.6 TCF of gas, and 145 million barrels of condensate. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  2. 76 FR 66692 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... American Chamber of Commerce in Kabul in 2010. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan, situated in Kabul... public and private sector, learn about the market by participating in Embassy briefings, and...

  3. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... American Chamber of Commerce in Kabul in 2010. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan, situated in Kabul... leaders in the public and private sector, learn about the market by participating in Embassy...

  4. Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan, Version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an accompanying database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. Included is an accompanying Microsoft? Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan's energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards, currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,462) and unpublished (n = 174) references compiled through September, 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable, interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft? Access is required.

  5. Afghanistan: NGOs and Women in the Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    In conflict-torn Afghanistan, international nongovernmental organizations are attempting to build indigenous capacity for development. Strategies include support for women, involvement of local elders, and integration of internal and external value systems. (SK)

  6. Aeromagnetic Survey in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's geologic setting indicates significant natural resource potential While important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information of the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Due to the security situation and the large areas of the country of Afghanistan that has not been covered with geophysical exploration methods a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  7. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    Although some bauxite occurrences were sampled in the course of reconnaissance exploration by Soviet workers in the 1960s and 1970s, the bauxite areas in Afghanistan generally are underexplored. The Obatu Sheila area is a known field of bauxite deposits of Late Jurassic age that had been studied in more detail than other known bauxite deposits and occurrences in Afghanistan. Obatu Sheila has an estimated reserve of 7.2 million tons.

  8. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  9. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 AGENCY... the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to...

  10. Factors influencing contraceptive use among women in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Osmani, Ahmad Kamran; Reyer, Joshua A.; Osmani, Ahmad Reshad; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increase in contraceptive use in Afghanistan has been frustratingly slow from 7.0% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2012. Data on contraceptive use and influencing factors were obtained from Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012, which had been collected through interview-led questionnaire from 13,654 current married women aged 12–49 years. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contraceptive use were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When adjusted for age, residence, region, education, media, and wealth index, significant OR was obtained for parity (OR of 6 or more children relative to 1 child was 3.45, and the 95%CI 2.54–4.69), number of living sons (OR of 5 or more sons relative to no son was 2.48, and the 95%CI 1.86–3.29), wealth index (OR of the richest households relative to the poorest households was 2.14, and the 95%CI 1.72–2.67), antenatal care attendance (OR relative to no attendance was 2.13, and the 95%CI 1.74–2.62), education (OR of secondary education or above relative to no education was 1.62, and the 95%CI 1.26–2.08), media exposure (OR of at least some exposure to electronic media relative to no exposure was 1.15, and the 95%CI 1.01–1.30), and child mortality experience (OR was 0.88, and the 95%CI 0.77–0.99), as well as age, residence (rural/urban), and region. This secondary analysis based on AHS 2012 showed the findings similar to those from the previous studies in other developing countries. Although the unique situation in Afghanistan should be considered to promote contraceptive use, the background may be common among the areas with low contraceptive use. PMID:26663934

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Products or Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  12. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... support of operations in Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Trade Agreements 225.401-71 Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Afghanistan, if using a...

  13. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... support of operations in Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Trade Agreements 225.401-71 Products or services in support of operations in Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Afghanistan, if using a...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Products or Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) “Product...

  18. 31 CFR 545.311 - Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territory of Afghanistan controlled... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.311 Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for Products or Services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Services from Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services from Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-4(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Afghanistan (SEP 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) “Product...

  1. 48 CFR 252.232-7014 - Notification of Payment in Local Currency (Afghanistan).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Local Currency (Afghanistan). 252.232-7014 Section 252.232-7014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Currency (Afghanistan). As prescribed in 232.7202, use the following provision: NOTIFICATION OF PAYMENT IN LOCAL CURRENCY (AFGHANISTAN) (SEP 2014) (a) The contract resulting from this solicitation will be...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or...

  7. 31 CFR 545.407 - Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.407 Section 545.407 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 545.407 Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The prohibitions on transactions involving...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  9. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    the severe drought conditions in those years, whereas 2009, 2012 and 2013 registered the largest irrigated area (~ 2.5 million hectares) due to record snowpack and snowmelt in the region. The model holds promise the ability to provide near-real-time (by the end of the growing seasons) estimates of irrigated area, which are beneficial for food security monitoring as well as subsequent decision making for the country. While the model is developed for Afghanistan, it can be adopted with appropriate adjustments in the derived threshold values to map irrigated areas elsewhere.

  10. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  11. Principles and practice: gender relations in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    Under the Taliban, which took control of Kabul in Afghanistan in October 1996, Shari's law has been interpreted strictly; women cannot work outside the home, cannot be educated, and must wear the burkha. Professional and educated women have moved to Pakistan. According to United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1995 figures, the literacy rate among women is 15%; among men it is 45%. This will only worsen if the education of girls is banned. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) report that interpretation of the law varies with district; girls under 10 years of age can attend school in some areas, and some Taliban commanders are more liberal than others. The 30,000 households headed by women will fall into poverty if the women cannot work and have no other means of support. Women's relationships outside the home will be determined entirely by men. Gender roles will change because men will now have to take over jobs women formerly performed outside the home: taking children to clinics, shopping, and collecting water. Women's support groups will collapse because visiting will be difficult and hospitality will be too expensive. International agencies have distributed food and provided work to women in their homes; men are used to communicate with the women. This has been done at risk. Oxfam UK/I, which cannot deliver quality humanitarian aid without working with both women and men, will attempt, through a witnessing and influencing strategy, to persuade the Taliban to become more moderate. PMID:12320968

  12. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms. PMID:25034914

  13. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  14. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  15. Imaging of pediatric pathology during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.

    PubMed

    Biko, David M; McQuillan, Brian F; Jesinger, Robert A; Sherman, Paul M; Borg, Bryson D; Lichtenberger, John P

    2015-03-01

    United States Armed Forces radiologists deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq in modern military conflicts may encounter pediatric patients as a casualty of war or when providing humanitarian assistance to the indigenous population. Pediatric patients account for 4-7% of admissions at U.S. military hospitals during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. It is pertinent for radiologists in the humanitarian care team to be familiar with imaging pediatric trauma patients, the pathology endemic to the local population, and delayed presentations of congenital and developmental disorders to adequately care for these patients. The radiological manifestations of various pediatric disorders seen in the setting of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts will be explored. PMID:24898394

  16. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  17. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  18. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  19. Deploying the ODIS robot in Iraq and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Bill; Schoenherr, Edward; Andrusz, Henry; Gerhart, Grant

    2005-05-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have shown the importance of robotic technology as a force multiplier and a tool for moving soldiers out of harms way. Situations on the ground make soldiers performing checkpoint operations easy targets for snipers and suicide bombers. Robotics technology reduces risk to soldiers and other personnel at checkpoints. Early user involvement in innovative and aggressive development and acquisition strategies are the key to moving robotic and associated technology into the hands of the user. This paper updates activity associated with rapid development of the Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS) robot for under vehicle inspection and reports on our field experience with robotics in Iraq and Afghanistan. In February of 2004, two TARDEC Engineers departed for a mission to Iraq and Afghanistan with ten ODIS Robots. Six robots were deployed in the Green Zone in Baghdad. Two Robots were deployed at Kandahar Army Airfield and two were deployed at Bagram Army Airfield in Afghanistan. The TARDEC Engineers who performed this mission trained the soldiers and provided initial on site support. They also trained Exponent employees assigned to the Rapid Equipping Force in ODIS repair. We will discuss our initial deployment, lessons learned and future plans.

  20. Education for Demilitarizing Youth in Post-Conflict Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Yukitoshi

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the largely negative role that education has played historically in contributing to conflict in Afghanistan and the ways that education has been purposefully employed as a post-conflict strategy aimed at building peace and social cohesion. The growing attention among academics and policy makers to the role of youth in…

  1. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose of the Temporary Organization. The purpose of the PASO shall be to perform the specific project of.... diplomatic presence in both countries. Sec. 3. Functions of the Temporary Organization. In carrying out...

  2. Battlefield Documentation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John B; Smith, Michael P; Gross, Kirby R; Sauer, Samual W; Geracci, James J; Day, Charlie D; Kotwal, Russ S

    2016-01-01

    Performance improvement is reliant on information and data, as you cannot improve what you do not measure. The US military went to war in 2001 without an integrated trauma care system to collect and analyze combat casualty care data. By 2006, the conflict in Afghanistan began appreciating the capture and consolidation of hospital care documentation into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In contrast, a paucity of documentation has existed for prehospital or tactical combat casualty care (TCCC). Using the 75th Ranger casualty documentation model established in 2005, the Joint Trauma System developed a casualty data collection system for prehospital care using the TCCC Card, the TCCC After Action Report (AAR), and the Prehospital Trauma Registry. In 2013, this system was mandated for use by US forces in Afghanistan. The Joint Trauma System also created and deployed a prehospital team to be an integral part of the Joint Theater Trauma System in Afghanistan. This prehospital team provided prehospital training and facilitated prehospital data capture. Described and analyzed in this report are prehospital data captured in Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014 using the TCCC Card and the TCCC AAR. PMID:27215873

  3. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  4. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  5. Mesostigmatid mites of small mammals from the Hindu Kush (Afghanistan).

    PubMed

    Daniel, M

    1977-01-01

    During the First Czechoslovak mountaineering expedition to the Hindu Kush (1965) a material of mesostigmatid mites was collected from small mammals, yielding 16 species. Due to the fact that it is the first collection of these parasites studied in Afghanistan, a zoogeographic analysis, altitudinal stratification and epidemiological estimation are appended. PMID:342369

  6. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Home-Based Schools. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Years of conflict and instability have taken a heavy toll on education in Afghanistan. While the government rebuilds its public education system, formal schools fail to reach many of the country's children. Girls remain particularly underserved as a result of the looming effects of the Taliban's sanctions against educating women. Among the reasons…

  7. Teacher Training in Afghanistan: Intersections of Need and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husting, Sheila; Intili, Jo Ann; Kissam, Edward

    2008-01-01

    As post-Taliban Afghanistan moves toward the establishment of a viable educational system, key stakeholders and donors are faced with the formidable challenge of how to most rapidly implement teacher training within an environment of diverse, changing, and largely unassessed training needs. The current article explores the dilemmas inherent in…

  8. The Rehabilitation Paradox: Street-Working Children in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christopher; Yazdani, Farzaneh

    2009-01-01

    International humanitarian intervention in Afghanistan reflects a policy discourse of "rehabilitation," which is very evident in relation to nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects for street-working children. Through analysing national and international policy, professional perceptions of the children, and field visits to see how policy…

  9. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  10. The "Only" Solution: Education, Youth, and Social Change in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dana G.; Yousofi, Mohammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on practice theory to examine aspiring youths' pursuit of higher education in Afghanistan. It finds that plans and actions are mediated through youths' families, communities, and solidarity networks. As a result, the personal improvement and enhanced reputational status that aspiring youth seek is structurally…

  11. Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Govindasamy, Pav; Aqil, Anwer; Rutstein, Shea; Arnold, Fred; Noormal, Bashiruddin; Way, Ann; Brock, Susan; Shadoul, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in maternal and child mortality. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) provides important new information on the levels and trends in these indicators. The AMS estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 260-394) and 97 deaths before the age of five years for every 1000 children born. Decreases in these mortality rates are consistent with changes in key determinants of mortality, including an increasing age at marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, better immunisation coverage, improvements in the percentage of women delivering in health facilities and receiving antenatal and postnatal care, involvement of community health workers and increasing access to the Basic Package of Health Services. Despite the impressive gains in these areas, many challenges remain. Further improvements in health services in Afghanistan will require sustained efforts on the part of both the Government of Afghanistan and international donors.

  12. Paved with Good Intentions: Images of Textbook Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Yen Yen Joyceln; Simmons, Jacqueline Ann

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, the Afghanistan Ministry of Education adopted a new National Curriculum Framework, created to promote child-centred teaching and learning strategies for the next generation of Afghan schools. As is often the case in post-conflict education development, a cadre of international curriculum consultants was hired to facilitate the production…

  13. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  14. Glacier Change Detection in the Hindu Kush of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    A half century of intermittently collected cryospheric and hydrologic data in Afghanistan has involved diverse field surveys, aerial photography, and satellite imagery that enable change detection in the war-torn, drought-stricken region. Afghanistan relies heavily upon snow-and ice-melt for vital irrigation and ground-water recharge, yet the past two decades of war have only exacerbated the originally already deficient information collection and analysis of such data. Glacier field studies and base-line inventory work initiated in the pre-war 1960-1970 period are now providing limited change detection information for the vital physical analysis necessary in the reconstruction of the country. Five case study areas were selected for renewed assessment over the intervening half century, from the western-most ice masses of the Koh-i-Foladi region in central Afghanistan, through the Mir Samir and Sakhi regions of the central Hindu Kush, to the Keshnikhan and Pamir areas of the Wakhan Corridor. Certain incompatibilities or ambiguities exist between Soviet-era and Western-derived data sets. In general, however, glaciers of Afghanistan are continuing to downwaste and retreat, with smaller ice masses disappearing altogether, presumably as the climatic snowline continues to rise above the peaks, a trend first noticed in the 1960s. Glacier survival in the lower central areas is now in part determined by topographic shielding from solar radiation high in shadowed cirques, or being preserved beneath increasing debris covers, whereas in the higher regions to the northeast, fewer changes to the larger, higher altitude glaciers are apparent. Renewed assessment of all Afghanistan glaciers is now underway as a part of the USGS- and NASA-supported GLIMS (Global Land-Ice Measurements from Space) project, and is viewed as an important element in the primary geodata collection and hazard assessment necessary for aiding in rebuilding the infrastructure of the beleaguered nation.

  15. Groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taher, Mohammad R.; Chornack, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan Geological Survey, with technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey, established a network of wells to measure and monitor groundwater levels to assess seasonal, areal, and potentially climatic variations in groundwater characteristics in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, the most populous region in the country. Groundwater levels were monitored in 71 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting as early as July 2004 and continuing to the present (2013). The monitoring network is made up exclusively of existing production wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Seventy wells are in unconsolidated sediments, and one well is in bedrock. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, using electric tape water-level meters. Water levels in well 64 on the grounds of the Afghanistan Geological Survey building were measured more frequently. This report provides a 10-year compilation of groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin prepared in cooperation with the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Depths to water below land surface range from a minimum of 1.47 meters (m) in the Shomali subbasin to a maximum of 73.34 m in the Central Kabul subbasin. The Logar subbasin had the smallest range in depth to water below land surface (1.5 to 12.4 m), whereas the Central Kabul subbasin had the largest range (2.64 to 73.34 m). Seasonal water-level fluctuations can be estimated from the hydrographs in this report for wells that have depth-to-water measurements collected under static conditions. The seasonal water-level fluctuations range from less than 1 m to a little more than 7 m during the monitoring period. In general, the hydrographs for the Deh Sabz, Logar, Paghman and Upper Kabul, and Shomali subbasins show relatively little change in the water-level trend during the period of record, whereas hydrographs for the Central Kabul subbasin show water level decreases of several meters to about 25 m.

  16. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  17. Factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Muhammad Shuaib; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Reyer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study, a secondary analysis of data from Afghanistan Health Survey 2012, aimed to identify factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. Subjects were 5,662 women aged 15–49 years who had had one delivery in the two years preceding the survey. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. The study found that 54.0% of mothers used antenatal care (ANC) at least one time, and 47.4% of births were assisted by skilled birth attendants (SBA). Adjusted OR of ANC use was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.08–3.60) for urban residency, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.26–2.27) for primary education relative to no education, 3.94 (95% CI, 3.51–4.42) for knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy, and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.47–2.15) for television and radio relative to no exposure. Adjusted OR of SBA utilization was 3.71 (95% CI, 2.65–5.18) for urban residency, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.91) for age <20 years relative to age 34–49 years, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.03–1.97) for secondary and higher education relative to no education, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.47–2.27) for para 1 relative to para ≥5, 6.66 (95% CI, 5.43–8.15) for ≥4 ANC visits relative to no visit, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21–1.57) for knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.38–1.90) for radio relative to no exposure, and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.25–3.27) for rich households relative to poor ones. Since women's education and knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy were significant factors of both ANC and SBA, educating women may be an effective step in promoting safe maternal health. PMID:26663938

  18. Repatriation and the reconstruction of Afghanistan: the role of women.

    PubMed

    Wali, S

    1994-01-01

    This update on the consequences of the 14 years of war in Afghanistan and refugee repatriation points out the possible need for humanitarian intervention. The political situation is described as lacking in platform leadership and lacking in leaders' commitment to the people. The US has reduced interests in Afghanistan. The UN and other international agencies rarely mention Afghanistan and repatriation. Pakistan is exercising its self-interests in the country. Saudi Arabia is described as opposing the rising Iranian brand of religious ideology and supplying mercenaries. The formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States has reduced USSR involvement to the increasing flow of Tajik refugees into Afghanistan. Islam is described as a historically strong and positive force in the formation of social and political values. Afghani needs are described as restoration of peace, security, and self-determination and a return to the former Islamic principles and practices. A "new imported ideology packaged as religion" is viewed as detrimental. The international community is urged to commit its resources to supporting a process aimed at creating a popularly elected platform of leadership committed to democratic values and principles and with respect for human rights and equity. Successful repatriation is considered dependent on internal security and financial resources from the international community. Repatriation is hampered by the extensive land mines (estimated to be at least 23 million) scattered across the countryside. At least 75% of the over 3 million refugees in Pakistan and the 2.5 million in Iran are estimated to be women and children. 14 years of political and economic instability resulted in little social development for refugee women and children. The UN urged donations of $45.1 million for repatriation and reconstruction. Only $13.7 million were received. These small sums in foreign aid are viewed as inconsequential when compared to the estimated US military

  19. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  20. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2012-08-01

    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  2. USGS Training in Afghanistan: Modern Earthquake Hazards Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlin, J. D.; Garthwaite, M.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.; Bergen, K.; Vincent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can present a significant hazard, not only from strong ground shaking, but also from liquefaction and extensive land sliding. The magnitude 6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghanistan to such hazards, and resulted in over 1000 fatalities. The USGS has provided the first of a series of Earth Science training courses to the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS). This course was concerned with modern earthquake hazard assessments, and is an integral part of a larger USGS effort to provide a comprehensive seismic-hazard assessment for Afghanistan. Funding for these courses is provided by the US Agency for International Development Afghanistan Reconstruction Program. The particular focus of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 in Kabul, was on providing a background in the seismological and geological methods relevant to preparing for future earthquakes. Topics included identifying active faults, modern tectonic theory, geotechnical measurements of near-surface materials, and strong-motion seismology. With this background, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the community and be actively involved in earthquake hazard assessments themselves. The December, 2006, training course was taught by four lecturers, with all lectures and slides being presented in English and translated into Dari. Copies of the lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. Class participants included many of the section leaders from within the AGS who have backgrounds in geology, geophysics, and engineering. Two additional training sessions are planned for 2007, the first entitled "Modern Concepts in Geology and Mineral Resource Assessments," and the second entitled "Applied Geophysics for Mineral Resource Assessments."

  3. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  4. Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a significant public health concern in Afghanistan. Currently, approximately 60% of the population, or nearly 14 million people, live in a malaria-endemic area. Afghanistan's diverse landscape and terrain contributes to the heterogeneous malaria prevalence across the country. Understanding the role of environmental variables on malaria transmission can further the effort for malaria control programme. Methods Provincial malaria epidemiological data (2004-2007) collected by the health posts in 23 provinces were used in conjunction with space-borne observations from NASA satellites. Specifically, the environmental variables, including precipitation, temperature and vegetation index measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer, were used. Regression techniques were employed to model malaria cases as a function of environmental predictors. The resulting model was used for predicting malaria risks in Afghanistan. The entire time series except the last 6 months is used for training, and the last 6-month data is used for prediction and validation. Results Vegetation index, in general, is the strongest predictor, reflecting the fact that irrigation is the main factor that promotes malaria transmission in Afghanistan. Surface temperature is the second strongest predictor. Precipitation is not shown as a significant predictor, as it may not directly lead to higher larval population. Autoregressiveness of the malaria epidemiological data is apparent from the analysis. The malaria time series are modelled well, with provincial average R2 of 0.845. Although the R2 for prediction has larger variation, the total 6-month cases prediction is only 8.9% higher than the actual cases. Conclusions The provincial monthly malaria cases can be modelled and predicted using satellite-measured environmental parameters with reasonable accuracy. The Third Strategic Approach of the WHO EMRO Malaria Control and

  5. Y-STR profiling in two Afghanistan populations.

    PubMed

    Lacau, Harlette; Bukhari, Areej; Gayden, Tenzin; La Salvia, Joel; Regueiro, Maria; Stojkovic, Oliver; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Afghanistan's unique geostrategic position in Eurasia has historically attracted commerce, conflict and conquest to the region. It was also an important stop along the Silk Road, connecting the far eastern civilizations with the western world. Nevertheless, limited genetic studies have been performed in Afghan populations. In this study, 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were typed to evaluate their forensic and population genetic applications in 189 unrelated Afghan males geographically partitioned along the Hindu Kush Mountain range into north (N=44) and south (N=145) populations. North Afghanistan (0.9734, 0.9905) exhibits higher haplotype diversity than south Afghanistan (0.9408, 0.9813) at both the minimal 9-loci and 17-loci Yfiler haplotypes, respectively. The overall haplotype diversity for both Afghan populations at 17 Y-STR loci is 0.9850 and the corresponding value for the minimal 9-loci haplotypes is 0.9487. A query using of the most frequent Afghan Yfiler haplotype (7.98%) against the worldwide Y-STR haplotype reference database (YHRD) returned no profile match, indicating a high power of discrimination with 17 Y-STR loci. A median-joining network based on 15 Y-STR loci displays limited haplotype sharing between the two Afghan populations, possibly due to the Hindu Kush Mountain range serving as a natural barrier to gene flow between the two regions. PMID:21237696

  6. Documentation of a heroin manufacturing process in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Zerell, U; Ahrens, B; Gerz, P

    2005-01-01

    The present article documents an authentic process of heroin manufacturing in Afghanistan: white heroin hydrochloride produced using simple equipment and a small quantity of chemicals. The quantities of chemicals actually used corresponded to the minimum needed for manufacturing heroin. The only organic solvent used was acetone, and only a very small quantity of it was used. Because the chemicals used in the demonstration were from actual seizures in Afghanistan, some of the chemicals had been disguised or repackaged by smugglers. Others had been put into labelled containers that proved to be counterfeit, and some glass containers used were not the original containers of the manufacturer displayed on the label. The brown heroin base prepared as an intermediate step in the process shares some of the characteristics of the South-West Asia type of heroin preparations often seized in Germany. The final product of the documented heroin manufacturing process was white heroin hydrochloride, which shares the key characteristics of the white heroin occasionally seized in Germany and other countries in Western Europe since 2000. The present article demonstrates that this kind of heroin can be produced in Afghanistan.

  7. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  8. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  9. 31 CFR 545.412 - Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 545.412... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 545.412 Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7702 Section 225.7702... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  11. 31 CFR 545.516 - Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.516 Section 545.516 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.516 Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  12. 31 CFR 545.519 - Payments and transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to the... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN... transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by...

  13. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan. 225.7702 Section 225.7702... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisitions not subject to the enhanced authority to acquire products or services from Afghanistan....

  14. 31 CFR 545.520 - Noncommercial personal remittances to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.520 Section 545.520 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and... Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. United States financial institutions, as defined in § 545.314,...

  15. An exploratory pilot investigation of neurosteroids and self-reported pain in female Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jennifer C; Kilts, Jason D; Strauss, Jennifer L; Szabo, Steven T; Dunn, Charlotte E; Wagner, H Ryan; Hamer, Robert M; Shampine, Lawrence J; Zanga, Joseph R; Marx, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Female Veterans are the most rapidly growing segment of new users of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and a significant proportion of female Veterans receiving treatment from VHA primary care providers report persistent pain symptoms. Currently, available data characterizing the neurobiological underpinnings of pain disorders are limited. Preclinical data suggest that neurosteroids may be involved in the modulation of pain symptoms, potentially via actions at gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids that modulate inhibitory GABA receptors and excitatory NMDA receptors, producing complex neuronal effects. Emerging evidence from male Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans suggests that reductions in neurosteroid levels are associated with increased pain symptoms and that neurosteroids may be promising biomarker candidates. The current exploratory study thus examined associations between self-reported pain symptoms in 403 female Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans and serum DHEAS and DHEA levels. Serum DHEAS levels were inversely correlated with low back pain in female Veterans (Spearman r = -0.103; p = 0.04). Nonparametric analyses indicate that female Veterans reporting moderate/extreme low back pain demonstrated significantly lower DHEAS levels than those reporting no/little low back pain (|Z| = 2.60; p = 0.009). These preliminary findings support a role for DHEAS in pain physiology of low back pain and the rationale for neurosteroid therapeutics in pain analgesia. PMID:27533747

  16. 76 FR 36167 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2... the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Afghanistan, and I hereby waive...

  17. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Full and Open Competition 206.303-70 Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan....

  18. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  19. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  20. Education and Politics in Afghanistan: The Importance of an Education System in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Jeaniene

    2005-01-01

    Afghanistan has a long history of social unrest and ethnic conflict, and the manipulation of the education system by internal and external powers for political purposes has been one of the major contributors to these divisions. As Afghanistan attempts to build peace and maintain co-existence after more than 20 years of violence, there continues to…

  1. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  2. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Full and Open Competition 206.303-70 Acquisitions in support of operations in Afghanistan....

  3. BRAC in Afghanistan: Building South-South Partnerships in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mir Nazmul; Anwar, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Training paraprofessionals such as teachers is one of many significant challenges facing Afghanistan's educational system. This case study focuses on the innovations offered in that regard by BRAC, a large NGO based in Bangladesh that brought its many years of development experience to Afghanistan in 2002 and established itself there as the…

  4. A Lifetime of Trauma: Mental Health Challenges for Higher Education in a Conflict Environment in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as…

  5. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one.

  6. PROMISE. Beyond frontiers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manaan Kar; Rae, Sarah; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The concepts underlying the PROMISE initiative are described. This initiative to implement more humane healthcare is now developing from a local initiativein Cambridge to a global movement. PMID:26417826

  7. Measuring equity in disability and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Barbou-des-Courieres, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses equity in health and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan based on a representative national household survey. Equitable access is a cornerstone of the Afghan health policy. We measured socioeconomic-related equity in access to public health care, using disability--because people with disabilities are poorer and more likely to use health care--and a concentration index (CI) and its decomposition. The socioeconomic-related equity in healthcare utilization was measured using a probit model and compared with an OLS model providing the horizontal inequity index (HI). We found a low rate of healthcare facilities utilization (25%). Disabled persons are using more healthcare facilities and have higher medical expenses. Disability is more frequently associated with older age, unemployed heads of household and lower education. The Cl of disability is 0.0221 indicating a pro-rich distribution of health. This pro-rich effect is higher in small households (CI decreases with size of the household, -0.0048) and safe (0.0059) areas. The CI of healthcare utilization is -0.0159 indicating a slightly pro-poor distribution of healthcare utilization but, overall, there is no difference in healthcare utilization by wealth status. Our study does not show major socioeconomic related inequity in disability and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. This is due to the extreme and pervasive poverty found in Afghanistan. The absence of inequity in health access is explained by the uniform poverty of the population and the difficulty of accessing BPHS facilities (a basic package of health services), despite alarming health indicators.

  8. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  9. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Noor, Ayan Ahmed; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Kakar, Faizullah K; Hansen, Peter M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services. Although frequently used in other health-care settings, this represents the first time that the BSC has been employed in a developing country. The BSC was designed via a collaborative process focusing on translating the vision and mission of the MOPH into 29 core indicators and benchmarks representing six different domains of health services, together with two composite measures of performance. In the absence of a routine health information system, the 2004 BSC for Afghanistan was derived from a stratified random sample of 617 health facilities, 5719 observations of patient-provider interactions, and interviews with 5597 patients, 1553 health workers, and 13,843 households. Nationally, health services were found to be reaching more of the poor than the less-poor population, and providing for more women than men, both key concerns of the government. However, serious deficiencies were found in five domains, and particularly in counselling patients, providing delivery care during childbirth, monitoring tuberculosis treatment, placing staff and equipment, and establishing functional village health councils. The BSC also identified wide variations in performance across provinces; no province performed better than the others across all domains. The innovative adaptation of the BSC in Afghanistan has provided a useful tool to summarize the multidimensional nature of health-services performance, and is enabling managers to benchmark performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in the Afghan context.

  10. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  11. Modern Earthquake Hazard Assessments in Afghanistan: A USGS Training Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthwaite, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Medlin, J.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region at the western extent of the Indo-Asian collision zone, where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can cause damage, not only from strong ground shaking and surface rupture, but also from liquefaction and extensive landsliding. The M=6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghan communities to such hazards, and resulted in at least 1000 fatalities. This training course in modern earthquake hazard assessments is an integral part of the international effort to provide technical assistance to Afghanistan using an "end-to-end" approach. This approach involves providing assistance in all stages of hazard assessment, from identifying earthquakes, to disseminating information on mitigation strategies to the public. The purpose of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 at the Afghan Geological Survey in Kabul, was to provide a solid background in the relevant seismological and geological methods for preparing for future earthquakes. With this information, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the Afghan community. In addition, they are better prepared to conduct earthquake hazard assessments and to build the capabilities of the Afghan Geological Survey. The training course was taught using a series of Power Point lectures, with all lectures being presented in English and translated into Dari, one of the two main languages of Afghanistan. The majority of lecture slides were also annotated in both English and Dari. Lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. As part of the on-going USGS participation in the program, additional training sessions are planned in the subjects of field geology, modern concepts in Earth science, mineral resource assessments and applied geophysics.

  12. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  13. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Noor, Ayan Ahmed; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Kakar, Faizullah K; Hansen, Peter M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services. Although frequently used in other health-care settings, this represents the first time that the BSC has been employed in a developing country. The BSC was designed via a collaborative process focusing on translating the vision and mission of the MOPH into 29 core indicators and benchmarks representing six different domains of health services, together with two composite measures of performance. In the absence of a routine health information system, the 2004 BSC for Afghanistan was derived from a stratified random sample of 617 health facilities, 5719 observations of patient-provider interactions, and interviews with 5597 patients, 1553 health workers, and 13,843 households. Nationally, health services were found to be reaching more of the poor than the less-poor population, and providing for more women than men, both key concerns of the government. However, serious deficiencies were found in five domains, and particularly in counselling patients, providing delivery care during childbirth, monitoring tuberculosis treatment, placing staff and equipment, and establishing functional village health councils. The BSC also identified wide variations in performance across provinces; no province performed better than the others across all domains. The innovative adaptation of the BSC in Afghanistan has provided a useful tool to summarize the multidimensional nature of health-services performance, and is enabling managers to benchmark performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in the Afghan context. PMID:17308736

  14. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in the Helmand Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A majority of the Afghan population lacks adequate and safe supplies of water because of contamination, lack of water-resources management regulation, and lack of basic infrastructure, compounded by periods of drought and seasonal flooding. Characteristics of historical streamflows are needed to assist with efforts to quantify the water resources of the Helmand Basin. The Helmand Basin is the largest river basin in Afghanistan. It comprises the southern half of the country, draining waters from the Sia Koh Mountains in Herat Province to the eastern mountains in Gardez Province (currently known as the Paktia Province) and the Parwan Mountains northwest of Kabul, and finally draining into the unique Sistan depression between Iran and Afghanistan (Favre and Kamal, 2004). The Helmand Basin is a desert environment with rivers fed by melting snow from the high mountains and infrequent storms. Great fluctuations in streamflow, from flood to drought, can occur annually. Knowledge of the magnitude and time distribution of streamflow is needed to quantify water resources and for water management and environmental planning. Agencies responsible for the development and management of Afghanistan's surface-water resources can use this knowledge for making safe, economical, and environmentally sound water-resource planning decisions. To provide the Afghan managers with necessary streamflow information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), computed streamflow statistics for data collected at historical gaging stations within the Helmand Basin. The historical gaging stations used are shown in figure 1 and listed in table 1.

  15. Solar and Wind Resource Assessments for Afghanistan and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D. S.; Kelly, M.; Elliott, D.; George, R.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.; Cowlin, S.; Gilman, P.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently completed the production of high-resolution wind and solar energy resource maps and related data products for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The resource data have been incorporated into a geospatial toolkit (GsT), which allows the user to manipulate the resource information along with country-specific geospatial information such as highway networks, power facilities, transmission corridors, protected land areas, etc. The toolkit allows users to then transfer resource data for specific locations into NREL's micropower optimization model known as HOMER.

  16. Streamflow characteristics at streamgages in northern Afghanistan and selected locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.; Williams-Sether, Tara

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for 79 historical streamgages in Northern Afghanistan and other selected historical streamgages are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgage include (1) station description, (2) graph of the annual mean discharge for the period of record, (3) statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, (4) monthly and annual flow duration, (5) probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, (6) probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, (7) probability of occurrence of seasonal low discharges, (8) annual peak discharges for the period of record, and (9) monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  18. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  19. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  20. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  1. A large-scale integrated aerogeophysical survey of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R. T.; Bowles, J. H.; Abraham, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    A multi-sensor, multidisciplinary aerogeophysical survey of a major portion of Afghanistan was recently conducted by investigators from the Naval Research Laboratory and the U.S. Geological Survey. More than 110,000 line km of data tracks were flown aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft. Sensor systems installed on the P-3 included dual gravimeters, scalar and vector magnetometers, a digital photogrammetric camera, a hyperspectral imager, and an L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Data from all sources were precisely co-registered to the ground by a combination of interferometric-mode Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurements. The data from this integrated mapping mission support numerous basic and applied science efforts in Afghanistan including: resource assessment and exploration for oil, gas, and minerals, development of techniques for sensor fusion and automated analysis, and topics in crustal geophysics and geodesy. The data will also support civil infrastructure needs such as cadastral surveying, urban planning and development, and pipeline/powerline/road routing and construction, agriculture and hydrologic resource management, earthquake hazard analysis, and base-maps for humanitarian relief missions.

  2. Medical support of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Bochniak, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The system of medical support in the territory of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan is based on four levels of medical treatment. Level 4 is organized outside the war theatre, in the territories of the countries that are a part of the stabilization forces of international organizations (NATO). Both the tasks and the structure of medical support are adjusted to fit the requirements of the U.S. Forces. The same tasks and structure are also recognized by medical services of other NATO countries participating in military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Each subsequent level of medical support is progressively more highly specialized and capable of providing more advanced medical treatment in comparison to the preceding level. Medical evacuation is executed either by air or overland depending on the type of illness or injury as well as the tactical situation prevailing in the combat zone. The aim of this paper is to present the planning, challenges, and problems of medical assistance in the contemporary battlefield. PMID:21534227

  3. Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groninger, John W.

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  4. Suicide risk in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with mental health problems in VA care.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Madden, Erin; Cohen, Beth E; Bertenthal, Daniel; Neylan, Thomas C; Seal, Karen H

    2015-09-01

    Suicide rates among U.S. military personnel and veterans are a public health concern, and those with mental health conditions are at particular risk. We examined demographic, military, temporal, and diagnostic associations with suicidality in veterans. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression, received a suicide risk assessment, and endorsed hopelessness about the present or future after their last deployment and between January 1, 2010 and June 29, 2014 (N = 45,741). We used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to examine variables associated with having endorsed suicidal thoughts and a plan. Multiple factors were associated with suicidality outcomes, including longer time from last deployment to screening (proxy for time to seeking VA care), an alcohol use disorder diagnosis, further distance from VA (rurality), and being active duty during military service. Hispanic veterans were at decreased risk of having suicidal ideation and a plan, compared to their white counterparts. In high-risk veterans, some of the strongest associations with suicidality were with modifiable risk factors, including time to VA care and alcohol use disorder diagnoses. Promising avenues for suicide prevention efforts can include early engagement/intervention strategies with a focus on amelioration of high-risk drinking. PMID:26228410

  5. Aeromagnetic Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and related data were digitized from 1976 magnetic field and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan. The magnetic field data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Magnetic Field of Afghanistan (Western Area) Delta-Ta Isolines,' compiled by V. A. Cnjagev and A. F. Bukhmastov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  6. Void-Filled SRTM Digital Elevation Model of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barrios, Boris

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The purpose of this data set is to provide a single consistent elevation model to be used for national scale mapping, GIS, remote sensing applications, and natural resource assessments for Afghanistan's reconstruction. For 11 days in February of 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Afghanistan DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are as a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:200,000 - scale Soviet General Staff Topographic Maps which date from the middle to late 1980's. Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and image processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes SRTM DEM quadrangles projected and clipped in geographic coordinates for the entire country. An index of all available SRTM DEM quadrangles is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. Also

  7. Opium trade, insurgency, and HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan: relationships and regional consequences.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Nevada; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2010-07-01

    Global health and conflict studies share key linkages that have important research and policy implications but for which data are currently lacking. This analytical review examines the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan, using it as a basis to develop a conceptual framework that integrates security and public health concepts. The analysis draws on recent peer-reviewed and gray literature to assess the interrelationship among 3 variable clusters and their impact on the emergence of the HIV epidemic in Afghanistan. The evidence suggests that there is a complex indirect relationship linking illicit opium trade, the ongoing insurgency, and forced and spontaneous migration to the emergence of an injection drug use-driven HIV epidemic in Afghanistan. These findings demonstrate a clear need for an integrated cross-disciplinary and regional approach to the emerging threat of HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan, to inform more balanced and effective policy making in this and other regions of strategic global import.

  8. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, C.J.; Kosti, Amir Zada; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Omari, Mohammad Karim; Muty, Salam Abdul; Nakshband, Haidari Gulam; Hosine, Abdul Aminulah; Wahab, Abdul; Hamidi, Abdul Wasy; Ahmadi, Nasim; Agena, Warren F.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Drenth, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey--Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit (AU) (80230101).

  10. A close look at the demography of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Brown, E

    1979-02-01

    The first survey designed to allow estimates of the demographic characteristics of Afghanistan's sedentary population was conducted during the period 1972-1974. Our analysis of these data, based on recently developed techniques for handling imcomplete or inaccurate data, suggests that this population lives under conditions that are extreme when judged by modern standards. Marriage is early, especially for females, and universal. Marital fertility conforms to a pattern of natural fertility and total fertility is high. The birth rate is among the highest in the world today, and the expectation of life at birth is among the very lowest. Mortality is lower in urban areas than in rural areas, whereas total fertility is approximately the same in both. Our estimates of fertility and mortality imply stable populations which match closely the observed age distributions for both the rural and urban areas.

  11. Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment. PMID:26366328

  12. Paediatric anaesthesia in Afghanistan: a review of the current experience.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, G R

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the author's experience of the paediatric patient load on the U.K. medical services in Afghanistan. Over a 3 month period there was a mean of 2.9 paediatric trauma admissions per week, mean age was 6.8 years with gunshot wound or explosive injury being the mechanisms of injury in 77% of the trauma admissions. Overall these children represented 10.8% of the surgical workload. Some of the issues of paediatric anaesthesia in this environment are discussed including paediatric equipment, resuscitation for paediatric massive haemorrhage and regional anaesthesia. The need to formally recognise the problem in training and equipping deployed medical personnel to deal with this challenge is examined.

  13. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  14. Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (lactose tolerance) in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, A G; Delbrück, H; Haeckel, R; Goedde, H W; Flatz, G

    1976-09-10

    Two hundred and seventy apparently healthy adult subjects from Afghanistan, mainly from the central and eastern parts of the country, were subjected to a lactose tolerance test. The change of blood glucose from the fasting concentration at 20 min after the administration of lactose showed a bimodal distribution. Forty-seven subjects had a rise of blood glucose concentration of more than 1.1 mmol/l and were classified as persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (PHILA), a term which lays emphasis on the fact that high lactase activity in the adult is an unusual state whose prevalence in some populations requires explanation. In the Afghan sample there were no significant differences of the frequency of PHILA in different ethnic groups. PMID:965005

  15. Poverty, vulnerability, and provision of healthcare in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Noor, Ayan A; Lopez, Dominique; Mashkoor, Ashraf

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents findings on conditions of healthcare delivery in Afghanistan. There is an ongoing debate about barriers to healthcare in low-income as well as fragile states. In 2002, the Government of Afghanistan established a Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS), contracting primary healthcare delivery to non-state providers. The priority was to give access to the most vulnerable groups: women, children, disabled persons, and the poorest households. In 2005, we conducted a nationwide survey, and using a logistic regression model, investigated provider choice. We also measured associations between perceived availability and usefulness of healthcare providers. Our results indicate that the implementation of the package has partially reached its goal: to target the most vulnerable. The pattern of use of healthcare provider suggests that disabled people, female-headed households, and poorest households visited health centres more often (during the year preceding the survey interview). But these vulnerable groups faced more difficulties while using health centres, hospitals as well as private providers and their out-of-pocket expenditure was higher than other groups. In the model of provider choice, time to travel reduces the likelihood for all Afghans of choosing health centres and hospitals. We situate these findings in the larger context of current debates regarding healthcare delivery for vulnerable populations in fragile state environments. The 'scaling-up process' is faced with several issues that jeopardize the objective of equitable access: cost of care, coverage of remote areas, and competition from profit-orientated providers. To overcome these structural barriers, we suggest reinforcing processes of transparency, accountability and participation. PMID:20359809

  16. Radiometric Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric (uranium content, thorium content, potassium content, and gamma-ray intensity) and related data were digitized from radiometric and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan published in 1976. The uranium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Uranium (Radium) Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The thorium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Thorium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The potassium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Potassium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The gamma-ray intensity data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Gamma-Field of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  17. Preparation of GPR+MD sensors evaluation tests in Japan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Feng, Xuan; Kobayashi, Takao; Zhou, Zheng-Shu; Savelyev, Timofei G.; Fujiwara, Jun

    2005-06-01

    Currently there are a few projects for landmine detection in Afghanistan, which is supported by the Japanese government. Some field test for landmine detection sensors have been carried out in Afghanistan and Japan. We introduce in this paper about the plan of these projects, and its evaluation tests. JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency) which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)) is developing unmanned vehicles which are mounted sensors for AP landmine detection. The prototype of the sensors and equipments will be ready by February 2005 and will be tested in a test site in Japan by March 2005. Then, it is planned to be evaluated in Afghanistan in summer 2005. JICS (Japan International Cooperation System) which is under the Ministry of Foreign affairs (MOFA) has a project on "Developing Mine Clearance related equipment in Afghanistan". In this project, we plan to evaluate mine detectors in Afghanistan until March 2005. The evaluation test of JICS project has already started in August-Deecember 2004, in Afghanistan,. In the evaluation the both projects, we are preparing test lanes. Most of the sensors to be evaluated is a combination of a metal detector and GPR, and as for GPR, there has been not many examples of such evaluation tests. In this paper, we introduce the outline of the evaluation test, and also discuss some technical aspects of the evaluation test for the combination sensors of a metal detector and a GPR.

  18. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  19. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima

    2016-01-01

    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  20. Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection's pool: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sanaullah; Attaullah, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. Awareness program and research capacity in the field of hepatitis are very limited in Afghanistan. Number of vulnerabilities and patterns of risk behaviors signal the need to take action now. Thirty one studies dating from October 2003 to 2011 were included, consisting the data of 132,981 individuals for HBV and 132,500 individuals for HCV. Percentage prevalence was 1.9% for HBV and 1.1% for HCV in all available Afghanistan population. Most at risk population to hepatitis include injecting drug users who share needles and female sex workers, while truck drivers, prisoners and homosexual men needs attention, as their statistical figure are missing. Data suggests that high incidence of intravenous drug use, sexual activities, unsafe blood transfusion procedures and mobility are major risk factors for hepatitis transmission. This review is based on analysis of the limited available data in Afghanistan. Although there are many underlying vulnerability factors, it appears that Afghanistan remains at an early epidemic phase. Further research is required to determine the seroprevalence and prevalent genotype(s) of HBV and HCV in all provinces in Afghanistan. This article provides some key insights into the potential and likely future transmission dynamics of hepatitis which will serve as a guide in the identification of priority areas in term of high risk groups and risk behaviours in the country and will assist to develop urgent strategic plans to combat the future burden of hepatitis in Afghanistan. PMID:21569317

  1. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  2. Glacier and climate change in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J.; Bishop, M.; Burgett, A.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change predictions and water resource related issuesin Afghanistan and Pakistan have led to the need for detailed assessments and understanding of glacier fluctuations, and the determination of the dominant controlling factors governing glacier sensitivity to climate change. Consequently, we studied glacier fluctuations and the role of topography in an attempt to understand glacier fluctuations.Specifically we used ASTER imagery, Landsat ETM data, and an SRTM digital elevation model, together with Google Earth™ high-resolution imagery to examine terminus fluctuations, ice velocity variations, and local- and meso-scale topographic parameters that are related to irradiance variations, ablation, and glacial geomorphology.Multispectral satellite imagery were utilized to estimate advance and retreat rates, along with glacier profile velocities. Geomorphometric analysis was utilized to generateglacier altitude profiles of hypsometry, slope, curvature, and topographic shielding. Our results reveal that glacier response to climate change is highly variable in Pakistan, as many glaciers are advancing as well as retreating, while others exhibit a stationary terminus. It is important to note that advances in the Karakoram do not appear to be restricted to glaciers at high elevations, suggesting climate forcing. Glaciers in the Hindu Raj and Hindu Kush are retreating, with fewer glaciers advancing, indicating the possibility of a spatial trend from West to East in Pakistan. There is a dramatic diminution of Hindu Kush ice in Afghanistan. In the Karakoram, many new surging glaciers have been identified with flow velocities ranging from 200-1000 m/yr. Non- surging glaciers also exhibit relative high velocities there. Spatial patternsof relief appear to be associated with glacier debris cover, as snow/ice avalanchescontribute debris and ice mass. In addition, patterns of topographic shielding are highly variable, revealing variations in the diffuse-skylight irradiance

  3. Damage From the Nahrin, Afghanistan, Earthquake of 25 March, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, C. L.; Yeats, R. S.

    2002-12-01

    On 25 March, 2002, a destructive earthquake of mb = 6.1 struck the city of Nahrin and nearby villages in Baghlan Province in northeastern Afghanistan. The earthquake occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault that parallels the linear northeast-trending range front of the Hindu Kush Mountains, east of Nahrin. Field reconnaissance showed no disturbance of the ground by surface rupture, liquefaction, or lateral spreading, and virtually no evidence of landsliding or rockfall. United Nations and Afghan authorities estimate the death toll from the earthquake to be over 2000, with about 20,000 families impacted by the earthquake. We conducted a survey of damage in 68 villages affected by the earthquake and found that areas within 25 km of the epicenter experienced modified Mercalli intensities of between VI and VII. Shaking intensities were strong enough to cause complete building collapse in many villages. Site conditions were an important factor in the distribution of damage in the Nahrin area. Houses built on the narrow crests of ridges eroded in loess suffered major damage due to the focusing of near-surface seismic waves on ridge-tops. Houses on low fluvial terraces along the Nahrin River also suffered major damage, likely due to their close proximity to the water table. Structures built on metamorphic bedrock and alluvial fans along the range front of the Hindu Kush Mountains or on high terraces along the Nahrin River suffered comparatively less damage. Building failure was predominantly caused by the mud-block construction, characteristic of much of Afghanistan and adjacent countries. Most houses are built of mud blocks made from reworked loess, which contains a relatively low percentage of clay. The walls contain no bracing against lateral shear, and wall corners are not tied together, leading to failure at corners and roof collapse. In several villages, mosques were constructed to a higher standard and suffered significantly less damage than surrounding mud

  4. Afghanistan [population education in countries of the region].

    PubMed

    Zafarsai, B; Khamar, S M

    1982-06-01

    In Afghanistan population education began as an organized program in the nonformal education sector with the initiation of a Unesco/UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) supported project--Family Health and Adult Education. The project, which aimed to integrate family health and family life education, was carried out over a 30-month period in 26 experimental classes in the province of Kohdaman, Shakardara, and the neighboring subdistricts of Kabul. The total enrollment was 479 women. In 1978 a new project was proposed for UNFPA funding, Family Health and Family Life Education through Mass Education Program. It was planned to integrate population education in all 6 education programs of the General Agency for Literacy Campaign (GALC). These programs are: general literacy program; women's program; agriculture and cooperative program; complementary education program; out-of-school children program; and follow-up materials program. The 1st national seminar on population education was organized in September 1979. 17 government and semigovernment agencies involved in population related activities participated. The seminar arrived at a definition and goal of population education. Population education is defined as an educational program which provides for study of the population situation affecting the way of life of the individual, the family, community, and the country. The seminar identified the following as the goal of population education: to provide young people and adults with a knowledge and understanding of population dynamics, causes and consequences of population growth, and the impact of population change/growth on aspects of quality of life. There are now about 26 key personnel in the Ministry of Education who have participated in regional seminars, workshops, and training programs organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Key personnel involved in population education in Afghanistan went on study tours in India, Cuba

  5. 31 CFR 545.521 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.521 Section 545.521 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and... Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. U.S. citizens who reside on a permanent basis in the territory...

  6. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  7. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  8. The INSPIRE Project: Using the "Unknown" to Co-Construct a Training Course on Humanistic Counselling in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdondini, Lucia; Grieve, Sandra; Kaveh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article details a collaborative project between the University of Strathclyde (UK) and the University of Herat (Afghanistan). The aim was to co-construct a model of training, based on humanistic approaches, in order to enhance counselling services in Afghanistan and to establish counselling training at the University of Herat. Two groups of…

  9. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR...

  10. Class 6 Proficiency in Afghanistan 2013: Outcomes of a Learning Assessment of Mathematical, Reading and Writing Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Tom; Mendelovits, Juliette; Stanyon, Rachel; Turner, Ross; Walker, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Ministry of Education, Afghanistan, engaged the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) as a partner to support the development of a national learning assessment program in Afghanistan. To achieve this goal, the Learning Assessment unit of the Ministry of Education and ACER have collaborated to design and implement the…

  11. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR...

  12. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR...

  13. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Houben, R. M.; Grede, N.; de Pee, S.; Boccia, D.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  14. Iron status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; McClung, James P; Karl, J Philip; Brothers, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Iron is a micronutrient necessary for energy metabolism and for oxygen transport and delivery. Depletion of iron stores (iron deficiency [ID]) may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which affects mood, cognitive function, and physical performance. Previous studies indicated that iron status may decline during military training. This study assessed the iron status and prevalence of ID and IDA in military personnel deployed to Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan (1492 m). Within the pool of 294 participants (149 male and 145 female), 2 males (1%) and 8 females (6%) presented with ID. Although IDA was not observed in males, 3 females (2%) met the criteria for IDA. Female sex (p = 0.05) and self-reported history of anemia (p < 0.05) were associated with diminished iron status. Amenorrhea was associated with higher ferritin (p < 0.05) and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) levels. Although ID and IDA did not affect a large portion of the deployed population assessed in this study, findings suggest that risk factors including female sex, history of anemia, and regular menstruation should be considered in the assessment of iron status in military personnel.

  15. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP.

  16. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach.

  17. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity.

  18. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  19. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment.

  20. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  1. A comprehensive population dataset for Afghanistan constructed using GIS-based dasymetric mapping methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Allyson L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the application of dasymetric methods for mapping the distribution of population throughout Afghanistan. Because Afghanistan's population has constantly changed through decades of war and conflict, existing vector and raster GIS datasets (such as point settlement densities and intensities of lights at night) do not adequately reflect the changes. The purposes of this report are (1) to provide historic population data at the provincial and district levels that can be used to chart population growth and migration trends within the country and (2) to provide baseline information that can be used for other types of spatial analyses of Afghanistan, such as resource and hazard assessments; infrastructure and capacity rebuilding; and assisting with international, regional, and local planning.

  2. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  3. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  4. Aeromagnetic surveys in Afghanistan: An updated website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenwary, Ghulam Sakhi; Kohistany, Abdul Hakim; Hussain, Sardar; Ashan, Said; Mutty, Abdul Salam; Daud, Mohammad Ahmad; Wussow, Michael D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Kucks, Robert P.; Finn, Carol A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Liang, Robert T.; Jarvis, James L.; Gardner, Joan M.; Childers, Vicki A.; Ball, David C.; Brozena, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its geologic setting, Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial natural resources. Although valuable mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information about the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Owing to the current security situation and the large areas of the country that have not been evaluated by geophysical exploration methods, a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  5. Addressing maternal and child health in post-conflict Afghanistan: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Rai, R K; Alagarajan, M

    2013-09-01

    Afghanistan's maternal and child mortality rates are among the highest in the world. The country faces challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015 which can be attributed to multiple causes related to accessibility, affordability and availability of health-care services. This report addresses the challenges in strengthening maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, as well discussing the areas to be prioritized. In order to ensure sound maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, policy-makers must prioritize monitoring and surveillance systems, integrating maternal and child health care with rights-based family planning methods, building human resources, offering incentives (such as the provision of a conditional cash transfer to women) and promoting action-oriented, community-based interventions. On a wider scale, the focus must be to improve the health infrastructure, organizing international collaboration and expanding sources of funding. PMID:24313047

  6. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  7. A new species of the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V

    2015-10-02

    A new species from the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group--C. succuba sp. n.--is described from the mountains of Central Afghanistan, Bamyan Province. The new species differs from the geographically close C. p. jomuda Nekrutenko & Tshikolovets in morphology of the male and female genitalia along with the distinct wavy shape of the postdiscal white line on the hindwing underside. Discovery of the new species from C. paulae species group extends known distribution range of the group to the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau in Central Afghanistan.

  8. A "boots on the ground" perspective of caring for the women and children in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy

    2011-01-01

    In 1972 Margarete V. Silberberg wrote about her nursing experience when caring for women at a Kabul, Afghanistan, hospital. Based on my experience during a recent deployment to Afghanistan, I describe providing health care to Afghan women and children as a military Women's Health Nurse Practitioner. Delivering health care presented the threat of physical harm for the health care team and those who received the care. Afghan women and children continue to experience significant cultural, religious, and social circumstances that limit their education, personal development, protection from abuse, and access to health care.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ≥40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of ≥ 40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ≥50 (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR = 1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR = 2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR = 1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI ≥ 30 Kg/meter squared (OR = 2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

  10. Homelessness and Money Mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Connor P.; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. Methods. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009–2011. Results. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one’s credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Conclusions. Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness. PMID:24148067

  11. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11-16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their "broken economy," the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future.

  12. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: Resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11–16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their “broken economy,” the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future. PMID:20452111

  13. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Results The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Conclusion Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation. PMID:23384348

  14. Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John; Wynn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study to identify the potential for phosphate deposits in Afghanistan. As part of this study, a geographic information system was constructed containing a database of phosphate occurrences in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, and a database of potential host lithologies compiled from 1:1,000,000 scale maps. Within Afghanistan, a handful of known occurrences and reports indicate the presence of phosphate in Permian, Cretaceous, and Paleogene sediments and in carbonatite. With the exception of the Khanneshin carbonatite, very little is known about these occurrences. In the countries surrounding Afghanistan, economic phosphate is known to occur in Cambrian, Devonian, and Paleogene sediments and in Kiruna-type Fe-apatite deposits. Many of the host units may extend into Afghanistan or equivalent units may be present. Although the possibility of economic phosphate deposits exist for Afghanistan, the need for detailed exploration for phosphate, the remoteness of some locations, and the probability that a deposit would not be exposed at the surface mean that one or more deposits are not likely to be identified in the near future. Even if a phosphate-bearing deposit is identified in Afghanistan, it is not clear if the probable size, thickness, and grade ranges would allow economic development of the hypothesized resource.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps < .05) and greater reductions in PTSD symptoms, distress, anger, physical complaints, and reintegration difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps < .05) and greater reductions in PTSD symptoms, distress, anger, physical complaints, and reintegration difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes. PMID:26467326

  17. Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plane, Jandelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

  18. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  19. Mental Health and Childhood Adversities: A Longitudinal Study in Kabul, Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Goodman, Anna; Tol, Wietse; Eggerman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify prospective predictors of mental health in Kabul, Afghanistan. Method: Using stratified random-sampling in schools, mental health and life events for 11- to 16-year-old students and their caregivers were assessed. In 2007, 1 year after baseline, the retention rate was 64% (n = 115 boys, 119 girls, 234 adults) with no…

  20. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  1. 76 FR 67416 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan, September 2011 (Dates Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...), allowing Afghan container trucks to drive through Pakistan to the Indian border, and also to port cities... population of 2.6 million, it is also the largest city in Afghanistan. It is the commercial center for the... in transit city (tbd) and overnight in pre-arranged departure from transit city. Day Three Travel...

  2. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…

  3. Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  4. Surveillance of Disease and Nonbattle Injuries During US Army Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.

    PubMed

    Hauret, Keith G; Pacha, Laura; Taylor, Bonnie J; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) are the leading causes of morbidity during wars and military operations. However, adequate medical data were never before available to service public health centers to conduct DNBI surveillance during deployments. This article describes the process, results and lessons learned from centralized DNBI surveillance by the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, predecessor of the US Army Public Health Command, during operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (2001-2013).The surveillance relied primarily on medical evacuation records and in-theater hospitalization records. Medical evacuation rates (per 1,000 person-years) for DNBI were higher (Afghanistan: 56.7; Iraq: 40.2) than battle injury rates (Afghanistan: 12.0; Iraq: 7.7). In Afghanistan and Iraq, respectively, the leading diagnostic categories for medical evacuations were nonbattle injury (31% and 34%), battle injury (20% and 16%), and behavioral health (12% and 10%). Leading causes of medically evacuated nonbattle injuries were sports/physical training (22% and 24%), falls (23% and 26%) and military vehicle accidents (8% and 11%). This surveillance demonstrated the feasibility, utility, and benefits of centralized DNBI surveillance during military operations. PMID:27215861

  5. 75 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Afghanistan: 75 FR 29466; May 26, 2010. Supplemental Regulatory Flexibility Analysis The Regulatory... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: To read... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . You can also get a copy by sending a request to the...

  6. Seroconversions for Coxiella and Rickettsial Pathogens among US Marines Deployed to Afghanistan, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pho, Nhien; Myers, Todd E.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed serum samples from 1,000 US Marines deployed to Afghanistan during 2001–2010 to find evidence of 4 rickettsial pathogens. Analysis of predeployment and postdeployment samples showed that 3.4% and 0.5% of the Marines seroconverted for the causative agents of Q fever and spotted fever group rickettsiosis, respectively. PMID:27434653

  7. Integrating Learning, Leadership, and Crisis in Management Education: Lessons from Army Officers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayes, D. Christopher; Allen, Nate; Self, Nate

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model and case study used to teach crisis leadership as a management education topic. The materials emerge from studies of U.S. Army leaders (company commanders and platoon leaders) working in Iraq and Afghanistan. The authors explain how examples and cases from military combat provide tools to teach about crisis…

  8. Development knowledge and experience--from Bangladesh to Afghanistan and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Aminul Alam, M.; Ahmed, Jalaluddin

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: In Afghanistan the challenges of development are daunting, mainly as a result of many years of conflict. The formation of a new government in 2001 paved the way for new initiatives from within and outside the country. BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), a Bangladeshi nongovernmental organization with a long history of successful work, extended its development model to Afghanistan in 2002. LOCAL SETTING: Provincial Afghanistan. APPROACH: BRAC has implemented programmes in Afghanistan in the areas of health, education, microfinance, women's empowerment, agriculture, capacity development and local government strengthening, and has taken many of these programmes to scale. RELEVANT CHANGES: With a total staff of over 3000 (94% Afghan and the rest Bangladeshis), BRAC now works in 21 of the country's 34 provinces. BRAC runs 629 non-formal primary schools with 18 155 students, mostly girls. In health, BRAC has trained 3589 community workers who work at the village level in preventive and curative care. BRAC runs the largest microfinance programme in the country with 97 130 borrowers who cumulatively borrowed over US$ 28 million with a repayment rate of 98%. LESSONS LEARNED: Initial research indicates significant improvement in access to health care. Over three years, much has been achieved and learned. This paper summarizes these experiences and concludes that collaboration between developing countries can work, with fine-tuning to suit local contexts and traditions. PMID:16917659

  9. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  10. Afghanistan and Multiculturalism in Khaled Hosseini's Novels: Study of Place and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary F.; Todd, Reese H.; Olaniran, Bolanle; Lucey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to frame Khaled Hosseini's novels, "The Kite Runner" and "A Thousand Splendid Suns", as literature to expand and enhance the American secondary curriculum with multicultural themes based on Afghanistan as a geographical and cultural place in a dynamic, diverse, and complex world more mediated than ever before…

  11. Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael Jessee

    2016-01-01

    Afghanistan's public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially…

  12. 78 FR 54947 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  13. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  14. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  15. The Genetic Basis of Fusarium Root Rot Tolerance in the Afghanistan Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic basis of tolerance to Fusarium root rot found in many landraces grown in the region that includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and northwestern India was examined in a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a tolerant accession. Three loci appear to be primarily resp...

  16. Muslim and Western Influences on School Curriculum in Post-War Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.

    2007-01-01

    In Afghanistan, education has largely been destroyed, partly in the name of Islam, by the wars fought on its behalf, or by different ethnic groups vying for control of this Islamic country. Similarly, curriculum has been used to promote political and/or religious viewpoints and to strengthen positions of power. War dominated the language of…

  17. Feasibility of Open Schooling in Disturbed Societies: The Case of Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Most countries have enshrined the right to education in their constitution but, in reality, to fulfil this commitment, countries do face a number of challenges. And this is true with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which unlike other countries has a long history of war, conflicts, insurgency, and hence insecurity. Although there have been…

  18. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  19. Localizing OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Lauryn; Hashimi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    The Darakht-e Danesh ("knowledge tree") Online Library is the first open educational resource (OER) initiative in Afghanistan, established to enhance teacher subject-area knowledge, access and use of learning materials, and to foster more diverse teaching methodologies in order to improve learning outcomes in Afghan classrooms. This…

  20. CLINICAL FEATURES, CURRENT TREATMENTS AND OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSAIA/ECLAMPSIA IN NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN

    PubMed Central

    AHADI, SAYED SHIR MOHAMMAD; YOSHIDA, YOSHITOKU; RABI, MIRWAIS; SARKER, MOHAMMAD ABUL BASHAR; REYER, JOSHUA A.; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Afghanistan, preeclampsia/eclampsia is the second leading cause of maternal deaths following maternal hemorrhage. This study aimed to describe clinical features, current treatments, and outcome among preeclampsia and eclampsia patients in the north region of Afghanistan. This was a retrospective study based on medical records of four center hospitals (one regional hospital and three provincial hospitals) in the north region of Afghanistan. Subjects were 322 patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia, admitted from March 2012 to March 2013. Out of 322 cases, 72.7% were diagnosed as preeclampsia and the rest as eclampsia. Those aged 30–39 years were 41.0% among preeclampsia patients and 29 years and younger were 35.2% among eclampsia patients (p= 0.002). The first delivery was significantly higher (p=0.045) among eclampsia patients (51.1%) than among preeclampsia patients (36.8%). While none died among the preeclampsia patients, 12 out of 88 eclampsia patients died in the hospitals. The causes of the 12 deaths were pulmonary edema (6 patients), renal failure (3 patients), cerebrovascular attack (2 patients), and hemorrhage (1 patient). There were no clinical findings at admission significantly associated with the deaths within the eclampsia patient group. Although the sample size was not large enough, patients admitted to the regional/provincial hospitals at the stage of preeclampsia had a low risk of death. Access at the stage of preeclampsia and improvement in treatments for eclampsia would reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan. PMID:25797975

  1. If You Believe in Faith: An Interview with Afghanistan's Minister of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Angie

    2004-01-01

    New construction springs up like hope in Afghanistan's capital: rampant, haphazard, and, too often, quick to deteriorate in Kabul's harsh climate. But one closely watched building project has come to symbolize so much--the renovation of the bombed-out, abandoned women's dormitories at Kabul University. When completed, they will house two thousand…

  2. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan. PMID:21282137

  3. Seroconversions for Coxiella and Rickettsial Pathogens among US Marines Deployed to Afghanistan, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Farris, Christina M; Pho, Nhien; Myers, Todd E; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-01

    We assessed serum samples from 1,000 US Marines deployed to Afghanistan during 2001-2010 to find evidence of 4 rickettsial pathogens. Analysis of predeployment and postdeployment samples showed that 3.4% and 0.5% of the Marines seroconverted for the causative agents of Q fever and spotted fever group rickettsiosis, respectively. PMID:27434653

  4. Home-Based School Teachers in Afghanistan: Teaching for Tarbia and Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Teachers in community-based or home-based schools in Afghanistan play a critical role in extending access to education to children who are unable to access the government schools, especially girls. These teachers--men and women--are nominated by the community to teach, without necessarily having teaching experience or even completing their own…

  5. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, Hakim; Azizi, Masood; Mogren, Saad

    2016-08-01

    This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.

  6. Geologic and topographic maps of the Kabul South 30' x 60' quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with three highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in Geospatial PDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts

  7. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Afghanistan, January 2014‒August 2015.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-10-23

    Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.

  8. Mesozoic ophiolites, sutures, and arge-scale tectonic movements in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapponnier, Paul; Mattauer, Maurice; Proust, François; Cassaigneau, Christian

    1981-02-01

    The tectonic history of Afghanistan appears to be the result of successive accretion of fragments of Gondwana to the active margin of Laurasia since the end of the Paleozoic. The margin, in Afghanistan, lies along the present Herat and Panjshir faults, south of Hindu Kush, swings around the central Pamirs and can presumably be traced along the present western Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults in Tibet. North of this boundary, Paleozoic rocks have been deformed in the Upper Paleozoic, whereas south of it, there is no trace of the Hercynian orogeny. The first collision of Gondwanian fragments with Laurasia probably occurred in the early Mesozoic along the Hindu Kush and Kunlun. To the south, ophiolites along the Panjao and Pangong-Nu Chiang sutures (respectively in central Afghanistan and central Tibet) testify for another suturing event in the Upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous. The Indus-Tsangpo suture between India and Tibet corresponds, in eastern Afghanistan, to two ophiolite subbelts, near Kabul and Khost. Both ophiolite complexes have been emplaced between Maestrichtian and Lower Eocene by choking of two northward-dipping subduction zones. After complete contact between the Indian and Asian continents was achieved, presumably in the end of Eocene, the penetration of India into Asia caused large-scale intra-continental shortening. A large part of the shortening was accommodated by strike-slip faulting along Mesozoic and more ancient sutures. Central Afghanistan, in particular, was extruded to the west along the Herat suture by the protrusion of the Pamir wedge. It subsequently collided with the Lut block.

  9. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  10. Natural Resource Assessments in Afghanistan Through High Resolution Digital Elevation Modeling and Multi-spectral Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirico, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides USGS/USAID natural resource assessments in Afghanistan through the mapping of coal, oil and natural gas, minerals, hydrologic resources and earthquake and flood hazards.

  11. Health needs and eHealth readiness assessment of health care organizations in Kabul and Bamyan, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Durrani, H; Khoja, S; Naseem, A; Scott, R E; Gul, A; Jan, R

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the need and readiness of health care institutions in Kabul and Bamyan, Afghanistan for successful implementation of information and communication technology in health care (eHealth). A mixed methods design was adopted at 2 institutions in the Aga Khan Development Network in Afghanistan: the French Medical Institute for Children in Kabul and Bamyan Provincial Hospital, Bamyan. Information for the needs assessment was obtained from interviews and focus groups and eHealth readiness was assessed using a validated survey tool. The needs of institutions in the Aga Khan Development Network in Afghanistan were categorized as follows: provision of care needs; learning needs; and information management needs. eHealth readiness on average was lower in Bamyan compared with Kabul in all areas of the readiness assessment. Other institutions in Afghanistan may benefit from adopting the model of needs and readiness assessment used for Aga Khan Development Network institutions. PMID:22888626

  12. "A Promise Kept, a Promise Broken": Developmental Bases of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen children from each of kindergarten, second, and fourth grades were presented pictorially and verbally with a series of stories depicting actors who varied in the amount of helping they promised to do and in whether or not they helped. Findings indicated developmental change in the bases of trust. (RH)

  13. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  14. Relation of Topography to Airborne Gravity in Afghanistan and the Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a multi-sensor, multi-disciplinary aerogeophysical survey, the US Naval Research Laboratory collected airborne gravity over most of Afghanistan in 2006 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1089/Afghan_grv.html). The data were measured using a pair of ZLS Corporation air-sea gravimeters 7 km altitude above mean sea level aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft operated by the US Navy's Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1). Aircraft positions were determined from kinematic GPS measurements in the aircraft relative to five base stations using differential interferometric techniques. Track spacing was set to 4 km over much of Afghanistan, but was increased to 8 km in the northern block of the survey area. Aircraft ground speed averaged between 300 and 380 knots, faster than ideal for high resolution gravity, but enabled approximately 113,000-km of data tracks to be flown in 220 flight hours, covering more than 330000 km2. In this presentation, we investigate the implications of the airborne gravity data for the tectonic development history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is described as comprising three different platforms (Wheeler et al., 2005): 1) the north Afghanistan platform north of the Hari-Rud fault (HRF), a part of the Eurasian plate for 250-350 my; 2) the accreted terranes south of the HRF including low flats, formed as island arcs and fragments of continental and oceanic crust collided with the Eurasian plate during the closure of the Tethys Ocean in the past 250 my; and 3) the transpressional plate in the east, formed as the Indian plate moves northward since Cretaceous. The Bouguer anomaly map reveals elongated negative values along the east-west striking HRF, which seems to manifest different tectonic developmental histories across the boundary. Over the southern flats in the accreted terranes platform, the Bouguer anomaly map appears to show a continuation of alternating southwest-northeast trending highs and lows like those over the northern high

  15. Geologic and Topographic Maps of the Kabul North 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with two highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in GeoPDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts to rebuild

  16. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  17. America: No Promise Without Agony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert McAfee

    We may discover signs of promise in the midst of agony if we make some shifts of perspective. (1) "Our fear of overt violence must be countered by our acknowledgement of covert violence." Covert violence is subtle and more destructive than physical violence because it is the "denial of personhood"--the insinuation by an act or by neglect that a…

  18. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  19. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    PubMed

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  20. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  1. Management of paediatric tuberculosis in provincial and district hospitals in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Delawer, F M; Isono, M; Ueki, H; Zhuben, M; Zafari, M; Seddiq, M K; Habib, H; Ayoubi, M K

    2013-08-01

    Case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis 1 B) in children are challenging issues vorldwide. This study in Afghanistan aimed to evaluate paediatric TB case management, including contact investigation, at health facilities where all diagnostic processes were available. In 7 out of 8 regions of the country 1 province was selected. Documents used for management of paediatric TB cases were reviewed in 15 distinct hospitals and 8 provincial hospitals in the selected provinces. The key issues which emerged were: a low suspect rate among total outpatients (0.4%) and a very low suspect rate among children aged < 5 years; low performance of suspect management (68.5% suspects received further examinations); low utilization of other diagnostic methods; a high early defaulter rate (14.0%); and insufficient coverage of contact management (74.0%). This survey indicated that the Afghanistan national TB programme needs to develop plans to improve the quality of diagnosis, suspect management and contact management in paediatric TB cases.

  2. Surface water investigations in Afghanistan: a summary of activities from 1952 to 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, Arthur O.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize briefly the history of the Surface Water Research project since its inception in 1952, the work accomplished, and the problems encountered. In general, each topic is discussed under two periods of time: 1952-1963, when projects were confined to the Helmand River Valley and was entitled Helmand Surface Water Investigations (306-12-021, 306-M-12-AD and 306-AC-12-AD5), and 1963-1969 when activities were expanded to cover most of Afghanistan and title was changed to Surface Water Research (306-11-190-002). Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Water and Soil Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Royal Government of Afghanistan under the auspices of the United States Agency for International Development.

  3. After the parade: military nurses' reintegration experiences from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary Ellen; Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe reintegration experiences of U.S. military nurses returning from deployments in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. A qualitative study using a phenomenological method was conducted. The population comprised nurses who served in the U.S. Army, Navy, or Air Force in Iraq or Afghanistan during 2003-2013, including Active Duty, National Guard, and Reserve nurses. Purposive sampling with Veteran and professional nursing organizations yielded a sample of 35 nurses. Nine themes emerged from analysis: (a) homecoming; (b) renegotiating roles; (c) painful memories of trauma; (d) getting help; (e) needing a clinical change of scenery; (f) petty complaints and trivial whining; (g) military unit or civilian job: support versus lack of support; (h) family and social networks: support versus lack of support; and (i) reintegration: a new normal.

  4. Notes on interpretation of geophysical data over areas of mineralization in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial metallic mineral resources. Although valuable mineral deposits have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Geophysical surveys, particularly those conducted from airborne platforms, are a well-accepted and cost-effective method for obtaining information on the geological setting of a given area. This report summarizes interpretive findings from various geophysical surveys over selected mineral targets in Afghanistan, highlighting what existing data tell us. These interpretations are mainly qualitative in nature, because of the low resolution of available geophysical data. Geophysical data and simple interpretations are included for these six areas and deposit types: (1) Aynak: Sedimentary-hosted copper; (2) Zarkashan: Porphyry copper; (3) Kundalan: Porphyry copper; (4) Dusar Shaida: Volcanic-hosted massive sulphide; (5) Khanneshin: Carbonatite-hosted rare earth element; and (6) Chagai Hills: Porphyry copper.

  5. Malaria problem in Afghanistan: malaria scanning results of the Turkish medical aid group after the war.

    PubMed

    Oner, Yaşar Ali; Okutan, Salih Erkan; Artinyan, Elizabeth; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2005-04-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species and it is especially seen in tropical and subtropical areas. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the infection in Afghanistan, which is an endemic place for malaria and had severe socio-economical lost after the war. We also compared these data with the ones that were recorded before the war. Blood samples were taken from 376 malaria suspected patients who come to the health center, established by the medical group of Istanbul Medical Faculty in 2002, Afghanistan. Blood samples were screened using the OPTIMAL Rapid Malaria Test and Giemsa staining method. In 95 (25.3%) patients diagnosis was malaria. In 65 patients (17.3%) the agent of the infection was P. falciparum and in 30 patients (8%) agents were other Plasmodium species.

  6. The psychological effects of the war in Afghanistan on young Afghan refugees from different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Mghir, R; Raskin, A

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the psychological effects of the war in Afghanistan on two groups of young Afghan refugees currently residing in the United States. One group, with Tajik parents showed significantly less evidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression than the second group with Pashtun parents. These two groups of young refugees came from very different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Some of these differences persist to the present. The Tajik parents are wealthier, more likely to speak English at home and less religious than the Pashtun parents. Their wartime experiences were also different. The Pashtun parents and their children spent more time in Afghanistan during the war, and experienced or witnessed more traumatic events, such as torture or combat, than the Tajik parents and their children. The possible effects of these ethnic differences on current psychopathology are described and discussed.

  7. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  8. Why are Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans seeking PTSD disability compensation at unprecedented rates?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced historically low rates of fatalities, injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. combatants. Yet they have also produced historically unprecedented rates of PTSD disability compensation seeking from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The purpose of this article is to consider hypotheses that might potentially resolve this paradox, including high rates of PTSD, delayed onset PTSD, malingered PTSD, and economic variables.

  9. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. PMID:26840007

  10. Snowline and Glacier Assessment in the Central Hindu Kush, Afghanistan, Utilizing Multi- Temporal Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritashya, U. K.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Bulley, H. N.; Olsenholler, J. A.; Sartan, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Snow- and glacier-covered massifs in Afghanistan represent the main source of fresh water for the country. Although it is widely recognized that these high altitude cryospheric components are highly sensitive to climatic fluctuation, very little information on changing conditions in Afghanistan have been reported. Climate simulations representing a carbon-dioxide-loading scenario suggest Afghanistan, and the Hindu Kush and Karakoram of Pakistan, could exhibit greater rates of change than in the eastern Himalaya. Consequently, our objective was to assess changes in snowline altitude and glacier areas over a thirty year period. Specifically, we used multi-temporal satellite imagery from different optical sensors from 1973 2002 to assess snowline altitude variations and glacier retreat in the Central Hindu Kush, Afghanistan. Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ASTER imagery were orthorectified and radiometrically calibrated, and a digital elevation model was generated using ASTER data. We developed a semi-automatic pixel-based, multi-spectral, classification method that incorporates spectral and topographic information. The ASTER-derived DEM represented the baseline elevation reference. Our results are based upon analysis of 12 mountain massifs and 80 glaciers, and indicate that the snowline altitude has increased by approximately 200 m in the last three decades. Results also show glacier retreat and the disconnection of tributary glaciers to their main trunk glacier. In addition, the increase in meltwater production is evident on some glaciers, as revealed by variation in the frequency and size of supraglacial and proglacial lakes. These cryospheric changes can be linked to regional-scale climate change that is affecting the water resource supply in this chronically arid Hindu Kush area. There is an urgent need to conduct fieldwork to obtain direct measurements to further document rapid change due to climate forcing.

  11. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  12. New-onset asthma among soldiers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Peters, Michael C; Weissinger, Kristen M; Gagliano, Christy A; Chen, John J

    2010-01-01

    Since June 4, 2004, asthma diagnosed and symptomatic after the age of 12 years has been an exclusion criterion for military enlistment unless exempted via medical waiver. The Department of Defense determined that 13% of U.S. Army Medic visits in Iraq are for new-onset acute respiratory illness; case reports of veterans with asthma that began in Iraq and Afghanistan War zones have surfaced. This prompted our study to determine whether new asthma is diagnosed more frequently among Iraq/Afghanistan War troops versus stateside-based troops. Retrospective review of asthma diagnoses among computerized charts for military personnel discharged from active duty and examined between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007, at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Northport, NY, classified soldiers by (1) deployment status-whether they were stationed in Iraq/Afghanistan for a 1-year tour of duty or stationed in the United States, and (2) VA diagnosis of asthma per International Classification of Disease codes. Associations between deployment and asthma statuses were evaluated/stratified by gender/age group. Eligibility criteria entailed (1) residence in Long Island, (2) aged 18-45 years, and (3) both U.S. military service and discharge dates between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007. Out of 6233 patients who served between 2004 and 2007 and were followed at the Northport VAMC, 290 new-onset/prevalent asthma cases were identified. Deployment to Iraq was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma compared with stateside soldiers (6.6% versus 4.3%; with a crude odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.11). These associations persist when stratified by gender and age group. Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan is associated with new-onset asthma. Etiologic studies, surveillance, incidence, epidemiology, and assessing response to therapy are recommended.

  13. Viability of karezes (ancient water supply systems in Afghanistan) in a changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, G. L.; Johnson, W. C.; Liu, Huan

    2015-09-01

    The Afghanistan population living far from rivers relies upon groundwater delivered from karezes (sub-horizontal tunnels). Karezes exploit unconfined groundwater in alluvial fans recharged largely by snowmelt from the Hindu Kush, the central mountain range of the country. Since the multi-year drought that began in 1998, many karezes have stopped flowing. This study characterizes the hydraulics of a kariz, the potential for reduced groundwater recharge because of climate change, and the impact of increasing population on kariz water production. A typical kariz in Afghanistan is 1-2 km long with a cross-section of 1-2 m2 and gradient of 1 m km-1. MODFLOW simulations show that water delivery from a kariz can be modeled by imposing a high ratio of kariz hydraulic conductivity to aquifer hydraulic conductivity on the cells representing the kariz. The model is sensitive to hydraulic conductivity, kariz gradient, and length of the kariz in contact with the water table. Precipitation data are scarce in Afghanistan, but regional data show a long-term trend of decreased snow cover, and therefore strong likelihood of decreased aquifer recharge. Population in Afghanistan has increased at a rate of about 2.2 % over the past several decades. An assessment of a six-district region within Kandahar Province where karezes are the most likely source of water indicates that water demand could have caused water tables to decline by 0.8-5.6 m, more than enough to cause karezes to stop flowing. These results suggest that kariz water production is not sustainable under current climate- and population-growth trends.

  14. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  15. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  18. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. Combat internist: the internal medicine experience in a combat hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel U; Parrish, Scott C; Saeed, Omar; Fiedler, Joyce P

    2015-01-01

    Military internists and internal medicine subspecialists are physicians who generally work in traditional internal medicine settings. However, when deployed to combat settings, they must prepare and adapt their skills for a wide spectrum of complex, polytrauma, and multinational patients. There are limitations in personnel, equipment, and technical resources that make the circumstances complex and demanding. This article highlights some of the unique roles, challenges, and experiences of four military internists at the NATO Role 3, a deployed combat hospital in Afghanistan. PMID:25562851

  2. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Sanaie, A.; Nasrat, A.; Seddiq, M. K.; Mahmoodi, S. D.; Stevens, R. H.; Creswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won’t receive proper care. Methods From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification. Results We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125) were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified. Discussion While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can

  3. Why are Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans seeking PTSD disability compensation at unprecedented rates?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced historically low rates of fatalities, injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. combatants. Yet they have also produced historically unprecedented rates of PTSD disability compensation seeking from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The purpose of this article is to consider hypotheses that might potentially resolve this paradox, including high rates of PTSD, delayed onset PTSD, malingered PTSD, and economic variables. PMID:23954726

  4. Selected epidemiological aspects of fresh whole blood application in the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Adam; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Lass, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Minimisation of blood transmitted diseases is a basic element of all blood transfusion strategies. Civilian health service standards used in peacetime may be difficult to implement in a battlefield. The risk of blood-borne diseases depends on the applied donor qualification procedures and the epidemiological situation in the areas of military operations. The authors discuss various epidemiological aspects considered when selecting potential donors of fresh whole blood for a Walking Blood Bank at the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

  5. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data for geothermal reconnaissance in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, H.; Aboud, E.; Gottsmann, J.

    2015-11-01

    The geologic setting of Afghanistan has the potential to contain significant mineral, petroleum and geothermal resources. However, much of the country's potential remains unknown due to limited exploration surveys. Here, we present countrywide aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) and to evaluate the geothermal exploration potential. CPD is an isothermal surface at which magnetic minerals lose their magnetization and as such outlines an isotherm of about 580 °C. We use spectral analysis on the aeromagnetic data to estimate the CPD spatial distribution and compare our findings with known geothermal fields in the western part of Afghanistan. The results outline four regions with geothermal potential: 1) regions of shallow Curie point depths (∼16-21 km) are located in the Helmand basin. 2) regions of intermediate depths (∼21-27 km) are located in the southern Helmand basin and the Baluchistan area. 3) Regions of great depths (∼25-35 km) are located in the Farad block. 4) Regions of greatest depths (∼35-40 km) are located in the western part of the northern Afghanistan platform. The deduced thermal structure in western Afghanistan relates to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, while the shallow CPDs are related to crustal thinning. This study also shows that the geothermal systems are associated with complex magmatic and tectonic association of major intrusions and fault systems. Our results imply geothermal gradients ranging from 14 °C/km to 36 °C/km and heat-flow values ranging from 36 to 90 mW/m2 for the study area.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  7. A new species of Bryoleuca Hampson, 1908 from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae).

    PubMed

    Pekarsky, Oleg

    2015-11-13

    A new species of the raptricula species-group, Bryoleuca pljushtchi sp. n. is described. A diagnostic comparison is made with Bryoleuca raptricula ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), Bryoleuca felina (Eversmann, 1852), Bryoleuca orthogramma (Boursin, 1954), Bryoleuca volodia An, Choi & Ronkay, 2013 and Bryoleuca nahnybidai Pekarsky, 2014. Adults and female genitalia of the new species and its closest relatives are illustrated. Modern taxonomic studies of the raptricula-group started by Fibiger et al. (2009) and got progress by the clarification of the taxonomic status of B. felina (Pekarsky & Ronkay 2010). Subsequently, further two newly recognised species were described in the last two years, B. volodia and B. nahnybidai. The first attempt to prepare the checklist of the subfamily was made by Hacker (1990) and, later, European check list was given in the Noctuidae Europaeae, Vol. 11 (Fibiger et al. 2009). As for the fauna of Afghanistan, Koçak and Kemal (2012) listed twelve Bryophilinae species one of which, B. raptricula, belongs to the genus Bryoleuca. The taxonomic situation of the raptricula species-complex is far not completely known yet. Present paper contains the description of a new Bryoleuca species from Afghanistan. The single female of this new species was collected by Ukrainian entomologists Igor Pljushtch and Oleg Pak in Central Afghanistan in 2013.

  8. Opiate use, treatment, and harm reduction in Afghanistan: recent changes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Todd, Catherine S; Macdonald, David; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Mansoor, G Farooq; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Afghanistan leads global opium and cannabis production, amidst concerted efforts to improve the country's infrastructure. In this commentary, the evidence base for drivers of increased drug use in the context of deteriorating security is presented, government, donor, and civil society responses to date are described, and key areas for health policy response are summarized. Opiate use in Afghanistan shows disturbing trends: multiple substances are accessible at low cost and frequently used in combination, and injecting use has become more common. Pressures from both donor and governmental sectors have compromised innovations in programming. Further, civil unrest and resultant displacement have created challenges for programme implementation. Afghanistan urgently needs a well-funded, sustainable, comprehensive, and inclusive programme of drug dependency treatment, aftercare, and harm reduction services, as well as realistic, effective, and culturally salient primary prevention programmes. To date, drug dependence is not a prioritised issue, current programmes are under-resourced, and the continuum of care has a narrow scope generally limited to treatment. Unless this issue is addressed, the next generation of Afghans is poised to become a casualty of the opiate industry. PMID:22717389

  9. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable conventional petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Wandrey, C.J.; Agena, Warren F.; Steinshouer, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey - Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum in northern Afghanistan; the resulting estimates are 1.6 billion barrels (0.2 billion metric tons) of crude oil, 16 trillion cubic feet (0.4 trillion cubic meters) of natural gas, and 0.5 billion barrels (0.8 billion metric tons) of natural gas liquids. Most of the undiscovered crude oil is in the Afghan-Tajik Basin and most of the undiscovered natural gas is in the Amu Darya Basin. Four total petroleum systems were identified, and these were subdivided into eight assessment units for the purpose of this resource assessment. The area with the greatest potential for undiscovered natural gas accumulations is in Upper Jurassic carbonate and reef reservoirs beneath an impermeable salt layer in relatively unexplored parts of northern Afghanistan. The Afghan-Tajik Basin has the greatest potential for undiscovered crude oil accumulations, and these are potentially in Cretaceous to Paleogene carbonate reservoir rocks associated with thrust faulting and folding.

  10. Observations from a maternal and infant hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan--2003.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Afghanistan is believed to have one of the highest infant and maternal mortality rates in the world. As a result of decades of war and civil unrest, Afghan women and children suffer from poor access to health services, harsh living conditions, and insufficient food and micronutrient security. To address the disproportionately high infant and maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan, the US Department of Health and Human Services pledged support to establish a maternal health facility and training center. Rabia Balkhi Hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan, was selected because this hospital admits approximately 36,000 patients and delivers more than 14,000 babies annually. This article reports the initial observations at Rabia Balkhi Hospital and describes factors that influenced women's access, the quality of care, and the evaluation health care services. This observational investigation examined areas of obstetric, laboratory and pharmacy, and ancillary services. The investigators concluded that profound changes were needed in the hospital's health care delivery system to make the hospital a safe and effective health care facility for Afghan women and children and an appropriate facility in which to establish an Afghan provider training program for updating obstetric skills and knowledge. PMID:15973254

  11. Traumatic brain injury, PTSD, and current suicidal ideation among Iraq and Afghanistan U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Holowka, Darren W; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Sohyun C; Chen, May S; Gradus, Jaimie L; Nock, Matthew K; Rosen, Raymond C; Keane, Terence M

    2014-04-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among veterans deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychiatric conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are potentially important risk factors for suicide in this population, but the literature is limited by a dearth of research on female veterans and imprecise assessment of TBI and suicidal behavior. This study examined 824 male and 825 female U.S. veterans who were enrolled in the baseline assessment of the Veterans After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry (Project VALOR), an observational registry of veterans with and without PTSD who deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and were enrolled in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Results indicated that current depressive symptoms, PTSD, and history of prior TBI were all significantly associated with current suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.91, Cramers' Vs = .19 and .08, respectively). After adding a number of variables to the model, including psychiatric comorbidity, TBI history was associated with increased risk of current suicidal ideation among male veterans only (RR = 1.55). TBI is an important variable to consider in future research on suicide among veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, particularly among male veterans. PMID:24639101

  12. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  13. The promise of quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  14. Deployment-related mental disorders among Canadian Forces personnel deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, David; Zamorski, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The conflict in Afghanistan has exposed more Canadian Forces personnel to a greater degree of adversity than at any time in recent memory. We determined the incidence of Afghanistan deployment–related mental disorders and associated risk factors among personnel previously deployed in support of this mission. Methods: The study population consisted of 30 513 Canadian Forces personnel who began a deployment in support of the mission in Afghanistan before Jan. 1, 2009. The primary outcome was a mental disorder perceived by a Canadian Forces clinician to be related to the Afghanistan deployment. Data on diagnoses and perceptions were abstracted from medical records of a stratified random sample of 2014 personnel. Sample design weights were used in all analyses to generate descriptive statistics for the entire study population. Results: Over a median follow-up of 1364 days, 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.1%–14.8%) of the study population had a mental disorder that was attributed to the Afghanistan deployment. Posttraumatic stress disorder was the most common diagnosis (in 8.0%, 95% CI 7.0%–9.0%, of personnel). Deployment to higher-threat locations, service in the Canadian Army and lower rank were independent risk factors associated with an Afghanistan-related diagnosis (e.g., hazard ratio for deployment to Kandahar Province 5.6, 95% CI 2.6–12.5, relative to deployment to the United Arab Emirates). In contrast, sex, Reserve Forces status, multiple deployments and deployment length were not independent risk factors. Interpretation: An important minority of Canadian Forces personnel deployed in support of the Afghanistan mission had a diagnosis of a mental disorder perceived to be related to the deployment. Determining long-term outcomes is an important next step. PMID:23820441

  15. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  16. Job satisfaction and retention of health-care providers in Afghanistan and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job among primary health-care providers in countries with distinctly different human resources crises, Afghanistan and Malawi. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we enrolled 87 health-care providers in 32 primary health-care facilities in Afghanistan and 360 providers in 10 regional hospitals in Malawi. The study questionnaire was used to assess job satisfaction, intention to stay on the job and five features of the workplace environment: resources, performance recognition, financial compensation, training opportunities and safety. Descriptive analyses, exploratory factor analyses for scale development, bivariate correlation analyses and bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results The multivariate model for Afghanistan, with demographic, background and work environment variables, explained 23.9% of variance in job satisfaction (F(9,73) = 5.08; P < 0.01). However, none of the work environment variables were significantly related to job satisfaction. The multivariate model for intention to stay for Afghanistan explained 23.6% of variance (F(8,74) = 4.10; P < 0.01). Those with high scores for recognition were more likely to have higher intention to stay (β = 0.328, P < 0.05). However, being paid an appropriate salary was negatively related to intent to stay (β = -0.326, P < 0.01). For Malawi, the overall model explained only 9.8% of variance in job satisfaction (F(8,332) = 4.19; P < 0.01) and 9.1% of variance in intention to stay (F(10,330) = 3.57; P < 0.01). Conclusions The construction of concepts of health-care worker satisfaction and intention to stay on the job are highly dependent on the local context. Although health-care workers in both Afghanistan and Malawi reported satisfaction with their jobs, the predictors of satisfaction, and the extent to which those predictors explained variations in job

  17. Map and Database of Probable and Possible Quaternary Faults in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Haller, K.M.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in Afghanistan, has prepared a digital map showing the distribution of probable and suspected Quaternary faults in Afghanistan. This map is a key component of a broader effort to assess and map the country's seismic hazards. Our analyses of remote-sensing imagery reveal a complex array of tectonic features that we interpret to be probable and possible active faults within the country and in the surrounding border region. In our compilation, we have mapped previously recognized active faults in greater detail, and have categorized individual features based on their geomorphic expression. We assigned mapped features to eight newly defined domains, each of which contains features that appear to have similar styles of deformation. The styles of deformation associated with each domain provide insight into the kinematics of the modern tectonism, and define a tectonic framework that helps constrain deformational models of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The modern fault movements, deformation, and earthquakes in Afghanistan are driven by the collision between the northward-moving Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. The patterns of probable and possible Quaternary faults generally show that much of the modern tectonic activity is related to transfer of plate-boundary deformation across the country. The left-lateral, strike-slip Chaman fault in southeastern Afghanistan probably has the highest slip rate of any fault in the country; to the north, this slip is distributed onto several fault systems. At the southern margin of the Kabul block, the style of faulting changes from mainly strike-slip motion associated with the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, to transpressional and transtensional faulting. North and northeast of the Kabul block, we recognized a complex pattern of potentially active strike-slip, thrust, and normal faults that form a

  18. Food and Education in the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Final Proceedings Report: AIA-NGO-WFP-CAII Workshop (Islamabad, Pakistan, February 17-20, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Bronwen

    The civil war and desperate humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has severely limited human capacity development over the past 23 years. Human development indicators for Afghanistan are among the worst in the world, and the fighting has deprived more than a generation of even a basic education. To support and build on the indigenous early efforts…

  19. Social Sciences in Asia II: Afghanistan, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Nepal. Reports and Papers in the Social Sciences, No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on social science teaching and research in Afghanistan, Japan, Indonesia, Korea, and Nepal. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. The first chapter suggests that social science has not played a major role in the socioeconomic development of Afghanistan because most Afghans favor traditional ways of thinking. The…

  20. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  1. Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin. PMID:27088726

  2. The promise of psychiatric pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians already face "personalized" medicine every day while experiencing the great variation in toxicities and drug efficacy among individual patients. Pharmacogenetics studies are the platform for discovering the DNA determinants of variability in drug response and tolerability. Research now focuses on the genome after its beginning with analyses of single genes. Therapeutic outcomes from several psychotropic drugs have been weakly linked to specific genetic variants without independent replication. Drug side effects show stronger associations to genetic variants, including human leukocyte antigen loci with carbamazepine-induced dermatologic outcome and MC4R with atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Clinical implementation has proven challenging, with barriers including a lack of replicable prospective evidence for clinical utility required for altering medical care. More recent studies show promising approaches for reducing these barriers to routine incorporation of pharmacogenetics data into clinical care.

  3. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  4. Adaptive management: Promises and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, Rebecca J.; Lee, Robert G.

    1996-07-01

    Proponents of the scientific adaptive management approach argue that it increases knowledge acquisition rates, enhances information flow among policy actors, and provides opportunities for creating shared understandings. However, evidence from efforts to implement the approach in New Brunswick, British Columbia, Canada, and the Columbia River Basin indicates that these promises have not been met. The data show that scientific adaptive management relies excessively on the use of linear systems models, discounts nonscientific forms of knowledge, and pays inadequate attention to policy processes that promote the development of shared understandings among diverse stakeholders. To be effective, new adaptive management efforts will need to incorporate knowledge from multiple sources, make use of multiple systems models, and support new forms of cooperation among stakeholders.

  5. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Matthay, Katherine K; George, Rani E; Yu, Alice L

    2012-05-15

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease and have a 5-year event-free survival of <50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. In this review we evaluate 3 promising targeted therapies: (i) (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical that is taken up by human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), which is expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas; (ii) immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, which is expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells; and (iii) inhibitors of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a tyrosine kinase that is mutated or amplified in ~10% of neuroblastomas and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early-phase trials have confirmed the activity of (131)I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of ~30%, but the technical aspects of administering large amounts of radioactivity in young children and limited access to this agent have hindered its incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also shown activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small-molecule inhibitor of ALK has shown promising preclinical activity for neuroblastoma and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma.

  6. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Matthay, Katherine K.; George, Rani E.; Yu, Alice L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease, and have 5-year EFS of less than 50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. The current review will evaluate three promising targeted therapies, including 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical taken up by the human norepinephrine transporter expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells, and inhibitors of ALK, a tyrosine kinase which is mutated or amplified in approximately 10% of neuroblastoma and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also demonstrated activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

  7. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

  8. SWOT analysis of program design and implementation: a case study on the reduction of maternal mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Qudratullah; Danesh, Homayoon; Makharashvili, Vasil; Mishkin, Kathryn; Mupfukura, Lovemore; Teed, Hillary; Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2016-07-01

    This case study analyzes the design and implementation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan by synthesizing the literature with a focus on maternal health services. The authors are a group of graduate students in the Brandeis University International Health Policy and Management Program and Sustainable International Development Program who used the experience in Afghanistan to analyze an example of successfully implementing policy; two of the authors are Afghan physicians with direct experience in implementing the BPHS. Data is drawn from a literature review, and a unique aspect of the case study is the application of the business-oriented SWOT analysis to the design and implementation of the program that successfully targeted lowering maternal mortality in Afghanistan. It provides a useful example of how SWOT analysis can be used to consider the reasons for, or likelihood of, successful or unsuccessful design and implementation of a policy or program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25950757

  9. Prospects for the sustainability of delivering the Basic Package of Health Services in Afghanistan: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Haidari, A M; Zaidi, S; Gul, R

    2014-06-09

    This study explored the readiness of stakeholders in Afghanistan for sustaining delivery of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) without external technical and financial assistance. A stakeholder analysis was applied using qualitative methods. Fifteen stakeholders were purposively drawn from the Afghanistan ministries of public health and finance, political representatives, development partners, nonprofit organizations and public health experts. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with the stakeholders and desk review of pertinent documents. We found that sustainability of the BPHS in Afghanistan is questionable as stakeholders are suboptimally organized to come up with effective alternatives. Uneven ownership and divisive positioning are bottlenecks to the evolution of a realistic continuation plan. Those with the most significant influence are lukewarm, while those who are most supportive have the least influence. Sustainability needs to be tackled at the start in designing the BPHS rather than in the wake of eventual donor withdrawal.

  10. SWOT analysis of program design and implementation: a case study on the reduction of maternal mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Qudratullah; Danesh, Homayoon; Makharashvili, Vasil; Mishkin, Kathryn; Mupfukura, Lovemore; Teed, Hillary; Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2016-07-01

    This case study analyzes the design and implementation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan by synthesizing the literature with a focus on maternal health services. The authors are a group of graduate students in the Brandeis University International Health Policy and Management Program and Sustainable International Development Program who used the experience in Afghanistan to analyze an example of successfully implementing policy; two of the authors are Afghan physicians with direct experience in implementing the BPHS. Data is drawn from a literature review, and a unique aspect of the case study is the application of the business-oriented SWOT analysis to the design and implementation of the program that successfully targeted lowering maternal mortality in Afghanistan. It provides a useful example of how SWOT analysis can be used to consider the reasons for, or likelihood of, successful or unsuccessful design and implementation of a policy or program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Large-Scale Digital Geologic Map Databases and Reports of the North Coal District in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hare, Trent M.; Davis, Philip A.; Nigh, Devon; Skinner, James A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Bolm, Karen S.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Galuszka, Donna; Stettner, William R.; Sultani, Shafiqullah; Nader, Billal

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the Afghanistan coal resource maps and associated databases that have been digitally captured and maps that have been thus far converted to GIS databases. Several maps by V/O Technoexport, USSR (VOTU) and Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung (BGR), Hannover, Germany, are captured here. Most of the historical coal exploration is concentrated in north-central Afghanistan, a region referred to as the 'North Coal District', and almost all of the coal-related maps found Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archives to date cover various locations within that district as shown in the index map. Most of the maps included herein were originally scanned during U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) site visits to Kabul in November 2004 and February 2006. The scanning was performed using equipment purchased by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) and installed at the AGS by USGS. Many of these maps and associated reports exist as single unpublished copies in the AGS archives, so these efforts served not only to provide a basis for digital capturing, but also as a means for preserving these rare geologic maps and reports. The data included herein represent most of the coal-related reports and maps that are available in the AGS archives. This report excludes the limited cases when a significant portion of a report's text could not be located, but it does not exclude reports with missing plates. The vector files are released using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Personal Geodatabase, ESRI shapefile vector format, and the open Geography Markup Language (GML) format. Scanned images are available in JPEG and, when rectified, GeoTIFF format. The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions made by the staff of the AGS Records and Coal Departments whose valuable assistance made it possible to locate and catalogue the data provided herein. We especially acknowledge the efforts of particular

  12. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  13. Hepatitis C genotype distribution and homology among geographically disparate injecting drug users in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Buell, Eric; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Todd, Catherine S; Nasir, Abdul; Bradfield, Andrea; Lei, Esther; Poltavee, Kultida; Savadsuk, Hathairat; Kim, Jerome H; Scott, Paul T; de Souza, Mark; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2013-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence is high among injecting drug users in Afghanistan, but transmission dynamics are poorly understood. Samples from HCV-infected injecting drug users were sequenced to determine circulating genotypes and potential transmission linkages. Serum samples were obtained from injecting drug user participants in Hirat, Jalalabad, and Mazar-i-Sharif between 2006 and 2008 with reactive anti-HCV rapid tests. Specimens with detected HCV viremia were amplified and underwent sequence analysis. Of 113 samples evaluated, 25 samples (35.2%) were only typeable in NS5B, nine samples (12.7%) were only typeable in CE1, and 37 samples (52.1%) were genotyped in both regions. Of those with typeable HCV, all were Afghan males with a mean age of 31.1 (standard deviation [SD] ± 8.0) years and mean duration of injecting of 3.9 (SD ± 4.3) years. Most reported residence outside Afghanistan in the last decade (90.1%) and prior incarceration (76.8%). HCV genotypes detected were: 1a, (35.2%, n = 25), 3a (62.0%, n = 44), and 1b (2.8%, n = 2). Cluster formation was detected in NS5B and CE1 and were generally from within the same city. All participants within clusters reported being a refugee in Iran compared to 93.5% of those outside clusters. Only 22.2% (4/11) of those within clusters had been refugees in Pakistan and these four individuals had also been refugees in Iran. Predominance of genotype 3a and the association between HCV viremia and having been a refugee in Iran potentially reflects migration between Afghanistan and Iran among IDUs from Mazar-i-Sharif and Hirat and carry implications for harm reduction programs for this migratory population. PMID:23918535

  14. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2013-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Farag, Noha H; Alexander, James; Hadler, Stephen; Quddus, Arshad; Durry, Elias; Wadood, Mufty Zubair; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2014-10-31

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. Afghanistan and Pakistan are two of the three remaining countries (the other is Nigeria) where circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2013-August 2014. In Afghanistan, 14 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 37 cases in 2012; nine cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with six cases during the same period in 2013. In Pakistan, 93 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 58 cases in 2012; 170 cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with 33 cases during the same period in 2013. All WPV cases reported during January 2013-August 2014 were WPV type 1 (WPV1). Vaccination campaigns have been banned since June 2012 in specific areas in Pakistan, where an estimated 300,000 children aged <5 years reside and where 69% of WPV cases have occurred in 2014. To accomplish the objectives of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018 both countries should continue to negotiate access of vaccinators to insecure and temporarily inaccessible areas, improve immunization program performance to reach more children in accessible areas, and ensure that political and health leaders at all levels are fully committed to the program, including being committed to providing financial resources needed to fully implement all the recommendations of external technical advisory groups. Both countries should also continue to strengthen cross-border collaboration to improve surveillance and case detection, coordinate outbreak response, and maximize vaccination coverage of children moving between the two countries.

  15. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and other materials having diagnostic absorptions at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These absorptions result from electronic processes in the minerals. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  16. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of minerals that have diagnostic absorption features in the shortwave infrared wavelengths. These absorption features result primarily from characteristic chemical bonds and mineralogical vibrations. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  17. Inventory of ground-water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, Robert E.; Akbari, M. Amin; Chornack, Michael P.; Mueller, David K.; Ruddy, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey began working with engineers at the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide hydrologic training and equipment and to apply these tools to build an inventory of water wells in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan. An inventory of 148 wells now includes information on well location, depth, and access. Water-level and water-quality measurements have been made at most of these wells. A water-level elevation map has been constructed, and general directions of ground-water flow have been defined. Ground-water flow in the Kabul Basin is primarily through saturated alluvium and other basin-fill sediments. The water-table surface generally mirrors topography, and ground water generally flows in the directions of surface-water discharge. The quality of ground water in the Kabul Basin varies widely. In some areas, ground-water quality is excellent, with low concentrations of dissolved solids and no problematic constituents. In other areas, however, high concentrations of dissolved solids and the presence of some constituents at concentrations deemed harmful to humans and crops render untreated ground water marginal or unsuitable for public supply and/or agricultural use. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of nitrate, boron, and dissolved solids, and an indication of fecal pollution in some parts of the basin. As Afghanistan emerges from years of conflict, as institutional capacities rejuvenate and grow, and as the need for wise water-management decisions continues, adequate data and a fuller understanding of the ground-water resource in the Kabul Basin will be imperative. The work described in this report represents only a modest beginning in what will be a long-term data-collection and interpretive effort.

  18. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  20. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder post Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence among military subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-09-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Post Iraq and Afghanistan: Prevalence Among Military Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; FFPH; Wessely, Simon; FMedSci; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD. PMID:25569079

  7. Topographic and hydrographic GIS dataset for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Minerals Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, P.G.; Moran, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains a collection of 24 folders, each representing a specific U.S. Geological Survey area of interest (AOI; fig. 1), as well as datasets for AOI subsets. Each folder includes the extent, contours, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and hydrography of the corresponding AOI, which are organized into feature vector and raster datasets. The dataset comprises a geographic information system (GIS), which is available upon request from the USGS Afghanistan programs Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/minerals.php), and the maps of the 24 areas of interest of the USGS AOIs.

  8. Aeromagnetic and Gravity Surveys in Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data were digitized from aeromagnetic maps created from aeromagnetic surveys flown in southeastern and southern Afghanistan in 1966 by PRAKLA, Gesellschaft fur praktische Lagerstattenforschung GmbH, Hannover, Germany, on behalf of the 'Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung', Hannover, Germany. The digitization was done along contour lines, followed by interpolation of the data along the original survey flight-lines. Survey and map specifications can be found in two project reports, 'prakla_report_1967.pdf' and 'bgr_report_1968.pdf', made available in this open-file report.

  9. Approaching gender parity: Women in computer science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, Jandelyn

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in Afghanistan, they appear to hinder advancement to degree to a lesser extent. Women comprise at least 36% of each graduating class from KU's Computer Science Department; however, in 2007 women were 25% of the university population. In the US, women comprise over 50% of university populations while only graduating on average 25% women in undergraduate computer science programs. Representation of women in computer science in the US is 50% below the university rate, but at KU, it is 50% above the university rate. This mixed methods study of KU was conducted in the following three stages: setting up focus groups with women computer science students, distributing surveys to all students in the CS department, and conducting a series of 22 individual interviews with fourth year CS students. The analysis of the data collected and its comparison to literature on university/department retention in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics gender representation and on women's education in underdeveloped Islamic countries illuminates KU's uncharacteristic representation of women in its Computer Science Department. The retention of women in STEM through the education pipeline has several characteristics in Afghanistan that differ from countries often studied in available literature. Few Afghan students have computers in their home and few have training beyond secretarial applications before considering studying CS at university. University students in Afghanistan are selected based on placement exams and are then assigned to an area of study, and financially supported throughout their academic career, resulting in a low attrition rate

  10. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

    2015-07-01

    We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs.

  11. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  12. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Yount, James

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  13. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  14. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  15. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  16. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  17. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yount, James C.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  18. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jarm-Keshem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  19. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  20. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  1. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  2. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, David A.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  3. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  4. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.; Sawyer, David A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  5. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, Charles R.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Sawyer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  6. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  7. Care Seeking Patterns Among Women Who Have Experienced Gender-Based Violence in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Sonya; Seritan, Andreea L; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    This study explored patterns of abuse and care seeking among women victims of gender-based violence (GBV) in Afghanistan. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 Afghan women (M age = 19 years) living in a shelter for victims of GBV. Interviews were analyzed thematically. Participants reported experiencing multiple forms of abuse. The majority received medical treatment for abuse-related health concerns. However, less than half reported abuse to health care providers or were asked by health care providers about the context of their injuries. Strategies to improve health care responses to GBV are needed to ensure safety and support for Afghan women.

  8. [A natural focus of sandfly fever in the Republic of Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P; Perepelkin, V S; Raevskiĭ, K K; Prusakova, Z M

    1991-03-01

    The serological study of persons contacting dengue-like fever in 1987 in Afghanistan (in Rukha, Parwān Province) revealed that in 74% of cases an increase in the titers of antibodies to Sicilian and Neapolitan sandfly [correction of mosquito-borne] fever viruses was registered. Considering that such diseases appeared here for a number of years and were linked in time with the activity of sandflies [correction of mosquitoes] of the species Phlebotomus papatasii, the suggestion was made on the existence of a stable natural focus of sandfly [correction of mosquito-borne] fevers in the region of Rukha.

  9. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398

  10. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  11. Determinants of Skilled Birth Attendant Utilization in Afghanistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter M.; Peters, David H.; Edward, Anbrasi; Singh, Lakhwinder P.; Dwivedi, Vikas; Mashkoor, Ashraf; Burnham, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify characteristics associated with use of skilled birth attendants where health services exist in Afghanistan. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in all 33 provinces in 2004, yielding data from 617 health facilities and 9917 women who lived near the facilities and had given birth in the past 2 years. Results. Only 13% of respondents had used skilled birth attendants. Women from the wealthiest quintile (vs the poorest quintile) had higher odds of use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4, 8.9). Literacy was strongly associated with use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 2.0, 3.2), as was living less than 60 minutes from the facility (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.0) and residing near a facility with a female midwife or doctor (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8). Women living near facilities that charged user fees (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 1.0) and that had male community health workers (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.5, 0.9) had lower odds of use. Conclusions. In Afghanistan, the rate of use of safe delivery care must be improved. The financial barriers of poor and uneducated women should be reduced and culturally acceptable alternatives must be considered. PMID:18703445

  12. Recent Experiences and Challenges of Military Physiotherapists Deployed to Afghanistan: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Military physiotherapists in the Canadian Forces meet the unique rehabilitation needs of military personnel. Recently, the physiotherapy officer role has evolved in response to the Canadian Forces' involvement in the combat theatre of operations of Afghanistan, and this has created new and unique challenges and demands. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and challenges of military physiotherapists deployed to Afghanistan. Methods: A qualitative research design guided by descriptive phenomenology involved recruitment of key informants and in-depth interviews as the data collection method. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data analyzed using a foundational thematic analysis approach. Strategies of peer review and member checking were incorporated into the study design. Results: Six military physiotherapists were interviewed. They described rewarding experiences that were stressful yet highly career-satisfying. Main challenges revolved around heavy workloads, an expanded scope of practice as sole-charge practitioners, and the consequences and criticality of their clinical decisions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that enhanced pre-deployment training and the implementation of a stronger support network will improve the capabilities of military physiotherapists deployed to difficult theatres of operations. This type of systematic and comprehensive research is needed to assist the Canadian Forces in proactively preparing and supporting physiotherapists deployed on future missions. PMID:22942524

  13. Management of paediatric tuberculosis in provincial and district hospitals in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Delawer, F M; Isono, M; Ueki, H; Zhuben, M; Zafari, M; Seddiq, M K; Habib, H; Ayoubi, M K

    2013-08-01

    Case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis 1 B) in children are challenging issues vorldwide. This study in Afghanistan aimed to evaluate paediatric TB case management, including contact investigation, at health facilities where all diagnostic processes were available. In 7 out of 8 regions of the country 1 province was selected. Documents used for management of paediatric TB cases were reviewed in 15 distinct hospitals and 8 provincial hospitals in the selected provinces. The key issues which emerged were: a low suspect rate among total outpatients (0.4%) and a very low suspect rate among children aged < 5 years; low performance of suspect management (68.5% suspects received further examinations); low utilization of other diagnostic methods; a high early defaulter rate (14.0%); and insufficient coverage of contact management (74.0%). This survey indicated that the Afghanistan national TB programme needs to develop plans to improve the quality of diagnosis, suspect management and contact management in paediatric TB cases. PMID:24975354

  14. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis in U.S. military personnel--Afghanistan, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a sand fly-borne parasitic disease also known as kala-azar (Hindi, for black sickness or fever), is a risk for persons who travel to or live in areas of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe where the disease is endemic. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 500,000 new cases of this potentially fatal disease occur each year, >90% of which are acquired in parts of the Indian subcontinent, Sudan, and Brazil. A total of 21 cases of VL acquired in Afghanistan, all in the 1980s, have been reported previously. This report provides preliminary data about two cases of VL that have been diagnosed in U.S. military personnel deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, which began in 2001. U.S. health-care providers should consider VL in persons who were deployed to Southwest/Central Asia (or were in other areas where VL is endemic) who have persistent febrile illnesses, especially if associated with other clinical manifestations suggestive of VL (e.g., splenomegaly and pancytopenia).

  15. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  16. First report of asthma prevalence in Afghanistan using international standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Bemanin, M H; Fallahpour, M; Arshi, S; Nabavi, M; Yousofi, T; Shariatifar, A

    2015-05-19

    No data on the prevalence of asthma in Afghanistan have been published before. In a school-based survey in 2010-2011 the wheezing section of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 1500 children aged 6-7 years and 1500 adolescents aged 13-14 years old. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 12.5% in 6-7-year-olds and 17.3% in 13-14-year-olds (P = 0.002). The prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was similar in children and adolescents (19.2% and 21.7% respectively). The prevalence of ever wheezing, night attacks, speech-limiting wheeze and exercise-induced wheeze was 23.1%, 4.8%, 12.2% and 9.6% respectively in children and 30.5%, 4.4%, 13.0% and 13.6% respectively in adolescents. These rates are higher than those in neighbouring countries. This first epidemiological survey of asthma in Afghanistan shows that asthma and wheezing are common in Kabul students.

  17. Ground-Water Levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akbari, M. Amin; Tahir, Mohammad; Litke, David W.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 69 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting in July 2004 and continuing through March 2007. The monitoring network is composed of existing water-supply wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Very little information is available about the construction or completion of the wells, and there are no geologic logs for the wells being monitored. The majority of the wells are completed in Tertiary or Quaternary sediments. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, by engineers from the Afghanistan Geological Survey using 100-meter electric tapes. Well depths in the study area ranged from 4.9 to 160 meters. Water levels below land surface ranged from less than 1.5 to 68 meters, while static water levels ranged from 1.5 to 40 meters. Seasonal water-level fluctuations from September 2005 through May 2006 ranged from less than 1 to 8 meters. Water level trends during the study period showed both increases and decreases. Drawdowns due to pumping ranged from 5 to 25 meters.

  18. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  19. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz, Alina; Smoleń, Agata; Lass, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their species in Afghan school children and to establish appropriate treatment methods for detected pathogens. Methods: Parasitological examination of stool samples collected from 1369 children aged 8-18, students of the Jahan Malika High School in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan, was conducted in the period November 2013-April 2014. Three stool samples were collected from each patient every second day; the samples were fixed in 10% formalin and tested by light microscopy using the methods of direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water, and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results: Of 535 examined children (39.1% of the study group) were infected with nematodes (n=324), cestodes (n=118), trematodes (n=12), and protozoa (n=228), 132 were diagnosed with co-infections (mainly ascariasis+giardiasis, ascariasis+hymenolepiasis) and received single or combined therapy. Conclusions: The Afghan community is an example of population characterized by a high rate of parasitic infections. Owing to high prevalence of multiple infections among inhabitants of Afghanistan, it seems that a mass deworming campaign with a single-dose chemotherapy may prove ineffective in eradicating intestinal parasites in the local population. PMID:26870108

  20. Digitized data from ground geophysical surveys in Afghanistan: A website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polster, Sarah W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the process of digitization of a 1974 report on geophysical work undertaken by Soviet geophysicists in southern and eastern Afghanistan. These data, uncovered in Afghanistan, represent magnetic and electrical ground surveys for which locations are not well defined. Due to lack of location information, these surveys were georeferenced using the cities, rivers, and surrounding geology found on the maps used to plot survey locations. A geologic map found in the Soviet report contains profile lines that correspond to the geophysical maps, allowing these data to be georeferenced. The profiles correspond to sets of resistivity, chargeabiliy, and magnetic data. Some datasets were presented as graphs and needed to be gridded into a useable image. Only the vertical component of the magnetic field was collected, so conversion to total field anomaly was necessary. The magnetic data were collected in either gammas or milliorstead, both of which required conversion to standard SI units. To be useful to modern studies, the datasets and images contained in this report have been digitized, georeferenced, and in some cases converted into computer-ready formats.

  1. Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

    2007-09-01

    Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors - the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, obtaining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services.

  2. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context.

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among French Armed Forces Members in Afghanistan: A New Approach.

    PubMed

    Paul, Frédéric; Marimoutou, Catherine; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Clervoy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century, the management of war-related psychological trauma shifted from neurology to psychiatry. After September 11, 2001, the French forces participated in a multinational force deployed in Afghanistan to fight against terrorism. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) became a priority. We report the daily work of the psychiatrists involved in this mission and the organization developed to psychologically support wounded military personnel. The doctrine of early intervention psychiatrization and the technique of collective debriefing are the key points of this procedure. The psychiatrist is also responsible for the healthcare community, particularly vulnerable when confronted with severe ballistic injuries. One aim of this organization is also to screen PTSD in soldiers returning from Afghanistan. The military general practitioner is a pivotal point of this procedure built to detect PTSD, anxiety, depressive reaction and behavioral problems. The French health service has developed a genuine care strategy aimed at identifying patients, accompanying them in the formalities for recognition and compensation, and offering them treatment locally by arranging clinical psychology consultations near their home. PMID:27035830

  4. Lessons from the tip of the spear: medical advancements from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Jason J; Branson, Richard D; Johannigman, Jay A

    2012-08-01

    The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have seen the advancement of combat medicine. The nature of the conflicts, with troops located in remote areas and faced with explosive ordinance designed to focus massive injuries on dismounted personnel, have forced military medical personnel to adapt accordingly. There has been a rekindling of interest in the use of tourniquets to stop exsanguination from extremity wounds, as well as in the transfusion of fresh whole blood from walking blood banks. These previously discarded techniques, born on battlefields long ago, have been refined and perfected and have led to an unprecedented survival for our wounded warriors. New developments in the field of applied hemostatic agents, damage control surgical techniques, and the implementation of an efficient evacuation system have also contributed to these results. The field of combat medicine has taken several concepts initially designed in civilian settings, such as temporary abdominal packing and vascular shunting, and adapted them to the military setting to provide state of the art trauma management to our troops in combat. In turn, developments in the resuscitation of the trauma patient, using increased blood and plasma products and less crystalloid, have been pioneered in conflict and transitioned to the civilian sector. Advancements made during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as those still being developed, will shape the care of the injured patient, in both civilian and military settings, for the foreseeable future.

  5. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  6. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context. PMID:22047471

  7. Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Rudavsky, Rena; Grant, Sean; Tanielian, Terri; Jaycox, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems among persons who served in the armed forces during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, as reflected in the literature published between 2009 and 2014. One-hundred and sixteen research studies are reviewed, most of which are among non-treatment-seeking US service members or treatment-seeking US veterans. Evidence is provided for demographic, military, and deployment-related risk factors for PTSD, though most derive from cross-sectional studies and few control for combat exposure, which is a primary risk factor for mental health problems in this cohort. Evidence is also provided linking PTSD with outcomes in the following domains: physical health, suicide, housing and homelessness, employment and economic well-being, social well-being, and aggression, violence, and criminality. Also included is evidence about the prevalence of mental health service use in this cohort. In many instances, the current suite of studies replicates findings observed in civilian samples, but new findings emerge of relevance to both military and civilian populations, such as the link between PTSD and suicide. Future research should make effort to control for combat exposure and use longitudinal study designs; promising areas for investigation are in non-treatment-seeking samples of US veterans and the role of social support in preventing or mitigating mental health problems in this group. PMID:25876141

  8. Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Rudavsky, Rena; Grant, Sean; Tanielian, Terri; Jaycox, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems among persons who served in the armed forces during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, as reflected in the literature published between 2009 and 2014. One-hundred and sixteen research studies are reviewed, most of which are among non-treatment-seeking US service members or treatment-seeking US veterans. Evidence is provided for demographic, military, and deployment-related risk factors for PTSD, though most derive from cross-sectional studies and few control for combat exposure, which is a primary risk factor for mental health problems in this cohort. Evidence is also provided linking PTSD with outcomes in the following domains: physical health, suicide, housing and homelessness, employment and economic well-being, social well-being, and aggression, violence, and criminality. Also included is evidence about the prevalence of mental health service use in this cohort. In many instances, the current suite of studies replicates findings observed in civilian samples, but new findings emerge of relevance to both military and civilian populations, such as the link between PTSD and suicide. Future research should make effort to control for combat exposure and use longitudinal study designs; promising areas for investigation are in non-treatment-seeking samples of US veterans and the role of social support in preventing or mitigating mental health problems in this group.

  9. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  10. Public health investigation in a military cAMP after diagnosis of rabies in a dog-Afghanistan, 2012.

    PubMed

    Duron, Sandrine; Ertzscheid, Clémence; de Laval, Franck; Manet, Ghislain; Ficko, Cécile; Velut, Guillaume; Lefèvre, François; Migliani, René; Mayet, Aurélie; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is one of the risks to which travelers are exposed when going abroad. During the summer of 2012, a rabid dog died in an International Military Transit Camp in Afghanistan, leading to a public health investigation briefly reported here. The lessons learned from this episode are that such investigations are complex and that information for travelers needs to be improved.

  11. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: A Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City's low-income neighborhoods. Participants: A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent-driven…

  12. The Effect of Village-Based Schools: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Afghanistan. NBER Working Paper No. 18039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burde, Dana; Linden, Leigh L.

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a randomized evaluation of the effect of village-based schools on children's academic performance using a sample of 31 villages and 1,490 children in rural northwestern Afghanistan. The program significantly increases enrollment and test scores among all children, eliminates the 21 percentage point gender disparity in enrollment, and…

  13. 76 FR 76382 - Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February 2012* Dates Are Withheld

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...), allowing Afghan container trucks to drive through Pakistan to the Indian border, and also to port cities... Province. With a total metropolitan population of 2.6 million, it is also the largest city in Afghanistan... Day--Participants arrive in transit city (tbd) and overnight in pre- arranged departure from...

  14. 3 CFR 13550 - Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010. Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose of the Temporary Organization. The purpose of the PASO shall be to perform the specific project of.... diplomatic presence in both countries. Sec. 3. Functions of the Temporary Organization. In carrying out...

  15. Certified Rehabilitation Counselors Role in the Acceptance of Disability of Returning Afghanistan and Iraq Military Veterans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael; Torres, Ayse; Bishop, Malachy; Sakala, Kelly; Khan-Jordan, Cindy; Schoen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the level of acceptance of disability by veterans and rehabilitation counselor's role in that acceptance. Method: The Acceptance of Disability Scale-Revised was given to 117 veterans from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq who acquired disabilities. Their experiences working with certified rehabilitation counselors was also…

  16. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  17. Ninth Grade Students' Negotiation of Aesthetic, Efferent, and Critical Stances in Response to a Novel Set in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative, action research study was guided by two primary research questions. First, how do students negotiate aesthetic, efferent, and critical stances when reading a novel set in Afghanistan? Second, how do aesthetic and efferent stances contribute to or hinder the adoption of a critical stance? A large body of research exists that…

  18. The Process of Organizational Capacity Development in Action in Post-Conflict Setting of the Literacy Department of Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajdi, Habibullah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of capacity development for public organizations in post-conflict settings. The paper reveals the challenges faced by the author as a "change agent" who tried to understand and develop the basic capacity of the Literacy Department of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan. The author used an action-research…

  19. Innovation in the Management of Primary School Construction in Afghanistan. A Case Study. Educational Building Report 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Fazel

    By 1973 there were very great disparities between the opportunities for education in the urban and rural areas of Afghanistan. This case study concerns provincial school construction programs for hundreds of small buildings in the remotest areas of what is one of the most mountainous countries of the world. A study proposed alternative building…

  20. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  1. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jam-Kashem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  2. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  3. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  4. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  5. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  6. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  7. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  8. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  9. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  10. The gonadotrophic response of Royal Marines during an operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hill, N E; Woods, D R; Delves, S K; Murphy, K G; Davison, A S; Brett, S J; Quinton, R; Turner, S; Stacey, M; Allsopp, A J; Fallowfield, J L

    2015-03-01

    Military training has been associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis consistent with central hypogonadism. Often such changes have been associated with body mass loss, though sleep deprivation and other psychological stress may also contribute. The effects of deployment in a combat zone on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in military personnel are not known. The objective was to investigate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male military personnel deployed in Afghanistan. Eighty-nine Royal Marines were investigated pre-deployment, following 3 months in Afghanistan and following 2 weeks mid-tour leave. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione (AD) and insulin were assayed and body mass recorded. The results showed that body mass (kg) dropped from 83.2 ± 9.2 to 79.2 ± 8.2 kg during the first 3 months of deployment (p < 0.001). Total testosterone did not change, but SHBG increased (30.7 ± 9.7 vs. 42.3 ± 14.1 nmol/L, p < 0.001), resulting in a significant (p < 0.001) fall in calculated free testosterone (435.2 ± 138 vs. 375.1 ± 98 pmol/L). Luteinising hormone and FSH increased by 14.3% (p < 0.001) and 4.9% (p = 0.003) respectively. Free testosterone, SHBG, LH and FSH returned to baseline following 2 weeks of mid-tour leave. Androstenedione (AD) decreased by 14.5% (p = 0.024), and insulin decreased by 26% (p = 0.039), over the course of deployment. In this study of lean Royal Marines, free testosterone decreased during operational deployment to Afghanistan. There was no evidence to suggest major stress-induced central hypogonadism. We postulate that reduced body mass, accompanied by a decrease in insulin and AD synthesis, may have contributed to an elevated SHBG, leading to a decrease in free testosterone.

  11. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  12. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  13. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  14. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  15. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  16. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  17. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  18. Prevention and management of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An evidence-based strategy exists to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality associated with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E), but it may be difficult to implement in low-resource settings. This study examines whether facilities that provide emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in Afghanistan have the capacity to manage severe PE/E cases. Methods A further analysis was conducted of the 2009–10 Afghanistan EmONC Needs Assessment. Assessors observed equipment and supplies available, and services provided at 78 of the 127 facilities offering comprehensive EmONC services and interviewed 224 providers. The providers also completed a written case scenario on severe PE/E. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize facility and provider characteristics. Student t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were significant differences between facility types, doctors and midwives, and trained and untrained providers. Results The median number of severe PE/E cases in the past year was just 5 (range 0–42) at comprehensive health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals, compared with 44 (range 0–130) at provincial hospitals and 108 (range 32–540) at regional and specialized hospitals (p < 0.001). Most facilities had the drugs and supplies needed to treat severe PE/E, including the preferred anticonvulsant, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). One-third of the smallest facilities and half of larger facilities reported administering a second-line drug, diazepam, in some cases. In the case scenario, 96% of doctors and 89% of midwives recognized that MgSO4 should be used to manage severe PE/E, but 42% of doctors and 58% of midwives also thought diazepam had a role to play. Providers who were trained on the use of MgSO4 scored significantly higher than untrained providers on six of 20 items in the case scenario. Providers at larger facilities significantly outscored those at smaller facilities on five items. There

  19. Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage at Home Birth in Afghanistan: Program Expansion Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Nasratullah; Zainullah, Partamin; Kim, Young‐Mi; Tappis, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has a maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death. Two‐thirds of births occur at home. A pilot program conducted from 2005 to 2007 demonstrated the effectiveness of using community health workers for advance distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for self‐administration immediately following birth to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. The Ministry of Public Health requested an expansion of the pilot to study implementation on a larger scale before adopting the intervention as national policy. The purpose of this before‐and‐after study was to determine the effectiveness of advance distribution of misoprostol for self‐administration across 20 districts in Afghanistan and identify any adverse events that occurred during expansion. Methods Cross‐sectional household surveys were conducted pre‐ (n = 408) and postintervention (n = 408) to assess the effect of the program on uterotonic use among women who had recently given birth. Maternal death audits and verbal autopsies were conducted to investigate peripartum maternal deaths that occurred during implementation in the 20 districts. Results Uterotonic use among women in the sample increased from 50.3% preintervention to 74.3% postintervention. Because of a large‐scale investment in Afghanistan in training and deployment of community midwives, it was assumed that all women who gave birth in facilities received a uterotonic. A significant difference in uterotonic use at home births was observed among women who lived farthest from a health facility (> 90 minutes self‐reported travel time) compared to women who lived closer (88.5% vs 38.9%; P < .0001). All women who accepted misoprostol and gave birth at home used the drug. No maternal deaths were identified among those women who used misoprostol. Discussion The results of this study build on the findings of the pilot program and provide evidence on the effectiveness

  20. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

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  1. Provision of nutrition support therapies in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.

    PubMed

    Stankorb, Susan M; Ramsey, Casside; Clark, Heidi; Osgood, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the experience of nutrition support practitioners, specifically dietitians, providing care to combat casualties. It provides a brief overview of dietitians' induction into armed service but focuses primarily on their role in providing nutrition support during the most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The current system of combat casualty care is discussed with specific emphasis on providing early and adequate nutrition support to U.S. combat casualties from injury, care in theater combat support hospitals (CSHs)/expeditionary medical support (EMEDs), and en route care during critical care air transport (CCAT) up to arrival at treatment facilities in the United States. The article also examines practices and challenges faced in the CSHs/EMEDs providing nutrition support to non-U.S. or coalition patients. Over the past decade in armed conflicts, dietitians, physicians, nurses, and other medical professionals have risen to challenges, have implemented systems, and continue working to optimize treatment across the spectrum of combat casualty care.

  2. Seroconversion for infectious pathogens among UK military personnel deployed to Afghanistan, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Newman, Edmund N C; Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008-2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments.

  3. Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S.; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008–2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments. PMID:25418685

  4. Airborne Hyperspectral Survey of Afghanistan 2007: Flight Line Planning and HyMap Data Collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, K. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired over Afghanistan with the HyMap imaging spectrometer (Cocks and others, 1998) operating on the WB-57 high altitude NASA research aircraft (http://jsc-aircraft-ops.jsc.nasa.gov/wb57/index.html). These data were acquired during the interval of August 22, 2007 to October 2, 2007, as part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) project 'Oil and Gas Resources Assessment of the Katawaz and Helmand Basins'. A total of 218 flight lines of hyperspectral remote sensing data were collected over the country. This report describes the planning of the airborne survey and the flight lines that were flown. Included with this report are digital files of the nadir tracks of the flight lines, including a map of the labeled flight lines and corresponding vector shape files for geographic information systems (GIS).

  5. The evolution of case management for service members injured in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Patricia Watts; Kenny, Deborah J; Gordon, Deborah R; Benner, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    In this article we describe the nursing care needs of wounded service members (WSMs) from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the evolving role of the nurse case manager (CM). New types of injuries, in-field treatment, immediate transport to multiple care centers, and new technologies have created a new patient population of WSMs that requires new types of nursing care and knowledge. We interviewed 235 nurses, including CMs from nine military treatment facilities (MTFs) and the Veterans Administration (VA), on actual patient care experiences and new knowledge development, and 67 WSMs about their experiences of care. New military and VA nurse case management roles are essential for the effective functioning of the evolving, highly specialized, and transport-based health care system. Working effectively with WSMs required that the CM role be expanded beyond health care management to include family support, re-entry, and life coaching for the extremely altered life circumstances of WSMs.

  6. Capacity building of public health laboratories in Afghanistan: challenges and successes (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Elyan, D S; Monestersky, J H; Wasfy, M O; Noormal, B; Oyofo, B A

    2014-03-13

    The continuing state of conflict and the resulting devastation of infrastructure have made Afghanistan exceptionally vulnerable to disease epidemics. The paper reports initiatives by the United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 to promote capacity building in a number of key medical laboratories and enable the Afghans to detect emerging and re-emerging diseases of public health importance. Equipment, supplies and laboratory staff training were critical for disease diagnosis and fulfillment of obligations of the International Health Regulations 2005. Accordingly, many diseases outbreaks were recently identified, including avian and pandemic influenza, febrile illness, watery diarrhoea, jaundice and leishmaniasis. Clinical samples and disease vectors were collected for analysis, and microbial isolates were obtained for further characterization. The expanded range and enhanced accuracy of laboratory procedures have facilitated selected local laboratories to monitor, detect, identify, assess, contain and respond to public health threats. Nevertheless, policies of sustainability and infectious diseases control need continuous support and emphasis.

  7. Use of clinical guidelines: perspectives from clinicians in paediatric and maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; Tokhi, M; Edward, A; Salehi, A S; Turkmani, S; Duke, T; Bartlett, L

    2015-04-02

    This study explored the perceived value, role and reported use of clinical guidelines by clinicians in urban paediatric and maternity hospital settings, and the effect of current implementation strategies on clinician attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. A total of 63 clinicians from 7 paediatric and maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan participated in structured focus groups; content analysis methodology was used for identification and analysis of key themes. Seven sets of guidelines, protocols or standards were identified (including 5 WHO-endorsed guidelines). However, most are failing to achieve high levels of use. Factors associated with guideline use included: clinician involvement in guideline development; multidisciplinary training; demonstrable results; and positive clinician perceptions regarding guideline quality and contextual appropriateness. Implementation activities should fulfil 3 major objectives: promote guideline awareness and access; stimulate motivation among clinical guideline users; and actively facilitate adherence to guidelines.

  8. Effect of Weather on the Predicted PMN Landmine Chemical Signature for Kabul, Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.; PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-11-01

    Buried landmines are often detected through the chemical signature in the air above the soil surface by mine detection dogs. Environmental processes play a significant role in the chemical signature available for detection. Due to the shallow burial depth of landmines, the weather influences the release of chemicals from the landmine, transport through the soil to the surface, and degradation processes in the soil. The effect of weather on the landmine chemical signature from a PMN landmine was evaluated with the T2TNT code for Kabul, Afghanistan. Results for TNT and DNT gas-phase and soil solid-phase concentrations are presented as a function of time of the day and time of the year.

  9. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  10. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  11. The evolution of case management for service members injured in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Patricia Watts; Kenny, Deborah J; Gordon, Deborah R; Benner, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    In this article we describe the nursing care needs of wounded service members (WSMs) from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the evolving role of the nurse case manager (CM). New types of injuries, in-field treatment, immediate transport to multiple care centers, and new technologies have created a new patient population of WSMs that requires new types of nursing care and knowledge. We interviewed 235 nurses, including CMs from nine military treatment facilities (MTFs) and the Veterans Administration (VA), on actual patient care experiences and new knowledge development, and 67 WSMs about their experiences of care. New military and VA nurse case management roles are essential for the effective functioning of the evolving, highly specialized, and transport-based health care system. Working effectively with WSMs required that the CM role be expanded beyond health care management to include family support, re-entry, and life coaching for the extremely altered life circumstances of WSMs. PMID:25288405

  12. Natural-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan: Digital Databases and Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2007-01-01

    Explanation: The 50 tiled images in this dataset are natural-color renditions of the calibrated six-band Landsat mosaics created from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Natural-color images depict the surface as seen by the human eye. The calibration of the Landsat ETM+ maps produced by Davis (2006) are relative reflectance and need to be grounded with ground-reflectance data, but the difficulties in performing fieldwork in Afghanistan precluded ground-reflectance surveys. For natural color calibration, which involves only the blue, green, and red color bands of Landsat, we could use ground photographs, Munsell color readings of ground surfaces, or another image base that accurately depicts the surface color. Each map quadrangle is 1? of latitude by? of longitude. The numbers assigned to each map quadrangle refer to the latitude and longitude coordinates of the lower left corner of the quadrangle. For example, quadrangle Q2960 has its lower left corner at lat 29? N., long 60? E. Each quadrangle overlaps adjacent quadrangles by 100 pixels (2.85 km). Only the 14.25-m-spacial-resolution UTM and 28.5-m-spacial-resolution WGS84 geographic geotiff datasets are available in this report to decrease the amount of space needed. The images are (three-band, eight-bit) geotiffs with embedded georeferencing. As such, most software will not require the associated world files. An index of all available images in geographic is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM zones: (41-43). Maps are stored as geoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. You will need Adobe Reader to view the PDF files. Download a copy of the latest version of Adobe Reader for free.

  13. Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Boyko, Edward J.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Gehrman, Philip; Macera, Carol A.; Smith, Tyler C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the associations between deployment in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and sleep quantity and quality. Design: Longitudinal cohort study Setting: The Millennium Cohort Study survey is administered via a secure website or US mail. Participants: Data were from 41,225 Millennium Cohort members who completed baseline (2001–2003) and follow-up (2004–2006) surveys. Participants were placed into 1 of 3 exposure groups based on their deployment status at follow-up: nondeployed, survey completed during deployment, or survey completed postdeployment. Measurements and Results: Study outcomes were self-reported sleep duration and trouble sleeping, defined as having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep. Adjusted mean sleep duration was significantly shorter among those in the deployed and postdeployment groups compared with those who did not deploy. Additionally, male gender and greater stress were significantly associated with shorter sleep duration. Personnel who completed their survey during deployment or postdeployment were significantly more likely to have trouble sleeping than those who had not deployed. Lower self-reported general health, female gender, and reporting of mental health symptoms at baseline were also significantly associated with increased odds of trouble sleeping. Conclusions: Deployment significantly influenced sleep quality and quantity in this population though effect size was mediated with statistical modeling that included mental health symptoms. Personnel reporting combat exposures or mental health symptoms had increased odds of trouble sleeping. These findings merit further research to increase understanding of temporal relationships between sleep and mental health outcomes occurring during and after deployment. Citation: Seelig AD; Jacobson IG; Smith B; Hooper TI; Boyko EJ; Gackstetter GD; Gehrman P; Macera CA; Smith TC. Sleep patterns before, during, and after deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan

  14. Atmospheric variability of methane over Pakistan, Afghanistan and adjoining areas using retrievals from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we have studied spatial and temporal variability of methane total column (MTC) over Pakistan and neighboring regions of Afghanistan, India and Iran by using observations of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard EOS ENVISAT. Satellite measurements show large spatio-temporal variations in MTC over the study domain at different time scales. We find an average MTC of 1787±22 ppb (annual average±standard deviation) with 3.7% (slope 7.14±1.28, y-intercept 1751±7.19, r=0.91) increase during the period of January 2003 to April 2012. An enhanced MTC is observed mostly over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and areas with high anthropogenic activities. MTC exhibits a seasonal peak of 1804±28 ppb in summer followed by autumn (1800±25 ppb) and winter (1777±24 ppb). We have also discussed anthropogenic emission estimates in the study area obtained from EDGAR database. Substantial increments of 77% and 61% are observed in anthropogenic CH4 emissions for Pakistan and Afghanistan, respectively, during 1990-2008. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation and livestock sectors are found to be the highest. EDGAR data have also identified megacity Lahore, Sukkur, megacity Karachi, Dera Ghazi Khan, megacity Delhi and Ahmedabad as large point sources of CH4 emissions in the region. The emissions from Karachi show the highest increase of 107%, while Lahore is found with the highest annual average emissions of 8.8×10-10 kg m-2 s-1.

  15. Eopolydiexodina (Middle Permian giant fusulinids) from Afghanistan: Biometry, morphometry, paleobiogeography, and end-Guadalupian events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpaert, Clémentine; Monnet, Claude; Vachard, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The most spectacular macroevolutionary trend presented by the genera of schwagerinoid fusulinids, during the Pennsylvanian -Permian, is an enormous increase in size, which culminated in the Middle Permian with Eopolydiexodina. However, this potential major biogeographic marker, during the Kubergandian-early Midian time interval, is as yet hampered by its poor taxonomic characterization. Hence, Eopolydiexodina is revised here using biometric and morphometric methods applied to large collections from Afghanistan and selected taxa in the literature. These multivariate analyses consist of classical linear test parameters, as well as new area parameters acquired by computer image analysis. The Afghan species are re-defined, and some other species, occasionally described as Cimmerian, are re-discussed. These methods, combined with classical morphological analyses, also permit to conclude that the largest Eopolydiexodina of Afghanistan are microspheric specimens (probably agamonts) of E. afghanensis and E. bithynica. Two megalospheric groups of individuals (probably gamonts and schizonts) are represented in both species, as well as in E. persica and E. darvasica. Due to this presence of gamonts, agamonts and schizonts in several species, Eopolydiexodina is probably the oldest identified trimorphic genus among the large benthic foraminifers. Biostratigraphically, Eopolydiexodina appears restricted to the late Kubergandian to early Midian. The associated Afghan fusulinids (Dunbarula, Kahlerina, Afghanella, Yangchienia, Sumatrina, and Codonofusiella) allow proposing an accurate biostratigraphy of the Eopolydiexodina species in the Murgabian-Midian boundary interval. Paleobiogeographically, Eopolydiexodina was essentially located in the Laurentian and Perigondwanan borders of the Tethys. The possible presence of Eopolydiexodina in the Cimmerian Continent and in some regions of China has never been irrefutably demonstrated. This paleobiological revision of Eopolydiexodina and

  16. Quality of outpatient hospital care for children under 5 years in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Allison; Edward, Anbrasi; Bonhoure, Philippe; Mustafa, Lais; Hansen, Peter; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the quality of outpatient hospital care for children under 5 years in Afghanistan. Design Case management observations were conducted on 10–12 children under five selected by systematic random sampling in 31 outpatient hospital clinics across the country, followed by interviews with caretakers and providers. Main Outcome Measures Quality of care defined as adherence to the clinical standards described in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Results Overall quality of outpatient care for children was suboptimal based on patient examination and caretaker counseling (median score: 27.5 on a 100 point scale). Children receiving care from female providers had better care than those seen by male providers (OR: 6.6, 95% CI: 2.0–21.9, P = 0.002), and doctors provided better quality of care than other providers (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1–6.4, P = 0.02). The poor were more likely to receive better care in hospitals managed by non-governmental organizations than those managed by other mechanisms (OR: 15.2, 95% CI: 1.2–200.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions Efforts to strengthen optimal care provision at peripheral health clinics must be complemented with investments at the referral and tertiary care facilities to ensure care continuity. The findings of improved care by female providers, doctors and NGO's for poor patients, warrant further empirical evidence on care determinants. Optimizing care quality at referral hospitals is one of the prerequisites to ensure service utilization and outcomes for the achievement of the Child health Millennium Development Goals for Afghanistan. PMID:21242157

  17. Using direct clinical observation to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. Methods This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. Results All time intervals with the exception of “decision to skin incision” were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Conclusions Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical

  18. Subgroups of US IRAQ and Afghanistan veterans: associations with traumatic brain injury and mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos A; Cooper, Douglas B; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tate, David F; Eapen, Blessen C; York, Gerald E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2015-09-01

    U. S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are known to have a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, which are often comorbid and share many symptoms. Attempts to describe this cohort by single diagnoses have limited our understanding of the complex nature of this population. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with distinct compositions of symptoms associated with TBI, PTSD, and depression. Our cross-sectional, observational study included 303,716 IAVs who received care in the Veterans Health Administration in 2010-2011. Symptoms and conditions were defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and symptom-clusters were identified using latent class analysis. We identified seven classes with distinct symptom compositions. One class had low probability of any condition and low health care utilization (HCU) (48 %). Other classes were characterized by high probabilities of mental health comorbidities (14 %); chronic pain and sleep disturbance (20 %); headaches and memory problems (6 %); and auditory problems (2.5 %). Another class had mental health comorbidities and chronic pain (7 %), and the last had high probabilities of most symptoms examined (3 %). These last two classes had the highest likelihood of TBI, PTSD, and depression and were identified as high healthcare utilizers. There are subgroups of IAVs with distinct clusters of symptom that are meaningfully associated with TBI, PTSD, depression, and HCU. Additional studies examining these veteran subgroups could improve our understanding of this complex comorbid patient population. PMID:25963862

  19. The Promising Syllabus Enacted: One Teacher's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christine Courtade

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a rationale and strategies for use of the Promising Syllabus (in Bain, 2004, What the best college teachers do). This syllabus reflects the learner-centered paradigm where students take charge of their own learning. The syllabus creates a series of promises between teacher and student, focusing on a…

  20. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    PubMed

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

  1. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: veterans treatment court as diversion in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Smee, Daniel E; McGuire, James; Garrick, Thomas; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The veteran-forensic interface is an emerging area of relevance to forensic clinicians assessing or treating returning Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans facing criminal sanctions. Veterans' Treatment Court (VTC) represents a recent diversion mechanism for low-level offenses that is based on a collaborative justice model. Thirty-nine percent of veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and receiving VA services reside in rural areas. Rural veterans facing criminal justice charges may be at a disadvantage due to limited access to forensic psychiatrists with relevant expertise in providing veterans services for diversion. Therefore, widening the pool of forensic clinicians who have such expertise, as well as knowledge of the signature wounds of the wars as related to aggression and reckless behavior is necessary. This article presents an overview of VTCs and discusses the role of forensic clinicians as stakeholders in this process.

  2. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sang-Charak (501) and Sayghan-O-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  5. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  6. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  7. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  8. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3570, Tagab-E-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  9. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  12. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jarm-Keshem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  13. Alcohol use and substance use disorders in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with nondeployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Helen Louise; Wijesinghe, Millawage Supun Dilara; Creamer, Mark Christopher; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Page, Matthew James; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2015-01-01

    Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict, including never deployed personnel. Literature was searched (1990-2014) in multiple electronic databases. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, including risk of bias. Eighteen studies (1997-2014) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis based on a random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.46) for alcohol (7 studies) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.96, 4.72) for substance use (3 studies) disorders among Gulf War veterans, as well as 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.66) for alcohol (7 studies) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) for substance use (4 studies) disorders among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans; meta-regressions found no statistically significant association between theater of war and alcohol use or substance use disorders. Our findings indicate that Gulf and Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans are at higher alcohol use disorder risk than nondeployed veterans, but further studies with increased power are needed to assess substance use disorder risk in Gulf War veteran populations.

  14. Substandard Antimalarials Available in Afghanistan: A Case for Assessing the Quality of Drugs in Resource Poor Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Mirza; Kaur, Harparkash; Mohammed, Nader; Mailk, Naiela; van Wyk, Albert; Jan, Sakhi; Kakar, Rishtya Meena; Mojadidi, Mohammed Khalid; Leslie, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Good-quality antimalarials are crucial for the effective treatment and control of malaria. A total of 7,740 individual and packaged tablets, ampoules, and syrups were obtained from 60 randomly selected public (N = 35) and private outlets (N = 25) in Afghanistan. Of these, 134 samples were screened using the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) MiniLab® in Kabul with 33/126 (26%) samples failing the MiniLab® disintegration test. The quality of a subsample (N = 37) of cholorquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets was assessed by in vitro dissolution testing following U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) monographs at a bioanalytical laboratory in London, United Kingdom. Overall, 12/32 (32%) samples of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and quinine were found not to comply with the USP tolerance limits. Substandard antimalarials were available in Afghanistan demonstrating that continuous monitoring of drug quality is warranted. However, in Afghanistan as in many low-income countries, capacity to determine and monitor drug quality using methods such as dissolution testing needs to be established to empower national authorities to take appropriate action in setting up legislation and regulation. PMID:25897070

  15. Substandard antimalarials available in Afghanistan: a case for assessing the quality of drugs in resource poor settings.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Mirza; Kaur, Harparkash; Mohammed, Nader; Mailk, Naiela; van Wyk, Albert; Jan, Sakhi; Kakar, Rishtya Meena; Mojadidi, Mohammed Khalid; Leslie, Toby

    2015-06-01

    Good-quality antimalarials are crucial for the effective treatment and control of malaria. A total of 7,740 individual and packaged tablets, ampoules, and syrups were obtained from 60 randomly selected public (N = 35) and private outlets (N = 25) in Afghanistan. Of these, 134 samples were screened using the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) MiniLab® in Kabul with 33/126 (26%) samples failing the MiniLab® disintegration test. The quality of a subsample (N = 37) of cholorquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets was assessed by in vitro dissolution testing following U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) monographs at a bioanalytical laboratory in London, United Kingdom. Overall, 12/32 (32%) samples of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and quinine were found not to comply with the USP tolerance limits. Substandard antimalarials were available in Afghanistan demonstrating that continuous monitoring of drug quality is warranted. However, in Afghanistan as in many low-income countries, capacity to determine and monitor drug quality using methods such as dissolution testing needs to be established to empower national authorities to take appropriate action in setting up legislation and regulation.

  16. Varicella outbreak among Afghan National Civil Order Police recruits-Herat Regional Military Training Center, Herat, Afghanistan, 2010.

    PubMed

    Cowan, James B; Davis, Theodore S

    2012-08-01

    In December 2010, an outbreak of varicella was reported among student recruits enrolled at the Afghan National Civil Order Police Herat Regional Military Training Center. The outbreak had an overall attack rate of 9.8% (31 of 316 recruits) with primary, secondary, and tertiary attack rates of 6.3% (20 of 316), 3.4% (10 of 296), and 0.35% (1 of 286). Fortunately, the outbreak did not lead to any deaths or serious complications. However, it significantly interfered with Afghan National Civil Order Police training by causing a loss of 378 person-days of training. Medical personnel from the Afghan National Police, DynCorp International, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health, and NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan Herat Joint Medical Operation Cell joined together to control and characterize the outbreak and prepare and disseminate recommendations for preventing future outbreaks. Control measures were quickly implemented, but less than ideal. Varicella vaccine was not available in Afghanistan to immunize exposed recruits. The outbreak was reported to medical authorities through a slow and convoluted process. And the majority of varicella cases did not self-report for care. Rather, medical personnel diagnosed most cases only after recruits were directed to report for a physical examination. PMID:22934371

  17. Substandard antimalarials available in Afghanistan: a case for assessing the quality of drugs in resource poor settings.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Mirza; Kaur, Harparkash; Mohammed, Nader; Mailk, Naiela; van Wyk, Albert; Jan, Sakhi; Kakar, Rishtya Meena; Mojadidi, Mohammed Khalid; Leslie, Toby

    2015-06-01

    Good-quality antimalarials are crucial for the effective treatment and control of malaria. A total of 7,740 individual and packaged tablets, ampoules, and syrups were obtained from 60 randomly selected public (N = 35) and private outlets (N = 25) in Afghanistan. Of these, 134 samples were screened using the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) MiniLab® in Kabul with 33/126 (26%) samples failing the MiniLab® disintegration test. The quality of a subsample (N = 37) of cholorquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets was assessed by in vitro dissolution testing following U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) monographs at a bioanalytical laboratory in London, United Kingdom. Overall, 12/32 (32%) samples of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and quinine were found not to comply with the USP tolerance limits. Substandard antimalarials were available in Afghanistan demonstrating that continuous monitoring of drug quality is warranted. However, in Afghanistan as in many low-income countries, capacity to determine and monitor drug quality using methods such as dissolution testing needs to be established to empower national authorities to take appropriate action in setting up legislation and regulation. PMID:25897070

  18. An Examination of the Broader Effects of Warzone Experiences on Returning Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans’ Psychiatric Health

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Meyer, Eric C.; Silvia, Paul J.; Beckham, Jean C.; Young, Keith A.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to test the hypotheses that: (1) Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans experience a wide range of psychiatric symptomatology (e.g., obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hypochondriasis, somatization); and (2) General psychiatric symptomatology among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans is associated with their warzone experiences. To achieve this objective, Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans (N = 155) completed a screening questionnaire that assessed a wide range of psychiatric symptoms along with a measure of warzone experiences. As expected, returning veterans reported significant elevations across a wide range of clinical scales. Approximately three-fourths screened positive on at least one clinical subscale, and a third screened positive on five or more. In addition, nearly all of these conditions were associated with veterans’ warzone experiences (average r = 0.36); however, this association was much stronger among veterans with PTSD (average r = 0.33) than among veterans without PTSD (average r = 0.15). We also observed that approximately 18% of the variance in total psychiatric symptomatology was attributable to warzone experiences above and beyond the effects of childhood trauma and demographic factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that returning veterans experience a broad array of psychiatric symptoms that are strongly associated with their warzone experiences. PMID:25541538

  19. An examination of the broader effects of warzone experiences on returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans' psychiatric health.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; DeBeer, Bryann B; Meyer, Eric C; Silvia, Paul J; Beckham, Jean C; Young, Keith A; Morissette, Sandra B

    2015-03-30

    The objective of the present research was to test the hypotheses that: (1) Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans experience a wide range of psychiatric symptomatology (e.g., obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hypochondriasis, somatization); and (2) general psychiatric symptomatology among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans is associated with their warzone experiences. To achieve this objective, Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans (N=155) completed a screening questionnaire that assessed a wide range of psychiatric symptoms along with a measure of warzone experiences. As expected, returning veterans reported significant elevations across a wide range of clinical scales. Approximately three-fourths screened positive on at least one clinical subscale, and a one-third screened positive on five or more. In addition, nearly all of these conditions were associated with veterans' warzone experiences (average r=0.36); however, this association was much stronger among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (average r=0.33) than among veterans without PTSD (average r=0.15). We also observed that approximately 18% of the variance in total psychiatric symptomatology was attributable to warzone experiences above and beyond the effects of childhood trauma and demographic factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that returning veterans experience a broad array of psychiatric symptoms that are strongly associated with their warzone experiences.

  20. The Use of Space Technology for Environmental Security, Disaster Rehabilitation and Sustainable Development in Afghanistan and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovett, Kian

    Since the dawn of time, humans have engaged in war. In the last 5,600 years of recorded history 14,600 wars have been waged1. The United Nations has sought to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to foster peace. Wars have recently taken place in Afghanistan and Iraq. Both countries are now faced with a range of complex problems. In-depth country assessments reveal significant shortcomings in the areas of water, sanitation, health, security and natural resource management. These are key factors when examining environmental security, sustainable development and trans-boundary problems, all of which are issues relevant to the Middle East and Central Asian states. Space technology can be applied to support the reconstruction and development plans for Afghanistan and Iraq; however, there needs to be an investigation and open discussion of how these resources can best be used. Already, agencies within the United Nations possess considerable expertise in the use of space technologies in the area of disaster management. If this capability is to be used, there will need to be inter-agency coordination, not to mention a further expansion and development of the United Nations role in both Afghanistan and Iraq.

  1. Big data in nephrology: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G; Wyatt, Christina M

    2016-08-01

    Data from the electronic health records hold great promise for nephrology research. However, due to significant limitations, reporting guidelines have been formulated for analyses conducted using electronic health records data. PMID:27418085

  2. Big data in nephrology: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G; Wyatt, Christina M

    2016-08-01

    Data from the electronic health records hold great promise for nephrology research. However, due to significant limitations, reporting guidelines have been formulated for analyses conducted using electronic health records data.

  3. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  4. Panspermia: A Promising Field of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, P. H.

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of Panspermia have been demolished and this hypothesis emerges as a promising field of research. In this work, recent discoveries and the principal advances in Panspermia are discussed.

  5. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. RESULTS--Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast

  6. Antibiotic use in a district hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan: are we overprescribing?

    PubMed

    Bajis, S; Van den Bergh, R; De Bruycker, M; Mahama, G; Van Overloop, C; Satyanarayana, S; Bernardo, R S; Esmati, S; Reid, A J

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Un hôpital de district à Kaboul, Afghanistan, soutenu par Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF).Objectifs : Evaluer les pratiques en matière de prescription d'antibiotiques en consultation externe en été (août 2013) et en hiver (janvier 2014).Schema : Etude transversale basée sur les données hospitalières recueillies en routine et la méthode de dose thérapeutique quotidienne (DDD) de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS).Resultats : L'analyse de 4857 prescriptions (été) et de 4821 prescriptions (hiver) a montré que respectivement 62% et 50% de tous les consultants externes se voyaient prescrire au moins un antibiotique. Les prescriptions non accompagnées d'un diagnostic établi représentaient une proportion importante de l'ensemble des antibiotiques prescrits. En ce qui concerne les infections respiratoires hautes (URTI), les problèmes dentaires, les infections urinaires (UTI) et la diarrhée, on notait une bonne adhésion aux doses recommandées dans les directives standard de traitement de MSF quand on les mesurait en fonction des DDD. Cependant, certains médicaments, ne figurant pas dans les directives, étaient néanmoins prescrits comme par exemple l'amoxicilline et la métronidazole dans les UTI et l'azithromycine dans les URTI.Conclusion : Les taux de prescriptions d'antibiotiques en consultation externe dans un hôpital de district d'Afghanistan étaient très élevés, atteignant le double des recommandations de l'OMS de 30%. Même s'il n'a pas été observé de non adhésion aux doses recommandées, il semble y avoir eu des prescriptions inappropriées pour certaines pathologies. Cette étude suggère que la connaissance des déterminants de la prescription d'antibiotiques en fonction du contexte est une première étape dans la rationalisation des pratiques de prescription dans ce type de situation.

  7. Reducing Anemia Prevalence in Afghanistan: Socioeconomic Correlates and the Particular Role of Agricultural Assets

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Martinez, Artemisa; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Poole, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to examine the socio-economic correlates of anemia in women, and potential sources of iron in household diets in Afghanistan. It also examines whether ownership of agricultural (particularly livestock) assets and their use in food production has a role in alleviating anaemia, especially where local markets may be inadequate. We analyse data from the 2010/11 Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, estimating a logistic regression to examine how anemia status of women is associated with socio-economic covariates. A key result found is that sheep ownership has a protective effect in reducing anemia (prevalence odds ratio of sheep ownership on anemia of 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73–0.94) after controlling for wealth and other covariates. This association is found to be robust to alternative model specifications. Given the central role of red meat in heme iron provision and absorption of non-heme iron, we hypothesise that sheep ownership promotes mutton consumption from own-production in a setting where market-sourced provision of nutritious food is a challenge. We then use the 2011/12 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment household data to understand the Afghan diet from the perspective of dietary iron provision, and to understand interactions between own-production, market sourcing and mutton consumption. Sheep ownership is found to increase the likelihood that a household consumed mutton (odds ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15–1.42), the number of days in the week that mutton was consumed (prevalence rate ratio of 1.24. 95% CI: 1.12–1.37) and the quantity of mutton consumed (7 grams/person/week). In the subsample of mutton consumers, households sourcing mutton mostly from own production consumed mutton 1.5 days more frequently on average than households relying on market purchase, resulting in 100 grams per person per week higher mutton intake. Thus this analysis lends support to the notion that the linkage between sheep

  8. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. Methods In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. Results One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Conclusion Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas, associated with high risk

  9. Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Lung Disease in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Mary Jo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Leung, Kar-Wei; Faverio, Paola; Fleming, Nicholas; Mortensen, Eric; Amuan, Megan E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Eapen, Blessen; Restrepo, Marcos; Morris, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Research from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health conditions; however, it is becoming clear that other health concerns, such as respiratory illnesses, warrant further scientific inquiry. Early reports from theater and postdeployment health assessments suggested an association with deployment-related exposures (e.g., sand, burn pits, chemical, etc.) and new-onset respiratory symptoms. We used data from Veterans Affairs medical encounters between fiscal years 2003 and 2011 to identify trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung disease in veterans. We used data from Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense sources to identify sociodemographic (age, sex, race), military (e.g., service branch, multiple deployments) and clinical characteristics (TBI, smoking) of individuals with and without chronic lung diseases. Generalized estimating equations found significant increases over time for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Trends for interstitial lung disease were significant only in adjusted analyses. Age, smoking, and TBI were also significantly associated with chronic lung diseases; however, multiple deployments were not associated. Research is needed to identify which characteristics of deployment-related exposures are linked with chronic lung disease. PMID:27136656

  10. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Sutphin, David M. Renaud, Karine M.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2011-12-15

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C{sub 1} (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C{sub 2} (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P{sub 2} (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C{sub 2} and P{sub 2} resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P{sub 2} resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  11. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  12. High tuberculosis treatment success in Kabul, Afghanistan despite high patient transfers out.

    PubMed

    Zhuben, M; Delawer, F M; Andar, A H; Salimi, F; Ngamvithayapong-Yanai, J

    2013-08-01

    The National Tuberculosis (TB) Institute has the highest patient transfer-out rate in Afghanistan, but the result and treatment outcome of transferred patients were unknown in 2009. This operational research investigated the characteristics and treatment outcome of all transferred-out patients living in Kabul province. We analysed the 1-year TB register of the Institute (n = 1180 cases) and visited 24 health centres to review their TB registers. The results show the transfer-out rate was 52.6%. Of the transferred cases, 58.6% were women and 61.8% pulmonary TB cases (smear-positive 70.6%). The arrival rates of transfer-out patients at health centres in Kabul province were 87.6% for both men and women. Males aged 21-40 years were the most likely to be nonarrivals (OR = 8.91; 95% CI: 1.55-66.7). Treatment success rates in female and male patients were 84.4% and 77.5% respectively and default rates were 7.8% and 18.3%. Strategies to reduce the non-arrival to health centres and treatment interruption in male patients aged 20-40 years are warranted.

  13. Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Lung Disease in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Mary Jo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Leung, Kar-Wei; Faverio, Paola; Fleming, Nicholas; Mortensen, Eric; Amuan, Megan E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Eapen, Blessen; Restrepo, Marcos; Morris, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Research from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health conditions; however, it is becoming clear that other health concerns, such as respiratory illnesses, warrant further scientific inquiry. Early reports from theater and postdeployment health assessments suggested an association with deployment-related exposures (e.g., sand, burn pits, chemical, etc.) and new-onset respiratory symptoms. We used data from Veterans Affairs medical encounters between fiscal years 2003 and 2011 to identify trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung disease in veterans. We used data from Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense sources to identify sociodemographic (age, sex, race), military (e.g., service branch, multiple deployments) and clinical characteristics (TBI, smoking) of individuals with and without chronic lung diseases. Generalized estimating equations found significant increases over time for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Trends for interstitial lung disease were significant only in adjusted analyses. Age, smoking, and TBI were also significantly associated with chronic lung diseases; however, multiple deployments were not associated. Research is needed to identify which characteristics of deployment-related exposures are linked with chronic lung disease.

  14. Combat exposure, mental health, and relationship functioning among women veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars.

    PubMed

    Creech, Suzannah K; Swift, Robert; Zlotnick, Caron; Taft, Casey; Street, Amy E

    2016-02-01

    This study examined associations between warzone exposures to combat with postdeployment relationship and family functioning in 134 women who deployed to the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Survey invitations were sent by mail to 600 randomly selected women who experienced recent military deployments and were residing in New England. The web-based survey included measures of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, postdeployment stress exposure, family functioning, intimate relationship satisfaction, and parenting. Multivariate linear regression with bootstrapping estimates of indirect effects was used to examine whether PTSD symptoms and alcohol misuse accounted for associations between women's combat exposure and their postdeployment relationship and family functioning. Results indicated that women's PTSD symptoms had a direct and negative effect on postdeployment family functioning and on intimate relationship satisfaction. There was no direct association between combat exposure or alcohol misuse with any of the family or relationship functioning variables, however, the indirect association from combat to postdeployment family functioning (b = -.13, SE = 0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -33, -.03) and intimate relationship satisfaction (b = -.25, SE = 0.18, 95% CI: -.79, -.001) was significant and negative through its association with PTSD symptoms. Parenting satisfaction was significantly and negatively associated with postdeployment stress only. This study is among the first to characterize the impact of deployment experiences on women veterans' relationship and family functioning. Findings suggest that women veterans who have been exposed to combat and who have higher levels of PTSD symptoms may benefit from relationship and family focused services after deployment.

  15. Stigma of persons with disabilities in Afghanistan: Examining the pathways from stereotyping to mental distress.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Ballard, Ellis; Peña, Juan B

    2016-03-01

    Despite evidence that stigma of disability is frequently reflected through stereotyping and often results in mental distress, very limited literature demonstrates the pathways through which stereotyping has an impact on mental health. Drawing from a large sample of 1449 participants interviewed between December 2012 and September 2013 from an Afghan community-based rehabilitation program, we examined the structure of stigma associated with disability in Afghanistan. Labeling and negative stereotypes, associated with a specific cause of disability, result in social exclusion that in turn impacts mental health. Using structural equation modeling with latent variables, we examined the mediation effect of stereotypes associated with disability on mental distress and anxiety. We found a mediating role of social exclusion between stereotypes and mental distress but only in the case of persons with disabilities from birth. Comparing the total effect of 'disabled at birth' and mental distress 0.195 (95% CI: 0.018-0.367) the effect size of this mediation effect was 0.293 (95% CI: 0.173-0.415). There was no significant direct effect between 'disabled at birth' and mental distress once mediation effect was accounted for in our model. These findings suggest that a multipronged policy approach that recognizes the driving forces of stigma and promotes social participation directly alongside psychosocial interventions on mental distress of persons with disabilities is necessary to achieve wellbeing for a group that has been historically and systematically excluded from development interventions.

  16. Musculoskeletal Injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan: Epidemiology and Outcomes Following a Decade of War.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The combined wars in Afghanistan and Iraq represent the longest ongoing conflicts in American military history, with a combined casualty estimate of >59,000 service members. The nature of combat over the last decade has led to precipitous increases in severe orthopaedic injuries, including traumatic amputations and injuries to the spine. Nearly 75% of all injuries sustained in combat now are caused by explosive mechanisms, and fractures comprise 40% of all musculoskeletal injuries. Injuries to the axial skeleton are more frequent among personnel exposed to combat, and spinal trauma is identified in nearly 40% of those killed. Musculoskeletal injuries are expensive and generate some of the highest rates of long-term disability. Noncombat musculoskeletal injuries are endemic within deployed military service members and occur at a greater than threefold rate compared with combat musculoskeletal injuries. Service members with musculoskeletal injuries or behavioral health conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and psychosis, and those occupying a low socioeconomic status, have an increased risk of inferior outcomes. PMID:27115793

  17. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  18. Afghanistan's basic package of health services: its development and effects on rebuilding the health system.

    PubMed

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional. PMID:24865404

  19. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. PMID:26123954

  20. Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1–3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

  1. Easing reintegration: telephone support groups for spouses of returning Iraq and Afghanistan service members.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Linda Olivia; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey; Burns, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Spouses of returning Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, OIF) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF) military service members report increased depression and anxiety post deployment as they work to reintegrate the family and service member. Reconnecting the family, renegotiating roles that have shifted, reestablishing communication patterns, and dealing with mental health concerns are all tasks that spouses must undertake as part of reintegration. We tested telephone support groups focusing on helping spouses with these basic reintegration tasks. Year-long telephone support groups focused on education, skills building (communication skills, problem solving training, cognitive behavioral techniques, stress management), and support. Spouse depression and anxiety were decreased and perceived social support was increased during the course of the study. In subgroup analyses, spouses with husbands whose injuries caused care difficulties had a positive response to the intervention. However, they were more likely to be depressed, be anxious, and have less social support compared to participants who had husbands who had no injury or whose injury did not cause care difficulty. Study findings suggest that this well-established, high-access intervention can help improve quality of life for military spouses who are struggling with reintegration of the service member and family.

  2. Associations between smoking and psychiatric comorbidity in U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-era veterans.

    PubMed

    McClernon, F Joseph; Calhoun, Patrick S; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S; Dedert, Eric A; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-12-01

    The risk of smoking increases with specific psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder); but the risk has also been shown to increase as a function of the number of psychiatric illnesses with which a person is diagnosed. The current study examined this association and other correlates of smoking-psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-era veterans who have served since September 11, 2001. The sample consisted of 1,691 veterans (Mage = 37.5 years, 20.2% women, 53.2% minority). Veterans completed measures of smoking history, nicotine dependence, and smoking expectancies; they also underwent a structured diagnostic interview to establish any current and/or lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Consistent with previous studies, the number of comorbid diagnoses was significantly associated with both heavy (>20 cigarettes/day) and light-to-moderate (≤20 cigarette/day) smoking. Moreover, among current smokers, significant correlations between self-reported dependence and number of diagnoses were observed. Examination of self-reported smoking expectancies revealed that a greater number of diagnoses were associated with greater expectancies of negative affect reduction, stimulation and state enhancement, taste and sensorimotor manipulation, social facilitation, craving and addiction, and boredom reduction. The present findings confirm the association between the number of comorbid diagnoses reported in previous studies, and extends those findings by identifying smoking expectancies differences among smokers with comorbid diagnoses.

  3. Thrusting of the Hindu Kush over the Southeastern Tadjik Basin, Afghanistan: Evidence from two large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey; Bryan, Carol; Roecker, Steven; McCaffrey, Robert

    1988-02-01

    We infer from the mechanisms and depths of two large earthquakes that the Hindu Kush is actively thrusting northwest over the Tadjik basin and that the basin is closing rather than being displaced to the west. Teleseismic body waves were used to determine focal mechanisms and depths for the two largest shallow earthquakes on the southern edge of the basin. The two earthquakes, on June 24, 1972 (mb=6.0), and December 16, 1982 (mb=6.2), have seismic moments of 2 × 1018 N-m and 6 × 1018 N-m, respectively. Focal mechanisms of both events indicate almost pure thrust faulting with nodal planes striking northeast-southwest. The inferred fault planes dip southeast, at 20° for the first event and 50° for the second. The P axes for both events are oblique to the direction of relative motion between India and Asia, suggesting that the Pamir is overthrusting the basin to the west. Depths for both earthquakes are between 20 and 25 km and place them well below the Tadjik basin sediments. The depths and steep fault planes suggest that these earthquakes represent a downdip extension within the basement of shallow folding and thrusting seen in the sediments northwest of the events. Thus convergence in Afghanistan between India and Eurasia is taken up along southeast dipping thrust faults north of the Hindu Kush as well as by northward subduction under the southern part of the range.

  4. Antibacterial and COX-1 Inhibitory Effect of Medicinal Plants from the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Plants used to treat inflammatory ailments, pain, fever and infections in the Pamir Mountains in northeastern Afghanistan, were tested for antibacterial and COX-1 inhibitory activity. Water and ethanol extracts of 20 species were tested for antibacterial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of Arnebia guttata inhibited Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of 6 µg/mL. Water and ethanol extracts of Ephedra intermedia and the ethanol extracts of Lagochilus cabulicus and Peganum harmala inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at 0.5 mg/mL,and the P. harmala extract further inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, also with MICs of 0.5 mg/mL. Ethanol extracts of Artemisia persica (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL), Dragocephalum paulsenii (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL), Ephedra intermedia (IC50: 3.8 µg/mL), Hyoscyamus pusillus, Nepeta parmiriensis (IC50: 0.7 µg/mL) and Rumex patientia subsp. pamiricus (IC50: 3.5 µg/mL) exhibited COX-1 inhibitory activity. The observed in vitro activities support the use of some of the plant species in the traditional medicine systems of the Pamir Mountains. PMID:27137641

  5. From Goya to Afghanistan--an essay on the ratio and ethics of medical war pictures.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Leo; de Mare, Heidi; Meijman, Frans J

    2010-01-01

    For centuries pictures of the dead and wounded have been part and parcel of war communications. Often the intentions were clear, ranging from medical instructions to anti-war protests. The public's response could coincide with or diverge from the publisher's intention. Following the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, and the subsequent claim of realism, the veracity of medical war images became more complex. Analysing and understanding such photographs have become an ethical obligation with democratic implications. We performed a multidisciplinary analysis of War Surgery (2008), a book containing harsh, full-colour photographs of mutilated soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our analysis shows that, within the medical context, this book is a major step forward in medical war communication and documentation. In the military context the book can be conceived as an attempt to put matters right given the enormous sacrifice some individuals have suffered. For the public, the relationship between the 'reality' and 'truth' of such photographs is ambiguous, because only looking at the photographs without reading the medical context is limiting. If the observer is not familiar with medical practice, it is difficult for him to fully assess, signify and acknowledge the value and relevance of this book. We therefore assert the importance of the role of professionals and those in the humanities in particular in educating the public and initiating debate.

  6. Race/ethnicity and gender differences in mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Seal, Karen H; Maguen, Shira

    2015-10-30

    Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; predominantly in Afghanistan) and Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OIF and OND; predominantly in Iraq) and are enrolled in the VA are comprised of a growing cohort of women and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities than civilians. To compare rates of mental health disorders by race/ethnicity and gender for this diverse cohort, we conducted a retrospective analysis of existing records from OEF/OIF/OND veterans who were seen at the VA 10/7/01-8/1/2013 (N=792,663). We found that race/ethnicity was related to diagnoses of mental health disorders. Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) were diagnosed with all disorders at lower rates than whites, and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) males were diagnosed with most disorders at higher rates than white males. Research is needed to identify contributing factors to differential rates of diagnoses based on race/ethnicity and gender. A/PIs and AI/ANs have unique patterns of mental health diagnoses indicating they should be considered separately to present a comprehensive picture of veteran mental health.

  7. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use.

  8. Combining Passive Microwave and Optical Data to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent in Afghanistan's Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Bair, N.; Calfa, A. A.; Skalka, C.; Tolle, K.; Bongard, J.

    2015-12-01

    The task is to estimate spatiotemporally distributed estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) in snow-dominated mountain environments, including those that lack on-the-ground measurements such as the Hindu Kush range in Afghanistan. During the snow season, we can use two measurements: (1) passive microwave estimates of SWE, which generally underestimate in the mountains; (2) fractional snow-covered area from MODIS. Once the snow has melted, we can reconstruct the accumulated SWE back to the last significant snowfall by calculating the energy used in melt. The reconstructed SWE values provide a training set for predictions from the passive microwave SWE and snow-covered area. We examine several machine learning methods—regression-boosted decision trees, bagged trees, neural networks, and genetic programming—to estimate SWE. All methods work reasonably well, with R2 values greater than 0.8. Predictors built with multiple years of data reduce the bias that usually appears if we predict one year from just one other year's training set. Genetic programming tends to produce results that additionally provide physical insight. Adding precipitation estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurements mission is in progress.

  9. Medical mentorship in Afghanistan: How are military mentors perceived by Afghan health care providers?

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Maj Andrew; Fowler, Robert; Adhikari, Neil; Hawryluck, Laura; Razek, Tarek; Tien, Col Homer

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous work has been published on the experiences of high-resource setting physicians mentoring in low-resource environments. However, not much is known about what mentees think about their First World mentors. We had the opportunity to explore this question in an Afghan Army Hospital, and we believe this is the first time this has been studied. Methods We conducted a pilot cross-sectional survey of Afghan health care providers evaluating their Canadian mentors. We created a culturally appropriate 19-question survey with 5-point Likert scores that was then translated into the local Afghan language. The survey questions were based on domains of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS criteria. Results The survey response rate was 90% (36 of 40). The respondents included 13 physicians, 21 nurses and 2 other health care professionals. Overall, most of the Afghan health care workers felt that working with mentors from high-resource settings was a positive experience (median 4.0, interquartile range [IQR] 4–4), according to CanMEDS domains. However, respondents indicated that the mentors were reliant on medical technology for diagnosis (median 5.0, IQR 4–5) and failed to consider the limited resources available in Afghanistan. Conclusion The overall impression of Afghan health care providers was that mentors are appropriate and helpful. CanMEDS can be used as a framework to evaluate mentors in low-resource conflict environments. PMID:26100785

  10. Antibacterial and COX-1 Inhibitory Effect of Medicinal Plants from the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Anne S; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2012-01-01

    Plants used to treat inflammatory ailments, pain, fever and infections in the Pamir Mountains in northeastern Afghanistan, were tested for antibacterial and COX-1 inhibitory activity. Water and ethanol extracts of 20 species were tested for antibacterial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of Arnebia guttata inhibited Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of 6 µg/mL. Water and ethanol extracts of Ephedra intermedia and the ethanol extracts of Lagochilus cabulicus and Peganum harmala inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at 0.5 mg/mL, and the P. harmala extract further inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, also with MICs of 0.5 mg/mL. Ethanol extracts of Artemisia persica (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL), Dragocephalum paulsenii (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL), Ephedra intermedia (IC50: 3.8 µg/mL), Hyoscyamus pusillus, Nepeta parmiriensis (IC50: 0.7 µg/mL) and Rumex patientia subsp. pamiricus (IC50: 3.5 µg/mL) exhibited COX-1 inhibitory activity. The observed in vitro activities support the use of some of the plant species in the traditional medicine systems of the Pamir Mountains. PMID:27137641

  11. Stress management and factors related to the deployment of Italian peacekeepers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, Marta; Occhiolini, Lucius; Di Nicola, Lorella; Vellante, Piero; Di Mascio, Rocco; Guizzardi, Marco; Colagrande, Vittorio; Ballone, Enzo

    2007-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the stress levels in Italian military personnel involved in a peacekeeping (PK) mission in Afghanistan and a homogeneous group stationed in Italy (SI group). The study was performed from April 2004 to June 2004 in a sample of 160 long-time, career volunteers of the Rossi Barracks of the Alpini di L'Aquila (Italy) (SI group, n=120; PK group, n=40). A 10-item, self-evaluation questionnaire proposed in the U.N. Stress Management Booklet was administered to each volunteer. The total item score (TIS) values for the 10 items for the two groups were calculated. These values were greater for the PK group than for the SI group for all 10 items. The TIS values were grouped into three classes of symptoms, anxiety symptoms (items 1-4), stress-induced depression (items 5-7), and posttraumatic stress (items 8-10). The class total item score (CTIS) values were then calculated as the sum of the respective TIS values. The three CTIS values for the PK group were greater than those for the SI group. In particular, the anxiety CTIS was 72 points greater in the PK group (p < 0.001). Therefore, the peacekeepers were inclined to have a greater increase in anxiety symptoms. Consequently, antipanic techniques could be used to reduce anxiety and progressive muscular relaxation training, an important preventive relaxation technique, to face stressors and to reduce clinical anxiety. PMID:17357766

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan Area of Interest, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.; McLoughlin, Isabel H.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance investigation of the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan Area of Interest (AOI) in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Detailed investigations of the Zarkashan gold deposits were conducted by Soviet and Afghan geologists in the 1960s and 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected concentration and borehole sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan AOI. A methodology combining the collection and analysis of historical sampling data, digital database development, hydrologic analysis, and geomorphic modeling was used. The analysis led to the reinterpretation of four gold-bearing seams along the Zarkashan River, and the calculation of an estimated gold reserve of approximately 3,000 kilograms (kg). This estimate is approximately 1,500 kg greater than the Soviet estimate. The result differs in large part due to the reinterpretation of the seams based on a much lower cutoff grade of 100 mg/m3. Because cutoff grade is dependent in part on the price of gold, the sevenfold increase in the price of gold since the undertaking of the Soviet investigation warranted our re-evaluation of their 500 mg/m3 cutoff grade.

  13. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; Olatunji, Bunmi O; de Jong, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of peritraumatic disgust and trait disgust vulnerability factors (disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity) predict PTSD-symptoms, independently of peritraumatic fear, neuroticism, and anxiety sensitivity. Participants (N = 174) enrolled in this study before deployment, and were retested around 6 months (N = 138; 79%) and, again, 15 months (N = 107; 62%) after returning home. The results showed that (1) greater peritraumatic disgust and fear independently predicted PTSD-symptom severity at 6 months, (2) greater disgust propensity predicted more peritraumatic disgust, but not PTSD-symptom severity, and (3) disgust sensitivity moderated the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD-symptom severity. Implications of these findings for broadening the affective vulnerabilities that may contribute to PTSD will be discussed. PMID:20800428

  14. Easing reintegration: telephone support groups for spouses of returning Iraq and Afghanistan service members.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Linda Olivia; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey; Burns, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Spouses of returning Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, OIF) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF) military service members report increased depression and anxiety post deployment as they work to reintegrate the family and service member. Reconnecting the family, renegotiating roles that have shifted, reestablishing communication patterns, and dealing with mental health concerns are all tasks that spouses must undertake as part of reintegration. We tested telephone support groups focusing on helping spouses with these basic reintegration tasks. Year-long telephone support groups focused on education, skills building (communication skills, problem solving training, cognitive behavioral techniques, stress management), and support. Spouse depression and anxiety were decreased and perceived social support was increased during the course of the study. In subgroup analyses, spouses with husbands whose injuries caused care difficulties had a positive response to the intervention. However, they were more likely to be depressed, be anxious, and have less social support compared to participants who had husbands who had no injury or whose injury did not cause care difficulty. Study findings suggest that this well-established, high-access intervention can help improve quality of life for military spouses who are struggling with reintegration of the service member and family. PMID:24134192

  15. Provision of nutrition support therapies in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.

    PubMed

    Stankorb, Susan M; Ramsey, Casside; Clark, Heidi; Osgood, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the experience of nutrition support practitioners, specifically dietitians, providing care to combat casualties. It provides a brief overview of dietitians' induction into armed service but focuses primarily on their role in providing nutrition support during the most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The current system of combat casualty care is discussed with specific emphasis on providing early and adequate nutrition support to U.S. combat casualties from injury, care in theater combat support hospitals (CSHs)/expeditionary medical support (EMEDs), and en route care during critical care air transport (CCAT) up to arrival at treatment facilities in the United States. The article also examines practices and challenges faced in the CSHs/EMEDs providing nutrition support to non-U.S. or coalition patients. Over the past decade in armed conflicts, dietitians, physicians, nurses, and other medical professionals have risen to challenges, have implemented systems, and continue working to optimize treatment across the spectrum of combat casualty care. PMID:25606636

  16. Injury careers after blast exposure among combat veterans deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Chase, Rachel P; McMahon, Shannon A; Winch, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    During the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, blasts were the most common cause of combat injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prior to 2007, service members were not systematically screened for TBI, and estimates suggest that tens of thousands of mild TBIs went undiagnosed. This study sought to understand post-acute "injury careers," documenting the life- and health-related narratives of veterans who were at high risk of undocumented TBI due to being blast-exposed before 2007. Researchers conducted 38 in-depth interviews between May 2013 and August 2014 with Army veterans who served in combat-intense settings (n = 16) and their family members (n = 10). Respondents detailed a series of experiences in the months and years following blast exposure. We present this series as a model that draws upon the vernacular of participants who described veterans "downplaying" their injuries and later "detaching" themselves from friends, family, and communities, and "denying" or being "oblivious" to their circumstances until a "wake-up call" pushed them to "get help." Looking to the future, veterans grapple with uncertainties related to personal identity and professional or social expectations. This model is presented within a member-checked metaphor of an individual being hurled into--and emerging from--a canyon. Policies and programs addressing veteran health, particularly among those exposed to multiple blasts prior to systematic TBI documentation, must consider the personal, social, and health system challenges faced by veterans and their families throughout their injury careers. PMID:26618495

  17. Correlates of pain symptoms among Iraq and Afghanistan military personnel following combat-related blast exposure.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-01-01

    Pain complaints are highly prevalent among military servicemembers and Veterans of the recent combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The high comorbidity of pain with conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) underscores the importance of a greater understanding of factors associated with complex polytraumatic injuries among military personnel. The present study aimed to identify correlates of current pain among 201 U.S. military personnel who reported at least one blast experience during combat deployment (age [mean +/– standard deviation]: 27.20 +/– 7.58 yr). Theoretically derived subsets of variables were analyzed in successive hierarchical regression models to determine correlates of self-reported pain symptoms. Preliminary models evaluated demographic features, medical and injury characteristics (e.g., TBI classification), psychosocial history (e.g., trauma exposure), and psychiatric variables. A final model was then derived, in which older age, possible or probable mild TBI, depression symptoms, and PTSD re-experiencing symptoms emerged as significant correlates of pain. The findings further the understanding of polytrauma symptoms among military personnel by identifying specific patient characteristics and comorbidity patterns related to pain complaints. Increased awareness of demographic, psychiatric, or medical factors implicated in pain will enhance comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention efforts. PMID:25789376

  18. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, D.M.; Renaud, K.M.; Drew, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C 1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110. 8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C 2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P 2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C 2 and P 2 resources are 1,659. 1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P 2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology (outside the USA).

  19. Afghanistan's Basic Package of Health Services: Its development and effects on rebuilding the health system

    PubMed Central

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional. PMID:24865404

  20. Race/ethnicity and gender differences in mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Seal, Karen H; Maguen, Shira

    2015-10-30

    Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; predominantly in Afghanistan) and Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OIF and OND; predominantly in Iraq) and are enrolled in the VA are comprised of a growing cohort of women and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities than civilians. To compare rates of mental health disorders by race/ethnicity and gender for this diverse cohort, we conducted a retrospective analysis of existing records from OEF/OIF/OND veterans who were seen at the VA 10/7/01-8/1/2013 (N=792,663). We found that race/ethnicity was related to diagnoses of mental health disorders. Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) were diagnosed with all disorders at lower rates than whites, and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) males were diagnosed with most disorders at higher rates than white males. Research is needed to identify contributing factors to differential rates of diagnoses based on race/ethnicity and gender. A/PIs and AI/ANs have unique patterns of mental health diagnoses indicating they should be considered separately to present a comprehensive picture of veteran mental health. PMID:26282226

  1. Distinct circulating recombinant HIV-1 strains among injecting drug users and sex workers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Buell, Eric; Bose, Meera; Nasir, Abdul; Todd, Catherine S; Stanekzai, M Raza; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Scott, Paul T; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Tjaden, Jeffrey; Michael, Nelson L; McCutchan, Francine E

    2010-05-01

    Little information is available regarding a circulating HIV genotype among high-risk groups in Afghanistan; we describe HIV genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and sex workers (SWs) in four Afghan cities. Participants completed behavioral questionnaires and HIV testing. Western blot-confirmed specimens had peripheral mononuclear blood cells isolated for genotyping. Analysis of recombinants was done by bootscanning and manual sequence alignment. The single SW sample harbored a CRF01_AE strain. Of 10 IDUs available for analysis, all were CRF35_AD and from Hirat. Analyzed subregions (gag p17 and env C1-C5) revealed close homology between the Hirat specimens. Three distinct subclusters comprising two or three strains were identified, whereas two other strains were generally equidistant from previously identified Kabul strains. Results suggest that the nascent HIV epidemic among IDUs in Hirat is largely, if not entirely, subtype CRF35_AD, and the close homology suggests recent infection; harm reduction should be supported to avert further transmission.

  2. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  3. Nursing science: more promise than threat.

    PubMed

    Jennings, B M

    1986-09-01

    This paper considers the issue of nursing science. Nursing, as an art, has long been accepted as integral to nursing. Nursing, as a science, however, is a more recent concept. Nursing science is viewed as a threat to the profession by its opponents, while the proponents of nursing science see it as a promise for advancement of the discipline. This paper examines the issue of nursing science by looking at its history and development, the definition of science, and five factors critical to the nursing science issue. The author concludes that nursing science is, in varying respects, both a threat and a promise. It is clear that the preponderance of evidence favours the promise nursing science holds for the profession of nursing. It is not a matter of choosing either art or science, but rather skillfully blending both for the betterment of nursing. Both art and science are necessary in nursing--neither, however, is sufficient.

  4. Reversed field pinch: Progress and promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprott, J. C.

    1985-05-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a fusion reactor concept which, like the tokamak, confines the reacting plasma by the magnetic field produced in part by electrical currents flowing in the toroidally-confined plasma. Unlike the tokamak, the RFP requires very little externally-applied magnetic field, and thus offers the promise of a compact reactor with high power density which can be ohmically heated to ignition using non-superconducting magnet coils. Recent progress worldwide in RFP performance and physics understanding offers the promise of a new generation of devices which approach reactor conditions.

  5. Promising Practices in Instruction of Discovery Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…

  6. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  7. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  8. Responses to Broken Promises: Does Personality Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Violet T.; Weingart, Laurie R.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined the effects of personality traits on individuals' reactions to broken promises. We studied the effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on emotive and cognitive responses to breach and investigated whether these effects varied across different types (economic vs. social) and severity (high vs. low) of breach. We collected data…

  9. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Neighborhoods strategies, these entities are at different stages of readiness to create a Promise Neighborhood... and implementation grants. The proposed priorities, requirements, and selection criteria are different... the Top notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010, 74 FR 59836, 59866 (November 18,...

  10. Promise in Action: Examples of Institutional Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how three campuses have, in their own way, attempted to bring coherence to the student experience and enrich that experience by more closely matching what was promised to what each student actually experiences while enrolled. Fulfilling students' expectations that were purposefully articulated in the mission…

  11. Student Teaching: Problems and Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Gary A., Ed.; Edwards, Sara, Ed.

    The working conference "Student Teaching: Problems and Promising Practices" brought together experts representing three different role orientations: cooperating teachers, school system representatives, and teacher educators. Under discussion was the student teaching process and the nature of research that might contribute to its better…

  12. Fulfilling the Promise of Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Sarah W.; McGhee, Marla W.; Meno, Lionel R.; Slater, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    When No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was signed into law, the President and secretary of education promised sweeping reform of the American education system. In the five years since the law took effect, U.S. public schools have, indeed, seen remarkable change. However, not all of the changes have been well received. Policy makers, scholars, and…

  13. Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education during the 1996-99 Gender Equity Expert Panel review cycle. These programs need to meet four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity, quality of program, educational significance, and usefulness to others or…

  14. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  15. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  16. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  17. Implementing Performance Assessment: Promises, Problems, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and David…

  18. Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

  19. Contribution of the Mission in Afghanistan to the Burden of Past-Year Mental Disorders in Canadian Armed Forces Personnel, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zamorski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of the mission in Afghanistan to the burden of mental health problems in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Methods: Data were obtained from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, which assessed mental disorders using the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The sample consisted of 6696 Regular Force (RegF) personnel, 3384 of whom had deployed in support of the mission. We estimated the association of past-year mental health problems with Afghanistan deployment status, adjusting for covariates using logistic regression; population attributable fractions (PAFs) were also calculated. Results: Indication of a past-year mental disorder was identified in 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.0% to 19.7%) of Afghanistan deployers compared with 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3% to 15.8%) in others. Afghanistan-related deployments contributed to the burden of a past-year disorder (PAF = 8.7%; 95% CI, 3.0% to 14.2%), with the highest PAFs being seen for panic disorder (34.7%) and posttraumatic stress disorder (32.1%). The PAFs for individual alcohol use disorders and suicide ideation were not different from zero. Child abuse, however, had a much greater PAF for any past-year disorder (28.7%; 95% CI, 23.4% to 33.7%) than did the Afghanistan mission. Conclusions: The mission in Afghanistan contributed significantly to the burden of mental disorders in the CAF RegF in 2013. However, the much stronger contribution of child abuse highlights the need for strong military mental health systems, even in peacetime, and the need to target the full range of determinants of mental health in prevention and control efforts. PMID:27270744

  20. Jumpstarting post-conflict strategic water resources protection from a changing global perspective: gaps and prospects in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Habib, H; Anceno, A J; Fiddes, J; Beekma, J; Ilyuschenko, M; Nitivattananon, V; Shipin, O V

    2013-11-15

    Notwithstanding ambiguities, long-term economic resurgence in Afghanistan amidst water insecurity exacerbated by climate change decisively requires a water protection strategy that will complement a multitude of agroindustrial and socioeconomic activities in an environmentally sustainable and climate resilient manner. In this paper, we begin with a perspective on institutions, legislation, and key issues in the water sector of Afghanistan. We then embark on linking the integrated water resources management (IWRM) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) approaches as a novel framework for strategic water management and subsequently propose a strategy for post-conflict water protection based on the coalesced IWRM and SEA. Context relevant good practices worldwide are presented to provide empirical evidence for this approach whereas perceived opportunities and vulnerabilities in the Afghan context are discussed. Examination of post-conflict water sector initiatives in Afghanistan reveals the critical role of foreign assistance in both water infrastructure rehabilitation and modernization of the institutional aspect of water management. The introduction of IWRM as the basis for a progressive water sector strategy has been seen as a major milestone which is detrimentally matched by substantial deficiency in national capacity for implementation. Concurrently, the role of extra-national actors in relevant policy interventions has been considered catalytic despite criticisms of proposed regulations as being anachronistic to field realities. Therefore the view is maintained to practicable policies by accelerating policy learning in the country's water and environment sectors to encourage homegrown water strategy innovations. Demonstratively, mainstreaming IWRM-SEA coalescence will bridge institutional gaps for better feedback between local and national water stakeholders, providing a venue for improved delivery of water services to sustain post-conflict socioeconomic