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  1. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  2. Spotlight: Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Felt, J C

    1988-05-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country approximately the size of Texas with an estimated population of 14.5 million. The fertility level (6.7 children per women) is estimated to be very high, as is the mortality rate (183 infant deaths/1,000 live births). Demographic data sources are scarce, and current estimates are based on a 1972-1974 series of surveys and a 1979 census which enumerated only 55-60% of the population. The government of Afghanistan, a Marxist state, has asked for international aid to improve data collection and analysis. Compounding the problems of accurate data collection is the state of civil war that has existed in Afghanistan since the Marxist coup in in 1978 and Soviet occupation in 1979. The war impelled the emigration of 5 million refugees, who live in camps in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. Although the population decline that resulted from this emigration is significant, the repatriation of the refugees will play a role in determining the population dynamics for the next decade, as will the withdrawal of Soviet troops -- expected in 1990. Because of Afghanistan's central-Asia location, there is a unique ethnic and linguistic mixture of tribes. The largest group is the Pushtus, who make up 40% of the population. Afghan Persian and Pushtu are the dominant languages, and 98% of all Afghans are Moslem. The economy is largely agricultural and half the cultivated land must be irrigated. 85% of the population live in rural areas and another 2.5 million are nomads. The low status of women and female children, low levels of health care, and high fertility contribute to the lower life expectancy of females over males. Although the government supports contraceptive services, such services are inadequate, and sterilization is illegal. The withdrawal of Soviet troops and the possible end to civil war between the Kabul government and the rebel factions, and the effects of repatriation of refugees will determine the direction of Afghanistan's future

  3. Afghanistan: Reconstituting a Collapsed State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    the pieces back in place and hoping Afghanistan will reanimate automatically as a functioning state. It may surprise some to know that the main...mission for several years, and during this window of opportunity, the ANA can be utilized for greater political effect.51 The 18,000 coalition forces and...internal dissension, and loss of its former Pakistani sponsors have severely reduced its capabilities.52 More promising, Taliban militants recently

  4. Afghanistan: A Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.

    Afghanistan and its people are not well known or understood by the United States, yet many U.S. people now consider the U.S. and Afghanistan to be at war. How is it possible to know the enemy? This book offers a complete, but not exhaustive source of information about Afghanistan, the land and its people. The book is intended as a guide for anyone…

  5. Rehabilitating Afghanistan's natural resources

    Treesearch

    George Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in late 1979. During the next 23 years, the war between the Mujahideen Resistance and the Soviet forces, the ensuing civil war, and eventual take over by the Taliban caused enormous harm to the natural resources of Afghanistan. In 2003, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) was asked by the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service to provide...

  6. Terrorism, Insurgency, and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    terrorists within Pakistan but do not make any significant effort to arrest Taliban fighters or stop them from crossing the border into Afghanistan.14 Indeed...Pakistan after the Soviet-Afghan War—not the Taliban or its network of supporters in the MMA. While the perceived threat from India and fear of a two-front...of 2004, a variety of guerilla tactics (including assassinations and kid - nappings) in Afghanistan18 and numerous reports of knowledge transfer

  7. Democratization of Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan Transition Under Threat, ed. Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra (Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), 34. 20 Charles L. Barry and...ed. Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra (Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), 105. 25 Ibid. 26 Charles L. Barry and Samuel R. Greene, What...Priorities for the Future.” In Afghanistan Transition Under Threat, edited by Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , 89-148. Canada: Wilfrid Laurier

  8. Applying Realism Theory in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    the Afghanistan strategy in order to meet changing national strategic objectives. Most recently the Obama Administration, following a nine month...Administration and the Obama Administration adjusted and modified the Afghanistan strategy in order to meet changing national strategic objectives. Most...modified the Afghanistan strategy in order to meet changing national strategic objectives. Unfortunately for the United States, the Bush

  9. UNO's Afghanistan Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, M. D.

    This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

  10. Why Is Afghanistan Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    As a former Peace Corps volunteer, avid traveler, classroom geography teacher, and writer, the author has been interested in Afghanistan for decades. Sparked by her own travel experiences in Kabul in February 1970, she made certain that her ninth grade World History/Geography students in south Central Los Angeles not only knew where Afghanistan…

  11. Pakistan and Afghanistan Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In March and April 1968, the author was a guest of the U.S. Information Service on a two week trip to Pakistan and Afghanistan. During this stay, 30 libraries in five cities were visited. This paper describes this trip and relates the library happenings in these countries. It was obvious that Pakistan librarianship had advanced beyond the…

  12. Why Is Afghanistan Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    As a former Peace Corps volunteer, avid traveler, classroom geography teacher, and writer, the author has been interested in Afghanistan for decades. Sparked by her own travel experiences in Kabul in February 1970, she made certain that her ninth grade World History/Geography students in south Central Los Angeles not only knew where Afghanistan…

  13. Afghanistan Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Save the Children, Westport, CT.

    This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

  14. UNO's Afghanistan Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, M. D.

    This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

  15. Pistacia in Afghanistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four species of Pistacia have been reported within Afghanistan: Pistacia vera L., P. Khinjuk Stocks, P.atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech. f., and P. integerrima (=P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. f.). Information on their identification is provided based on recent literat...

  16. Area Handbook for Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harvey H.; And Others

    This handbook is one of a series prepared by Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of The American University as a convenient compilation of basic fact for American military and other personnel overseas. It deals with the political, social, economic, and military developments since 1959, which have contributed to Afghanistan's continuing national stability…

  17. Current challenges and future achievements of blood transfusion service in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, A M; Sanei Moghaddam, E; Masoud, A; Faisal, H

    2012-10-01

    Afghanistan is a country with population of over 28 million. The long term conflicts have devastated country's qualified resources including human resources. ANBSTS was established by MoPH as the country national blood service. Currently in addition to central and regional blood centers of ANBSTS many other hospitals have their own transfusion services. Blood donation in Afghanistan mainly depends on replacement donors. Donor selection and donor interview are not very efficient. Most of the blood in Afghanistan is administered as fresh whole blood. Although blood transfusion services in Afghanistan require more efforts to be fully efficient, based on recent improvements in working procedures of ANBSTS a promising future for blood transfusion services in Afghanistan is predicted.

  18. Afghanistan Narcotics: The Bigger Battle Toward Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    65  iv Table of Figures Figure 1. Poppy ...Cultivation in Afghanistan 1996-2006......................................................... 13 Figure 2. Opium poppy cultivation change in Afghanistan...20 Figure 4. Opium Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan (ha), 2003-2007 .................................... 20 Figure 5. Salaries in Afghanistan

  19. Afghanistan Glacier Diminution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of melt water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with glacierized drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped glacier regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for glacier-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that glaciers, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many glaciers declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock glaciers, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of glacier location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest glaciers occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 glaciers from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 glacier-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated glacier forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent glacier-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and glacier retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary

  20. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balwanz; David

    2007-01-01

    From 1979 to 2002, Afghanistan was in a near constant state of war and exhibited some of the lowest levels of development in the world. While local conflicts and Taliban remnants continue to challenge Afghanistan's reconstruction and stabilization, significant progress has been made since the 2001 U.S. led invasion and subsequent fall of the…

  1. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  2. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11099

  3. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Khyber Pass, Afghanistan-Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-08

    The ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft imaged the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Afghanistan and Pakistan. Throughout its history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia.

  5. Afghanistan: Nation or Narco State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Anglo- Russian Convention formally ended the "Great Game " and established Afghanistan’s role as a buffer state between British India and Russian holdings...became increasingly attractive to the various tribes. As a non -perishable, low- weight, high-value product, it was ideally suited as both a cash...regional and sectarian factionalism within Afghanistan, foreign powers, reminiscent of the "Great Game ," enmeshed themselves in the country by supporting

  6. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-14

    1 For text, see [http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/afghan/afghan-agree.htm]. Order Code RS21922 Updated October 14, 2008 Afghanistan: Government ...However, ethnic disputes have been confined to political debate and competition, enabling Karzai to focus on improving governance , reversing security...deterioration and on his re-election bid in the fall of 2009. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post- War Governance , Security, and U.S. Policy, by

  7. Afghanistan: A War of Necessity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    continue to question the “necessity” of winning the war in Afghanistan and whether it’s vital to our national interests. Afghanistan continues to be...Counterinsurgency, Insurgency, Vital 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...2010 WORD COUNT: 7,054 PAGES: 30 KEY TERMS: Counterinsurgency, Insurgency, Vital CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Nine Years have passed since

  8. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government Performance Congressional Research Service 25 appointments and provide for two ECC officials to...U.N. compound in the city and killed at least 12 people , including 7 U.N workers. A more serious Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government...Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government Performance Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs September 17, 2014

  9. Securing Afghanistan’s Future Against Opium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    International Studies, 2007), 51. 38 Blanchard, Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy, 35. 39 Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan Transition Under...Geoffrey and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan: Transition Under Threat. Waterloo, Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation and Wilfrid Laurier

  10. The Afghanistan experience.

    PubMed

    Cosio, M P

    1977-01-01

    The Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) operated in Afghanistan in 1975-76. It had the same philosophy and method as that in Nepal, but was implemented differently based on needs and development plans, and especially the need to institutionalize the MTS. The training course was interdepartmental and took place at the Gulzar Training Centre near Kabul. The main features of the MTS are job analysis through role performance, leading to realistic job description, and developing indigenous teaching materials thus evolving a curriculum based on realities of the field situation. A policy and overseeing mechanism was established--the Interdepartmental Council composed of the heads of rural, adult education and literacy, cooperatives, women, and agricultural departments, and a steering committee elected by the participants. The trainee trainers were drawn from these 5 sectors. The trainer's class recommended a national training center at Gulzar, the use of indigenous teaching materials, better coordination between the village and district (woleswal) levels, popular participation, and most of all, the need to institutionalize the MTS approach. It was agreed the Interdepartmental Council would continue as a monitoring system, thus taking care of the need for acceptance by the policy makers. This continuation provided for the institutionalization of the MTS approach; the Council formed a program to take place after the MTS departed. The article includes a schematic projected model for implementation of the MTS program from training to post training and institutional arrangements to institutional reforms in policy.

  11. Seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This publication describes the seismicity of Afghanistan and vicinity and is intended for use in seismic hazard studies of that nation. Included are digital files with information on earthquakes that have been recorded in Afghanistan and vicinity through mid-December 2004. Chapter A provides an overview of the seismicity and tectonics of Afghanistan and defines the earthquake parameters included in the 'Summary Catalog' and the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects.' Chapter B summarizes compilation of the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' and documents their formats. The 'Summary Catalog' itself is presented as a comma-delimited ASCII file, the 'Summary of Macroseismic Effects' is presented as an html file, and the 'Master Catalog' and 'Sub-Threshold Catalog' are presented as flat ASCII files. Finally, this report includes as separate plates a digital image of a map of epicenters of earthquakes occurring since 1964 (Plate 1) and a representation of areas of damage or strong shaking from selected past earthquakes in Afghanistan and vicinity (Plate 2).

  12. Surgical theatre in rural Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Halbert, R J; Simon, R R; Nasraty, Q

    1988-08-01

    We discuss the establishment of underground surgical theatres in resistance-held, rural Afghanistan by the IMC. The limitations of working in facilities without electricity or modern surgical equipment or even adequate suction are discussed, and the methods we have implemented to deal with these limitations are presented.

  13. Communicable disease control in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Mohammad S; Powell, Clydette L; Bano, Rashida A; Quddus, Arshad D; Shah, Syad K; Ogden, Ellyn L; Butt, Waqar R; Moideen, Mohd Arshil

    2014-01-01

    Among public health challenges in Afghanistan, communicable diseases still predominate because the epidemiologic transition to chronic disease has not yet occurred. Afghanistan's 10-year journey to improve its response to communicable disease is reflected in varying degrees of progress and innovation, all while long-standing conflict and geographic inaccessibility limit outreach and effective service delivery to vulnerable populations. Although Afghanistan is close to achieving polio elimination, other reportable communicable diseases are only slowly achieving their goals and objectives through targeted, sustained programmatic efforts. The introduction of disease early warning systems has allowed for identification and investigation of outbreaks within 48 hours. Tuberculosis case detection has risen over the last 10 years, and treatment success rates have been sustained at World Health Organization targets over the last 5 years at 85%. These successes are in large part due to increased government commitment, Global Fund support, training of community health workers and improved laboratory capabilities. Malaria cases dropped between 2002 and 2010. HIV/AIDS has been kept at low levels except in only certain sub-sectors of the population. In order to build on these achievements, Afghanistan will need a comprehensive strategy for all communicable diseases, with better human and infrastructure development, better multi-sectoral development and international collaboration.

  14. Progress and Pain in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoepf, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Academics in Afghanistan, with help from abroad, are struggling to repair the damage done to the country's higher-education system by decades of occupation, civil war, and fundamentalist Taliban rule. However, sporadic foreign aid, a lack of basic resources, and overwhelming demand leave plenty of room for improvement in the otherwise remarkable…

  15. Loess failure in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Schettler, Megan Jensen; Weihs, Brandon J.

    Mass movements in northeastern Afghanistan include large-scale rockslides and complex slope failures, as well as failures in loess. The loess region in northeastern Afghanistan occurs in the Badakhshan and Takhar provinces and was likely created by dust blown to the east from the Karakum Desert and the alluvial plains of northern Afghanistan. This loessic dust was deposited against the Hindu Kush mountain range which rises up along the eastern half of Afghanistan as a result of transpressional tectonism. It overlies less permeable crystalline and sedimentary bedrocks such as Triassic granite, Proterozoic gneiss, and Miocene and Pliocene clastics in the area with the largest concentration of slope failures. Thirty-four loess slides and flows were mapped and analyzed using remote satellite imagery over digital elevation models on Google Earth™. This source enabled location, classification, and measurement of failures. Findings revealed that most failed slopes faced north, west, and northwest. This trend can be explained possibly as different moisture contents resulting from the primarily westerly wind direction, which may cause more precipitation to be deposited on west-facing slopes, and sun position during the hottest part of the day. Additionally, the easterly rising Hindu Kush range may cause more slope area to face west in the study region. Other contributing factors could be the very high seismicity of the area, which may cause rapid dry fluidized loess flows, and landscape modification by humans. Several loess slope failures appear to be generated by water concentration through irrigation ditches and possible rutted tire tracks, which can create tunneling between the loess and its less permeable bedrock. Causes and effects of loess failure in Afghanistan need to be investigated in more depth. Further study may lead to the adoption of more sustainable and safe farming practices and more informed housing locations, which may prevent loss of property, crop, and

  16. Indicators of NGO Security in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-14

    warlord in charge of the province, the aid group is less likely to come under attack. Despite their many faults , the Taliban government curbed the...province share a boundary with Afghanistan border?(Yes/No) Source: Afghanistan Information Management System shapefile 7. BorderPak- Does the...province share a boundary with Pakistan? (Yes/No) Source: Afghanistan Information Management System shapefile 8. Foodpop#- Beneficiary population of

  17. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    Afghanistan: Background and Policy Issues, by Rhoda Margesson; and CRS Report R41484, Afghanistan: U.S. Rule of Law and Justice Sector Assistance...Afghanistan from exile when the Taliban fell. Organizations and groups centered on various issues, including women’s rights, law and justice , media...jirgas (consultative councils),2 often composed of designated notables, are key mechanisms for making authoritative decisions or dispensing justice

  18. Measles epidemic sweeps through Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    2000-04-22

    This article reports that the measles epidemic continues to spread in at least 7 of the war-ravaged Afghanistan's 30 provinces. The WHO estimated that the case-fatality rate has reached 8-13%. This was further exacerbated by a lack of the most basic health service, which led to thousands of children malnourished and nonimmunized. In Badakhshan province, the districts of Darwaz, Shegnan, Kishem, Khawhan, Kalafgan, Chal and Ishkamish were areas affected by the epidemic. On the other hand, in Samangan province the scene was worst in the district of Darra Souf. Likewise, in the western province of Afghanistan districts of Tolak and Kush Rabat Sango, child death due to measles were also reported. In response, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization announced that 25 million children would benefit from a donation of US$350 million annually.

  19. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  20. The Afghanistan National Institute of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article, David Forrest probes Ahmad Sarmast (Founder and Director of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music, Ministry of Education, Afghanistan) about the development of the Institute, its sponsorship, the range of local musicians and music educators that work there, and the student population.

  1. Developing a Language Curriculum in Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayerson, Paul S.; Alimi, M. Zaher

    This paper outlines ways in which Afghanistan is modernizing its elementary language arts curriculum, changing from the traditional curriculum which stressed rote memorization of academic materials to an approach which encourages active inquiry and problem solving. Initial sections of the paper present background information on Afghanistan and its…

  2. 76 FR 31470 - Taliban (Afghanistan) Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... procedure, Afghanistan, Banks, Banking, Blocking of assets, Foreign investments in the United States... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 545 Taliban (Afghanistan) Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the...

  3. Project Afghanistan: From Experiment to Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bannon, George W.

    1976-01-01

    Begun in 1972 as a joint cultural exchange program of the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Department of State, Project Afghanistan has been in operation for four years and has included 31 American and 17 Afghanistan students. A project director describes the program. (JT)

  4. Primary and Secondary Curriculum Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgescu, Dakmara

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes curriculum processes and products pertaining to the overall reconstruction of Afghanistan's education system after 2002. With the support of several international agencies, including UNESCO's International Bureau of Education (IBE), as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Afghanistan's Ministry of Education succeeded…

  5. Information Infrastructure and Social Adaptation in Rural Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    2009): 80. 153 Peter Meisen and Parnijan Azizy, “ Rural Electrification in Afghanistan,” Global Energy Network Institute, March 2008, http...www.geni.org/globalenergy/research/ rural - electrification -in- afghanistan/ Rural %20Electrification%20in%20Afghanistan.pdf, 2. 154 “South Africa: Using Cell...and-peacebuilding-in-afghanistan. 162 Meisen and Azizy, “ Rural Electrification in Afghanistan,” 3. 163 Brett Blackledge et al., “Afghans Aren’t

  6. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  7. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  8. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-06

    central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the fall of the Taliban. Some...former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush...in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC

  9. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    move but in late August 2013 relented and appointed Umar Daudzai (see above) as Interior Minister. Politics of the National Assembly During his two ...Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government Performance Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs June 23, 2014...Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government Performance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  10. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    Drugs and Crime (UNODC) published its latest opium survey results for Afghanistan. Once again, the area under poppy cultivation increased, this time...incidents occurred in the east, the security Incidents: reported incidents that include armed clashes, improvised explosive devices , targeted killings...these funds through the DOD Drug Interdiction and Counter- Drug Activities (DOD CN) Fund ($2.8 billion), the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF

  11. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    to continue to fight a successful insurgency in Helmand province well into 2010. Their capacity to deny the Government of the Islamic Republic of...Sunni Islamic caliphate in Afghanistan. As the Mujahedeens continued to demonstrate a capability to resist the Soviet expansion in Afghanistan, the...population in vicinity of Marine bases. Small unit leaders within the Marine 17 Corps would engage with locals, and in a fashion developed an impression

  12. Afghanistan tragedy: public health and human suffering.

    PubMed

    Laming, A

    1995-12-01

    Dedicated to two young volunteers killed in a landmine clearing accident, this story of Afghanistan is just one among thousands of others that never leave its borders. To understand Afghanistan is to come to terms with the religious, racial and cultural faultlines that divide it. A 3 month medical placement provided insights rather than answers. An indomitable people through famine, war, firce winters and foreign intrusion, the Afghanis are set to continue their struggle into succeeding generations.

  13. Wanat: Combat Action in Afghanistan, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    northeastern Afghanistan was apparent. To augment and later replace the small Marine contingent, in April 2006, the 3d BCT, 10th Mountain Division known as TF...responsibility for the smaller 27 Fi gu re 4 . A O B ay on et , J ul y 20 08 . 28 AOs in the provinces. Finally, in March of 2008, the 3d ...organizationally contained three platoons, throughout the Afghanistan deployment one platoon ( 3d Platoon) was detached to Destined Company. Thus, Myer only had

  14. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper.

  15. Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Ludington, Stephen; Orris, Greta J.; Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.; Rytuba, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines to assess the undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan between 2006 and 2007. This report presents the results of this work and contains chapters describing and assessing the mineral resources of Afghanistan. An accompanying Geographical Information System (GIS) is an accompanying disk that includes supporting data. Funding for this effort was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

  16. The state and challenges of conservation nurseries in Afghanistan

    Treesearch

    John T. Harrington; John G. Mexal; A. M. Wagner; Tammy Parsons

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan is a semi-arid, mountainous country with a climate similar to New Mexico. Unfortunately, much of the country has been deforested by unsustainable fuelwood harvesting, overgrazing, and even concerns over security. The senior author was invited to assess the Afghanistan forestry situation in 6 provinces as part of the Afghanistan Water, Agriculture, and...

  17. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  18. Afghanistan environmental profile. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Afghanistan's environment, already scarred by 12 years of conflict, is likely to undergo severe stress as external and internal refugees are resettled, according to this preliminary environmental profile. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 discusses the state of Afghanistan's environment in 1978 prior to the Soviet invasion, while Chapter 3 documents the environmental impacts of events since that time, including population relocation, deforestation, and locust and sunn-pest infestations. Chapter 4 examines major environmental areas (vegetation, wildlife, soil erosion, pesticides, public health, environmental infrastructure, energy, and air quality) with respect to both existing conditions and what is likely to occur when resettlement begins in earnest. Chapter 5 presents potential mitigation measures, including a set of environmental guidelines for the Government of Afghanistan. Chapter 6 discusses the Geographic Information System being developed under USAID's Agricultural Services Support Program; it discusses the extent to which GIS data can contribute to environmental studies, and vice versa.

  19. Quaternary deposits in southwestern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    Geologic evidence in the closed Seistan Basin of southwestern Afghanistan and adjacent parts of Iran and Pakistan indicates that a lake as much as 65,000 sq km in size occupied this closed depression during Pleistocene time. The deposits consist mostly of lacustrine silt and clay and have a maximum observed thickness of about 250 m. A layer of alluvial gravels overlies the sequence. The deposits are probably early or middle Pleistocene in age; they are old enough to have sustained nearly 300 m of erosion over large areas but are not faulted or detectably folded in the central part of the basin although they are upwarped along the west edge of the basin. Sand dunes cover extensive areas of the basin. Dune orientation shows that the strong surface winds enter the basin blowing toward the south-southeast and then are deflected to the east, apparently as a response to mountains bordering the basin on its south side. The Gawdezereh, a large deflation depression, may be a result of an augmented excavation ability of winds that oc urs where turbulence is created along a zone of deflection. ?? 1974.

  20. Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply.

  1. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    September 7, 2009. A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai... Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from...heartland of Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. 24 Mulrine

  2. Pakistan’s Impact on Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    never loses CI • Baloch five insurgencies: 1948, 1958-59, 1962-63, 1973-77, and 2002+ (Talibanizing) • Suppressed 75 million Bengalis in 1970-71 with...1962-1963 sporadic infiltration • Pakistan: Lesson Learned : Local security • 1963-1973 Royal Peace with Pakistan • Afghanistan supports Pakistan

  3. Coalition Operations in Afghanistan Post 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    the topography in southern and eastern Afghanistan is extremely remote, providing countless hideouts. Terrorist safe-havens are dangerous in any...may be prevented using drones , missiles, and raids from outside the country. This strategy is flawed for two reasons. With support by Afghans in

  4. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Strategic Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    world supports the establishment of a stable and self -sufficient government in Afghanistan. This very important difference has implications for the...government is fully self -sufficient. Yet history suggests that Afghan culture will continue to resist both an international security presence and a self ...

  5. Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    This report is USGS Afghanistan Project No. 155. This study was funded by an Interagency Agreement between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Geological Survey. Afghanistan is located in the geologically active part of the world where the northward-moving Indian plate is colliding with the southern part of the Eurasian plate at a rate of about 1.7 inches per year. This collision has created the world's highest mountains and causes slips on major faults that generate large, often devastating earthquakes. Every few years a powerful earthquake causes significant damage or fatalities. New construction needs to be designed to accommodate the hazards posed by strong earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a preliminary seismic-hazard map of Afghanistan. Although the map is generalized, it provides government officials, engineers, and private companies who are interested in participating in Afghanistan's growth with crucial information about the location and nature of seismic hazards.

  6. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  7. Achieving Peace in Afghanistan: Obstacles and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    operate in the provinces around Kabul. 36 Bashir Ahmad Gwakh, “If not the Taliban, then who killed Rabbani?” Asia Times, September 24, 2011. Accessed...presence of aviation assets capable of providing effective close air support. 71 Naveed Mukhtar . “Afghanistan: Alternative Futures and their

  8. Governance in Afghanistan: Context and Possibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Shah invaded India, and sacked Delhi. During the next 8 http://blogs.rnw.nl/vredeenveiligheid/files/2010/01/tribal-structure-isaf-rc-south1.jpg... Oliver , Edward E. Across the Border (or Pathan and Biloch). London: Chapman and Hall, 1890. Rodenbough, Theophilus Francis. Afghanistan and the Anglo

  9. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-07

    that heavily armed trafficking groups, farmers, and regional militia may violently resist future eradication and interdiction efforts. Opium production...Afghanistan, but military officials have reportedly resisted expansion that would include direct engagement in interdiction or eradication missions.62 The...roads, and market stalls) and restore wheat and other cereal crop production levels. New initiatives will directly target poppy growing areas and be

  10. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Toby; Kolaczinski, Kate; Mohsen, Engineer; Mehboob, Najeebullah; Saleheen, Sarah; Khudonazarov, Juma; Freeman, Tim; Clements, Archie; Rowland, Mark; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission. Remote sensing enabled development of a risk map, thereby providing a valuable tool to help guide malaria control strategies. PMID:17176583

  11. How is Afghanistan Different from Al Anbar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    to supplant the national government, which has an important role to play in Afghanistan, but to draw structures into the fold that may be more...Anthropological Theories of Tribe and State Formation in the Middle East: Ideology and the Semiotics of Power,” Tribes and State Formation in the

  12. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  13. Bridging Ends to Means: Achieving a Viable Peace in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Afghanistan ‟s social fabric. Analysts, for example, have drawn parallels between Taliban and Lebanon’s Hezbollah, a social and political movement that... Justice in Afghanistan edited by Antonio Donini, Norah Niland and Karin Wermester. Kumarian Press, 2004. United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Bridging Ends to Means Achieving a Viable Peace in Afghanistan

  14. The Changing Face of Afghanistan, 2001-08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    organizations engaged in Afghanistan established their own goals, metrics, and timelines to measure progress. The parallel efforts were not inte...cARLISLE pApERS Deborah Hanagan Strategic Studies Institute U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA 17013 The changing Face of Afghanistan , 2001-08...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Changing Face of Afghanistan , 2001-08 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Counternarcotics Strategies: Effects on Afghanistan Hearts and Minds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    Afghanistan Hearts and Minds N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PRO.IECT NUMBER Stevens , Bret N/A 5e...DEGREE OF MASTER OF :MILITARY STIIDlES AUTHOR: Bret Stevens Mentor and Oral Defense Committee Member: c...oqtt Approved: -----,.,c...Afghanistan Hearts and Minds Author: Bret Stevens , Drug Enforcement Administration Thesis: Because Afghanistan poppy cultivation, and its opium trade are

  16. Security Force Assistance in Afghanistan: Identifying Lessons for Future Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Military Reform in Afghanistan,” in Mark Sedra , ed., Con- fronting Afghanistan’s Security Dilemma: Reforming the Security Sector, Brief 28, Bonn Inter...2005, p. 5; Mark Sedra , “Security Sector Reform in Afghanistan: The Slide Towards Expedi- ency,” International Peacekeeping, Vol. 13, No. 1, March...Wartime: The Soviet Experience.” 40 Mark Sedra , “Police Reform in Afghanistan: An Overview,” in Sedra , ed., in Confronting Afghanistan’s Security Dilemma

  17. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  18. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  20. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-08

    A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces...conservatives. In March 2005, Karzai appointed a former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by...Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the

  1. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    elections to the parliament, their service at many levels of government, including a governorship ( Bamiyan Province), and their growing presence in the...the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the...Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June

  2. SIGAR: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-30

    by USAID. Other challenges include a lack of qualifi ed health workers and inad- equate health care funding. Social determinants have also affected...community elders to encourage ownership and protection of health services. USAID has also increased training for health care workers .347 Water and...Afghanistan Presidential Election Voting ballots are organized and arranged for counting by Afghan presidential election workers at a local school in

  3. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-30

    Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs November 30, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RS21922 Report...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The Library of Congress ,Congressional Research Service,101 Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540 8. PERFORMING...Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance Congressional Research Service Summary The capacity and transparency of Afghan governance

  4. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  5. Afghanistan in the Balance: Air Politik

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    However, one must acknowledge that alternative explanations exist. In their study of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Graham T. Allison and Philip Zelikow...Graham T. Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd ed. (New York: Longman, 1999). Instructively...treasure.html. See also: Lindsay Hodges Anderson, "Debate on Afghanistan Strategy Continues among Hks Experts," Harvard Kennedy School of

  6. [Operational fatigue: debriefing from Kapisa, Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Houel, Jean-Guillaume; Vautier, Virginie; Gallineau, Cyrille; Papillault des Charbonneries, Laurent; Clervoy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The concept of operational fatigue, a term first used during the Second World War, was subsequently extended to encompass a vague series of psychological disorders. This article looks back at an overseas operation in Afghanistan, during the summer of 2011, where the tense background situation, casualties and fatalities resulted in some members of the commando parachute units suffering from such conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Are Marines a Better Fit for Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    clear solution. Within days of Shanker’s article, the roller coaster of public discourse began. Everyone from individual Marines to the leadership of...critics may have also feared the Marines would be as successful in Afghanistan as they had been in al Anbar. To them, this would leave no doubt which...land force was the master of counterinsurgency.38 This fear can still be heard even after the proposal has clearly been described as additive to Army

  8. A Resource Network Strategy for Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Haberpercent20andpercent20Menaldopercent20WSJ.pdf; “Oh Great, Another Congo,” Democracy in America : American Politics (blog), Economist, July 14, 2010, accessed on August 26, 2013, http...Popular Islamists generally tolerate and accept the presence of Americans in Afghanistan. Many of them understand that America’s intentions are...Obruchev, Vladimir. Field Geology. Moscow: Academy of Sciences, 1927. “Oh Great, Another Congo.” Democracy in America : American Politics (blog

  9. Exploring Alternatives for Strategic Access to Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    U.S. cargo in-transit. The contracted, commercial-carrier companies are authorized third-party logistics ( 3PL ) specialists to staff the ports and...requested an additional 30,000 U.S. troops, constituting three to four BCTs, and numerous, supporting, air and logistic enablers. A force increase of...and distribution approach in support of forces operating in the Joint Operational Area (JOA) Afghanistan is necessary. Background - A Growing Logistics

  10. Winning in Afghanistan: A NATO Operational Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    requires effective strategic 24 communications to gain the critical consensus among the key actors of the International Community and the GIRA. S E...allies against a common foe. Winston S . Churchill, The Grand Alliance (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1950), 604, 644-658, 659. 9 “ International ...AND SUBTITLE Winning in Afghanistan: A NATO Operational Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Brad

  11. [Role of a military psychiatrist in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Daudin, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Operational conditions expose soldiers to situations which are potentially traumatic on a psychological level. The specific and non specific psychological disorders which can result require relatively flexible treatment tools which can be adapted to the circumstances.As the first "link in the chain", the intervention of a psychiatrist in a theatre of operations enables the psychological care to begin at an early stage to be followed by long-term treatment when necessary. This article focuses on a mission in Afghanistan.

  12. Challenges with Counterinsurgency Doctrine in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t CHALLENGES WITH COUNTERINSURGENCY DOCTRINE IN AFGHANISTAN BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL HUGH D. BAIR United...new chief of international operations, Saif al-Adel, is focused on increasing the number of “small-but- often” attacks designed to hurt the West more...Obama’s Wars, 236. 16 U.S. Department of the Army, Counterinsurgency, 191. 17 Douglas R . Cubbison, “Battle of Wanat Historical Analysis: Rough Draft

  13. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... shall provide only products from Iraq or Afghanistan or services from Iraq or Afghanistan under...

  15. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  16. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  17. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  18. Afghanistan as a Federal System with Autonomous Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    governed utilizing a federal system with strong autonomous areas. It begins with a discussion of the modern history of Afghanistan, focusing on...that Afghanistan should be governed utilizing a federal system with strong autonomous areas. It begins with a discussion of the modern history of...3  Governmental History

  19. What Drives Pakistan’s Interest in Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Asian markets . 40 Ibid, 52-53. 41 Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and...complex challenges in this volatile region, an observer must not only analyze Pakistan but also their historical relationship with Afghanistan to...analyze Pakistan but its relationship with Afghanistan to understand Pakistani motivations and concerns within this volatile region of the world

  20. Men behind the Women of Educational Leadership in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    On nearly any international index of those nations where women suffer the greatest, Afghanistan remains consistently identified within the top ten year after year. Afghanistan stands at a crossroad as the country makes the transition from reliance on extensive support for security from the international community to its own police forces and…

  1. Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This interim report is an updating of the 1977 Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. The interim report reflects the significant changes in policies brought about by the Saur Revolution establishing the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978. A comprehensive revision of the report is expected when the new government's…

  2. At American U. of Afghanistan, Turmoil at the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Billed as the country's first independent university, the American University of Afghanistan was established in 2004 with financial support from the highest levels of the American and Afghan governments. But its development has been rockier than anticipated, even taking into account Afghanistan's growing instability. A number of current and former…

  3. Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This interim report is an updating of the 1977 Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. The interim report reflects the significant changes in policies brought about by the Saur Revolution establishing the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978. A comprehensive revision of the report is expected when the new government's…

  4. Overcoming the Obstacles to Establishing a Democratic State in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-23

    to productivity. Other crops which would flourish in Afghanistan are saffron, sunflowers, almonds , raisins, cumin, and certain fruits and vegetables...presence is needed to reduce rampant Taliban presence in these areas. Afghanistan and Pakistan must also resolve their long-standing and bitter dispute

  5. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  6. Back to School in Afghanistan: Determinants of School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimbert, Stephane; Miwa, Keiko; Nguyen, Duc Thanh

    2008-01-01

    One of the first achievements of post-conflict Afghanistan was to bring almost 4 million children back to school. Issues remain daunting, however, with low primary enrollment especially for girls and in rural areas and very weak learning achievements. We review some key features of the education system in Afghanistan. By matching household and…

  7. Afghanistan: Post Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-26

    military operations in Afghanistan. See CRS Report RS21922, Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance , by Kenneth Katzman...in villages around Qandahar (Operation Valiant Strike). On May 1, 2003, U.S. officials declared an end to “major combat...

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Royal Marines from Oruzgan, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Matheson, A; Williams, R; Bailey, M S

    2012-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and occurs as a spectrum of clinical syndromes ranging from various forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) to mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). CL in Afghanistan is either zoonotic (ZCL) due to L. major or anthroponotic (ACL) due to L. tropica and there has been a prolonged epidemic of ACL in eastern Afghanistan since 1987. However, there have been remarkably few reports of CL due to L. tropica amongst foreign troops serving in Afghanistan since 2001. We describe two such cases in Royal Marines deployed to Oruzgan Province in Afghanistan from 2008-9. These patients illustrate important issues regarding the clinical features, referral, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of CL amongst foreign troops in Afghanistan. This disease has the potential to cause significant disruption to military personnel and units and so requires efficient management in order to maintain operational effectiveness.

  9. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  10. DoD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An Ill-conceived $43 Million Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction,2530 Crystal Drive,Arlington,VA,22202 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...draft Speeial lnspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) report , "DOD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An...SIGAR Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction DOD’S COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS FILLING STATION IN AFGHANISTAN: AN ILL

  11. Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Ehsanullah; Baba, Alper

    2017-07-01

    Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world. While most people think that consuming groundwater is a reliable and safe source of drinking water for health, the United Nations (UN) agencies report various kinds of waterborne diseases and even child mortalities due to drinking water quality in the country. In this article, significant geogenic and anthropogenic factors that play a vital role in groundwater contamination of the country are identified and explained. Different geogenic contaminations such as arsenic, fluoride, sulfate, and boron occur in several areas of Afghanistan that have a direct effect on human health. The water quality mapping for Afghanistan is completed for half of the country, which shows that groundwater is plagued by high levels of fluoride and arsenic in some areas. The water quality mapping of the other half of the country cannot be completed due to security concerns currently. Also, there are different kinds of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery that can be seen in different parts of the country because of anthropogenic activities which continuously deteriorate groundwater.

  12. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry. PMID:22510847

  13. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-10-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry.

  14. Climate and Weather Analysis of Afghanistan Thunderstorms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    level where it occupies the western center of a 1,676–1,981 m high triangular valley basin surrounded by mountains (Figure 5). Kabul is flanked to the...peak elevation of 5,485 m. The walls of the basin rise steeply into the hills and mountains around Kabul , 9 which average 2,745–3,350 m in...development. We have investigated methods for improving thunderstorm forecasting in and near Kabul , Afghanistan, by: (1) analyzing interannual to hourly

  15. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in Southeastern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for all historical streamgaging stations that have available data in the southeastern Afghanistan provinces of Ghazni, Khost, Logar, Paktya, and Wardak, and a portion of Kabul Province are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgaging station include a station desciption, table of statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, table of monthly and annual flow duration, table of probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, table of probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, table of annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and table of monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  16. Afghanistan, history and beyond - GIS based application tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Rahul Chidananda

    The emphasis of this tool is to provide an insight into the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a warring nation for decades; this tool provides a brief account of the reasons behind the importance of Afghanistan, which led to its invasion by Britain, Russia and USA. The timeline for this thesis was set from 1879 to 1990 which ranges from Barakzai Dynasty to the soviet invasion. Maps are used judiciously to show battles during the British invasion. Maps that show roads, rivers, lakes and provinces are incorporated into the tool to provide an overview of the present situation. The user has options to filter this data by using the timeline and a filtering tool. To quench the users thirst for more information, HTML pages are used judiciously. HTML pages are embedded in key events to provide detailed insight into these events with the help of pictures and videos. An intuitive slider is used to show the people who played a significant role in Afghanistan. The user interface was made intuitive and easy to use, keeping in mind the novice user. A help menu is provided to guide the user on the tool. Spending time researching about Afghanistan has helped me again a new perspective on Afghanistan and its people. With this tool, I hope I can provide a valuable channel for people to understand Afghanistan and gain a fresh perspective into this war ridden nation.

  17. Military trauma system in Afghanistan: lessons for civil systems?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeffrey A; Morrison, Jonathan J; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on development and maturation of the tactical evacuation and en route care capabilities of the military trauma system in Afghanistan and discusses hard-learned lessons that may have enduring relevance to civilian trauma systems. Implementation of an evidence-based, data-driven performance improvement programme in the tactical evacuation and en route care elements of the military trauma system in Afghanistan has delivered measured improvements in casualty care outcomes. Transfer of the lessons learned in the military trauma system operating in Afghanistan to civilian trauma systems with a comparable burden of prolonged evacuation times may be realized in improved patient outcomes in these systems.

  18. Thoracic trauma in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Ryan; Szpisjak, Dale

    2013-05-01

    Thoracic injuries are common among civilian trauma and have a high associated mortality. The use of body armor and exposure to different mechanisms of injury in combat setting could lead to different injury patterns and incidences from those found in peacetime. Thoracic trauma incidence rates and mortality risks were calculated from data extracted from the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. Among patients injured in military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, 10.0% sustained thoracic injuries and had a mortality rate of 10.5%. Penetrating injuries were the most common mechanism of injury. The most common thoracic injury was pulmonary contusion. The highest mortality rate was in the subset of patients with thoracic vascular injuries or flail chest. The variables most strongly associated with mortality were number of units of blood transfused, admission base deficit, international normalization ratio, pH, Abbreviated Injury Scale scores for head and neck regions, and Injury Severity Score. Blunt injuries had the same mortality risk as penetrating injuries. Combat-related thoracic trauma is common and associated with significant mortality in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  19. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  20. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  1. Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan, Version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an accompanying database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. Included is an accompanying Microsoft? Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan's energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards, currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,462) and unpublished (n = 174) references compiled through September, 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable, interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft? Access is required.

  2. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Afghanistan, January 2016-June 2017.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maureen; Shukla, Hemant; Nikulin, Joanna; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Hadler, Stephen; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Tangermann, Rudolph; Jorba, Jaume; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2017-08-18

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where the transmission of endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) continues (1). This report describes polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges in Afghanistan during January 2016-June 2017 and updates previous reports (2,3). Thirteen WPV1 cases were confirmed in Afghanistan in 2016, a decrease of seven from the 20 cases reported in 2015. From January to June 2017, five WPV1 cases were reported, compared with six during the same period in 2016. The number of affected districts declined from 23 (including WPV1-positive acute flaccid paralysis [AFP] cases and positive environmental sewage samples) in 2015 to six in 2016. To achieve WPV1 eradication, it is important that Afghanistan's polio program continue to collaborate with that of neighboring Pakistan to track and vaccinate groups of high-risk mobile populations and strengthen efforts to reach children in security-compromised areas.

  3. Aeromagnetic Survey in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's geologic setting indicates significant natural resource potential While important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information of the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Due to the security situation and the large areas of the country of Afghanistan that has not been covered with geophysical exploration methods a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  4. India’s Changing Afghanistan Policy: Regional and Global Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    enable Afghanistan to have access to the sea via Iran and will provide a shorter route for Indian goods to reach Afghanistan. This project was...which already has been described as “the sponge that protects” the West.22 Indian strategists were warning that a hurried U.S. withdrawal with the...United States to ad- dress a range of strategic interests that is common to both and includes the security of the sea -lanes of com- munication in the

  5. Programming Development Funds to Support a Counterinsurgency. Nangarhar, Afghanistan 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    September 2008 Programming Development Funds to Support a Counterinsurgency Nangarhar , Afghanistan 2006 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Programming Development Funds to Support a Counterinsurgency. Nangarhar , Afghanistan 2006 5a...2006). She also managed the USAID Jalalabad Field Office, where she served as the USAID representative in Nangarhar and Laghman provinces, and as the

  6. After 2014: The U.S./NATO Missions in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    After 2014: The U.S./NATO Missions in Afghanistan by Colonel J.B. Vowell United States Army...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel J.B. Vowell United States Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...After 2014: The U.S./NATO Missions in Afghanistan by Colonel J.B. Vowell United States Army Dr. William J

  7. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    interacted 10 with the Afghan media and local communities during the operation, which highlighted the role and ability of Afghan forces to provide...areas of Afghanistan. Despite efforts to build senior leader bureaucracies to oversee other social services, the Taliban made little-to-no...Democratic Institute, the U.S. Government supported the following three Afghan domestic election observation groups: Afghanistan Youth National and Social

  8. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    Although some bauxite occurrences were sampled in the course of reconnaissance exploration by Soviet workers in the 1960s and 1970s, the bauxite areas in Afghanistan generally are underexplored. The Obatu Sheila area is a known field of bauxite deposits of Late Jurassic age that had been studied in more detail than other known bauxite deposits and occurrences in Afghanistan. Obatu Sheila has an estimated reserve of 7.2 million tons.

  9. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  10. Earthquake in Hindu Kush Region, Afghanistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-27

    On Oct. 26, 2015, NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of northeastern Afghanistan where a magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck the Hindu Kush region. The earthquake's epicenter was at a depth of 130 miles (210 kilometers), on a probable shallowly dipping thrust fault. At this location, the Indian subcontinent moves northward and collides with Eurasia, subducting under the Asian continent, and raising the highest mountains in the world. This type of earthquake is common in the area: a similar earthquake occurred 13 years ago about 12 miles (20 kilometers) away. This perspective image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, looking southwest, shows the hypocenter with a star. The image was acquired July 8, 2015, and is located near 36.4 degrees north, 70.7 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20035

  11. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  12. Pitfalls of Technology: A Case Study of the Battle on Takur Ghar Mountain, Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-30

    PITFALLS OF TECHNOLOGY: A CASE STUDY OF THE BATTLE ON TAKUR GHAR MOUNTAIN , AFGHANISTAN by COLONEL ANDREW N. MILAN] United States Army Doctor Stephen... Mountain , Afghanistan FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 7 April 2003 Pages: 41 Classification; Unclas Themes: The presence of some...THE BATTLE ON TAKUR GHAR MOUNTAIN , AFGHANISTAN BOOK ONE - PITFALLS OF TECHNOLOGY: A CASE STUDY OF THE BATTLE ON TAKUR GHAR MOUNTAIN , AFGHANISTAN 1

  13. Evolution of the U.S. Army aviation during Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Military Decision Making Process MEDEVAC Medical Evacuation METT-TC Mission, Enemy, Terrain and Weather, Troops and Support Available, Time Available...Map of Afghanistan Source: Wikipedia, “Geography of Afghanistan,” accessed March 7, 2015, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki /Geography_of_Afghanistan...http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki /Geography_of_Afghanistan. 7 James Dimon, Interview by John McCool, January 23, 2006, Operational Leadership Experiences

  14. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    the severe drought conditions in those years, whereas 2009, 2012 and 2013 registered the largest irrigated area (~ 2.5 million hectares) due to record snowpack and snowmelt in the region. The model holds promise the ability to provide near-real-time (by the end of the growing seasons) estimates of irrigated area, which are beneficial for food security monitoring as well as subsequent decision making for the country. While the model is developed for Afghanistan, it can be adopted with appropriate adjustments in the derived threshold values to map irrigated areas elsewhere.

  15. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  16. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  17. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  18. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-30

    CONDITIONS, AND THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE- To assist in expanding access to markets in Afghanistan, to increase the availability of...food in markets in Afghanistan, to rehabilitate the agriculture sector in Afghanistan by creating jobs for former combatants, returning refugees, and...and the development of local capacity to manage irrigation systems; (E) livestock rehabilitation through market development and other mechanisms to

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  20. Department of Defense Contractor and Troop Levels in Iraq and Afghanistan: 2007-2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-15

    Afghanistan ........................................... 3 Table 2. U.S. Armed Forces and Private Security Contractor Personnel in Afghanistan...Forces and Private Security Contractors in Iraq ............................................ 7 Table 5. DOD Contract Obligations in Iraq and Afghanistan...the total DOD presence in country. 3 Of the 28,600 DOD contractor personnel, approximately 870, or about 3%, were private security contractors

  1. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  2. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis Afghanistan and its...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  3. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  4. 31 CFR 545.311 - Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territory of Afghanistan controlled... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.311 Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  5. 31 CFR 545.407 - Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.407 Section 545.407 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 545.407 Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The prohibitions on transactions involving...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal...

  8. Factors influencing contraceptive use among women in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Osmani, Ahmad Kamran; Reyer, Joshua A; Osmani, Ahmad Reshad; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The increase in contraceptive use in Afghanistan has been frustratingly slow from 7.0% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2012. Data on contraceptive use and influencing factors were obtained from Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012, which had been collected through interview-led questionnaire from 13,654 current married women aged 12-49 years. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contraceptive use were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When adjusted for age, residence, region, education, media, and wealth index, significant OR was obtained for parity (OR of 6 or more children relative to 1 child was 3.45, and the 95%CI 2.54-4.69), number of living sons (OR of 5 or more sons relative to no son was 2.48, and the 95%CI 1.86-3.29), wealth index (OR of the richest households relative to the poorest households was 2.14, and the 95%CI 1.72-2.67), antenatal care attendance (OR relative to no attendance was 2.13, and the 95%CI 1.74-2.62), education (OR of secondary education or above relative to no education was 1.62, and the 95%CI 1.26-2.08), media exposure (OR of at least some exposure to electronic media relative to no exposure was 1.15, and the 95%CI 1.01-1.30), and child mortality experience (OR was 0.88, and the 95%CI 0.77-0.99), as well as age, residence (rural/urban), and region. This secondary analysis based on AHS 2012 showed the findings similar to those from the previous studies in other developing countries. Although the unique situation in Afghanistan should be considered to promote contraceptive use, the background may be common among the areas with low contraceptive use.

  9. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  10. Casualty rates among Danish soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H O; Heier-Madsen, K; Stokkebye, J E

    2012-03-01

    In 2002 - 2009 Danish forces suffered a mortality rate of 0.09% in Iraq and 0.38% in Afghanistan, and a morbidity rate of 0.30% in Iraq and 1.01% in Afghanistan, as a result of weapons effects. In Afghanistan the survival rate is 97.0% for Danish wounded who were alive on arrival at UK R3 Hospital. British data from Afghanistan are compared to the Danish figures and there is no significant difference. We found an increase in injuries and deaths caused by mines/IEDs from 33% in 2006 to 72.7% in 2009 of all weapon effects causes. The more offensive war fighting posture of the Danish forces in Afghanistan has resulted in greater numbers of casualties. The study also indicates that the great majority of fatalities occur almost immediately at the point of injury. Most of the wounded survive, and a large of number of them are only lightly injured with a partial incapacity level of less than five percent. Haemostatic's and active employment of tourniquets, improved first aid training and training of medics, better evacuation methods including optimised in-flight diagnostics and treatment (including blood transfusion) by Medical Emergency Response Teams, Damage Control Surgery as well as access to quicker diagnostic methods have increased survivability.

  11. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-03-06

    Afghanistan and Pakistan, two of the four remaining countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, represent one epidemiologic reservoir. During 2008, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3) using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Much of Afghanistan remained polio-free in 2008, with the exception of the conflict-affected South Region. In Pakistan, however, WPV transmission increased, particularly after WPV1 reintroduction into polio-free areas of Punjab Province. In total, 149 WPV cases (31 in Afghanistan and 118 in Pakistan) were confirmed in 2008, compared with 49 cases in 2007. Serious security problems in areas along the common border limited access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children in the two countries. In Pakistan, continued managerial and operational problems impeded full implementation of SIAs and adversely affected vaccination coverage in areas not affected by security problems. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January--December 2008. Further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan will require continued measures to overcome access problems in conflict-affected areas of both countries and improvements in the quality of SIAs and delivery of routine immunization services in Pakistan.

  12. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  13. Structural violence in Afghanistan: gendered memory, narratives, and food.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Parin

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan has been subject to political amnesia by the occupying powers of the United States and its North Atlantic Treaty Organization allies. Using the Taliban as a reference point, they have ensured that they are not implicated in the everyday and structural violence to which the people of Afghanistan have been subject over the past three decades. But Afghan women remember. Based on my ethnographic research in Kabul (in fall 2008 and 2009), I show how women in Afghanistan engage in memory work through narratives and food preparation within spaces of devastation. I argue that through these mediums, structural violence becomes knowable. I also argue that memory work is a politicized enterprise through which people remember to seek justice, in the process evoking the attention of a listening audience. This focus fosters a conversation on how the anthropology of violence can engage with issues of representation and engaged accountability.

  14. Principles and practice: gender relations in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    Under the Taliban, which took control of Kabul in Afghanistan in October 1996, Shari's law has been interpreted strictly; women cannot work outside the home, cannot be educated, and must wear the burkha. Professional and educated women have moved to Pakistan. According to United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1995 figures, the literacy rate among women is 15%; among men it is 45%. This will only worsen if the education of girls is banned. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) report that interpretation of the law varies with district; girls under 10 years of age can attend school in some areas, and some Taliban commanders are more liberal than others. The 30,000 households headed by women will fall into poverty if the women cannot work and have no other means of support. Women's relationships outside the home will be determined entirely by men. Gender roles will change because men will now have to take over jobs women formerly performed outside the home: taking children to clinics, shopping, and collecting water. Women's support groups will collapse because visiting will be difficult and hospitality will be too expensive. International agencies have distributed food and provided work to women in their homes; men are used to communicate with the women. This has been done at risk. Oxfam UK/I, which cannot deliver quality humanitarian aid without working with both women and men, will attempt, through a witnessing and influencing strategy, to persuade the Taliban to become more moderate.

  15. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  16. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, 1979.

    PubMed

    Dupree, L

    1979-01-01

    4 struggles currently dominate Afghan politics: 1) the war being fought by regionally and religously oriented guerrillas to overthrow the Soviet-leaning Amin regime; 2) the competition between conservative and religious leaders in the Pushtun area to monopolize funds from friendly Arabs; 3) the attempts by guerrilla forces to establish localized bases of power, so that any new regime in Kabul must grant the various ethno-linguistic groups some type of regional autonomy; and 4) the internal struggle for power within the Khalq leadership. 2 factions of Khalquis are involved: the liberal nationalists, led by Panjsheri and most military members of the Cabinet and Revolutionary Council; and the pro-Soviet opportunists led by Amin. The author lists these points after recounting the events leading to the coup d'etat against the Daoud regime on April 17, 1978 and the subsequent, but not markedly successful, attempts by leaders of the newly proclaimed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to gain stability and implement land reform. More often, the struggle for security and legitimacy has led to rhetoric and repression--and growing opposition. The Soviet Union, which is currently facing an Islamic revival within its own borders, will only intervene physically against its better judgment, in the opinion of the author; the United States is terminating all aid, including the Peace Corps.

  17. Risking NATO: Testing the Limits of the Alliance in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    without fully anticipating the wide range 30 See Julian E. Barnes, “U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Shifts Focus to Protect- ing People,” Los Angeles...Times, July 26, 2009. See also Julian E. Barnes, “Petraeus Takes Over as Head of U.S. Central Command,” Los Angeles Times, November 1, 2008; Candace...itself to the mission in Afghanistan, recognized that its commit- ment could not be indefinite. See Julian E. Barnes, “Gates Open to Sending More

  18. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    75 Mohammad Daoud. President of Afghanistan. 1973-78 89 \\ m xiv Arghanistan Ex-King Zahir Shah 102 Ahmed Shah Massoud...Washington. DC 2( M ()2 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Amstut/. J Bruce. 1^28 Afghanistan : the first live years of Soviel...fc2Ä24 i i First pfintmp, December llW> Seamd prinnnj.*. (Kto^er I^ST ~ m >i:M DiSt Stock 1008-020-01066-9 Price: $16,00 t! M t To "Spike" and

  19. Ballistic trauma: lessons learned from iraq and afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Shin, Emily H; Sabino, Jennifer M; Nanos, George P; Valerio, Ian L

    2015-02-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  20. Afghanistan: A Bibliography of Books and Periodical Articles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-21

    a :uslim Society," CUR S!T, 76:172-175, Apr 1979. Parry, Sidney. "The Armament of Shere Ali’s Army," JORA, 11:140-145, 1881. Routh, G.M. "Afghanistan...1981. Furlong, R.D.M., et al. "The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan," INTL DRVW, 13:168-170, 1980. Gailani, Sayed Ahmed . "Fighting for Freedom: Afahan...1879 !:abu!, Occupation 12 Oct 1879 Sherpur, Rattle of 23 Dec 1879 Ahmed Khel, Battle of 1880 Jalalabad, rattle of 1880 Maiwand (!’aywand), Battle of 27

  1. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  2. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  3. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  5. Resuscitation During Critical Care Transportation in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Joshua M; Nordmann, Giles R; Kuncir, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    These data describe the critical care procedures performed on, and the resuscitation markers of, critically wounded personnel in Afghanistan following point of injury (POI) transports and intratheater transports. Providing this information may help inform discussion on the design of critical care transportation platforms for future conflicts. The Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) was queried for descriptive data on combat casualties with Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15 who were transported in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2010. Both POI transportation events and interfacility transportation events were reviewed. Base deficit (BD) was evaluated as a maker of resuscitation, and international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated as a measure of coagulopathy. There were 1198 transportation events that occurred during the study period--634 (53%) transports from the POI and 564 (47%) intratheater transports. Critical care interventions were performed during 147 (12.3%) transportation events, including intubation, cricothyrotomy, double-lumen endotracheal tube placement, needle or tube thoracostomy, central venous access placement, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The mean BD on arrival in the emergency department was -5.4 mEq/L for POI transports and 0.68 mEq/L intratheater transports (ρ<.001). The mean INR on arrival in the emergency department was 1.48 for POI transports and 1.21 for intratheater transports (ρ<.001). Critical care interventions were needed frequently during evacuation of severely injured personnel. Furthermore, many troops arrived acidotic and coagulopathic following initial transport from POI. Together, these data suggest that a platform capable of damage control resuscitation and critical care interventions may be warranted on longer transports of more critically injured patients. 2015.

  6. Winning the Invisible War: An Agricultural Pilot Plan for Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    volunteers for the insurgency. Combining a program for licit sale of poppies, or temporary and massive increases in payments to farmers for cultivating non...such as peppers and tomatoes ). The terrain, climate, and tradition of gardening in Afghanistan make it an excellent place to grow high-value fruits and

  7. Paved with Good Intentions: Images of Textbook Development in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Yen Yen Joyceln; Simmons, Jacqueline Ann

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, the Afghanistan Ministry of Education adopted a new National Curriculum Framework, created to promote child-centred teaching and learning strategies for the next generation of Afghan schools. As is often the case in post-conflict education development, a cadre of international curriculum consultants was hired to facilitate the production…

  8. The "Only" Solution: Education, Youth, and Social Change in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dana G.; Yousofi, Mohammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on practice theory to examine aspiring youths' pursuit of higher education in Afghanistan. It finds that plans and actions are mediated through youths' families, communities, and solidarity networks. As a result, the personal improvement and enhanced reputational status that aspiring youth seek is structurally connected to…

  9. 76 FR 66692 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ....) Proposed Timetable (The State Department will follow RSO procedure in reference to security within and... Travel Day, Arrive in Kabul, Afghanistan (afternoon) Evening Event Day Four Security Briefing, Market... single participant for a small- or medium-sized enterprise (SME) \\1\\ and $5,245 for a single...

  10. Disability Information & Awareness: Afghanistan. Version 2.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This report focuses on a project in Afghanistan that coordinates the efforts of several agencies to develop community-directed disability, rehabilitation, and education services. The program stresses community mobilization aided by skills transfer from expatriate specialists, and includes physical therapy, prosthetics, living skills and mobility…

  11. The "Only" Solution: Education, Youth, and Social Change in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dana G.; Yousofi, Mohammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on practice theory to examine aspiring youths' pursuit of higher education in Afghanistan. It finds that plans and actions are mediated through youths' families, communities, and solidarity networks. As a result, the personal improvement and enhanced reputational status that aspiring youth seek is structurally connected to…

  12. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  13. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  14. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce's International Trade Administration is organizing a business development trade mission to Kabul... to port cities such as Karachi. After 30 years of war reconstruction and development efforts...

  15. Engendering Hope: Women's (Dis)engagement in Change in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehin, Oleksandra; Coryell, Joellen; Stewart, Trae

    2017-01-01

    Afghan women's human rights are a crucial concern for the international community and the government in Afghanistan. Framed by hope theory, this study captured Afghan women's understandings of recent realities, particularly those focused on expanding women's roles in Afghan life and community. Based on focus groups with 107 women conducted in 10…

  16. Education for Demilitarizing Youth in Post-Conflict Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Yukitoshi

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the largely negative role that education has played historically in contributing to conflict in Afghanistan and the ways that education has been purposefully employed as a post-conflict strategy aimed at building peace and social cohesion. The growing attention among academics and policy makers to the role of youth in…

  17. Retooling the Nation-Building Strategy in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    reconstruction. 3 Bob Woodward, Bush at War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), 339. 4 Kurt Amend, the Director for Afghanistan on the National Security...Al Qaeda remnants). 27 Perito, 3. 28 Dylan Hendrickson, Michael Bhatia, Mark Knight, and Annabel Taylor, A Review of DFID Involvement in Provincial

  18. Repatriation and Reintegration in Afghanistan: The Role of Demiliarisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    their successful repatriation will be contingent on stability, and that an important task to this end will be to demilitarise Afghanistan’s political...level of stability necessary for successful repatriation. The next section introduces militarisation as a factor negatively influencing stability. The...stabilisation of society, and in turn allowing successful repatriation of refugees and exiles while promoting regional peace and security.

  19. Day-by-Day: Higher Education in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines higher education in Afghanistan. Based on qualitative research, including interviews with key policymakers and stakeholders, the paper examines the primary issues, challenges, progress, and future vision for higher education in the country. The research reveals that one of the most significant issues in the country in the…

  20. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    international businesses; assist industrial development; and enhance banking and financial system development, agricultural revitalization, and the...technology industry in Afghanistan. The project builds on earlier World Bank efforts to catalyze a second wave of development of the ICT sector in...89 THE BANKING SECTOR

  1. Deploying the ODIS robot in Iraq and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Bill; Schoenherr, Edward; Andrusz, Henry; Gerhart, Grant

    2005-05-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have shown the importance of robotic technology as a force multiplier and a tool for moving soldiers out of harms way. Situations on the ground make soldiers performing checkpoint operations easy targets for snipers and suicide bombers. Robotics technology reduces risk to soldiers and other personnel at checkpoints. Early user involvement in innovative and aggressive development and acquisition strategies are the key to moving robotic and associated technology into the hands of the user. This paper updates activity associated with rapid development of the Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS) robot for under vehicle inspection and reports on our field experience with robotics in Iraq and Afghanistan. In February of 2004, two TARDEC Engineers departed for a mission to Iraq and Afghanistan with ten ODIS Robots. Six robots were deployed in the Green Zone in Baghdad. Two Robots were deployed at Kandahar Army Airfield and two were deployed at Bagram Army Airfield in Afghanistan. The TARDEC Engineers who performed this mission trained the soldiers and provided initial on site support. They also trained Exponent employees assigned to the Rapid Equipping Force in ODIS repair. We will discuss our initial deployment, lessons learned and future plans.

  2. The Rehabilitation Paradox: Street-Working Children in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christopher; Yazdani, Farzaneh

    2009-01-01

    International humanitarian intervention in Afghanistan reflects a policy discourse of "rehabilitation," which is very evident in relation to nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects for street-working children. Through analysing national and international policy, professional perceptions of the children, and field visits to see how…

  3. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  4. The Post-Afghanistan IED Threat Assessment: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    ponents and enhance the IED threat. To assess the impact of innova - tion, we analyzed three issues: 1. The development of IEDs in OIF and OEF; 2...short, the IED threat observed in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the home- land in recent years will likely persist regardless of technical innova - tions and

  5. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  6. War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Military Operations, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    efforts are most evident in Herat Province in western Afghanistan. And since Iran is a major destination for Afghan heroin , with all of its...led PRTs. In late 2008, the Zabul PRT introduced a new ionizer-based water purification initiative – a scheme developed and proposed by an American

  7. Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Govindasamy, Pav; Aqil, Anwer; Rutstein, Shea; Arnold, Fred; Noormal, Bashiruddin; Way, Ann; Brock, Susan; Shadoul, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in maternal and child mortality. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) provides important new information on the levels and trends in these indicators. The AMS estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 260-394) and 97 deaths before the age of five years for every 1000 children born. Decreases in these mortality rates are consistent with changes in key determinants of mortality, including an increasing age at marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, better immunisation coverage, improvements in the percentage of women delivering in health facilities and receiving antenatal and postnatal care, involvement of community health workers and increasing access to the Basic Package of Health Services. Despite the impressive gains in these areas, many challenges remain. Further improvements in health services in Afghanistan will require sustained efforts on the part of both the Government of Afghanistan and international donors.

  8. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  9. Meeting EFA: Afghanistan Home-Based Schools. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Years of conflict and instability have taken a heavy toll on education in Afghanistan. While the government rebuilds its public education system, formal schools fail to reach many of the country's children. Girls remain particularly underserved as a result of the looming effects of the Taliban's sanctions against educating women. Among the reasons…

  10. Teacher Training in Afghanistan: Intersections of Need and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husting, Sheila; Intili, Jo Ann; Kissam, Edward

    2008-01-01

    As post-Taliban Afghanistan moves toward the establishment of a viable educational system, key stakeholders and donors are faced with the formidable challenge of how to most rapidly implement teacher training within an environment of diverse, changing, and largely unassessed training needs. The current article explores the dilemmas inherent in…

  11. War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Military Operations, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-08

    intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre . …While we’ve doubled this capability in recent months, it is still not good enough...been experiencing a renaissance that has gained momentum since 2005. The West is in genuine danger of losing Afghanistan.”75 In

  12. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-03-12

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.

  13. An experiment with community health funds in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Waters, Hugh; Steinhardt, Laura; Alam, Sahibullah; Hansen, Peter; Naeem, Ahmad Jan

    2009-07-01

    As Afghanistan rebuilds its health system, it faces key challenges in financing health services. To reduce dependence on donor funds, it is important to develop sustainable local financing mechanisms. A second challenge is to reduce high levels of out-of-pocket payments. Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes offer the possibility of raising revenues from communities and at the same time providing financial protection. This paper describes the performance of one type of CBHI scheme, the Community Health Fund (CHF), which was piloted for the first time in five provinces of Afghanistan between June 2005 and October 2006. The performance of the CHF programme demonstrates that complex community-based health financing schemes can be implemented in post-conflict settings like Afghanistan, except in areas of high insecurity. The funds raised from the community, via premiums and user fees, enabled the pilot facilities to overcome temporary shortages of drugs and supplies, and to conduct outreach services via mobile clinics. However, enrolment and cost-recovery were modest. The median enrolment rate for premium-paying households was 6% of eligible households in the catchment areas of the clinics. Cost recovery rates ranged up to 16% of total operating costs and 32% of non-salary operating costs. No evidence of reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures was observed at the community level, though CHF members had markedly higher utilization of health services. The main reasons among non-members for not enrolling were being unaware of the programme; high premiums; and perceived low quality of services at the CHF clinics. The performance of Afghanistan's CHF was similar to other CHF-type programmes operating at the primary care level internationally. The solution to building local capacity to finance health services lies in a combination of financing sources rather than any single mechanism. In this context, it is critical that international assistance for Afghanistan

  14. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan, January 2012-September 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-11-22

    Since 2012, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has been limited to three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 37 WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 80 cases in 2011; nine WPV1 cases were confirmed during January-September, 2013, compared with 26 WPV1 cases during the same period in 2012. Since November 2012, no WPV1 cases have been reported from the Southern Region, previously the main WPV reservoir in Afghanistan; all nine polio cases in 2013 were in the Eastern Region and caused by WPV1 that originated in Pakistan. From October 2012 to March 2013, 14 polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were detected in the Southern Region. During 2012-2013, strategies to improve supplemental immunization activity (SIA)§ effectiveness in 11 low-performing districts (LPDs) in the Southern Region included increasing staff and supervisory training, implementing short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) campaigns, placing transit vaccination teams at the borders of districts inaccessible because of insecurity, and establishing permanent polio vaccination teams to vaccinate children quarterly. From March 2012 to August 2013, the percentage of children unreached during SIAs declined by 43% in the Southern Region but increased by 122% in the Eastern Region. Despite ongoing challenges, the government of Afghanistan continues to expand the application of innovative solutions to reach unvaccinated children in accessible and inaccessible districts.

  15. Groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taher, Mohammad R.; Chornack, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan Geological Survey, with technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey, established a network of wells to measure and monitor groundwater levels to assess seasonal, areal, and potentially climatic variations in groundwater characteristics in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, the most populous region in the country. Groundwater levels were monitored in 71 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting as early as July 2004 and continuing to the present (2013). The monitoring network is made up exclusively of existing production wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Seventy wells are in unconsolidated sediments, and one well is in bedrock. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, using electric tape water-level meters. Water levels in well 64 on the grounds of the Afghanistan Geological Survey building were measured more frequently. This report provides a 10-year compilation of groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin prepared in cooperation with the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Depths to water below land surface range from a minimum of 1.47 meters (m) in the Shomali subbasin to a maximum of 73.34 m in the Central Kabul subbasin. The Logar subbasin had the smallest range in depth to water below land surface (1.5 to 12.4 m), whereas the Central Kabul subbasin had the largest range (2.64 to 73.34 m). Seasonal water-level fluctuations can be estimated from the hydrographs in this report for wells that have depth-to-water measurements collected under static conditions. The seasonal water-level fluctuations range from less than 1 m to a little more than 7 m during the monitoring period. In general, the hydrographs for the Deh Sabz, Logar, Paghman and Upper Kabul, and Shomali subbasins show relatively little change in the water-level trend during the period of record, whereas hydrographs for the Central Kabul subbasin show water level decreases of several meters to about 25 m.

  16. Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update: Afghanistan in Early 2015 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update Afghanistan in Early 2015 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War II Christopher Paul, Colin P. Clarke C O R P...and update similar RAND efforts published in 2011 and 2013, Counterinsurgency Scorecard: Afghanistan in Early 2011 Relative to the Insurgencies of the...Past 30 Years and Counterinsurgency Scorecard: Afghanistan in Early 2013 Relative to Insurgen- cies Since World War II, respectively. The core of

  17. From the Andes to the Hindu Kush: Columbian Airpower Lessons for Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-20

    majority of its forests over the past decades for fuel and timber export. The altitude of the mountain peaks and passes in Afghanistan form natural...Internal Defense (FID), Afghanistan, Colombia 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...useful information for application to the current Afghanistan situation is Colombia . Modern, conventional air forces are expensive. Millions of

  18. Close a Sure Road to Defeat in Afghanistan by Keeping the Lines of Communication Open

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Close a Sure Road to Defeat in Afghanistan by Keeping the Lines 5a...strategy in Afghanistan in the wake of increasing violence and a resurgent Taliban. Comments by the current Democratic and Republican Presidential...candidates, and other senior leaders, indicate that additional U.S. forces will be sent to Afghanistan in the near future. It is, therefore, more

  19. In Brief: Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan? Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress In Brief: Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan ? Issues for...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Brief: Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan ? Issues for...Z39-18 In Brief: Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan ? Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 1 n May 1, 2012, President Obama gave a

  20. Authority, Legitimacy, and the Qawm: Historical Perspectives on Emergent Governance in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Asian expert Joshua Foust explains “When looking at Afghanistan through Afghanistan, rather than any pre-designed 38 Western conceptions of...inevitably another inhospitable location 75Joshua Foust , “What ‘Intimate Knowledge?’” Registan.com... Foust , Joshua. “In Afghanistan, Good Intentions Not Enough.” World Politics Review (March 9, 2009). http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id

  1. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  2. Repatriation and the reconstruction of Afghanistan: the role of women.

    PubMed

    Wali, S

    1994-01-01

    This update on the consequences of the 14 years of war in Afghanistan and refugee repatriation points out the possible need for humanitarian intervention. The political situation is described as lacking in platform leadership and lacking in leaders' commitment to the people. The US has reduced interests in Afghanistan. The UN and other international agencies rarely mention Afghanistan and repatriation. Pakistan is exercising its self-interests in the country. Saudi Arabia is described as opposing the rising Iranian brand of religious ideology and supplying mercenaries. The formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States has reduced USSR involvement to the increasing flow of Tajik refugees into Afghanistan. Islam is described as a historically strong and positive force in the formation of social and political values. Afghani needs are described as restoration of peace, security, and self-determination and a return to the former Islamic principles and practices. A "new imported ideology packaged as religion" is viewed as detrimental. The international community is urged to commit its resources to supporting a process aimed at creating a popularly elected platform of leadership committed to democratic values and principles and with respect for human rights and equity. Successful repatriation is considered dependent on internal security and financial resources from the international community. Repatriation is hampered by the extensive land mines (estimated to be at least 23 million) scattered across the countryside. At least 75% of the over 3 million refugees in Pakistan and the 2.5 million in Iran are estimated to be women and children. 14 years of political and economic instability resulted in little social development for refugee women and children. The UN urged donations of $45.1 million for repatriation and reconstruction. Only $13.7 million were received. These small sums in foreign aid are viewed as inconsequential when compared to the estimated US military

  3. Promising drugs against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marcus Vinícius Nora

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health problem worldwide due to AIDS epidemic, the advent of multidrug resistant strains (MDR) and the lack of new drugs in the market. TB is responsible for almost 3 millions deaths each year. According to WHO (World Health Organization), which declared tuberculosis a global health emergency in 1993, tuberculosis, without a coordinated control effort, will infect an estimated 1 billion people by 2020, killing 70 million. In spite of this problem, there is a lack of development of new TB drugs. For example, it has been nearly 35 years since the introduction of a new class of compounds for the treatment of TB. Thus, there is an urgent need for new drugs to fight against this disease. Considering that, this review aims promising drug candidates that are in development against TB.

  4. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-11-29

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest.

  5. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  6. [Promising technologies in surgery].

    PubMed

    Kotiv, B N; Maĭstrenko, N A

    2013-06-01

    In modern conditions of local wars and armed conflicts, the basic principle of medical care is to reduce injuries stages of medical evacuation, aimed at accelerating the provision of specialized surgical care. In this regard, significantly increases the need for the development and implementation of new high-tech methods that can improve quality of care, both on the battlefield and on the stages of specialized surgical care. A promising direction is the introduction into clinical practice: minimally invasive technologies, the concept of hybrid navigation surgery, operations with the use of laser technology and robotics, advanced and extremely extensive interventions to cancer patients; technology reduces blood loss, use of cell therapy, transplantation techniques, the development of the concept of organ transplantation, lost in combat trauma, the creation of artificial organs and tissues, the creation of personal protective equipment, integrated with a system of combat, etc.

  7. Risk factors for becoming homeless among a cohort of veterans who served in the era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.

    PubMed

    Metraux, Stephen; Clegg, Limin X; Daigh, John D; Culhane, Dennis P; Kane, Vincent

    2013-12-01

    In this population-based cohort study, we assessed baseline risk factors for homelessness, including the role of service in the Iraq or Afghanistan conflicts, among a large cohort of recent veterans. Data for this study came from administrative records for 310,685 veterans who separated from active military duty from July 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006. We used survival analysis methods to determine incidence rates and risk factors for homelessness, based on baseline data for military factors, demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of behavioral health disorders and traumatic brain injury. Service in Iraq or Afghanistan and, more specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans deployed there, were significant risk factors of modest magnitude for homelessness, and socioeconomic and behavioral health factors provided stronger indicators of risk. Gender was not a significant indicator of differential risk. Although service in Iraq and Afghanistan was significant, socioeconomic and behavioral health indicators show more promise in efforts to use administrative data to inform prevention efforts by identifying veterans who are at elevated risk for becoming homeless upon their return to civilian life.

  8. Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless Among a Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Limin X.; Daigh, John D.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Kane, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. In this population-based cohort study, we assessed baseline risk factors for homelessness, including the role of service in the Iraq or Afghanistan conflicts, among a large cohort of recent veterans. Methods. Data for this study came from administrative records for 310 685 veterans who separated from active military duty from July 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006. We used survival analysis methods to determine incidence rates and risk factors for homelessness, based on baseline data for military factors, demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of behavioral health disorders and traumatic brain injury. Results. Service in Iraq or Afghanistan and, more specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans deployed there, were significant risk factors of modest magnitude for homelessness, and socioeconomic and behavioral health factors provided stronger indicators of risk. Gender was not a significant indicator of differential risk. Conclusions. Although service in Iraq and Afghanistan was significant, socioeconomic and behavioral health indicators show more promise in efforts to use administrative data to inform prevention efforts by identifying veterans who are at elevated risk for becoming homeless upon their return to civilian life. PMID:24148066

  9. Afghanistan Multi-Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diermanse, Ferdinand; Daniell, James; Pollino, Maurizio; Glover, James; Bouwer, Laurens; de Bel, Mark; Schaefer, Andreas; Puglisi, Claudio; Winsemius, Hessel; Burzel, Andreas; Ammann, Walter; Aliparast, Mojtaba; Jongman, Brenden; Ranghieri, Federica; Fallesen, Ditte

    2017-04-01

    The geographical location of Afghanistan and years of environmental degradation in the country make Afghanistan highly prone to intense and recurring natural hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, snow avalanches, landslides, and droughts. These occur in addition to man-made disasters resulting in the frequent loss of live, livelihoods, and property. Since 1980, disasters caused by natural hazards have affected 9 million people and caused over 20,000 fatalities in Afghanistan. The creation, understanding and accessibility of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk information is key for effective management of disaster risk. This is especially true in Afghanistan, where reconstruction after recent natural disasters and military conflicts is on-going and will continue over the coming years. So far, there has been limited disaster risk information produced in Afghanistan, and information that does exist typically lacks standard methodology and does not have uniform geo-spatial coverage. There are currently no available risk assessment studies that cover all major natural hazards in Afghanistan, which can be used to assess the costs and benefits of different resilient reconstruction and disaster risk reduction strategies. As a result, the Government of Afghanistan has limited information regarding current and future disaster risk and the effectiveness of policy options on which to base their reconstruction and risk reduction decisions. To better understand natural hazard and disaster risk, the World Bank and Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) are supporting the development of new fluvial flood, flash flood, drought, landslide, avalanche and seismic risk information in Afghanistan, as well as a first-order analysis of the costs and benefits of resilient reconstruction and risk reduction strategies undertaken by the authors. The hazard component is the combination of probability and magnitude of natural hazards. Hazard analyses were carried out

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2012-08-01

    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  11. Challenges and opportunities for humanitarian relief in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Trueman W; Burkle, Frederick M; Vaughn, Andrew F; Chotani, Rashid; Brennan, Richard J

    2002-06-15

    Afghanistan is in the midst of a profound humanitarian crisis resulting primarily from long-standing armed conflict, a devastating drought, and massive population migration. The economy, government, and health care system are in shambles. Currently, as many as 5 million Afghans are in camps either as refugees in neighboring countries or as internally displaced persons within Afghanistan. Much of the rest of the population is in dire need of basic essentials such as food, water, shelter, and basic medical care. Those attempting to carry out humanitarian relief face many daunting challenges, such as reaching remote locations, coping with a dangerous security situation, and working with limited resources. However, there are opportunities in the short run to save many lives and substantially improve the plight of Afghans by carrying out appropriate and effective emergency relief programs. Over the long term, effective medical and public health relief efforts will be an essential part of rehabilitating and rebuilding this devastated country.

  12. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  13. From the Byzantine Empire to Afghanistan: A Theme for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    Thoughts on Coin ." Marine Corps Gazette, February (2010): 12. Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press...Master of Military Studies Research Paper · September 2009- April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER From the Byzantine Empire to Afghanistan...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES N/A 14. ABSTRACT The holistic, bottom-up strategy of the Byzantine theme system which earned the "buy-in" of the rural populace

  14. U.S. Policy and Strategy Toward Afghanistan After 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Central Asia as well. China has invested more than $5 billion in Afghani- stan to date, primarily in the Aynak copper mine and in winning bids to...rebuilding Afghanistan; and 3) Regionalize strategy. The first two pillars of a post-2014 strategy basically require reducing the current U.S. involvement...countries— including Afghanistan—for U.S. interests. The first two pillars to the strategy will not address the last two national interests remaining

  15. Security Implications of ISAF Exit from Afghanistan on South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    borders and conducts counter-smuggling operations, and a Civil Order Police which controls disturbances in urban areas.49 The most capable pillar , however...of plans to commit security personnel itself and only has a police training program.38 Afghanistan has huge natural resources; oil, copper , gold...feasibility study for a rail system to support extraction efforts at the Aynak copper mine.44 In the past two years China raised the profile of its

  16. Biomarkers for PTSD in Female Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    the US will face from current combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan will be the mental health burdens placed on women serving in these operations...important limitation is the reliance on self-report screening measures and clinical interviews to make the diagnosis of PTSD. In sharp distinction with...response to treatment, the assessment of PTSD cannot be independently confirmed by biological markers. Among one of the most pressing challenges

  17. Enhancing the European Union’s Development Strategy in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Brussels: European Union, 12 December 2008. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=266& lang =En (accessed July 28, 2009). 7. 5 European Union...www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx ?id=266& lang =EN (accessed August 14, 2009). 4–6; Council of the European Union, EU-Afghanistan Joint Declaration...Security Strategy,” Consilium – European Security Strategy. December 12, 2003. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=266& lang =en (accessed

  18. Turning the Tide: Refocusing Stability Operations in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    2) Focus on language, both English for non-U. S. PRTs and Afghan agencies, and Pashto or Dari for U. S. PRTs; and (3) Focus PRTs on cultural...Afghanistan will be more receptive to this conception; for example, areas of ethnic Afghan populations that are threatened by Taliban governance...investigation (accessed 17 February 2010). Spencer, David K. “Afghanistan’s Nangarhar Inc: A Model for Interagency Success.” Military Review (July

  19. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    includes personnel dropped from rolls, killed in action , permanently disabled , captured, and non-combat deaths. A soldier is listed as absent without...ineffective actions to interdict material support such as IED components to the insurgency, continues to undermine security in Afghanistan and threaten...The ammonium nitrate seizure, which was the result of independent action by ACP officers with specialized training, is a positive sign of the capacity

  20. An (The?) Explanation of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    conflict not only with the Pakistanis but with the Chinese), very great indeed. The second action that preceded the invasion and could have been seen by...out of the Persian Gulf. A direct threat to the interest obviously entailed great risks. An Indirect threat to the oil flow, on the other hand, - 30...litical situation). For a concise treatment of British-Rus- sian interaction in Afghanistan, see: David Fromkin, "The Great Game in Asia," Foreign Affairs

  1. Fixing Intel: A Blueprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Leaders must put time and energy into selecting the best, most extroverted and hungriest analysts to serve in the Stability Operations Information...and allied forces win in Afghanistan. Speaking to the first point, enemy-centric and counter- IED reports published by higher commands are of...soldiers, much less speak with them or offer valuable battlefield and demographic information. The tide began to turn in Nawa on July 2, when 800

  2. USGS Training in Afghanistan: Modern Earthquake Hazards Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlin, J. D.; Garthwaite, M.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.; Bergen, K.; Vincent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can present a significant hazard, not only from strong ground shaking, but also from liquefaction and extensive land sliding. The magnitude 6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghanistan to such hazards, and resulted in over 1000 fatalities. The USGS has provided the first of a series of Earth Science training courses to the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS). This course was concerned with modern earthquake hazard assessments, and is an integral part of a larger USGS effort to provide a comprehensive seismic-hazard assessment for Afghanistan. Funding for these courses is provided by the US Agency for International Development Afghanistan Reconstruction Program. The particular focus of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 in Kabul, was on providing a background in the seismological and geological methods relevant to preparing for future earthquakes. Topics included identifying active faults, modern tectonic theory, geotechnical measurements of near-surface materials, and strong-motion seismology. With this background, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the community and be actively involved in earthquake hazard assessments themselves. The December, 2006, training course was taught by four lecturers, with all lectures and slides being presented in English and translated into Dari. Copies of the lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. Class participants included many of the section leaders from within the AGS who have backgrounds in geology, geophysics, and engineering. Two additional training sessions are planned for 2007, the first entitled "Modern Concepts in Geology and Mineral Resource Assessments," and the second entitled "Applied Geophysics for Mineral Resource Assessments."

  3. Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a significant public health concern in Afghanistan. Currently, approximately 60% of the population, or nearly 14 million people, live in a malaria-endemic area. Afghanistan's diverse landscape and terrain contributes to the heterogeneous malaria prevalence across the country. Understanding the role of environmental variables on malaria transmission can further the effort for malaria control programme. Methods Provincial malaria epidemiological data (2004-2007) collected by the health posts in 23 provinces were used in conjunction with space-borne observations from NASA satellites. Specifically, the environmental variables, including precipitation, temperature and vegetation index measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer, were used. Regression techniques were employed to model malaria cases as a function of environmental predictors. The resulting model was used for predicting malaria risks in Afghanistan. The entire time series except the last 6 months is used for training, and the last 6-month data is used for prediction and validation. Results Vegetation index, in general, is the strongest predictor, reflecting the fact that irrigation is the main factor that promotes malaria transmission in Afghanistan. Surface temperature is the second strongest predictor. Precipitation is not shown as a significant predictor, as it may not directly lead to higher larval population. Autoregressiveness of the malaria epidemiological data is apparent from the analysis. The malaria time series are modelled well, with provincial average R2 of 0.845. Although the R2 for prediction has larger variation, the total 6-month cases prediction is only 8.9% higher than the actual cases. Conclusions The provincial monthly malaria cases can be modelled and predicted using satellite-measured environmental parameters with reasonable accuracy. The Third Strategic Approach of the WHO EMRO Malaria Control and

  4. Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina P; Safi, Najibullah; Kiang, Richard

    2010-05-13

    Malaria is a significant public health concern in Afghanistan. Currently, approximately 60% of the population, or nearly 14 million people, live in a malaria-endemic area. Afghanistan's diverse landscape and terrain contributes to the heterogeneous malaria prevalence across the country. Understanding the role of environmental variables on malaria transmission can further the effort for malaria control programme. Provincial malaria epidemiological data (2004-2007) collected by the health posts in 23 provinces were used in conjunction with space-borne observations from NASA satellites. Specifically, the environmental variables, including precipitation, temperature and vegetation index measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer, were used. Regression techniques were employed to model malaria cases as a function of environmental predictors. The resulting model was used for predicting malaria risks in Afghanistan. The entire time series except the last 6 months is used for training, and the last 6-month data is used for prediction and validation. Vegetation index, in general, is the strongest predictor, reflecting the fact that irrigation is the main factor that promotes malaria transmission in Afghanistan. Surface temperature is the second strongest predictor. Precipitation is not shown as a significant predictor, as it may not directly lead to higher larval population. Autoregressiveness of the malaria epidemiological data is apparent from the analysis. The malaria time series are modelled well, with provincial average R2 of 0.845. Although the R2 for prediction has larger variation, the total 6-month cases prediction is only 8.9% higher than the actual cases. The provincial monthly malaria cases can be modelled and predicted using satellite-measured environmental parameters with reasonable accuracy. The Third Strategic Approach of the WHO EMRO Malaria Control and Elimination Plan is aimed to develop a cost

  5. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Safety of 550th SOS/58 Special Operations Wing at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico ; and C-130 E Adverse Weather Aerial Delivery System Navigator...University of Arizona, Tucson; an M.A. in management from Webster University, Albuquerque, New Mexico ; an M.A. in military arts and sciences from Air...me-heroin26dec26,0,6587078,full.story; Internet, accessed January 8, 2007. 18. Eullia Iglesias , “Afghanistan: Opium Traffickers Not Ready to Give

  6. Female Political Participation in Afghanistan: Social Realities and Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-15

    thank my parents , Karen and Gary Liebsch, for their love and faith. I also thank my best friend and constant companion, Rooney, for his good spirit...owner of women. 5 Even if a woman is unmarried, thus unaccountable to a husband, she is still controlled by her male family members, such as her...Throughout Afghanistan, factions of ethnic groups and warlords fought for control of the cities and valleys with no side able to solidify total control

  7. Agricultural Development Teams and the Counterinsurgency Effort in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    including apricots, apples, pomegranates, and grapes ) and nuts (principally almonds, walnuts and wild pistachio). Such crops can provide twenty times more...Afghan farmers develop skills to support their families. These citizen-soldiers are literally sowing the seeds of peace in Afghanistan.”16 The...without risk. The nation’s biological resources are being rapidly degraded by uncontrolled grazing, cultivation, water extraction , hunting, and

  8. Reintegration and Reconciliation in Afghanistan. Time to End the Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Mohammad, the bat- talion commander of the Afghan Na- tional Army’s 2d Kandak, 2d Brigade, 215th Corps, during a reintegration ceremony at Forward...symbolize him giving up his arms and rejoining the community. At the event, five other individuals were also reintegrated into Afghan society...USMC photo by LCpl Tommy Bellegarde) THERE HAS BEEN much discussion as of late about reintegration and reconciliation in Afghanistan and the impact it

  9. The Prolonged Downfall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    authored The Other Side of the Mountain with Ali Ahamd Jalalia. Similar to the The Bear Went Over the Mountain it analyses mujahedeen tactics using...Interim Government (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1991), 11-13. Also Richard P. Cronin , “Afghanistan after the Soviet Withdrawal Contenders for Power...congressional research service: report for congress, Washington, DC, March 2, 1989), 11. 37Khan, Untying the Afghan Knot, 77-80. 38Richard P. Cronin

  10. United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan: Background and Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-14

    provinces, particularly in the south and east, have contributed to continuing instability and a Taliban resurgence . Afghan officials in the more...Strategic challenges are numerous and continue to put the institution- building effort in Afghanistan at risk . In conjunction with security...reconstruction is seen by many as the single most important factor for sustaining peace. According to many observers, successful development could stem

  11. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Afghanistan Disposal Process Needed Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    properly disposing of equipment during the drawdown in Afghanistan. We determined whether adequate controls existed over the receipt, inspection , coding...adequate controls existed over the receipt, inspection , coding, and disposal of equipment. See the appendix for discussion of the scope and methodology...Although our specific audit objective focused on controls over the receipt, inspection , coding, and disposal of equipment, we determined during the

  12. Post 2014 Afghanistan: Challenges to India’s Securitization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    preservation rule the roost; raising a sense of true nationalism is going to take a lot of patience, perseverance, hard work and economic assistance...tremendous internal turmoil for a divided and disintegrated society that struggles to break free from the shackles of darkness. The last twelve years of...now: 1. Afghanistan must become free and independent; it must enjoy all rights that all other sovereign states possess. 2. You will help me

  13. Long Hard Road: NCO Experiences in Afghanistan and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    desert operations, night vision training, GPS training, and dismounted strategic reconnaissance. We ended our training with an unsupported 1036...overnight stays at different objectives with daily re-supply by Chinook helicopters . In Afghanistan, the temperature was very cold at night in...to familiarize themselves with the surrounding area and to confirm weapon systems zeroes and night vision devices. This small task played an

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  15. Documenting Lessons Learned in Afghanistan Concerning Design and Construction Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan Concerning Design and Construction Challenges Rosa Affleck, and Peter Seman Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army...Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme Road Hanover, IL 61822 Michael Deegan Institute of Water Resources U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...Sargand Ohio Research Institute for Transportation and the Environment Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701 Final report Approved for public

  16. Improving Effectiveness of Monetary Weapon Systems in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    AFIT/GEM/ENV/12-M13 IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS OF MONETARY WEAPON SYSTEMS IN AFGHANISTAN THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...measures of effectiveness have failed to provide post-project-closeout accounting of quantifiable results for individual CERP project’s impacts (SIGAR...the effect of process adjustments on project outcomes. The Causal Chain presented above highlights the importance of different considerations

  17. Poppy Eradication in Afghanistan: Why Isn’t It Working?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-17

    involved in numerous civil wars, invasions, and occupations for millennia. With few natural resources, this landlocked state is further plagued with a harsh...IS To date, all efforts in Afghanistan have been through manual ground-based-negative eradication. Utilizing sickles to cut down the plants or heavy...another foreign outsider occupation similar to those of the past. The United States has strongly advised that aerial eradication would be much more

  18. Establishing midwifery in low-resource settings: guidance from a mixed-methods evaluation of the Afghanistan midwifery education program.

    PubMed

    Zainullah, Partamin; Ansari, Nasratullah; Yari, Khalid; Azimi, Mahmood; Turkmani, Sabera; Azfar, Pashtoon; LeFevre, Amnesty; Mungia, Jaime; Gubin, Rehana; Kim, Young-Mi; Bartlett, Linda

    2014-10-01

    Afghanistan can serve as a model to rapidly increase the number of skilled birth attendants. In such settings, it is important to ensure the provision of continued practice opportunities and refresher trainings after graduation to aid skill retention, a co-operative and supportive work environment that will use midwives for the reproductive health skills for which they were trained, and selection mechanisms that can identify the most promising students and post-graduation deployment options to maximise the return on the substantial educational investment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 31 CFR 545.519 - Payments and transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to the... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN... transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by...

  20. 31 CFR 545.516 - Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.516 Section 545.516 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.516 Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban....

  1. Documentation of a heroin manufacturing process in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Zerell, U; Ahrens, B; Gerz, P

    2005-01-01

    The present article documents an authentic process of heroin manufacturing in Afghanistan: white heroin hydrochloride produced using simple equipment and a small quantity of chemicals. The quantities of chemicals actually used corresponded to the minimum needed for manufacturing heroin. The only organic solvent used was acetone, and only a very small quantity of it was used. Because the chemicals used in the demonstration were from actual seizures in Afghanistan, some of the chemicals had been disguised or repackaged by smugglers. Others had been put into labelled containers that proved to be counterfeit, and some glass containers used were not the original containers of the manufacturer displayed on the label. The brown heroin base prepared as an intermediate step in the process shares some of the characteristics of the South-West Asia type of heroin preparations often seized in Germany. The final product of the documented heroin manufacturing process was white heroin hydrochloride, which shares the key characteristics of the white heroin occasionally seized in Germany and other countries in Western Europe since 2000. The present article demonstrates that this kind of heroin can be produced in Afghanistan.

  2. Death and injury from landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Brennan, Muireann; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2003-08-06

    Afghanistan is one of the countries most affected by injuries due to landmines and unexploded ordnance. To understand the epidemiological patterns and risk factors for injury due to landmines and unexploded ordnance. Analysis of surveillance data on landmine and unexploded ordnance injuries in Afghanistan collected by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 390 health facilities in Afghanistan. Surveillance data were used to describe injury trends, injury types, demographics, and risk behaviors of those injured and explosive types related to landmine and unexploded ordnance incidents. A total of 1636 individuals injured by landmines and unexploded ordnance, March 2001 through June 2002. Eighty-one percent of those injured were civilians, 91.6% were men and boys, and 45.9% were younger than 16 years. Children were more likely to be injured by unexploded ordnance (which includes grenades, bombs, mortar shells, and cluster munitions), whereas adults were injured mostly by landmines. The most common risk behaviors for children were playing and tending animals; for adults, these risk behaviors were military activity and activities of economic necessity (eg, farming, traveling). The case-fatality rate of 9.4% is probably underestimated because surveillance predominantly detects those who survive long enough to receive medical care. Landmine risk education should focus on hazards due to unexploded ordnance for children and on landmine hazards for adults and should address age-specific risk behaviors. Expanding community-based and clinic-based reporting will improve the sensitivity and representativeness of surveillance.

  3. Who owns the peace? Aid, reconstruction, and peacebuilding in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan; Sedra, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear how international donors' stated commitment to ownership and partnership 'translates' in fragile state or 'post-conflict' settings. The very notion of ownership is violently contested in Afghanistan and donors have to negotiate with, and choose between, multiple state and non-state interlocutors. The developmentalist principles outlined in the 2005 Paris Declaration may carry little meaning in such contexts and their application can have paradoxical effects that impede the emergence of broad-based ownership. The limitations of, and alternatives to, developmentalist approaches in fragile states, are explored here with reference to donor policies and practices in Afghanistan, focusing on the period following the 2001 Bonn Agreement. This paper examines how aid policies and programmes have become part of a complex bargaining game involving international actors, domestic elites, and societal groups. It argues that international donors' failure to appreciate or engage sensitively and strategically with these bargaining processes, when combined with contradictory intervention objectives, has contributed to the steady unravelling of a fragile war-to-peace transition in Afghanistan.

  4. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-03-28

    Of the four countries worldwide where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, Pakistan and Afghanistan are considered a single epidemiologic block. Use of intense poliomyelitis eradication measures, including close coordination between the two countries and increased use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccines (mOPVs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3), has reduced WPV transmission to historically low levels. However, despite these efforts, in 2007 both types of WPV continued to circulate in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Ongoing conflicts and security concerns in remote areas with rugged terrain limit access to children and decrease vaccination coverage from routine and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in border areas of both countries where WPV transmission is endemic. In other WPV-endemic areas of Pakistan, where security and access concerns do not exist, operational problems in implementing SIAs resulted in inadequate vaccination of children, which failed to interrupt WPV transmission. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan during January-December 2007 (data as of March 22, 2008). Further progress toward polio eradication will require continued measures to address security concerns in portions of both countries and problems with implementing SIAs in secure areas of Pakistan.

  5. The Promise Rich vs. The Promise Poor. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The second "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief examines the association between a family's income and the presence of the Five Promises in their child's life. The report documents the Promise gap that exists between children in low-income families and those in higher income families. Although parents in low-income families are typically…

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for products or services... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan... solicitation entitled “Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan” (DFARS 252.225-7024)....

  7. Future U.S. Security Relationships with Iraq and Afghanistan: U.S. Air Force Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity. David E. Thaler, Theodore W. Karasik, Dalia Dassa Kaye, Jennifer D. P. Moroney, Frederic ...two nations, but the countries are also situated in geostrategically critical locations. Iraq and Afghanistan are the nexus of many interrelated...geostrategically critical locations, Iraq and Afghanistan are the nexus of many interrelated threats, including terrorism, insurgency, transnational

  8. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-08

    President stated that the number of troops in Afghanistan would halve to about 4,900 and then by the beginning of 2017 , settle at an embassy presence...10 Changing Troop Levels in Afghanistan, 2001- 2017 ...several revisions, including sunsetting the authority on December 31, 2016, rather than September 30, 2017 . The bill endorses the Administration cost

  9. PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan Jill Finnie In the business world, it is common knowledge that superior...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT

  10. A Lifetime of Trauma: Mental Health Challenges for Higher Education in a Conflict Environment in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as a…

  11. BRAC in Afghanistan: Building South-South Partnerships in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mir Nazmul; Anwar, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Training paraprofessionals such as teachers is one of many significant challenges facing Afghanistan's educational system. This case study focuses on the innovations offered in that regard by BRAC, a large NGO based in Bangladesh that brought its many years of development experience to Afghanistan in 2002 and established itself there as the…

  12. BRAC in Afghanistan: Building South-South Partnerships in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mir Nazmul; Anwar, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Training paraprofessionals such as teachers is one of many significant challenges facing Afghanistan's educational system. This case study focuses on the innovations offered in that regard by BRAC, a large NGO based in Bangladesh that brought its many years of development experience to Afghanistan in 2002 and established itself there as the…

  13. Education and Politics in Afghanistan: The Importance of an Education System in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Jeaniene

    2005-01-01

    Afghanistan has a long history of social unrest and ethnic conflict, and the manipulation of the education system by internal and external powers for political purposes has been one of the major contributors to these divisions. As Afghanistan attempts to build peace and maintain co-existence after more than 20 years of violence, there continues to…

  14. Afghanistan's Children Speak to the UN Special Session, September 19-21, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleridge, Angela, Ed.

    This publication presents translated messages from children in Afghanistan presented at a special session of the United Nations in September 2001. Compiled and funded by The Save the Children Alliance members working for Afghanistan, the booklet begins with the text of Articles 12 and 13 relating to participation of The Convention on the Rights of…

  15. Adits, Caves, Karizi-Qanats, and Tunnels in Afghanistan: An Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-30

    Tabulates and briefly discusses radiocarbon dates for material from cave deposits containing upper Paleolithic and mesolithic artifacts in the Kara Kamar...This is an account of an archaeological expedition into Afghanistan in 1954 looking for caves and rock shelters used by upper Paleolithic people...Subject descriptors: Afghanistan; artifacts; caves; Cenozoic; Ghar-i-Mordeh- Gusfand; Paleolithic ; Quaternary; Stone age; stratigraphy. Dupree, Louis

  16. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-20

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis RAND issue papers explore...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  17. 48 CFR 206.303-70 - Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisitions in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 206.303-70 Section 206.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Afghanistan. The justification and approval addressed in FAR 6.303 is not required for acquisitions...

  18. 76 FR 36167 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2... the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Afghanistan, and I hereby waive...

  19. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    officials declared an end to “major combat.” Afghan Governance12 The George W. Bush Administration argued that the U.S. departure from the region after the...is provided in CRS Report RS21922, Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance , by Kenneth Katzman. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban

  20. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 AGENCY... the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal year 2008 (Pub. L. 110-181), the Secretary of... the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to...

  1. Literature review: Afghanistan women's health crisis, health service delivery, and ethical issues for international aid.

    PubMed

    Turner, Helen

    2006-09-01

    The literature indicates that the health of women in Afghanistan is poor. In 1997 maternal mortality in Afghanistan was one of the worst in the world. Difficulties in establishing health services revolve around fundamentalist Islamic ideas and ongoing violence within Afghanistan. The literature holds advice on key behaviours for health professionals who may chose to work in Afghanistan. The literature also identifies the local level action that is occurring as the issue of women's health is recognised. Humanitarian assistance has been provided, with international aid agencies having to weigh the ethical responsibilities they hold and one agency tragically facing the violent loss of its own staff. Easy answers are not in the literature, merely an opportunity to understand, consider, and take action about what is facing women in Afghanistan and those who try to help.

  2. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  3. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Noor, Ayan Ahmed; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Kakar, Faizullah K; Hansen, Peter M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services. Although frequently used in other health-care settings, this represents the first time that the BSC has been employed in a developing country. The BSC was designed via a collaborative process focusing on translating the vision and mission of the MOPH into 29 core indicators and benchmarks representing six different domains of health services, together with two composite measures of performance. In the absence of a routine health information system, the 2004 BSC for Afghanistan was derived from a stratified random sample of 617 health facilities, 5719 observations of patient-provider interactions, and interviews with 5597 patients, 1553 health workers, and 13,843 households. Nationally, health services were found to be reaching more of the poor than the less-poor population, and providing for more women than men, both key concerns of the government. However, serious deficiencies were found in five domains, and particularly in counselling patients, providing delivery care during childbirth, monitoring tuberculosis treatment, placing staff and equipment, and establishing functional village health councils. The BSC also identified wide variations in performance across provinces; no province performed better than the others across all domains. The innovative adaptation of the BSC in Afghanistan has provided a useful tool to summarize the multidimensional nature of health-services performance, and is enabling managers to benchmark performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in the Afghan context.

  4. Modern Earthquake Hazard Assessments in Afghanistan: A USGS Training Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthwaite, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Medlin, J.; Holzer, T.; McGarr, A.; Bohannon, R.

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan is located in a tectonically active region at the western extent of the Indo-Asian collision zone, where ongoing deformation has generated rugged mountainous terrain, and where large earthquakes occur frequently. These earthquakes can cause damage, not only from strong ground shaking and surface rupture, but also from liquefaction and extensive landsliding. The M=6.1 earthquake of March 25, 2002 highlighted the vulnerability of Afghan communities to such hazards, and resulted in at least 1000 fatalities. This training course in modern earthquake hazard assessments is an integral part of the international effort to provide technical assistance to Afghanistan using an "end-to-end" approach. This approach involves providing assistance in all stages of hazard assessment, from identifying earthquakes, to disseminating information on mitigation strategies to the public. The purpose of this training course, held December 2-6, 2006 at the Afghan Geological Survey in Kabul, was to provide a solid background in the relevant seismological and geological methods for preparing for future earthquakes. With this information, participants may now be expected to educate other members of the Afghan community. In addition, they are better prepared to conduct earthquake hazard assessments and to build the capabilities of the Afghan Geological Survey. The training course was taught using a series of Power Point lectures, with all lectures being presented in English and translated into Dari, one of the two main languages of Afghanistan. The majority of lecture slides were also annotated in both English and Dari. Lectures were provided to the students in both hardcopy and digital formats. As part of the on-going USGS participation in the program, additional training sessions are planned in the subjects of field geology, modern concepts in Earth science, mineral resource assessments and applied geophysics.

  5. Streamflow Characteristics of Streams in the Helmand Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A majority of the Afghan population lacks adequate and safe supplies of water because of contamination, lack of water-resources management regulation, and lack of basic infrastructure, compounded by periods of drought and seasonal flooding. Characteristics of historical streamflows are needed to assist with efforts to quantify the water resources of the Helmand Basin. The Helmand Basin is the largest river basin in Afghanistan. It comprises the southern half of the country, draining waters from the Sia Koh Mountains in Herat Province to the eastern mountains in Gardez Province (currently known as the Paktia Province) and the Parwan Mountains northwest of Kabul, and finally draining into the unique Sistan depression between Iran and Afghanistan (Favre and Kamal, 2004). The Helmand Basin is a desert environment with rivers fed by melting snow from the high mountains and infrequent storms. Great fluctuations in streamflow, from flood to drought, can occur annually. Knowledge of the magnitude and time distribution of streamflow is needed to quantify water resources and for water management and environmental planning. Agencies responsible for the development and management of Afghanistan's surface-water resources can use this knowledge for making safe, economical, and environmentally sound water-resource planning decisions. To provide the Afghan managers with necessary streamflow information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), computed streamflow statistics for data collected at historical gaging stations within the Helmand Basin. The historical gaging stations used are shown in figure 1 and listed in table 1.

  6. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  7. Life during wartime: women and conflict in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Mclachlan, F

    1993-06-01

    The civil war in Afghanistan has caused women to suffer psychosomatic disorders and trauma through the loss of relatives and sons. In addition, war-widows face new economic responsibilities for their households and often have had to deal with destruction of their homes and livestock. The women are so depressed that they can no longer enjoy social functions like weddings or trust their neighbors. The only hope the women have is in their children, many of whom were sent to the former Soviet Union to school. For many of the women, the emotional trauma they suffered and the poverty they face combine to make life an ordeal.

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  9. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: Causes and Future Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Zahir and President Daoud often sought U.S. assistance in the Pushtun tribal issue with Pakistan and for military equipment sales; but each time the...weak-willed and 14 14m $j a i IesI$Is__" le/ jm ’ m o e 4e mI $° , m m ". * m m Jm/ . " "q m e im Im~ . m 9 j J mibN T indecisive. History is replete...indifference toward Afghanistan and a drastic shift in the Soviet 1’ perception that the U.S. lacked the ability and will to M counter such an act. -

  10. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  11. Streamflow characteristics at streamgages in northern Afghanistan and selected locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.; Williams-Sether, Tara

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for 79 historical streamgages in Northern Afghanistan and other selected historical streamgages are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamgage include (1) station description, (2) graph of the annual mean discharge for the period of record, (3) statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, (4) monthly and annual flow duration, (5) probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, (6) probability of occurrence of annual low discharges, (7) probability of occurrence of seasonal low discharges, (8) annual peak discharges for the period of record, and (9) monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  12. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  13. Suicide risk in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with mental health problems in VA care.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Madden, Erin; Cohen, Beth E; Bertenthal, Daniel; Neylan, Thomas C; Seal, Karen H

    2015-09-01

    Suicide rates among U.S. military personnel and veterans are a public health concern, and those with mental health conditions are at particular risk. We examined demographic, military, temporal, and diagnostic associations with suicidality in veterans. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression, received a suicide risk assessment, and endorsed hopelessness about the present or future after their last deployment and between January 1, 2010 and June 29, 2014 (N = 45,741). We used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to examine variables associated with having endorsed suicidal thoughts and a plan. Multiple factors were associated with suicidality outcomes, including longer time from last deployment to screening (proxy for time to seeking VA care), an alcohol use disorder diagnosis, further distance from VA (rurality), and being active duty during military service. Hispanic veterans were at decreased risk of having suicidal ideation and a plan, compared to their white counterparts. In high-risk veterans, some of the strongest associations with suicidality were with modifiable risk factors, including time to VA care and alcohol use disorder diagnoses. Promising avenues for suicide prevention efforts can include early engagement/intervention strategies with a focus on amelioration of high-risk drinking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Beyond individual war trauma: domestic violence against children in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Catani, Claudia; Schauer, Elisabeth; Neuner, Frank

    2008-04-01

    To date, research on the psychosocial consequences of mass trauma resulting from war and organized violence on children has primarily focused on the individual as the unit of treatment and analysis with particular focus on mental disorders caused by traumatic stress. This body of research has stimulated the development of promising individual-level treatment approaches for addressing psychological trauma. In contrast, there is virtually no literature addressing the effects of mass trauma on the family and community systems. Research conducted in Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, two long-standing war-torn societies, found that in addition to multiple exposure to war or disaster-related traumatic events children also indicated high levels of exposure to family violence. These findings point to the need for conjoint family- and community-based programs of prevention and intervention that are specifically tailored for the context of the affected society. In particular, programs should take issues such as poverty, child labor, and parental alcohol use into account in assessing and treating children in the aftermath of mass trauma.

  15. The Nexus of Terrorism and Drug Trafficking in the Golden Crescent: Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    in Afghanistan. DEA Chief of Operations Michael A. Braun testified to Congress that it was "time for leadership" in Afghanistan. Braun 11 pointed to...February 2006. Figure 1 base map from http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001 /trade.center/afghan.zoom.html; Internet accessed 8 February 2006. 20 Michael A...afg_intl_counter_narcotics_conf_2004.pdf; Internet; accessed 7 February 2006. 30 Nick Meo and Torcuil Crichton , "Afghanistan: We Were Told War Would Stem the Flood of Heroin into

  16. The Promises of Emerging Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Emerging technology promises to give US theater commanders the ability to destroy enemy aircraft on the ground. The Air Force’s current doctrine, and...To deter conflict or fight and win, the Air Force must use every capability we have today and use those capabilities emerging technology promises for tomorrow to execute its proven doctrine.

  17. Reforestation strategies amid social instability: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Groninger, John W

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  18. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  19. Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groninger, John W.

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  20. 76 FR 65498 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration is organizing a business...

  1. 76 FR 67416 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan, September 2011 (Dates Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... equipment, technology, and services); agribusiness; and information and communications technology. The... production and earnings, promoting technology transfer, improving national prosperity and advancing Afghans..., equipment and technology would enhance development of Afghanistan's industrial sector and lead to...

  2. Iran’s Influence in Afghanistan: Implications for the U.S. Drawdown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Ameli and Hamideh Molaei, “Religious Affiliation and Intercultural Sensitivity: Interculturality Between Shia and Sunni Muslims in Iran...International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2012. 6 The World Factbook, Afghanistan. 7 Niamatullah Ibrahimi, “The Dissipation of...As the two continue to compete for political influence in Afghanistan as a means of securing their respective security and economic inter- ests

  3. The Nature of Insurgency in Afghanistan and the Regional Power Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    August 5, 2009. http://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/2009/08/the-war-we-cant-win/ (accessed December 17, 2009). 32 John K. Cooley, Unholy Wars...Accordingly, in 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand concluded an agreement with Amir Abdul Rehman of Afghanistan, fixing the present boundary line.59 This...77 Khan, “History of Afghanistan.” 78 Nawaz, FATA, 10. 79 Ibid. 80 Foreword by John A. Nagal in Galula, Counterinsurgency

  4. Nation Building in Afghanistan - A Disconnect Between Security Means and Political Ends?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    171. 15 Anna Lindh , "Challenges of Peace Operations: Into the 21st Century," Challenges Project Concluding Report 1997 - 2002, (Sweden, 2002), 5...Peace Policy Brief, (12 January 2002): 2-4. 25 IBID, 3. 26 IBID, 3-4. 27 Lindh , 257. 28 "Afghanistan and the United Nations," UN News Service, available...reports/peace_operations/>; Internet; accessed 17 February 2003. 33 Lindh , 260. 34 United Nations Secretary-General, "The Situation in Afghanistan

  5. $36 Million Command and Control Facility at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan: Unwanted, Unneeded, and Unused

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...Afghanistan, including $ 24 million for the 64K building.18 In August 2010, then-Major General Peter M. Vangjel, Deputy Commanding General of USARCENT...Afghanistan began to decline. In November, 2011, Major General John A. Toolan, then commander of Regional Command-Southwest, 24 issued guidance

  6. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of healthy military service members in the United States and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Methods Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). Results 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). Conclusion MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices. PMID:24060181

  7. Beyond 2014: India’s Security Concerns and Indo-U.S. Strategic Partnership in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    number of countries of the region are directly affected by the situation in Afghanistan particularly India , Pakistan, Iran, the Central Asian Republics...Russia and China. A conflict of interests among these states precludes a regional solution. As both India and the United States share the vision of...affected by the situation in Afghanistan particularly India , Pakistan, Iran, the Central Asian Republics, Russia and China. A conflict of interests among

  8. Effectiveness of Interagency Cooperation at the Provincial Reconstruction Team Level in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-07

    Approved: ___ __.::..,,JL~~~---;;~~~~~~(._-;;;:--~1-:::--=-h.--;--;,------:----- D&e: ___________________ ~~~~~~-L+-------- . r . DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS AND...Reconstruction Teams I was quickly overwhelmed by the massive amount of material on the subject as well as the complexity ’ , r of the interagency...rec;:onstruction and counterinsurgency efforts in " ’ • r Afghanistan.3 The Provincial ReconstrUction Team concept has been active in Afghanistan

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, C.J.; Kosti, Amir Zada; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Omari, Mohammad Karim; Muty, Salam Abdul; Nakshband, Haidari Gulam; Hosine, Abdul Aminulah; Wahab, Abdul; Hamidi, Abdul Wasy; Ahmadi, Nasim; Agena, Warren F.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Drenth, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey--Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit (AU) (80230101).

  10. The deployed military orthopaedic surgeon: experiences of a recent Iowa graduate in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Malin, Andrew S; Brannan, Patrick S

    2012-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons deployed to Afghanistan are primarily responsible for the provision of care to injured Us and coalition soldiers. A vast and well-coordinated system of echeloned care has evolved to rapidly treat and evacuate injured soldiers. Orthopaedic care of injured Afghan civilians represents a common secondary mission performed by deployed orthopaedic surgeons. In this article, I describe my experiences while deployed to Afghanistan in 2011 as part of the special Operations surgical team.

  11. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  12. Afghanistan Equipment Drawdown: Progress Made, but Improved Controls in Decision Making Could Reduce Risk of Unnecessary Expenditures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Afghanistan. As of summer 2013, the Army and Marine Corps had substantial amounts of equipment in Afghanistan. The efficiency and effectiveness of...interviewing DOD officials in the United States and Afghanistan. What GAO Recommends GAO recommends that DOD ensure that the Army and Marine ...potential savings when compared with trucking costs. However, due to ineffective internal controls, the Army and Marine Corps may be incurring

  13. The Army Needs To Improve Property Accountability and Contractor Oversight at Redistribution Property Assistance Team Yards in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-04

    processing and safeguarding retail and wholesale equipment at the RPAT yards in Bagram and Kandahar, Afghanistan. Specifically, RPAT personnel did not...Investigations of Property Loss reports from May 2012 through May 2013 in retail and wholesale equipment at the nine RPAT yards in Afghanistan. Included...for processing and safeguarding retail and wholesale equipment at the Redistribution Property Assistance Team yards in Afghanistan. We considered

  14. Void-Filled SRTM Digital Elevation Model of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barrios, Boris

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The purpose of this data set is to provide a single consistent elevation model to be used for national scale mapping, GIS, remote sensing applications, and natural resource assessments for Afghanistan's reconstruction. For 11 days in February of 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Afghanistan DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are as a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:200,000 - scale Soviet General Staff Topographic Maps which date from the middle to late 1980's. Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and image processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes SRTM DEM quadrangles projected and clipped in geographic coordinates for the entire country. An index of all available SRTM DEM quadrangles is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. Also

  15. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Willem F; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A Gotway

    2004-08-04

    Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living circumstances and mental health condition of the province's population. To determine the rate of exposure to traumatic events; estimate prevalence rates of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety; identify resources used for emotional support and risk factors for mental health symptoms; and assess the present coverage of basic needs in Nangarhar province, Afghanistan. A cross-sectional multicluster sample survey of 1011 respondents aged 15 years or older, conducted in Nangarhar province during January and March 2003; 362 households were represented with a mean of 2.8 respondents per household (72% participation rate). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and traumatic events using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; depression and general anxiety symptoms using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist; and resources for emotional support through a locally informed questionnaire. During the past 10 years, 432 respondents (43.7%) experienced between 8 and 10 traumatic events; 141 respondents (14.1%) experienced 11 or more. High rates of symptoms of depression were reported by 391 respondents (38.5%); anxiety, 524 (51.8%); and PTSD, 207 (20.4%). Symptoms were more prevalent in women than in men (depression: odds ratio [OR], 7.3 [95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-9.8]; anxiety: OR, 12.8 [95% CI, 9.0-18.1]; PTSD: OR, 5.8 [95% CI, 3.8-8.9]). Higher rates of symptoms were associated with higher numbers of traumas experienced. The main resources for emotional support were religion and family. Medical care was reported to be insufficient by 228 respondents (22.6%). In this survey of inhabitants of Nangarhar province, Afghanistan, prevalence rates of having experienced

  16. Radiometric Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric (uranium content, thorium content, potassium content, and gamma-ray intensity) and related data were digitized from radiometric and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan published in 1976. The uranium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Uranium (Radium) Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The thorium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Thorium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The potassium content data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Potassium Contents of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The gamma-ray intensity data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Gamma-Field of Afghanistan (Western Area),' compiled by V. N. Kirsanov and R. S. Dershimanov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  17. Earth observation data for assessment of nationwide land cover and long-term deforestation in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Saranya, K. R. L.

    2017-08-01

    This study has generated a national level spatial database of land cover and changes in forest cover of Afghanistan for the 1975-1990, 1990-2005 and 2005-2014 periods. Using these results we have analysed the annual deforestation rates, spatial changes in forests, forest types and fragmentation classes over a period of 1975 to 2014 in Afghanistan. The land cover map of 2014 provides distribution of forest (dry evergreen, moist temperate, dry temperate, pine, sub alpine) and non-forest (grassland, scrub, agriculture, wetlands, barren land, snow and settlements) in Afghanistan. The largest land cover, barren land, contributes to 56% of geographical area of country. Forest is distributed mostly in eastern Afghanistan and constitutes an area of 1.02% of geographical area in 2014. The annual deforestation rate in Afghanistan's forests for the period from 1975 to 1990 estimated as 0.06% which was declined significantly from 2005 to 2014. The predominant forest type in Afghanistan is moist temperate which shows loss of 80 km2 of area during the last four decades of the study period. At national level, the percentage of large core forest area was calculated as 52.20% in 2014.

  18. Preparation of GPR+MD sensors evaluation tests in Japan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Feng, Xuan; Kobayashi, Takao; Zhou, Zheng-Shu; Savelyev, Timofei G.; Fujiwara, Jun

    2005-06-01

    Currently there are a few projects for landmine detection in Afghanistan, which is supported by the Japanese government. Some field test for landmine detection sensors have been carried out in Afghanistan and Japan. We introduce in this paper about the plan of these projects, and its evaluation tests. JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency) which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)) is developing unmanned vehicles which are mounted sensors for AP landmine detection. The prototype of the sensors and equipments will be ready by February 2005 and will be tested in a test site in Japan by March 2005. Then, it is planned to be evaluated in Afghanistan in summer 2005. JICS (Japan International Cooperation System) which is under the Ministry of Foreign affairs (MOFA) has a project on "Developing Mine Clearance related equipment in Afghanistan". In this project, we plan to evaluate mine detectors in Afghanistan until March 2005. The evaluation test of JICS project has already started in August-Deecember 2004, in Afghanistan,. In the evaluation the both projects, we are preparing test lanes. Most of the sensors to be evaluated is a combination of a metal detector and GPR, and as for GPR, there has been not many examples of such evaluation tests. In this paper, we introduce the outline of the evaluation test, and also discuss some technical aspects of the evaluation test for the combination sensors of a metal detector and a GPR.

  19. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  20. Poppies for medicine in Afghanistan: lessons from India and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Windle, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examines India and Turkey as case studies relevant to the Senlis Council’s ‘poppies for medicine’ proposal. The proposal is that Afghan farmers are licensed to produce opium for medical and scientific purposes. Here it is posited that the Senlis proposal neglects at least three key lessons from the Turkish and Indian experiences. First, not enough weight has been given to diversion from licit markets, as experienced in India. Second, both India and Turkey had significantly more efficient state institutions with authority over the licensed growing areas. Third, the proposal appears to overlook the fact that Turkey’s successful transition was largely due to the use of the poppy straw method of opium production. It is concluded that, while innovative and creative policy proposals such as that of the Senlis proposal are required if Afghanistan is to move beyond its present problems, ‘poppies for medicine’ does not withstand evidence-based scrutiny.

  1. Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment. PMID:26366328

  2. A successful response to an outbreak of cholera in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Faizullah; Ahmadzai, Abdul Hamid; Habib, Najibullah; Taqdeer, Asadullah; Hartman, A Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Although postconflict Afghanistan has some of the worst health indicators in the world, the government is working hard to rebuild the health infrastructure, extend services to underserved areas and improve the quality of health services. An outbreak of cholera ElTor O1 that struck Kabul and spread nationwide in 2005, prompted a collaborative response from the Afghan Ministry of Public Health, partner agencies, and the system established to provide the Basic Package of Health Services, of which diarrhoeal disease control is an essential component. This response illustrates that, with good preparation, it is possible to respond to an outbreak of cholera effectively. The very low mortality rate during the outbreak (0.1%) shows how a resource-poor country can succeed in providing high-quality health services with government commitment, coordinated action by partners, proper case management and treatment and expanded access to services.

  3. Daily stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Rasmussen, Andrew; Yaqubi, Aziz; Daudzai, Haqmal

    2008-12-01

    Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, daily stressors were a better predictor than war experiences of all mental health outcomes except for PTSD; for men, daily stressors were a better predictor of depression and functional impairment, while war experiences and daily stressors were similarly predictive of general distress. For men, daily stressors moderated the relationship between war experiences and PTSD, which was significant only under conditions of low daily stress. The study's implications for research and intervention in conflict and post-conflict settings are considered.

  4. An epidemic of scurvy in Afghanistan: assessment and response.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Edith; Mutahar, Roya; Assefa, Fitsum; Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Nasiri, Shah Mahmood; Borrel, Annalies; Salama, Peter

    2003-09-01

    In March 2002, there were reports of a hemorrhagic fever outbreak in western Afghanistan. It was later confirmed that the hemorrhagic symptoms and increased mortality were actually due to scurvy. Most aid workers did not include scurvy in the initial differential diagnosis because it is uncommon throughout the world and has mainly been reported in refugee populations in recent times. A rapid assessment confirmed the cases clinically, estimated a prevalence rate of 6.3% (a severe public health problem), and determined that the attack rates peaked each year in January and February (the end of the winter). Many Afghans have limited dietary diversity due to isolated locations, lengthy winters, the continuing drought of the last four years, asset depletion, and loss of livelihood. After numerous food and fortification options to prevent future outbreaks had been considered, vitamin C tablet supplementation was selected because of the relatively rapid response time as compared with other prevention methods. A three-month course of vitamin C tablets was distributed to 827 villages in at-risk areas. The tablets were acceptable and compliance was good. No cases of scurvy were reported for the winter of 2002-03. The case study from Afghanistan demonstrates that scurvy can occur in nonrefugee or nondisplaced populations; vitamin C supplementation can be an effective prevention strategy; there is an urgent need to develop field-friendly techniques to diagnose micronutrient-deficiency diseases; food-security tools should be used to assess and predict risks of nutritional deficiencies; and the humanitarian community should address prevention of scurvy in outbreak-prone areas.

  5. Vulnerability and mental health in Afghanistan: looking beyond war exposure.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-François; Bakhshi, Parul

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence of mental distress among groups in Afghanistan considered to be at risk. Data were drawn from a representative cross-sectional disability survey carried out in Afghanistan including 5,130 households in 171 clusters throughout the 34 provinces of the country. The sample included 838 nondisabled control participants aged above 14, and 675 disabled participants. Results showed that various vulnerable groups (disabled people, the unemployed, the elderly, minority ethnic groups, as well as widowed, divorced or separated women) were at higher risk of experiencing mild to severe mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for war-related disability compared to nondisabled was 4.09 (95% confidence interval 2.09 to 7.99) for mild mental distress disorders, and 7.10 (3.45-14.5) and 14.14 (3.38-59.00) for moderate or severe mental distress disorders, respectively. Women with disabilities (whatever the cause of impairment) when compared with nondisabled men, as well as poorer segments of society compared to the richest, had a higher prevalence of mental health problems. Women with non-war-related disabilities compared with nondisabled men were respectively 3.35 (1.27-8.81) and 8.57 (3.03-24.1) times more likely to experience mild or moderate mental distress disorders. People who experience multiple vulnerabilities are more at risk of deteriorating mental health in conflict zones. The study shows that mental health, in times of war, is influenced by a combination of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics linked to social exclusion mechanisms that were in place before the conflict began and that are redefined in relation to the changing social, cultural, and economic contexts. Mental health policies and programmes must prioritise the most vulnerable segments of Afghan society.

  6. Ophthalmic injuries in British Armed Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, R J; Bindra, M S; Jacks, A S; Scott, R A H

    2011-01-01

    Aim British military ophthalmologists have not been deployed in support of operations since 2003. Eye injuries in British forces receive definitive treatment on return to the United Kingdom. We report the injury patterns, management strategies, and outcomes for eye injuries in British Armed Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods Retrospective consecutive case series of eye injuries in British Armed Forces in Iraq or Afghanistan from July 2004 to May 2008. Outcomes assessed by final best-corrected visual acuity (VA; few patients lost to follow-up), rates of endophthalmitis, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Results There were 630 cases of major trauma, 63 sustained eye injuries (10%), and 48 sustained significant eye injuries. There were 21 open-globe injuries: 9 ruptures and perforating injuries, of which 7 were enucleated/eviscerated; 11 intraocular foreign body (IOFB) injuries, of which 1 was eviscerated. Primary repair was combined with posterior segment reconstruction in 9/11 cases with IOFB. Mean time to primary repair was 1.9 days (range 0–5). Intravitreal antibiotics were given at primary repair in five cases. All cases received early broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics. Median final VA was logMAR 0.25 excluding evisceration/enucleations. There were two cases of PVR and none of endophthalmitis. Conclusions The number of eye injuries as a proportion of all casualties is lower than recently reported. The injuries are more severe than in civilian practise. The outcomes were comparable with previous reports, this demonstrates that, in certain cases, primary repair can be safely delayed beyond 24 h in the patient's best interests, in order to optimise the conditions for treatment. PMID:21164529

  7. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima

    2016-01-01

    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  8. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima

    2016-01-01

    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  9. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    gouvernement afghan maintienne une orientation pro-soviétique.2 Les forces soviétiques sont demeurées en Afghanistan jusqu’en 1989. Tout au long de...cette période, les gouvernements soviétique et afghan ont dû faire face à une résistance généralisée et multiforme. Outre les moyens strictement...protéger le régime en place. La question est cependant de savoir si le gouvernement afghan avait les moyens d’assumer les coûts élevés liés aux

  10. Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection's pool: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sanaullah; Attaullah, Sobia

    2011-05-11

    There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. Awareness program and research capacity in the field of hepatitis are very limited in Afghanistan. Number of vulnerabilities and patterns of risk behaviors signal the need to take action now. Thirty one studies dating from October 2003 to 2011 were included, consisting the data of 132,981 individuals for HBV and 132,500 individuals for HCV. Percentage prevalence was 1.9% for HBV and 1.1% for HCV in all available Afghanistan population. Most at risk population to hepatitis include injecting drug users who share needles and female sex workers, while truck drivers, prisoners and homosexual men needs attention, as their statistical figure are missing. Data suggests that high incidence of intravenous drug use, sexual activities, unsafe blood transfusion procedures and mobility are major risk factors for hepatitis transmission. This review is based on analysis of the limited available data in Afghanistan. Although there are many underlying vulnerability factors, it appears that Afghanistan remains at an early epidemic phase. Further research is required to determine the seroprevalence and prevalent genotype(s) of HBV and HCV in all provinces in Afghanistan. This article provides some key insights into the potential and likely future transmission dynamics of hepatitis which will serve as a guide in the identification of priority areas in term of high risk groups and risk behaviours in the country and will assist to develop urgent strategic plans to combat the future burden of hepatitis in Afghanistan.

  11. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  12. Educating Homeless Students: Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn, Ed.

    This book is for educators who serve homeless students or students temporarily sharing houses with other families. It describes many promising strategies for working with these students. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: An Introduction" (James H. Stronge); (2) "Meeting the Developmental and Educational Needs of…

  13. The Promise of Transformative Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…

  14. The Promise of Transformative Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…

  15. America: No Promise Without Agony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert McAfee

    We may discover signs of promise in the midst of agony if we make some shifts of perspective. (1) "Our fear of overt violence must be countered by our acknowledgement of covert violence." Covert violence is subtle and more destructive than physical violence because it is the "denial of personhood"--the insinuation by an act or by neglect that a…

  16. Is Technology Fulfilling Its Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.

  17. Is Technology Fulfilling Its Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.

  18. The INSPIRE Project: Using the "Unknown" to Co-Construct a Training Course on Humanistic Counselling in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdondini, Lucia; Grieve, Sandra; Kaveh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article details a collaborative project between the University of Strathclyde (UK) and the University of Herat (Afghanistan). The aim was to co-construct a model of training, based on humanistic approaches, in order to enhance counselling services in Afghanistan and to establish counselling training at the University of Herat. Two groups of…

  19. Class 6 Proficiency in Afghanistan 2013: Outcomes of a Learning Assessment of Mathematical, Reading and Writing Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Tom; Mendelovits, Juliette; Stanyon, Rachel; Turner, Ross; Walker, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Ministry of Education, Afghanistan, engaged the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) as a partner to support the development of a national learning assessment program in Afghanistan. To achieve this goal, the Learning Assessment unit of the Ministry of Education and ACER have collaborated to design and implement the…

  20. 31 CFR 545.412 - Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 545.412... from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 545.205 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled...

  1. The INSPIRE Project: Using the "Unknown" to Co-Construct a Training Course on Humanistic Counselling in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdondini, Lucia; Grieve, Sandra; Kaveh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article details a collaborative project between the University of Strathclyde (UK) and the University of Herat (Afghanistan). The aim was to co-construct a model of training, based on humanistic approaches, in order to enhance counselling services in Afghanistan and to establish counselling training at the University of Herat. Two groups of…

  2. Evaluating the impact a proposed family planning model would have on maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Ahmad Masoud; Wade, Benjamin; Riley, William

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential impact a proposed family planning model would have on reducing maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has a high total fertility rate, high infant mortality rate, and high maternal mortality rate. Afghanistan also has tremendous socio-cultural barriers to and misconceptions about family planning services. We applied predictive statistical models to a proposed family planning model for Afghanistan to better understand the impact increased family planning can have on Afghanistan's maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate. We further developed a sensitivity analysis that illustrates the number of maternal and infant deaths that can be averted over 5 years according to different increases in contraceptive prevalence rates. Incrementally increasing contraceptive prevalence rates in Afghanistan from 10% to 60% over the course of 5 years could prevent 11,653 maternal deaths and 317,084 infant deaths, a total of 328,737 maternal and infant deaths averted. Achieving goals in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in Afghanistan requires a culturally relevant approach to family planning that will be supported by the population. The family planning model for Afghanistan presents such a solution and holds the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Class 6 Proficiency in Afghanistan 2013: Outcomes of a Learning Assessment of Mathematical, Reading and Writing Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Tom; Mendelovits, Juliette; Stanyon, Rachel; Turner, Ross; Walker, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Ministry of Education, Afghanistan, engaged the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) as a partner to support the development of a national learning assessment program in Afghanistan. To achieve this goal, the Learning Assessment unit of the Ministry of Education and ACER have collaborated to design and implement the…

  4. "Einsatzchirurgie"--experiences of German military surgeons in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Willy, Christian; Hauer, Thorsten; Huschitt, Niels; Palm, Hans-Georg

    2011-04-01

    In 2010, the world witnessed 32 wars and other armed conflicts. Epidemiological analyses of mechanisms and patterns of injury of soldiers sent into these conflicts can be utilised to identify the surgical expertise that is required in a combat setting providing important parameters to adjust medical infrastructure and training requirements for future Military Surgeons. Today in 2011, the German Bundeswehr runs a combat support hospital (role 3) in Mazar-e-Sharif in Northern Afghanistan providing a multidisciplinary capability profile. Furthermore, there are two role 2 medical treatment facilities (rescue centres) in Kunduz and Feyzabad for life-saving procedures and damage control operations in order to enable rapid evacuation to a higher level of care. Epidemiological analyses of injury patterns and mechanisms have shown that 2,299 soldiers of the coalition forces have been killed in Afghanistan until January 15, 2011. Of these, 21.4% died in non-hostile action (2010). The leading causes of injury were explosive devices (up to 60%) followed by gunshot wounds. Chest or abdominal injuries (40%) and traumatic brain injuries (35%) were the main causes of death for soldiers killed in action. The analysis of all surgical procedures performed in Northern Afghanistan demonstrates that most of the patients who underwent surgery until 2009 were local civilians. Most of these operations involved osteosynthesis and soft tissue debridement. Due to the recently aggravated tactical situation within the theatre, a significant increase of mass casualty situations and combat-related injuries was noticed. The casualties in this military conflict present with injury patterns that are not seen in routine surgical practice at home. In an era of increasing surgical sub-specialisation, the deployed military surgeon needs to acquire and maintain a wide range of skills including a variety of surgical fields. In order to create this kind of military surgeon, the so-called DUO plus model for

  5. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  6. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  7. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Kovaleva, O N; Lialina, E V

    2010-11-01

    Polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the HrdA, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci was analyzed in 84 accessions of local barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties from major agricultural regions of Afghanistan using starch gel electrophoresis. Forty alleles of the Hrd A locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 32.73%, 62 alleles of the Hrd B locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 14.29%, and five alleles of the Hrd Flocus with the frequencies from 0.59 to 32.15% have been identified. The conclusion about genetic similarity of barley populations from different regions of Afghanistan is made on the basis of cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in barley populations from 31 localities. The local barley populations form four unequal clusters. The largest cluster I includes populations from 14 localities of Afghanistan. The second largest cluster IV consists of populations from ten localities, and clusters II and III comprise populations from four and three localities, respectively. Each of the four clusters includes populations from different regions of northern and southern Afghanistan. Based on our results, we conclude that the diversity of hordein-coding loci and the distribution of their alleles among different regions of Afghanistan are the consequences of introduction of barley landraces and their distribution over trade routes.

  8. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  9. Y-chromosomal STR analysis in the Pashtun population of Southern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Achakzai, Niaz M; Rahman, Z; Shahzad, M S; Daud, S; Zar, M S; Israr, M; Husnain, T; Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country in the heart of Asia and since the dawn of humankind Afghanistan has faced centuries of turmoil, strife, conflict, warfare, distress, social unrest, difficult climate, harsh terrain and due to its unique geostrategic position in Eurasia which has historically attracted commerce and conflict. It is an important stop along the Silk Road, connecting the far eastern civilizations to the western world. A 5000-year history of constant invasion. Afghanistan has been repeatedly invaded and conquered by rulers and super powers, neighboring interference in this conflict-tattered land for centuries yet rarely leading to the conquest of this rugged and challenging terrain nation. Afghans are not only shepherds, farmers and nomads but also intense fighters and fierce warriors. Currently very limited genetic studies have been performed in Afghan populations. 17 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) were analyzed in 125 unrelated Pashtun (in hindi: Pathan) males residing in the Kandahar region of Southern Afghanistan. A total of 92 unique haplotypes were observed. The predominant haplotype reached a frequency of 9.6%. The haplotype diversity was 0.987 and the discrimination capacity 73.6%. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals a considerable regional stratification within the country as well as between different Pashtun (Pathan) groups from Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.

  10. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  11. The promise of quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  12. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  13. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Afghanistan [population education in countries of the region].

    PubMed

    Zafarsai, B; Khamar, S M

    1982-06-01

    In Afghanistan population education began as an organized program in the nonformal education sector with the initiation of a Unesco/UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) supported project--Family Health and Adult Education. The project, which aimed to integrate family health and family life education, was carried out over a 30-month period in 26 experimental classes in the province of Kohdaman, Shakardara, and the neighboring subdistricts of Kabul. The total enrollment was 479 women. In 1978 a new project was proposed for UNFPA funding, Family Health and Family Life Education through Mass Education Program. It was planned to integrate population education in all 6 education programs of the General Agency for Literacy Campaign (GALC). These programs are: general literacy program; women's program; agriculture and cooperative program; complementary education program; out-of-school children program; and follow-up materials program. The 1st national seminar on population education was organized in September 1979. 17 government and semigovernment agencies involved in population related activities participated. The seminar arrived at a definition and goal of population education. Population education is defined as an educational program which provides for study of the population situation affecting the way of life of the individual, the family, community, and the country. The seminar identified the following as the goal of population education: to provide young people and adults with a knowledge and understanding of population dynamics, causes and consequences of population growth, and the impact of population change/growth on aspects of quality of life. There are now about 26 key personnel in the Ministry of Education who have participated in regional seminars, workshops, and training programs organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Key personnel involved in population education in Afghanistan went on study tours in India, Cuba

  15. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  16. Aeromagnetic surveys in Afghanistan: An updated website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenwary, Ghulam Sakhi; Kohistany, Abdul Hakim; Hussain, Sardar; Ashan, Said; Mutty, Abdul Salam; Daud, Mohammad Ahmad; Wussow, Michael D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Kucks, Robert P.; Finn, Carol A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Liang, Robert T.; Jarvis, James L.; Gardner, Joan M.; Childers, Vicki A.; Ball, David C.; Brozena, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its geologic setting, Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial natural resources. Although valuable mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information about the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Owing to the current security situation and the large areas of the country that have not been evaluated by geophysical exploration methods, a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  17. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  18. A comprehensive population dataset for Afghanistan constructed using GIS-based dasymetric mapping methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Allyson L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the application of dasymetric methods for mapping the distribution of population throughout Afghanistan. Because Afghanistan's population has constantly changed through decades of war and conflict, existing vector and raster GIS datasets (such as point settlement densities and intensities of lights at night) do not adequately reflect the changes. The purposes of this report are (1) to provide historic population data at the provincial and district levels that can be used to chart population growth and migration trends within the country and (2) to provide baseline information that can be used for other types of spatial analyses of Afghanistan, such as resource and hazard assessments; infrastructure and capacity rebuilding; and assisting with international, regional, and local planning.

  19. Afghanistan's national strategy for improving quality in health care

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzai, Mirwais; Amiri, Mirwais; Burhani, Nadera Hayat; Leatherman, Sheila; Hiltebeitel, Simon; Rahmanzai, Ahmed Javed

    2013-01-01

    Quality problem or issue When the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan began reconstructing the health system in 2003, it faced serious challenges. Decades of war had severely damaged the health infrastructure and the country's ability to deliver health services. Initial assessment A national health resources assessment in 2002 revealed huge structural and resource disparities fundamental to improving health care. For example, only 9% of the population was able to access basic health services, and about 40% of health facilities had no female health providers, severely constraining access of women to health care. Multiple donor programs and the MoPH had some success in improving quality, but questions about sustainability, as well as fragmentation and poor coordination, existed. Plan of action In 2009, MoPH resolved to align and accelerate quality improvement efforts as well as build structural and skill capacity. Implementation The MoPH established a new quality unit within the ministry and undertook a year-long consultative process that drew on international evidence and inputs from all levels of the health system to developed a National Strategy for Improving Quality in Health Care consisting of a strategy implementation framework and a five-year operational plan. Lessons Learned Even in resource-restrained countries, under the most adverse circumstances, quality of health care can be improved at the front-lines and a consensual and coherent national quality strategy developed and implemented. PMID:23485422

  20. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach.

  1. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment.

  2. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP.

  3. Afghanistan's national strategy for improving quality in health care.

    PubMed

    Rahimzai, Mirwais; Amiri, Mirwais; Burhani, Nadera Hayat; Leatherman, Sheila; Hiltebeitel, Simon; Rahmanzai, Ahmed Javed

    2013-07-01

    When the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan began reconstructing the health system in 2003, it faced serious challenges. Decades of war had severely damaged the health infrastructure and the country's ability to deliver health services. A national health resources assessment in 2002 revealed huge structural and resource disparities fundamental to improving health care. For example, only 9% of the population was able to access basic health services, and about 40% of health facilities had no female health providers, severely constraining access of women to health care. Multiple donor programs and the MoPH had some success in improving quality, but questions about sustainability, as well as fragmentation and poor coordination, existed. In 2009, MoPH resolved to align and accelerate quality improvement efforts as well as build structural and skill capacity. The MoPH established a new quality unit within the ministry and undertook a year-long consultative process that drew on international evidence and inputs from all levels of the health system to developed a National Strategy for Improving Quality in Health Care consisting of a strategy implementation framework and a five-year operational plan. Even in resource-restrained countries, under the most adverse circumstances, quality of health care can be improved at the front-lines and a consensual and coherent national quality strategy developed and implemented.

  4. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Houben, R. M.; Grede, N.; de Pee, S.; Boccia, D.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  5. Hydrogeology of the Kabul Basin (Afghanistan), part II: groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Georg; Tünnermeier, Torge; Eqrar, Naim; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Shallow groundwater is the main source for drinking water in Kabul, Afghanistan. It comes from a multitude of shallow hand-pumped wells spread over the whole city area. The groundwater is characterised by slightly oxic redox conditions. Interactions with aquifer carbonates lead to near-neutral pH and high degrees of hardness. The mostly negative water budget of the Kabul Basin is the result of strong evaporation which leads to an increase in salt and also of some undesirable constituents, e.g. borate. Several years of drought have aggravated this problem. The shallow groundwater in the city has received tremendous amounts of pollution due to a lack of proper waste disposal and sewage treatment. Common indicators are elevated concentrations of nutrients such as nitrate and faecal bacteria. The high infant mortality can at least partially be attributed to the insufficient water hygiene. Acid generated during the mineralisation of the wastewater is hidden due to the strong pH buffering capacity of the groundwater system. Redox and pH conditions preclude significant mobilisation of trace metals and metalloids.

  6. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity.

  7. The occupational health of de-miners in Afghanistan.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, M

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years there has been increasing awareness of the problems of landmines. This has focused on the ethics of landmine use, and the dangers to the local population of minefields. It has culminated in a much needed campaign for a moratorium on landmine manufacture. There are, however, millions of mines left in almost all parts of the world, which can create an indefinite hazard. The only solution is the slow and painstaking task of clearing these minefields. The health and safety of de-miners has not been previously discussed in any detail. This paper addresses the hazards to the people clearing minefields, with specific reference to the activities of the HALO trust in Afghanistan. De-miners are subject to the same hazards from mines as the general population, but put themselves at additional risk by entering minefields deliberately. These hazards can be controlled by a safe system of work and the appropriate use of personal protective equipment. Images Figure 1 PMID:8786589

  8. Homelessness and money mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Elbogen, Eric B; Sullivan, Connor P; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-12-01

    We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009-2011. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one's credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness.

  9. Sexual revictimization among Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; Beckham, Jean C; The Va Mid-Atlantic Mirecc Workgroup; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-06-30

    Research in both civilian and military populations has demonstrated that females who experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely to experience sexual assault in adulthood than females who did not experience CSA. Among veteran samples, however, little research has examined previous sexual assault as a risk factor of military sexual assault and post-military sexual assault, and very little research has examined revictimization in male veterans. The purpose of this study was to examine risk of sexual revictimization in a sample of veterans who served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A sample of 3106 veterans (80.4% male) completed a measure of lifetime exposure to traumatic events, including sexual abuse and sexual assault. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine previous sexual abuse/assault as predictors of later sexual assault; analyses were conducted separately for males and females. In general, previous sexual abuse/assault was associated with later sexual assault in both male and female veterans. These findings have important assessment and treatment implications for clinicians working with veterans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Sexual Revictimization among Iraq and Afghanistan War era Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Schry, Amie R.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Research in both civilian and military populations has demonstrated that females who experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely to experience sexual assault in adulthood than females who did not experience CSA. Among veteran samples, however, little research has examined previous sexual assault as a risk factor of military sexual assault and post-military sexual assault, and very little research has examined revictimization in male veterans. The purpose of this study was to examine risk of sexual revictimization in a sample of veterans who served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A sample of 3,106 veterans (80.4% male) completed a measure of lifetime exposure to traumatic events, including sexual abuse and sexual assault. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine previous sexual abuse/assault as predictors of later sexual assault; analyses were conducted separately for males and females. In general, previous sexual abuse/assault was associated with later sexual assault in both male and female veterans. These findings have important assessment and treatment implications for clinicians working with veterans. PMID:27149409

  11. Problems and promises of NODC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), the nation's warehouse for ocean data, often hears complaints from its users that requests for data from recent oceanographic cruises cannot be filled. The complaint highlights both sides of the data traffic problem that besets NODC: Researchers delay sending their data to the center, and NODC has had difficulties in processing some data, especially when changes in the computer systems are made or when data is submitted in incomplete form. Plans within NODC promise to minimize the data processing problems with eventual direct communication from desktop to data base.

  12. Pediatric inpatient humanitarian care in combat: Iraq and Afghanistan 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mary J; Lustik, Michael; Burnett, Mark W; Eichelberger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the scope of combat- and noncombat-related inpatient pediatric humanitarian care provided from 2002 to 2012 by the United States (US) Military in Iraq and Afghanistan. A review of the Patient Administration Systems and Biostatistics Activity (PASBA) database for all admissions from 2002 to 2012 by US military hospitals in Afghanistan and Iraq for children 14 years of age and younger provided data to analyze the use of medical care. North Atlantic Treaty Organization Standardization Agreement (STANAG) injury codes provided injury cause and the ICD-codes provided diagnosis. In-hospital mortality, blood usage, number of invasive procedures, and hospital stay were analyzed by country and injury category. There were 6,273 admissions that met inclusion criteria. In Afghanistan, there were more than twice as many pediatric noncombat-related admissions (2,197) as pediatric combat-related admissions (1,095). In Iraq, the difference was minimal (1,391 noncombat vs 1,590 combat). The most common cause of noncombat-related admission in both countries was injury: primarily motor vehicle related and burns, which varied significantly by age. Older patients (older than 8 years in Afghanistan and older than 4 years in Iraq) were more likely combat victims. Mortality was highest for combat trauma in Iraq (11%) and noncombat trauma in Afghanistan (8%). The in-hospital mortality in both countries was 5% for admissions unrelated to trauma. Resource use was highest for combat trauma in both countries. Noncombat-related medical care was the primary reason for pediatric humanitarian admissions to United States military combat hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2002 to 2012. Combat-related injuries have a higher mortality than noncombat injuries or other admissions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2011-August 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-05

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio, which led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In 2012, however, the transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continued uninterrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, leading the World Health Assembly to declare completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2011-August 2012, as of September 9, 2012. During 2011, 80 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 25 WPV cases in 2010; 17 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 34 WPV cases for the same period in 2011. In Pakistan, 198 WPV cases were confirmed in 2011, compared with 144 WPV cases in 2010; 30 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 88 WPV cases during the same period in 2011. During January 2011-August 2012, no WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, and four confirmed WPV3 cases and one case with coinfection of WPV3 and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported in Pakistan. Violence targeting vaccinators has occurred previously in Afghanistan and recently in Pakistan. To progress further toward interruption of WPV transmission within their countries and across their shared border, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan might consider reviewing the implementation of their national emergency action plans and determine how to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within conflict-affected areas of both countries.

  14. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2010-September 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Among those countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan represent a common epidemiologic reservoir. This report updates previous reports (1,4) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2010--September 2011, as of October 31, 2011, and planned activities during 2011--2012 to address challenges to polio eradication. In Afghanistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011 predominantly occurred in the conflict-affected South Region and the adjacent Farah Province of the West Region. During 2010, 25 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 38 in 2009; 42 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 19 for the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011occurred both in conflict-affected, inaccessible areas along the common border with Afghanistan and in accessible areas; 144 WPV cases were confirmed in 2010, compared with 89 in 2009, and 120 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 93 during the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, the president launched a National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication in January 2011, emphasizing the key role and responsibility of political and health-care leaders at the district and subdistrict (union council) levels. Enhanced commitment, management, and oversight by provincial and district authorities will be needed to achieve further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan. Continued efforts also will be needed to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within insecure areas of both countries.

  15. Experiences of military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars: review of research report.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Scannell-Desch and Doherty's (2010) research study findings are important to evidence-based nursing practice experiences of United States military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars to expand the research research findings identified common experiences and reoccurring stories and struggles of nurses pre, during, and postemployment in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. These findings can be used for the education of future deploying military nurses and set the groundwork for further in-depth research studies on military nursing. One suggestion for future research would be a more in-depth study on the challenges faced by military nurses postemployment and interventions to assist in overcoming these challenges.

  16. [Environmental risk factors in the territory of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-07-01

    Military service in Iraq and Afghanistan is burdened by series of environmental factors such as high and low air temperature, wind, sand, dust, and local fauna. In summertime the main hazard are heat injuries. Sand and dust storms also become troublesome. In the winter another health problem is effect of low temperature. In Afghanistan additional threat pose mountain conditions, especially in wintertime when appear intense snowfalls. Hard conditions more than once characteristic for duty of Stabilization Forces soldiers in both countries can cause significant threat for health and life.

  17. A new species of the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group from Afghanistan (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V

    2015-10-02

    A new species from the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group--C. succuba sp. n.--is described from the mountains of Central Afghanistan, Bamyan Province. The new species differs from the geographically close C. p. jomuda Nekrutenko & Tshikolovets in morphology of the male and female genitalia along with the distinct wavy shape of the postdiscal white line on the hindwing underside. Discovery of the new species from C. paulae species group extends known distribution range of the group to the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau in Central Afghanistan.

  18. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  19. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  20. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  1. The promise of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    The promise of gene therapy performed in the preimplantation and prenatal periods of pregnancy is rapidly becoming a reality. New technologies capable of making designed changes in single nucleotides make germline gene therapy possible. The article reviews the ethical and technical challenges of germline gene therapy. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and related technologies are capable of deleting and inserting specific DNA sequences in mutated genes so as to correct the targeted DNA. The ability to target specific gene mutations will offer unique opportunities to at risk families, particularly those whose genotypes prevent any chance of a normal pregnancy outcome. Other applications of gene-modifying technologies on gametes, zygotes, and embryos are likely in the near future. There will be renewed debates on the potentially controversial applications of these technologies because of their capability to genetically alter the human germline and thereby future generations.

  2. Resveratrol analogs: promising chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    Ogas, Talysa; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-07-01

    Although resveratrol can modulate multiple stages of carcinogenesis, by most common standards it is not a good drug candidate. Resveratrol lacks potency, high efficacy, and target specificity; it is rapidly metabolized and serum concentrations are low. Using resveratrol as a scaffold, we produced over 100 derivatives, some of which have target specificity in the nanomolar range. Aromatase inhibition was enhanced over 6000-fold by using 1,3-thiazole as the central ring of resveratrol. Optimizing the substitution pattern of the two phenyl rings and the central heterocyclic linker led to selective QR1 induction with a CD value of 87 nM. Several derivatives have been selected for evaluation of synergistic effects. Preliminary results with pairs of compounds are promising and further experiments, in a constant multidrug manner, will allow us to create polygonograms for larger combinations of derivatives. The objective is to develop a highly efficacious cocktail of derivatives based on the structure of resveratrol.

  3. Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin.

  4. Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John; Wynn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study to identify the potential for phosphate deposits in Afghanistan. As part of this study, a geographic information system was constructed containing a database of phosphate occurrences in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, and a database of potential host lithologies compiled from 1:1,000,000 scale maps. Within Afghanistan, a handful of known occurrences and reports indicate the presence of phosphate in Permian, Cretaceous, and Paleogene sediments and in carbonatite. With the exception of the Khanneshin carbonatite, very little is known about these occurrences. In the countries surrounding Afghanistan, economic phosphate is known to occur in Cambrian, Devonian, and Paleogene sediments and in Kiruna-type Fe-apatite deposits. Many of the host units may extend into Afghanistan or equivalent units may be present. Although the possibility of economic phosphate deposits exist for Afghanistan, the need for detailed exploration for phosphate, the remoteness of some locations, and the probability that a deposit would not be exposed at the surface mean that one or more deposits are not likely to be identified in the near future. Even if a phosphate-bearing deposit is identified in Afghanistan, it is not clear if the probable size, thickness, and grade ranges would allow economic development of the hypothesized resource.

  5. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Results The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Conclusion Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation. PMID:23384348

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps < .05) and greater reductions in PTSD symptoms, distress, anger, physical complaints, and reintegration difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9... PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality promises. Promises of confidentiality must be prominently annotated in the record to protect from disclosure any...

  8. The neural circuitry of a broken promise.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Fischbacher, Urs; Feierabend, Anja; Lutz, Kai; Fehr, Ernst

    2009-12-10

    Promises are one of the oldest human-specific psychological mechanisms fostering cooperation and trust. Here, we study the neural underpinnings of promise keeping and promise breaking. Subjects first make a promise decision (promise stage), then they anticipate whether the promise affects the interaction partner's decision (anticipation stage) and are subsequently free to keep or break the promise (decision stage). Findings revealed that the breaking of the promise is associated with increased activation in the DLPFC, ACC, and amygdala, suggesting that the dishonest act involves an emotional conflict due to the suppression of the honest response. Moreover, the breach of the promise can be predicted by a perfidious brain activity pattern (anterior insula, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus) during the promise and anticipation stage, indicating that brain measurements may reveal malevolent intentions before dishonest or deceitful acts are actually committed.

  9. Hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Kajakai Reservoir, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Don C.; Culbertson, James K.

    1970-01-01

    A hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Band-e Kajakai (Kajakai Reservoir) on the Darya-ye Hirmand (Helmand River) was carried out during the period September through December 1968. Underwater mapping techniques were used to determine the reservoir capacity as of 1968. Sediment range lines were established and monumented to facilitate future sedimentation surveys. Afghanistan engineers and technicians were trained to carry out future reservoir surveys. Samples were obtained of the reservoir bed and in the river upstream from the reservoir. Virtually no sediments coarser than about 0.063 millimeter were found on the reservoir bed surface. The median diameter of sands being transported into the reservoir ranged from 0.040 to 0.110 millimeter. The average annual rate of sedimentation was 7,800 acre-feet. Assuming an average density of 50 pounds per cubic foot (800 kilograms per cubic meter), the estimated average sediment inflow to the reservoir was about 8,500,000 tons (7,700,000 metric tons) per year. The decrease in capacity at spillway elevation for the period 1953 to 1968 due to sediment deposition was 7.8 percent, or 117,700 acre-feet. Redefinition of several contours above the fill area resulted in an increase in capacity at spillway elevation of 13,600 acre-feet; thus, the net change in capacity was 7.0 percent, or 104,800 acre-feet. Based on current data and an estimated rate of compaction of deposited sediment, the assumption of no appreciable change in hydrologic conditions in the drainage area, the leading edge of the principal delta will reach the irrigation outlet in 40-45 years. It is recommended that a resurvey of sediment range lines be made during the period 1973-75.

  10. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001). When controlling for covariates, transfusion of warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.

  11. Pediatric Neurosurgical Care in a German Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Uwe Max; Freude, Gregor; Schulz, Chris; Kunz, Ulrich; Mathieu, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives Children are commonly found among the injured in war settings. Prognosis often depends on the presence of brain injury. Not all neurosurgery departments of German Armed Forces hospitals, however, have experience in the care of children with neurosurgical conditions. Against this background, we assessed the group of pediatric neurosurgical patients in a German (Role 3) field hospital in Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan. Patients/Materials and Methods We analyzed the operative logbooks from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013, to assess the number of neurosurgical procedures that were performed on children (< 18 years of age) at the field hospital of Mazar-e-Sharif. Results During the study period, 327 neurosurgical procedures were performed at the German field hospital. Of these, 29 (9%) were performed on children. The mean age of the pediatric patients (7 girls and 22 boys) was 11.7 years (median age: 12 years; range: 5-17 years). Only three procedures were performed for conditions other than trauma. Pediatric patients accounted for almost 10% of all patients who underwent neurosurgery during a recent military deployment in Mazar-e-Sharif. This percentage is similar to those reported by other nations. These findings show that a considerable number of children underwent neurosurgical treatment. Conclusions Military planners should be aware that Role 3 medical treatment facilities must provide care for pediatric emergencies and must therefore be staffed and equipped accordingly. For military hospitals at home, this means that the management of pediatric patients is an opportunity for medical personnel to receive important pediatric training that enables them to provide care to children in deployed medical facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries for soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Knapik, Joseph J; Ritland, Bradley M; Murphy, Nicole; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2012-11-01

    This study determined injury incidence and examined the association between musculoskeletal injuries and potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. This retrospective cohort study involved a survey of 593 volunteers from two battalions of a Stryker Brigade Combat Team upon completion of a 12-mo deployment to Afghanistan. The survey included questions on physical characteristics, work duties, equipment worn, fitness training, and injuries experienced during the deployment. Of the surveyed soldiers, 45% sustained an injury during the deployment. Total injuries resulted in 5049 d of limited duty, an average of 8.5 d per injury. The body regions with the largest numbers of injuries were the low back (17.4%), knee (12.7%), and shoulder (10.0%). The majority (65%) of injuries occurred while working. The most frequent activities soldiers reported as the cause of injury were lifting and carrying (9.8%), dismounted patrolling (9.6%), and physical training (8.0%). Older age, higher enlisted rank, female sex, months deployed, more time spent standing, longer strength training sessions, heaviest load worn, and heavier or more frequent lifting tasks were all associated with injury. Tasks requiring physical energy expenditure such as load carriage, lifting, or standing resulted in an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury in this study. Lifting/carrying, dismounted patrols, and physical training were associated with 26% of musculoskeletal injuries. The weight of loads carried and lifting may be exceeding the work capacity of the soldiers, resulting in injury. These injuries in turn limit available work days for military units, reducing combat power.

  13. Homelessness and Money Mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Connor P.; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. Methods. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009–2011. Results. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one’s credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Conclusions. Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness. PMID:24148067

  14. Epidemiology and Control of Plasmodium vivax in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Toby; Nahzat, Sami; Sediqi, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease—in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80–95% of malaria is P. vivax. Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts. Pressure on the disease is maintained through case management, surveillance, and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Plasmodium vivax treatment is hampered by the inability to safely treat latent hypnozoites with primaquine because G6PD deficiency affects up to 10% of males in some ethnic groups. The risk of vivax malaria recurrence (which may be as a result of reinfection or relapse) is around 30–45% in groups not treated with primaquine but 3–20% in those given 14-day or 8-week courses of primaquine. Greater access to G6PD testing and radical treatment would reduce the number of incident cases, reduce the infectious reservoir in the population, and has the potential to reduce transmission as a result. Alongside the lack of G6PD testing, under-resourcing and poor security hamper the control of malaria. Recent gains in reducing the burden of disease are fragile and at risk of reversal if pressure on the disease is not maintained. PMID:27708189

  15. Military general surgical training opportunities on operations in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Adam J; Ramasamy, Arul; Hinsley, David; Midwinter, Mark

    2009-07-01

    In the UK, general surgical specialist trainees have limited exposure to general surgical trauma. Previous work has shown that trainees are involved in only two blunt and one penetrating trauma laparotomies per annum. During their training, nearly half of trainees will not be involved in the surgical management of liver injury, 20% will not undertake a trauma splenectomy and only a quarter will see a trauma thoracotomy. Military general surgical trainees require training in, and exposure to, the surgical management of trauma and specifically military wounding patterns that is not available in the UK. The objective of this study was to determine whether operative workload in the sole British surgical unit in Helmand Province, Afghanistan (Operation HERRICK) would provide a training opportunity for military general surgical trainees. A retrospective theatre log-book review of all surgical cases performed at the Role 2 (Enhanced) treatment facility at Camp Bastion, Helmand Province on Operation HERRICK between October 2006 and October 2007, inclusive. Operative cases were analysed for general surgical trauma, laparotomy, thoracotomy, vascular trauma and specific organ injury management where available. A total of 968 operative cases were performed during the study period. General surgical procedures included 51 laparotomies, 17 thoracotomies and 11 vascular repairs. There were a further 70 debridements of general surgical wounds. Specific organ management included five cases of liver packing for trauma, five trauma splenectomies and four nephrectomies. A training opportunity currently exists on Operation HERRICK for military general surgical specialist trainees. If the tempo of the last 12 months is maintained, a 2-month deployment would essentially provide trainees with the equivalent trauma surgery experience to the whole of their surgical training in the UK NHS. Trainees would gain experience in military trauma as well as specific organ injury management.

  16. Epidemiology and Control of Plasmodium vivax in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Toby; Nahzat, Sami; Sediqi, Walid

    2016-12-28

    Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80-95% of malaria is P. vivax Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts. Pressure on the disease is maintained through case management, surveillance, and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Plasmodium vivax treatment is hampered by the inability to safely treat latent hypnozoites with primaquine because G6PD deficiency affects up to 10% of males in some ethnic groups. The risk of vivax malaria recurrence (which may be as a result of reinfection or relapse) is around 30-45% in groups not treated with primaquine but 3-20% in those given 14-day or 8-week courses of primaquine. Greater access to G6PD testing and radical treatment would reduce the number of incident cases, reduce the infectious reservoir in the population, and has the potential to reduce transmission as a result. Alongside the lack of G6PD testing, under-resourcing and poor security hamper the control of malaria. Recent gains in reducing the burden of disease are fragile and at risk of reversal if pressure on the disease is not maintained. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: Resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11–16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their “broken economy,” the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future. PMID:20452111

  18. A new plan for the 800-pound Gorilla (Guerrilla): perinatal mortality in Afghanistan: a 21st century counterinsurgency model for Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas C

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the highest perinatal mortality rate in the entire world. One Afghani woman dies every 30 minutes from perinatal- related event. One of eight Afghani women will die from perinatal events. Maternal mortality is (use percentage, not fractions) 1600/100,000 vs 13 /100,000 in the United States. Afghanistan is one of the only countries in the world in which the average woman?s life expectancy is shorter than a males- despite the active, nationwide combat fought primarily by Afghani males. Meaning, women in Afghanistan are not routinely involved in combat, yet are more likely to die than a man of the same age. This article presents an alternative model Medical Seminar (MEDSEM) for a successful Special Forces (SF) medical counterinsurgency (COIN) plan that can obtain real results by addressing the mission of the Afghan Ministry of Health versus clinging to old notions. This model forms around the medical capabilities of the SF Operational Detachment (ODA)- Alpha (A) and preventinmaternal-infant complications.

  19. Opium in Afghanistan: Lessons Learned from the Counterdrug Strategies of Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Afghanistan................50 Figure 9. Illegal armed groups and coca cultivation in Colombia 2008...................................55 Figure 10...Drug Abuse Resistance Education FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia GDP Gross Domestic Product NIU National Interdiction Unit PCIM...States.21 This problem contains four major players: the coca farmers; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC); the Colombian Government

  20. Feasibility of Open Schooling in Disturbed Societies: The Case of Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Most countries have enshrined the right to education in their constitution but, in reality, to fulfil this commitment, countries do face a number of challenges. And this is true with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which unlike other countries has a long history of war, conflicts, insurgency, and hence insecurity. Although there have been…

  1. Distinct Circulating Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Among Injecting Drug Users and Sex Workers in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    strains from IDUs in Iran, Tagliamonte et al.5 identified greater homology within the isolated subtypes from Tehran than those from Mashad , providing some...were compared with those described from IDUs in Iran, both in Mashad and in Tehran.4,5 Although genotypes for IDU in Iran and Afghanistan are quite

  2. Afghanistan Drug Control: Despite Improved Efforts, Deteriorating Security Threatens Success of U.S. Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information...counternarcotics police counternarcotics law implementation and corrections reform raising awareness and promoting behavior change Sources ...Opium Industry Afghanistan is the world’s largest supplier of opium and has been a source of illegal opium for decades. Opium poppy is a hardy

  3. The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Bear Versus the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, 1979-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Gromov and Sergey Bogdanov, Ogranichennyy kontingent (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1994): 202. Translation excerpts of this material provided by Lester...Vladislav Tamarov, Afghanistan: Soviet Vietnam, trans. Naomi Marcus, Marianne Clarke Trangen, and Vladislav Tamarov (San Francisco: Mercury House...311 In a tone distinctly reminiscent of American military leaders after Vietnam, Marshal Sergei Akhromeyev stated: There is not a single piece of

  4. Importation of malaria into the USSR from Afghanistan, 1981-89.

    PubMed Central

    Sergiev, V. P.; Baranova, A. M.; Orlov, V. S.; Mihajlov, L. G.; Kouznetsov, R. L.; Neujmin, N. I.; Arsenieva, L. P.; Shahova, M. A.; Glagoleva, L. A.; Osipova, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1981 and 1989, a total of 7683 cases of Plasmodium vivax [corrected] malaria were imported into the USSR from Afghanistan, mainly by demobilized military personnel. For 23.8% of these cases the clinical manifestations appeared within a month of returning to the USSR, for 22.5% after 1-3 months, for 20% after 4-6 months, for 2% after > 1 year, and for 0.6% after > 2 years. For 13 patients the clinical manifestations of malaria appeared 3 years after returning from Afghanistan (up to 38 months). Nearly 69% of the patients did not take malaria prophylaxis at all while they were in Afghanistan, and 19% took chloroquine irregularly. Only 12.5% of the patients received a full course of prophylactic treatment with primaquine before leaving Afghanistan. A total of 56% of the cases were detected during the period most favourable for malaria transmission in the USSR (May-September) and of these, half were imported into formerly malarious areas of the country. Activation of a surveillance system greatly reduced the consequences of the massive importation of malaria, to which the local vectors were susceptible. PMID:8324858

  5. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-17

    for Policy Michele Flournoy. Ministers from Afghanistan and Pakistan visited Washington, DC, during February 23-27, 2009, as part of the review, and...up a “force reintegration cell,” headed by Britain’s Maj. Gen. Richard Barrons , to develop additional programs and policies to accelerate the

  6. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-30

    Holbrooke and by Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Michele Flournoy. Ambassador Holbrooke invited both Afghanistan and Pakistan to participate in the...November 2009, ISAF set up a “force reintegration cell,” headed by Britain’s Maj. Gen. Richard Barrons , to develop additional programs and policies to

  7. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-04

    Ambassador Holbrooke and Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Michele Flournoy. Ministers from Afghanistan and Pakistan visited Washington, DC, during...perspective, in November 2009, ISAF set up a “force reintegration cell,” headed by Britain’s Maj. Gen. Richard Barrons , to develop additional programs

  8. Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  9. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul Ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-03-31

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil.

  10. Afghanistan’s Path to Reconstruction: Obstacles, Challenges, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-20

    protection needs. The weather, like the terrain, is varied and harsh and creates “pockets of need” which are difficult to reach by relief agencies. Food ... insecurity is likely to continue in many parts of Afghanistan. This in turn may contribute to existing ethnic tensions and encourage further

  11. If You Believe in Faith: An Interview with Afghanistan's Minister of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Angie

    2004-01-01

    New construction springs up like hope in Afghanistan's capital: rampant, haphazard, and, too often, quick to deteriorate in Kabul's harsh climate. But one closely watched building project has come to symbolize so much--the renovation of the bombed-out, abandoned women's dormitories at Kabul University. When completed, they will house two thousand…

  12. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-30

    Forward SECTION 3 RECONSTRUCTION UPDATE 41 Overview 45 Status of Funds 59 Security 81 Governance 101 Economic and Social Development TABLE OF...initiative seeks to improve the economic and social environment in Afghanistan through small community- enhancement projects. ONGOING AUDITS...Security, Governance, and Economic and Social Development. The Security, Governance, and Economic and Social Development subsections mirror the

  13. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, Hakim; Azizi, Masood; Mogren, Saad

    2016-08-01

    This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.

  14. 75 FR 29466 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action would permit certain U.S. civil aircraft..., except when such operators are foreign air carriers. The FAA finds this action necessary to prevent a...

  15. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  16. Mental Health and Childhood Adversities: A Longitudinal Study in Kabul, Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Goodman, Anna; Tol, Wietse; Eggerman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify prospective predictors of mental health in Kabul, Afghanistan. Method: Using stratified random-sampling in schools, mental health and life events for 11- to 16-year-old students and their caregivers were assessed. In 2007, 1 year after baseline, the retention rate was 64% (n = 115 boys, 119 girls, 234 adults) with no…

  17. Development knowledge and experience--from Bangladesh to Afghanistan and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Aminul Alam, M.; Ahmed, Jalaluddin

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: In Afghanistan the challenges of development are daunting, mainly as a result of many years of conflict. The formation of a new government in 2001 paved the way for new initiatives from within and outside the country. BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), a Bangladeshi nongovernmental organization with a long history of successful work, extended its development model to Afghanistan in 2002. LOCAL SETTING: Provincial Afghanistan. APPROACH: BRAC has implemented programmes in Afghanistan in the areas of health, education, microfinance, women's empowerment, agriculture, capacity development and local government strengthening, and has taken many of these programmes to scale. RELEVANT CHANGES: With a total staff of over 3000 (94% Afghan and the rest Bangladeshis), BRAC now works in 21 of the country's 34 provinces. BRAC runs 629 non-formal primary schools with 18 155 students, mostly girls. In health, BRAC has trained 3589 community workers who work at the village level in preventive and curative care. BRAC runs the largest microfinance programme in the country with 97 130 borrowers who cumulatively borrowed over US$ 28 million with a repayment rate of 98%. LESSONS LEARNED: Initial research indicates significant improvement in access to health care. Over three years, much has been achieved and learned. This paper summarizes these experiences and concludes that collaboration between developing countries can work, with fine-tuning to suit local contexts and traditions. PMID:16917659

  18. Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael Jessee

    2016-01-01

    Afghanistan's public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially…

  19. Intercultural Teaching through Translation: An Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy Course Case in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkilic, Alaattin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach and evaluate the effectiveness of an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course through translation to students in Afghanistan. First, an interview was conducted to determine students' computer skills. It was concluded that the students had almost no computer skills. The course was delivered to…

  20. If You Believe in Faith: An Interview with Afghanistan's Minister of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Angie

    2004-01-01

    New construction springs up like hope in Afghanistan's capital: rampant, haphazard, and, too often, quick to deteriorate in Kabul's harsh climate. But one closely watched building project has come to symbolize so much--the renovation of the bombed-out, abandoned women's dormitories at Kabul University. When completed, they will house two thousand…

  1. Good Governance Matters: Optimizing U.S. PRTs in Afghanistan to Advance Good Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Analysis. (CRM D0019230.A1/SR1 October 2008), 6. 26 Dylan Hendrickson, Michael Bhatia, Mark Knight, and Annabel Taylor, A Review of DFID Involvement...Michael Bhatia, Mark Knight, and Annabel Taylor, A Review of DFID Involvement in Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanistan, Report

  2. Afghanistan and Multiculturalism in Khaled Hosseini's Novels: Study of Place and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary F.; Todd, Reese H.; Olaniran, Bolanle; Lucey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to frame Khaled Hosseini's novels, "The Kite Runner" and "A Thousand Splendid Suns", as literature to expand and enhance the American secondary curriculum with multicultural themes based on Afghanistan as a geographical and cultural place in a dynamic, diverse, and complex world more…

  3. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  4. Integrating Learning, Leadership, and Crisis in Management Education: Lessons from Army Officers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayes, D. Christopher; Allen, Nate; Self, Nate

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model and case study used to teach crisis leadership as a management education topic. The materials emerge from studies of U.S. Army leaders (company commanders and platoon leaders) working in Iraq and Afghanistan. The authors explain how examples and cases from military combat provide tools to teach about crisis…

  5. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  6. Communication Management Guidelines for Software Organizations in Pakistan with clients from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Shah, Muhammad; Hashim, Rathiah; Shah, Adil Ali; Farooq Khattak, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Developing software through Global Software Development (GSD) became very common now days in the software industry. Pakistan is one of the countries where projects are taken and designed from different countries including Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to identify and provide an analysis on several communication barriers that can have a negative impact on the project and to provide management guidelines for medium size software organizations working in Pakistan with clients from Afghanistan and to overcome these communication barriers and challenges organizations face when coordinating with client. Initially we performed a literature review to identify different communication barriers and to check if there are any standardized communications management guidelines for medium size software houses provided in the past. The second stage of the research paper involves guidelines with vendor's perspective that include interviews and focus group discussions with different stakeholders and employees of software houses with clients from Afghanistan. Based on those interviews and discussions we established communication management guidelines in order to overcome the communication problems and barriers working with clients from Afghanistan. As a result of the literature review, we have identified that barriers such as cultural barriers and language barrier were one of the main reasons behind the project failure and suggested that software organizations working in Pakistan should follow certain defined communication guidelines in order to overcome communication barriers that affect the project directly.

  7. Localizing OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Lauryn; Hashimi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    The Darakht-e Danesh ("knowledge tree") Online Library is the first open educational resource (OER) initiative in Afghanistan, established to enhance teacher subject-area knowledge, access and use of learning materials, and to foster more diverse teaching methodologies in order to improve learning outcomes in Afghan classrooms. This…

  8. The Genetic Basis of Fusarium Root Rot Tolerance in the Afghanistan Pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic basis of tolerance to Fusarium root rot found in many landraces grown in the region that includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and northwestern India was examined in a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a tolerant accession. Three loci appear to be primarily resp...

  9. Afghanistan and Multiculturalism in Khaled Hosseini's Novels: Study of Place and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary F.; Todd, Reese H.; Olaniran, Bolanle; Lucey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to frame Khaled Hosseini's novels, "The Kite Runner" and "A Thousand Splendid Suns", as literature to expand and enhance the American secondary curriculum with multicultural themes based on Afghanistan as a geographical and cultural place in a dynamic, diverse, and complex world more…

  10. The design and implementation of a conservation corps program in Nuristan, Afghanistan

    Treesearch

    Danny Markus; John W. Groninger

    2011-01-01

    Nuristan ranks among the least prosperous and educated provinces of Afghanistan. In 2008, the Nuristan Conservation Corps (NCC) was initiated to provide work, education, and training for 90 fighting-age males. Participants in this 1-year pilot program received basic education and natural resource management job skills training. Irrigation infrastructure was built on 26...

  11. Northwest view of Pakistan, eastern Iran and Afghanistan during MA-9 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-06443 (15-16 May 1963) --- A northwest-looking view across Pakistan, eastern Iran and Afghanistan as photographed from the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) capsule by astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., during his 22-orbit MA-9 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  13. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  14. Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plane, Jandelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

  15. Genetic structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from two malaria endemic areas in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; Safi, Najibullah; Afsharpad, Mandana; Butt, Waqar; Ghasemi, Faezeh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Atta, Hoda; Zamani, Ghasem; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Afghanistan have been investigated by analyzing three genetic markers: csp, msp-1, and msp-3 alpha. Blood samples (n=202) were collected from patients presenting with vivax malaria from south-western (Herat) and south-eastern (Nangarhar) parts of Afghanistan, and analysed using nested-PCR/RFLP and sequencing methods. Genotyping pvmsp-1 revealed type 1, type 2 and recombinant type 3 allelic variants, with type 1 predominant in parasites in both study areas. The sequence analysis of 57 P. vivax isolates identified a total of 26 distinct alleles. Genotyping pvcsp gene showed that VK210 type (86.6%) is predominant in Afghanistan. Moreover, three major types of the pvmsp-3 alpha locus: type A, type B and type C were distinguished among Afghani isolates. The predominant fragments among Nangarhar and Herat parasites were type A (70.8% and 67.9%, respectively). PCR/RFLP products with Hha I and Alu I were detected 52 and 38 distinct variants among Nangarhar and Herat isolates, respectively. These results strongly indicate that the P. vivax populations in Afghanistan are highly diverse.

  16. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  17. CLINICAL FEATURES, CURRENT TREATMENTS AND OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSAIA/ECLAMPSIA IN NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN

    PubMed Central

    AHADI, SAYED SHIR MOHAMMAD; YOSHIDA, YOSHITOKU; RABI, MIRWAIS; SARKER, MOHAMMAD ABUL BASHAR; REYER, JOSHUA A.; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Afghanistan, preeclampsia/eclampsia is the second leading cause of maternal deaths following maternal hemorrhage. This study aimed to describe clinical features, current treatments, and outcome among preeclampsia and eclampsia patients in the north region of Afghanistan. This was a retrospective study based on medical records of four center hospitals (one regional hospital and three provincial hospitals) in the north region of Afghanistan. Subjects were 322 patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia, admitted from March 2012 to March 2013. Out of 322 cases, 72.7% were diagnosed as preeclampsia and the rest as eclampsia. Those aged 30–39 years were 41.0% among preeclampsia patients and 29 years and younger were 35.2% among eclampsia patients (p= 0.002). The first delivery was significantly higher (p=0.045) among eclampsia patients (51.1%) than among preeclampsia patients (36.8%). While none died among the preeclampsia patients, 12 out of 88 eclampsia patients died in the hospitals. The causes of the 12 deaths were pulmonary edema (6 patients), renal failure (3 patients), cerebrovascular attack (2 patients), and hemorrhage (1 patient). There were no clinical findings at admission significantly associated with the deaths within the eclampsia patient group. Although the sample size was not large enough, patients admitted to the regional/provincial hospitals at the stage of preeclampsia had a low risk of death. Access at the stage of preeclampsia and improvement in treatments for eclampsia would reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan. PMID:25797975

  18. Intercultural Teaching through Translation: An Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy Course Case in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkilic, Alaattin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach and evaluate the effectiveness of an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course through translation to students in Afghanistan. First, an interview was conducted to determine students' computer skills. It was concluded that the students had almost no computer skills. The course was delivered to…

  19. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  20. 78 FR 54947 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  1. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  2. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan women…

  3. Muslim and Western Influences on School Curriculum in Post-War Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.

    2007-01-01

    In Afghanistan, education has largely been destroyed, partly in the name of Islam, by the wars fought on its behalf, or by different ethnic groups vying for control of this Islamic country. Similarly, curriculum has been used to promote political and/or religious viewpoints and to strengthen positions of power. War dominated the language of…

  4. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  5. Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plane, Jandelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

  6. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  7. Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan (Leavenworth Papers, Number 20)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    tactical guide for engaging Soviet helicopters. Actually a schematic diagram done in watercolor , the document advised rebel fighters to let the first...Publication Paints Bleak Picture of War in Afghanistan." The Christian Science Monitor, 21 July 1988. Rafikov, R. "Helicopters over the Battlefield

  8. An outbreak of human external ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus ovis in southern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, James; Cooper, Ben; Hodgetts, Tim; Yskandar, Halabi; van Thiel, Pieter; Whelan, Steve; Taylor, Justin; Woods, David R

    2008-06-01

    Oestrus ovis is the most common cause of human ophthalmomyiasis, and infection is often misdiagnosed as acute conjunctivitis. Although it typically occurs in shepherds and farmers, O. ovis ophthalmomyiasis has also been reported in urban areas. We report the first case study of O. ovis infection from Afghanistan.

  9. Integrating Learning, Leadership, and Crisis in Management Education: Lessons from Army Officers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayes, D. Christopher; Allen, Nate; Self, Nate

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model and case study used to teach crisis leadership as a management education topic. The materials emerge from studies of U.S. Army leaders (company commanders and platoon leaders) working in Iraq and Afghanistan. The authors explain how examples and cases from military combat provide tools to teach about crisis…

  10. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan women…

  11. Psychotropic Medication Prescribing in Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans and Vietnam Era Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vojvoda, Dolores; Stefanovics, Elina A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2017-09-26

    A new generation of veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan wars is seeking psychotropic pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the Veterans Health Administration, but little is known about differences in prescribing practices between this group and Vietnam era veterans with the same diagnosis. The Veterans Health Administration administrative data for fiscal year 2012 were used to compare prescribing for 155,631 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans and for 327,634 Vietnam era veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The proportion of veterans who were prescribed psychotropic medications (altogether and within five of seven medication classes) were not substantially different between veteran groups. Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were more frequently prescribed prazosin (p < 0.0001, relative risk = 1.51). However, the number of prescriptions for anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics as well as prazosin and opiates filled by this younger group was lower by a small magnitude (Cohen's d < 0.2). Iraq/Afghanistan veterans have good access to psychopharmacological treatment for PTSD but fill somewhat fewer prescriptions than Vietnam era veterans.

  12. Promising psychotherapies for personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hadjipavlou, George; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2010-04-01

    To provide a narrative review of recent research on the psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with personality disorders (PDs). We conducted PubMed and PsycINFO searches of recently published articles that reported on the treatment outcomes of psychotherapies for PDs. Our focus was on studies that used randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology. The search period was from January 2006 to June 2009. The effectiveness of various psychotherapy treatment packages for PDs is well supported by favourable results from RCTs. Beneficial effects of psychotherapy included reduced symptomatology, improved social and interpersonal functioning, reduced frequency of maladaptive behaviours, and decreased hospitalization. Equivalent effects among the interventions we compared were common. Many of the treatments studied required only limited training by therapists. Most studies were focused on treating patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Some findings were suggestive of psychotherapy being cost-effective; however, few studies actually included formal cost analyses. Only one study included follow-up of treated patients beyond 1-year posttreatment. There is strong support for the use of psychotherapy to treat patients with PDs. However, most of the evidence is limited to BPD. The findings of recent studies hold promise for training and practice. Future research should attend to identification of appropriate patient-treatment matches, elucidation of active treatment ingredients, and illumination of factors that are common among treatments that account for their equivalent effects.

  13. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  14. Promising ethanologens for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; Newman, M.

    1995-12-31

    An economical biomass-to-ethanol process depends on the efficient conversion of both its cellulose and hemicellulose components. On a dry weight basis, the typical feedstock contains approx 25-50% (w/w) glucose, 10-30% (w/w) xylose, 15-30% (w/w) lignin, and 1-5% (w/w) of other minor pentose and hexose sugars. Although many microorganisms can ferment the glucose component in cellulose to ethanol, conversion of pentose sugars in the hemicellulose fraction, particularly xylose, has been hindered by the lack of a suitable biocatalyst. Despite the development of recombinant strains with improved fermentation performance, increased ethanol yields and concentrations and shorter fermentation times are key targets that have yet to be achieved from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Our objective is to develop biocatalysts for the rapid and efficient conversion of xylose by engineering key metabolic pathways in selected organisms. To identify promising biocatalysts for these efforts, we have surveyed several industrial microorganisms according to several primary traits considered to be essential, as well as a number of secondary traits considered to be desirable, in a commercial biomass-to-ethanol process.

  15. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398

  16. The promises of qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Gergen, Kenneth J; Josselson, Ruthellen; Freeman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We address the significance and implications of the formal entry of qualitative inquiry into the American Psychological Association. In our view, the discipline is enriched in new and important ways. Most prominently, the qualitative movement brings with it a pluralist orientation to knowledge and to practices of inquiry. Adding to the traditional view of knowledge as empirically supported theory are research practices congenial with varying accounts of knowledge, including, for example, knowledge as hermeneutic understanding, social construction, and practice-based experience. Added to the goal of prediction are investments in increasing cultural understanding, challenging cultural conventions, and directly fostering social change. The qualitative movement also enriches the discipline as a whole through the special ways in which it inspires new ranges of theory, fosters minority inclusion, and invites interdisciplinary collaboration. Finally, the movement holds promise in terms of the discipline's contribution to society at large. Here we focus on the advantages of knowing with others in addition to about them, and on ways in which qualitative work enhances communication with the society and the world. Realizing these potentials will depend on developments in responsible research and reporting, academic and journal policies, along with the discipline's capacities for appreciating a more comprehensive orientation to inquiry. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The Promise of Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, George

    2015-10-01

    The field of nuclear astrophysics stands at the intersection of some of the most exciting thrusts in nuclear theory and experiment, many-body physics, neutrino and particle physics, gravitation and astronomy. In fact, key facilities like FRIB for studying nuclear properties and reactions, JLAB and RHIC for uncovering fundamental aspects of QCD, and a variety of neutrino experiments are poised to leverage the fruits of a coming expansion of observational astrophysics capabilities. This will allow unprecedented insights into grand questions: Where do the nuclei come from?; How did the structures we see form?; What can the extreme conditions of the early universe, massive stars and violent stellar collapse/explosion and compact object mergers tell us about the nature of strongly interacting matter and neutrino physics?; What is the nature of Dark Matter? I will argue here that the advent of 30m-class optical telescopes, high precision cosmic microwave background polarization experiments, next generation orbiting X-ray and gamma-ray observatories, and gravitational wave astronomy (e.g., Advanced LIGO observations of compact object in-spiral events), combined with advances in nuclear theory and experiment, promises an intriguing future. (I would like to acknowledgement support from NSF, the University of California, LANL and DOE)

  18. Geologic and topographic maps of the Kabul South 30' x 60' quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with three highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in Geospatial PDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts

  19. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Afghanistan, January 2014‒August 2015.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-10-23

    Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.

  20. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called ‘Mental Health Gap’. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store–forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community. PMID:23441027

  1. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called 'Mental Health Gap'. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store-forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community.

  2. Natural Resource Assessments in Afghanistan Through High Resolution Digital Elevation Modeling and Multi-spectral Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirico, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides USGS/USAID natural resource assessments in Afghanistan through the mapping of coal, oil and natural gas, minerals, hydrologic resources and earthquake and flood hazards.

  3. 76 FR 76382 - Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February 2012* Dates Are Withheld

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February 2012* Dates Are Withheld AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce's International Trade...

  4. Taxonomic notes on the genus Satyrium Scudder, 1876 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) of Afghanistan with description of two new taxa.

    PubMed

    Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V

    2015-07-13

    А new species and a new subspecies of Satyrium Scudder, 1876 (subfamily Theclinae, tribe Eumaeini) from the subgenera Superflua Strand, 1910 and Armenia Dubatolov & Korshunov, 1984 respectively are described from Bamyan Province, Central Afghanistan-S. (S.) skrylniki sp. n. and S. (A.) hyrcanica bamiana ssp. n. The new species of Superflua belongs to the Iranian complex of species. It inhabits the territory of Afghanistan, being isolated from two other species of the subgenus known from the territory in question. The new subspecies of Armenia is also found in isolation both from the nominate subspecies and two Middle and Central Asian subspecies. Both findings clarify some aspects of zoogeography of the Central Afghanistan mountains.

  5. Updated Death and Injury Rates of U.S. Military Personnel During the Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    is again about 4 percentage points. Confusion on survival rates and how they should be measured, however, persists. For example, Gartner states that...complement—lethality. A more refined measure of 14 Gartner SS: Iraq and Afghanistan Through

  6. AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    optical characterization of the AMLCDs used in this simulator and the cockpit design are described. Display formats under consideration for test in this cockpit are described together with some of the basic human factors engineering issues involved. Studies conducted in this cockpit will be part of an ongoing joint effort of the hardware-focused aerospace displays team and the pilot-focused human factors team in the Air Force Research Laboratory's Crew System Interface Division. The objective of these studies is to ascertain the payoffs of the large AMLCD promise in combat cockpits.

  7. The Major Crimes Task Force-Afghanistan: A Case Study and Examination of Implications for Future FBI Capacity Building Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    to be between the two opposing U.S. political factions and their distinctly different vision for U.S. involvement in Afghanistan and the region...against influence from the other two , political interference, or intimidation. As in Afghanistan, intimidation of the few prosecutors and judges...creators of the MCTF-A faced a two -sided political opposition. The MCTF-A was designed and stood up without the participation or concurrence of the

  8. Scrutinizing and Assessing the Performance of the German and U.S.-Led Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Alliance; the Rome group, composed of the family and supporters of the former King Zahir Shah; the Peshawar group, Pashtun mujahedin, tribal and religious...Afghanistan Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment,[ 2007]) (accessed April 26, 2007). 28 Christopher M . Blanchard, Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy...activities, primarily conducted by the Taliban, beginning in mid- 2006. Thomas H. Johnson and M . Chris Mason discuss in their article, “Understanding the

  9. Iraq and Afghanistan: Security, Economic, and Governance Challenges to Rebuilding Efforts Should Be Addressed in U.S. Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq, Nov. 17, 2008. The agreement took effect Jan . 1, 2009...Stability in Afghanistan (Washington, D.C.: Jan . 2009). Figure 1: Enemy-Initiated Attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan Per Month, May 2003...Forward ( Jan . 2007 – July 2008) • President Obama outlined a new U.S. strategy in Feb. 2009 • Security forces development plan • Integrated energy plan

  10. Development of Empirically Based Time-to-death Curves for Combat Casualty Deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Development of Empirically Based Time-to- death Curves for Combat Casualty Deaths In Iraq and Afghanistan Edwin...10.1177/1548512914531353 dms.sagepub.com Development of empirically based time-to- death curves for combat casualty deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan...casualties with life-threatening injuries. The curves developed from that research were based on a small dataset (n = 160, with 26 deaths and 134

  11. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  12. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  13. Relation of Topography to Airborne Gravity in Afghanistan and the Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a multi-sensor, multi-disciplinary aerogeophysical survey, the US Naval Research Laboratory collected airborne gravity over most of Afghanistan in 2006 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1089/Afghan_grv.html). The data were measured using a pair of ZLS Corporation air-sea gravimeters 7 km altitude above mean sea level aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft operated by the US Navy's Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1). Aircraft positions were determined from kinematic GPS measurements in the aircraft relative to five base stations using differential interferometric techniques. Track spacing was set to 4 km over much of Afghanistan, but was increased to 8 km in the northern block of the survey area. Aircraft ground speed averaged between 300 and 380 knots, faster than ideal for high resolution gravity, but enabled approximately 113,000-km of data tracks to be flown in 220 flight hours, covering more than 330000 km2. In this presentation, we investigate the implications of the airborne gravity data for the tectonic development history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is described as comprising three different platforms (Wheeler et al., 2005): 1) the north Afghanistan platform north of the Hari-Rud fault (HRF), a part of the Eurasian plate for 250-350 my; 2) the accreted terranes south of the HRF including low flats, formed as island arcs and fragments of continental and oceanic crust collided with the Eurasian plate during the closure of the Tethys Ocean in the past 250 my; and 3) the transpressional plate in the east, formed as the Indian plate moves northward since Cretaceous. The Bouguer anomaly map reveals elongated negative values along the east-west striking HRF, which seems to manifest different tectonic developmental histories across the boundary. Over the southern flats in the accreted terranes platform, the Bouguer anomaly map appears to show a continuation of alternating southwest-northeast trending highs and lows like those over the northern high

  14. Geologic and Topographic Maps of the Kabul North 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with two highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in GeoPDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts to rebuild

  15. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  16. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  17. The US military experience with fresh whole blood during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Mark H; Roberts, Matthew; Sawyer, Mike; Myers, Greg

    2012-09-01

    Since its introduction in the early part of the last century, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used by the US military as a battlefield expedient resuscitation method, even after the development of component therapy in the 1960s. In the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, FWB was used once more, often collected in the setting of a walking blood bank (WBB). Considerable research and opinion from military circles has cited these experiences and sparked renewed interest in FWB as an effective resuscitation tool in the setting of trauma. Despite efforts by the US military to improve the effectiveness and safety of FWB through a series of widely published guidelines, transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) remain a vexing challenge. These experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan will help inform a larger discussion regarding the reintroduction of FWB in civilian trauma resuscitation.

  18. After the parade: military nurses' reintegration experiences from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary Ellen; Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe reintegration experiences of U.S. military nurses returning from deployments in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. A qualitative study using a phenomenological method was conducted. The population comprised nurses who served in the U.S. Army, Navy, or Air Force in Iraq or Afghanistan during 2003-2013, including Active Duty, National Guard, and Reserve nurses. Purposive sampling with Veteran and professional nursing organizations yielded a sample of 35 nurses. Nine themes emerged from analysis: (a) homecoming; (b) renegotiating roles; (c) painful memories of trauma; (d) getting help; (e) needing a clinical change of scenery; (f) petty complaints and trivial whining; (g) military unit or civilian job: support versus lack of support; (h) family and social networks: support versus lack of support; and (i) reintegration: a new normal.

  19. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    PubMed

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  20. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  1. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD.

    PubMed

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Conybeare, Daniel; Phelps, Lori; Hunt, Stephen; Holmes, Hollie A; Felker, Bradford; Klevens, Michele; McFall, Miles E

    2007-12-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were grouped by level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and compared on self-report measures of trait anger, hostility, and aggression. Veterans who screened positive for PTSD reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the subthreshold-PTSD and non-PTSD groups. Veterans in the subthreshold-PTSD group reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD and subthreshold-PTSD groups did not differ with respect to aggression, though both groups were significantly more likely to have endorsed aggression than the non-PTSD group. These findings suggest that providers should screen for anger and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who exhibit symptoms of PTSD and incorporate relevant anger treatments into early intervention strategies.

  2. Management of paediatric tuberculosis in provincial and district hospitals in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Delawer, F M; Isono, M; Ueki, H; Zhuben, M; Zafari, M; Seddiq, M K; Habib, H; Ayoubi, M K

    2013-08-01

    Case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis 1 B) in children are challenging issues vorldwide. This study in Afghanistan aimed to evaluate paediatric TB case management, including contact investigation, at health facilities where all diagnostic processes were available. In 7 out of 8 regions of the country 1 province was selected. Documents used for management of paediatric TB cases were reviewed in 15 distinct hospitals and 8 provincial hospitals in the selected provinces. The key issues which emerged were: a low suspect rate among total outpatients (0.4%) and a very low suspect rate among children aged < 5 years; low performance of suspect management (68.5% suspects received further examinations); low utilization of other diagnostic methods; a high early defaulter rate (14.0%); and insufficient coverage of contact management (74.0%). This survey indicated that the Afghanistan national TB programme needs to develop plans to improve the quality of diagnosis, suspect management and contact management in paediatric TB cases.

  3. Notes on interpretation of geophysical data over areas of mineralization in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has the potential to contain substantial metallic mineral resources. Although valuable mineral deposits have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Geophysical surveys, particularly those conducted from airborne platforms, are a well-accepted and cost-effective method for obtaining information on the geological setting of a given area. This report summarizes interpretive findings from various geophysical surveys over selected mineral targets in Afghanistan, highlighting what existing data tell us. These interpretations are mainly qualitative in nature, because of the low resolution of available geophysical data. Geophysical data and simple interpretations are included for these six areas and deposit types: (1) Aynak: Sedimentary-hosted copper; (2) Zarkashan: Porphyry copper; (3) Kundalan: Porphyry copper; (4) Dusar Shaida: Volcanic-hosted massive sulphide; (5) Khanneshin: Carbonatite-hosted rare earth element; and (6) Chagai Hills: Porphyry copper.

  4. Preliminary findings from a clinical demonstration project for veterans returning from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Jean C; Becker, Mary E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W; Drury, Pamela D; Kang, Han K; Wiley, Matthew T; Calhoun, Patrick S; Moore, Scott D; Bright, Mary Anne; McFall, Miles E

    2008-05-01

    Military veterans are at high risk for nicotine dependence. This clinical demonstration project used invitational letters, referral to the National Cancer Institute's Smoking Quitline, and local Veteran Affairs prescriptions for tobacco cessation to evaluate whether this low-cost method would potentially reduce smoking in separated veterans who served in Afghanistan and Iraq. Three cohorts (500 each) of recently separated veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq were contacted by survey letters. Interested veterans received follow-up telephone calls using standardized scripts. They were referred to the National Cancer Institute's Smoking Quitline (1-877-44U-QUIT) and offered local Veteran Affairs pharmacologic treatment for smoking cessation. Forty-three percent of respondents who were smokers were interested in the clinical program; of these, 77% participated. At 2 months follow-up, 38% of participants self-reported maintained smoking abstinence. Results suggested that the intervention was feasible and assisted the small number of veterans who participated.

  5. Suspected pulmonary tuberculosis exposure at a remote U.S. army camp in northeastern Afghanistan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Remington L; Silvestri, John W; Hu, Zheng; Tobler, Steven K; Trotta, Richard F

    2008-07-01

    Military personnel serving at remote camps in the border regions of northeastern Afghanistan may experience crowded living conditions and may have frequent interaction with local national (LN) workers, increasing the risk of exposure to multiple endemic diseases including tuberculosis (TB). In January 2007, pulmonary TB was clinically suspected in a LN worker who had close contact with a company of 92 U.S. Army personnel at a remote camp in Konar province, Afghanistan, over 4 months. This report describes the results of the contact investigation conducted by the U.S. Army, in which four U.S. personnel were found to have evidence of TB exposure. This investigation raises concerns arising from the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB in the region and in neighboring North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, and demonstrates the challenges of conducting contact investigations and using LN workers in deployed wartime environments.

  6. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  7. Firm Fixed Price and Cost Plus Fixed Fee Construction Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    others 2006, Hutton 2006, Walker 2007). In Afghanistan and Iraq a number of lessons learned were highlighted and documented through Government...manager/apps/PTS/Reports/metrics/schedGrowthMetric.aspx (accessed May 2011). Hutton , John P. "Rebuilding Iraq: Status of Competition for Iraq...downloads.php (accessed April 2011). Vaccari, David A., Peter F. Strom, and James E. Alleman. Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists. Hoboken

  8. U.S. Military Nurses’ Experience of Coming Home after Iraq & Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Sep 2010 - 30 Aug 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Military Nurses ’ Experience of Coming Home after Iraq... Nursing Research TSNRP Program, 4301 Jones Bridge RD Bethesda, MD 20814 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION...specific aims were to (1) explore lived experiences of military nurses coming home from a combat deployment to Iraq and/or Afghanistan, (2) examine the

  9. The Rule of Law Effort in Afghanistan: A Success Story in the Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    to require certification by the executive branch, every six months, of Salvadoran progress in such areas as the curbing of abuses ...Zealand Minister of Justice, Alternative pre-trial and trial processes for child witnesses in New Zealand’s criminal justice system, Appendix B: A...author, Camp Eggers, Afghanistan, 2011. New Zealand Minister of Justice. Alternative pre-trial and trial processes for child witnesses in New

  10. U.S. Policy in Pakistan as U.S. Begins to Transition Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized...Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street...the most significant efforts associated with Afghanistan and Pakistan Regional Stabilization Strategy is the Kerry- Lugar -Berman (KLB) legislation.32

  11. Selected epidemiological aspects of fresh whole blood application in the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Adam; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Lass, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Minimisation of blood transmitted diseases is a basic element of all blood transfusion strategies. Civilian health service standards used in peacetime may be difficult to implement in a battlefield. The risk of blood-borne diseases depends on the applied donor qualification procedures and the epidemiological situation in the areas of military operations. The authors discuss various epidemiological aspects considered when selecting potential donors of fresh whole blood for a Walking Blood Bank at the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

  12. Value Focused Thinking for Nation Building in Afghanistan: A Regional Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Hierarchies “Completeness, non redundancy, decomposability, operability, and small size” are five properties of value hierarchies identified by Kirkwood...of General Staff, British Army (2003-2006) The first and foremost universally accepted principle, most famously asserted by John Locke one of...available, the DM identifies social well being as important to Afghanistan. However, he stresses that comparing an Afghan society with a first world

  13. Ditching Career Centric COIN: Exhuming Robert Komer with the Drawdown in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-10

    there remains a void, virtually ignored by scholars and pundits alike. That void is filled by the questions surrounding the actual organization of COIN...enemy centric, and leader centric COIN are sill in common and official use by the community at large. Their usefulness, however, has been diminished by...could they learn and adapt.17 While Afghanistan experts are realistically wary of centralization, they might do well to look at the conduct of the

  14. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data for geothermal reconnaissance in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, H.; Aboud, E.; Gottsmann, J.

    2015-11-01

    The geologic setting of Afghanistan has the potential to contain significant mineral, petroleum and geothermal resources. However, much of the country's potential remains unknown due to limited exploration surveys. Here, we present countrywide aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) and to evaluate the geothermal exploration potential. CPD is an isothermal surface at which magnetic minerals lose their magnetization and as such outlines an isotherm of about 580 °C. We use spectral analysis on the aeromagnetic data to estimate the CPD spatial distribution and compare our findings with known geothermal fields in the western part of Afghanistan. The results outline four regions with geothermal potential: 1) regions of shallow Curie point depths (∼16-21 km) are located in the Helmand basin. 2) regions of intermediate depths (∼21-27 km) are located in the southern Helmand basin and the Baluchistan area. 3) Regions of great depths (∼25-35 km) are located in the Farad block. 4) Regions of greatest depths (∼35-40 km) are located in the western part of the northern Afghanistan platform. The deduced thermal structure in western Afghanistan relates to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, while the shallow CPDs are related to crustal thinning. This study also shows that the geothermal systems are associated with complex magmatic and tectonic association of major intrusions and fault systems. Our results imply geothermal gradients ranging from 14 °C/km to 36 °C/km and heat-flow values ranging from 36 to 90 mW/m2 for the study area.

  15. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-25

    and co-chaired by Ambassador Holbrooke and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Michele Flournoy. Ministers from Afghanistan and Pakistan visited...insurgent detentions. After the jirga, according to testimony by Defense Under Secretary Michele Flournoy on June 15-16, 2010, some success were in...efforts from the international perspective, in November 2009, ISAF set up a “force reintegration cell,” headed by Britain’s Maj. Gen. Richard Barrons

  16. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-17

    Holbrooke and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Michele Flournoy. Ministers from Afghanistan and Pakistan visited Washington, DC, during February...by calling for a review of the cases of all insurgent detentions. After the jirga, according to testimony by Defense Under Secretary Michele Flournoy...set up a “force reintegration cell,” headed by Britain’s Maj. Gen. Richard Barrons , to develop additional programs and policies to accelerate the

  17. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-21

    Defense for Policy Michele Flournoy. Ministers from Afghanistan and Pakistan visited Washington, DC, during February 23-27, 2009, as part of the...review of the cases of all insurgent detentions. After the jirga, according to testimony by Defense Under Secretary Michele Flournoy on June 15-16...Britain’s Maj. Gen. Richard Barrons , to develop additional programs and policies to accelerate the effort to cause insurgents to change sides. These

  18. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Afghanistan’s Highways 1960-1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    was being done. The Ken R. White Company, an American firm under contract to the International Cooperation Administration, was responsible for the...crossings. The roadbed followed a gradual rise from Kandahar to the border, crossing minor ridges on gentle slopes {History 1965; Wilber 1962). This...Walters, R. S. (1970). American and Soviet Aid: A comparative analysis. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pa. Wilber , D. N. (1962). Afghanistan

  19. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-17

    bilateral agenda item with Afghanistan.5 After the August 7, 1998, Al Qaeda bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania , the Clinton...in retaliation for the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania . ! On July 4, 1999, because of the Taliban’s hosting of bin Laden, President Clinton...17, 2004, the Bush CRS-19 23 (...continued) November 2, 2004. 24 IAF Choppers to Fight Afghan Drugs. Jerusalem Post, February 11, 2005. 25 This is

  20. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-15

    retaliation for the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania . Clinton Administration Relations With the Taliban The Clinton Administration diplomatically engaged...August 7, 1998, Al Qaeda bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania , the Clinton Administration placed progressively more pressure on the Taliban...Reuters, November 2, 2004. 25 “IAF Choppers to Fight Afghan Drugs.” Jerusalem Post, February 11, 2005. in place to have them extradited from Afghanistan

  1. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  2. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  3. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  5. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  6. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  7. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  8. Counterinsurgency: Clear-Hold-Build and the Pashtun Tribes in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Pfeffer and D. K. Behera, Contemporary Society: Tribal Studies, vol. 5 (New Delhi: Concept Publishers, 2002), 2. 12Arturo G. Munoz, "Pashtun Tribalism...Vol 5), edited by G. Pfeffer and D. K. Behera. 265-282. New Delhi: Concept Publishers, 2002. Jones, Seth G. In the Graveyard of Empires: America’s...War in Afghanistan. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2009. Kagan, Frederick W., Kimberely Kagan, Jeffrey Dressler, and Carl Forsberg. Defining Success

  9. New-onset asthma among soldiers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Peters, Michael C; Weissinger, Kristen M; Gagliano, Christy A; Chen, John J

    2010-01-01

    Since June 4, 2004, asthma diagnosed and symptomatic after the age of 12 years has been an exclusion criterion for military enlistment unless exempted via medical waiver. The Department of Defense determined that 13% of U.S. Army Medic visits in Iraq are for new-onset acute respiratory illness; case reports of veterans with asthma that began in Iraq and Afghanistan War zones have surfaced. This prompted our study to determine whether new asthma is diagnosed more frequently among Iraq/Afghanistan War troops versus stateside-based troops. Retrospective review of asthma diagnoses among computerized charts for military personnel discharged from active duty and examined between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007, at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Northport, NY, classified soldiers by (1) deployment status-whether they were stationed in Iraq/Afghanistan for a 1-year tour of duty or stationed in the United States, and (2) VA diagnosis of asthma per International Classification of Disease codes. Associations between deployment and asthma statuses were evaluated/stratified by gender/age group. Eligibility criteria entailed (1) residence in Long Island, (2) aged 18-45 years, and (3) both U.S. military service and discharge dates between March 1, 2004 and May 1, 2007. Out of 6233 patients who served between 2004 and 2007 and were followed at the Northport VAMC, 290 new-onset/prevalent asthma cases were identified. Deployment to Iraq was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma compared with stateside soldiers (6.6% versus 4.3%; with a crude odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.11). These associations persist when stratified by gender and age group. Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan is associated with new-onset asthma. Etiologic studies, surveillance, incidence, epidemiology, and assessing response to therapy are recommended.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil. PMID:28321006

  11. Effectiveness of Department of Defense Policies on Copyrighted Media: Bazaar Occurrences in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    collaboration throughout my research. To Dr. Bill McCollum, I have never had the opportunity to learn from such an esteemed and enlightened educator in...long after media in VHS and Betamax tape format hit the market to the public, the public learned how to manipulate the product to suit their needs. In...Afghani people learned about the world around them was changing. Klinger states, “Clearly, there would be no Titanic phenomenon in Afghanistan

  12. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    conciliatory approach to governing accounts for the absence of violent ethnic conflict. The parliament has become an arena for formerly armed factions to...western Afghanistan, and the Mughals controlling Kabul and the east. A monarchy ruled by ethnic Pashtuns was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani...government in which all ethnic minorities participated. He was succeeded by King Mohammad Nadir Shah (1929-1933), and then by King Mohammad Zahir

  13. Islamist Militancy in the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Region and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    Osama bin Laden’s location to the Tora Bora mountains in Afghanistan’s Nangarhar Province (30 miles west of the Khyber Pass), but the Afghan militia...forces flew multiple helicopter missions to resupply Taliban fighters inside Afghanistan’s Nangarhar province in 2007. The Islamabad government angrily...26 Pakistan is home to some 28 million Pashto -speaking people, most of them living near the border with Afghanistan, which is home to another 13.5

  14. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    conciliatory approach to governing accounts for the absence of violent ethnic conflict. The parliament has become an arena for formerly armed factions to...western Afghanistan, and the Mughals controlling Kabul and the east. A monarchy ruled by ethnic Pashtuns was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani...government in which all ethnic minorities participated. He was succeeded by King Mohammad Nadir Shah (1929-1933), and then by King Mohammad Zahir

  15. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Alegana, Victor A; Wright, Jim A; Nahzat, Sami M; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W; Atkinson, Peter M; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  16. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  17. No Green-On-Blue Against the Reds?: Organizational Strategies Behind Insider Attacks in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    events in Afghanistan, great care must be taken to ensure the correct comparisons are made. Clausewitz highlighted the need to use both theory and...theories, a careful review reveals a number of recurring principles. These principles highlight key COIN centers of gravity and serve as...as well as making the Afghan institutions relatively independent from their Soviet counterparts.68 He also took care mitigate the perception that

  18. U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan-Pakistan: Chinese Views and Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Daobao (liH^^t SE^ffi), article by Wang Shida, researcher at CICIR, December 10, 2010. Open Source Center CPP20100304671001. IAAt least one...long-term economic and security interests could suffer if China remains passive in the region while "hiding behind 44 Wang Shida, "PRC Daily Article...Suggests Things China Should Do in Afghanistan." 45 Beijing also replaced the long-serving, hard-line Party Secretary for Xinjiang, Wang Lequan, with

  19. Characterization and Management of Mandibular Fractures: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    clinical trial. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1987;113(10):1055e7. 19. Kyle P, Hayes D, Blice J, et al. Prevention and Management of infections...Characterization and Management of Mandibular Fractures Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan David I. Tucker, DDS a,*, Michael R. Zachar, DDS b...previous conflicts are now commonplace because of early surgical inter- vention, body armor, and rapid evacuation. This article exam- ines the history

  20. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-07

    post-Taliban transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005; a new constitution was adopted in January 2004...2001 the State Department ordered the Taliban representative office in New York closed, although the Taliban representative continued to operate...past schisms to rest in building a new Afghanistan. The law was rewritten to give victims the ability to bring accusations of past abuses forward, but