Science.gov

Sample records for aflatoxin contaminated corn

  1. Single Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn Kernel Analysis with Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  2. Single aflatoxin contaminated corn kernel analysis with fluorescence hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin levels in food and feed are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food and 100 ppb in feed for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests including thin-layer chromatography (TCL) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical tests require the destruction of samples, and are costly and time consuming. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, nondestructive way is crucial to the grain industry, particularly to corn industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology offers a non-invasive approach toward screening for food safety inspection and quality control based on its spectral signature. The focus of this paper is to classify aflatoxin contaminated single corn kernels using fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. Field inoculated corn kernels were used in the study. Contaminated and control kernels under long wavelength ultraviolet excitation were imaged using a visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral camera. The imaged kernels were chemically analyzed to provide reference information for image analysis. This paper describes a procedure to process corn kernels located in different images for statistical training and classification. Two classification algorithms, Maximum Likelihood and Binary Encoding, were used to classify each corn kernel into "control" or "contaminated" through pixel classification. The Binary Encoding approach had a slightly better performance with accuracy equals to 87% or 88% when 20 ppb or 100 ppb was used as classification threshold, respectively.

  3. Nitrogen fertilizer influence on aflatoxin contamination of corn in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Tubajika, K M; Mascagni, H J; Damann, K E; Russin, J S

    1999-12-01

    Studies were conducted in 1997 and 1998 on a Gigger silt loam at the Macon Ridge Research Station at Winnsboro, LA, to determine the influence of nitrogen (N) rate, timing, and starter nitrogen fertilizer on aflatoxin contamination in corn. Fertilizer N (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 lb of N/acre), two timings (at planting and six-leaf stage), and starter N fertilizer (a control and 10 lb of N/acre applied in furrow) were evaluated. Application of starter, N rates, and the interaction of starter with N timing and N rates significantly affected aflatoxin levels. Rates of 50-250 lb of N/acre were 34-43% lower in aflatoxin contamination than plots receiving no N. The application of 10 lb of N/acre starter reduced the aflatoxin levels by 20% compared to the no-starter control.

  4. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.

  5. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  6. Integrated process for ammonia inactivation of aflatoxin-contaminated corn and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nofsinger, G.W.; Lagoda, A.A.; Black, L.T.

    1982-04-01

    A process is described for converting aflatoxin-contaminated corn to ethanol via combining ammonia inactivation with the liquefaction step of the ethanol fermentation process. Better ethanol yields were obtained when ammonia was added during liquefaction than when no ammonia was added. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ levels were reduced 80 to 85% by the process.

  7. Distribution of aflatoxins in product and by-products during glucose production from contaminated corn.

    PubMed

    Aly, Soher E

    2002-10-01

    Aflatoxins are known to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. A positive correlation has been established between the consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and the increased incidence of liver cancer worldwide. A survey of Egyptian corn and corn-based products and by-products shows that the majority of the samples had higher limits of aflatoxin. We have conducted experiments to determine the fate and distribution of aflatoxin during wet-milling process fractions and investigate the aflatoxin destruction during starch conversion to glucose syrup. The present results showed that about half of the aflatoxin content (48.1%) in the infected corn grain was found to be lost in steep liquor, depending upon the aflatoxin type, arranged in the order G1 > G2 > B1 > B2. After wet-milling aflatoxins were distributed into starch, gluten, fiber, and germ. Gluten, fiber, and germ were the most highly contaminated fractions. The loss of aflatoxin during process of starches reached 54.4% in steep water and water process. Although the gluten fraction represents only 9.6% of corn, the higher percentage (25.3%) of aflatoxin was found in this fraction, the fiber and germ account for nearly 29% of the milled corn and contain 11.6% of the aflatoxin. On the other hand, 8.7% of the total aflatoxins in start corn was found in starch fraction which accounts 61% of the milled corn. Aflatoxins G1 and G2 were found lost in higher concentrations compared to the aflatoxin B1 and B2. A higher percentage of AfG1 (86.35%) and AfG2 (78.36%) and a lower percentage of AfB1 (16.3%) and AfB2 (14.7%) were found in starch fraction. The conversion percent of contaminated starch was 89.5% compared with control starch. It can be concluded that aflatoxins were destroyed during starch conversion. Consequently, glucose syrup produced from contaminated starch was found aflatoxin-free.

  8. Automatic detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels using dual-band imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ononye, Ambrose E.; Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin predominantly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn, peanuts and in a wide variety of other grain products. Corn, like other grains is used as food for human and feed for animal consumption. It is known that aflatoxin is carcinogenic; therefore, ingestion of corn infected with the toxin can lead to very serious health problems such as liver damage if the level of the contamination is high. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has strict guidelines for permissible levels in the grain products for both humans and animals. The conventional approach used to determine these contamination levels is one of the destructive and invasive methods that require corn kernels to be ground and then chemically analyzed. Unfortunately, each of the analytical methods can take several hours depending on the quantity, to yield a result. The development of high spectral and spatial resolution imaging sensors has created an opportunity for hyperspectral image analysis to be employed for aflatoxin detection. However, this brings about a high dimensionality problem as a setback. In this paper, we propose a technique that automatically detects aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels by using dual-band imagery. The method exploits the fluorescence emission spectra from corn kernels captured under 365 nm ultra-violet light excitation. Our approach could lead to a non-destructive and non-invasive way of quantifying the levels of aflatoxin contamination. The preliminary results shown here, demonstrate the potential of our technique for aflatoxin detection.

  9. Hyperspectral bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) imaging of aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2006-10-01

    Aflatoxin contaminated corn poses a serious threat to both domestic animals and humans, because of its carcinogenic properties. Traditionally, corn kernels have been examined for evidence of bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF), which is an indication of possible presence of Aspergillus flavus, one of the aflatoxin producing strains of fungi, when illuminated with a high-intensity ultra-violet light. The BGYF test is typically the first step that leads to an in-depth chemical analysis for possible aflatoxin contamination. The objective of the present study was to analyze hyperspectral BGYF response of corn kernels under UVA excitation. The target corn samples were collected from a commercial corn field in 2005 and showed abundant BGYF response. The BGYF positive kernels were manually picked out and imaged under a visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system under UV radiation with excitation wavelength centered at 365 nm. Initial results exhibited strong emission spectra with peaks centered from 500 nm to 515 nm wavelength range for BGYF positive kernels. Aflatoxin levels on the BGYF positive and negative corn kernels (used as control) were measured subsequently with high performance liquid chromatography. The mean aflatoxin concentration level was 5114 ppb for the BGYF positive and undetectable for the normal kernels.

  10. Development of narrow-band fluorescence index for the detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus when the fungus invades developing corn kernels. Because of its potent toxicity, the levels of aflatoxin are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food, and feed intended for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests. These tests require the destruction of samples, can be costly and time consuming, and often rely on less than desirable sampling techniques. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, non-invasive way is crucial to the corn industry in particular. This paper described how narrow-band fluorescence indices were developed for aflatoxin contamination detection based on single corn kernel samples. The indices were based on two bands extracted from full wavelength fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. The two band results were later applied to two large sample experiments with 25 g and 1 kg of corn per sample. The detection accuracies were 85% and 95% when 100 ppb threshold was used. Since the data acquisition period is significantly lower for several image bands than for full wavelength hyperspectral data, this study would be helpful in the development of real-time detection instrumentation for the corn industry.

  11. SVM-based feature extraction and classification of aflatoxin contaminated corn using fluorescence hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used in the Genetic Algorithms (GA) process to select and classify a subset of hyperspectral image bands. The method was applied to fluorescence hyperspectral data for the detection of aflatoxin contamination in Aspergillus flavus infected single corn kernels. In the...

  12. Aflatoxin contamination of corn under different agro-environmental conditions and biocontrol applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of the fungus Aspergillus flavus has been shown to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study compared field application of a bioplastic-based formulation for delivering atoxigenic A. flavus isolates in Northern Italy and the Mississippi Delta. RESULTS:...

  13. Classification of corn kernels contaminated with aflatoxins using fluorescence and reflectance hyperspectral images analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengle; Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Brown, Robert; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus. Aflatoxin contamination remains a problem in agricultural products due to its toxic and carcinogenic properties. Conventional chemical methods for aflatoxin detection are time-consuming and destructive. This study employed fluorescence and reflectance visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images to classify aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels rapidly and non-destructively. Corn ears were artificially inoculated in the field with toxigenic A. flavus spores at the early dough stage of kernel development. After harvest, a total of 300 kernels were collected from the inoculated ears. Fluorescence hyperspectral imagery with UV excitation and reflectance hyperspectral imagery with halogen illumination were acquired on both endosperm and germ sides of kernels. All kernels were then subjected to chemical analysis individually to determine aflatoxin concentrations. A region of interest (ROI) was created for each kernel to extract averaged spectra. Compared with healthy kernels, fluorescence spectral peaks for contaminated kernels shifted to longer wavelengths with lower intensity, and reflectance values for contaminated kernels were lower with a different spectral shape in 700-800 nm region. Principal component analysis was applied for data compression before classifying kernels into contaminated and healthy based on a 20 ppb threshold utilizing the K-nearest neighbors algorithm. The best overall accuracy achieved was 92.67% for germ side in the fluorescence data analysis. The germ side generally performed better than endosperm side. Fluorescence and reflectance image data achieved similar accuracy.

  14. Classification of corn kernels contaminated with aflatoxins using fluorescence and reflectance hyperspectral image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus. Aflatoxin contamination remains a problem in agricultural products due to its toxic and carcinogenic properties. Conventional chemical methods for aflatoxin detection are time-consuming and destructive....

  15. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Keying; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Yang, Jun; Fang, Jing; Chen, Kejie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen. PMID:25141002

  16. Effect of boiling, frying, and baking on recovery of aflatoxin from naturally contaminated corn grits or cornmeal.

    PubMed

    Stoloff, L; Trucksess, M W

    1981-05-01

    Corn grits naturally contaminated with aflatoxins were used for making boiled grits, and portions of the boiled grits were used for making pan-fried grits; cornmeal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins was used for making corn muffins. Procedures and recipes were derived from cookbook and market package recommendations. From analyses of the products for aflatoxins before and after preparation of the table-ready products, it was determined that 72 +/- 9% (n = 15) of the aflatoxin found in the original grits could be recovered after the grits were boiled. The recovery of aflatoxin B1 after the grits were fried was either 66 +/- 10% (n = 6) or 47 +/- 8% (n = 9), depending on whether 3 cups of water or 4 cups of water per cup of grits, respectively, were used for preparing the boiled grits before frying. Similarly, it was determined that 87 +/- 4% (n = 9) of the aflatoxin B1 found in the original cornmeal could be recovered from the baked muffins. No detectable aflatoxin B2 a was present in the extracts from any of the table-ready products.

  17. Development of narrow-band fluorescence index for the detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus when the fungus invades developing corn kernels. Because of its potent toxicity, the levels of aflatoxin are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food, and feed intended for...

  18. Carryover of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in contaminated substrate corn into Nigerian native beer

    SciTech Connect

    Okoye, Z.S.C.

    1986-10-01

    Aflatoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Asp. parasiticus, constitute a serious food contamination problem in Nigeria and have been detected in the blood of healthy rural blood donors and primary liver cancer patients from the Guinea savannah region where traditionally brewed cereal beer is popular. A recent survey of traditional breweries in the Jos metropolis has shown a high incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ contamination of their products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the traditional brewing in destroying aflatoxins in mould-infected substrate grains.

  19. Pathological Impairment, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Thymus and Bursa of Fabricius Induced by Aflatoxin-Contaminated Corn in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zhang, Keying

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of aflatoxin-contaminated corn on the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF) in chickens by detecting histopathological lesions, cell cycle phase distribution and apoptosis. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups. The experiment lasted for six weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of uncontaminated corn (control), 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The gross changes showed the decreased size of the thymus and BF, as well as the pale color of the BF in the broilers after aflatoxin contaminated diet exposure. There were more nuclear debris in the thymus and BF of birds in the 50%, 75%, and 100% contaminated corn groups, but the pathological impairments of the BF were more obvious than those of the thymus, which showed as more obvious lymphocyte depletion and the proliferation of reticulocytes and fibroblasts. At 21 days of age, the percentage of thymocytes and BF cells in the G2M phase was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the four AFB-contaminated corn groups. However, at 42 days of age, dietary AFB1 induced cell cycle perturbation at the G0G1 phase in thymocytes, but at the G2M phase in BF cells. The increased percentage of apoptotic cells in the thymus and BF were similarly observed in the AFB groups. According to these results, the severity of histopathological lesions may be correlated with the different sensitivity of the two central immune organs when exposed to AFB; different arrested cell cycle phases suggest that different mechanisms may be involved in the lesions of the thymus and BF, which need to be further researched. PMID:28098787

  20. Aflatoxin synthesis in corn fields in Guanajuato, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bucio-Villalobos, C M; Guzmán-de-Peña, D; Peña-Cabriales, J J

    2001-06-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of corn is an important problem internationally, particularly in tropical and subtropical conditions that favor infection and synthesis by Aspergillus. Environmental conditions (drought) and agronomic practices i.e. N fertilization have been reported as favorable to aflatoxin synthesis in the field. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the contamination of corn commonly observed in stored conditions in this important corn producing region of Mexico known as "El Bajio" is related to infection by Aspergillus under field conditions. Results using three corn hybrids of recognized susceptibility to infection showed that corn ears artificially inoculated in the field with a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus parasiticus presented a low content of aflatoxin ranging from 13.6 to 24.7 microg Kg(-1). No significant differences were observed between the hybrids tested. Similarly, N fertilization practices, 260 Kg N ha(-1), applied at sowing did not have an effect on the extent of the contamination observed of 6.2 and 19.3 mg of aflatoxin kg(-1) in natural infected and inoculated samples with A. parasiticus NRRL 2999, respectively. Our data suggest that the cases of aflatoxin contamination of corn in this part of Mexico are not related to infection occurring during the crops growing period but most probably to poor storage conditions of corn.

  1. Regulatory considerations of aflatoxin contamination of food in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-de-Peña, Doralinda; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxins are potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, and A. parasiticus that are commonly present in the environment. Human populations, particularly those whose basic diet includes grains, are in risk to exposure to aflatoxins. It is thus necessary to monitor and control the contamination of food and feed by aflatoxins in both domestic and international trade. As large amounts of corn are imported into Mexico from the United States, this paper stresses the need to develop legislation and enforce standards to ensure trade of corn with the minimal amount of aflatoxin.

  2. Influences of Climate on Aflatoxin Producing Fungi and Aflatoxin Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are potent mycotoxins that cause developmental and immune system suppression, cancer, and death. As a result of regulations intended to reduce human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptibl...

  3. Efficacy of water dispersible formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus for aflatoxin management in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus in controlling aflatoxin contamination of corn. In 2011, when aflatoxin was present at very high levels, no WDG treatment provided s...

  4. Development of aflatoxin and insect resistant corn inbreds adapted to the Southern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of corn grain is caused by Aspergillus flavus infection and is typically more severe in the warmer states adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern Atlantic coast. Corn production in this region is subjected to higher temperatures and often accompanied by drought. T...

  5. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Cotty, Peter J; Jaime-Garcia, Ramon

    2007-10-20

    Aflatoxins are potent mycotoxins that cause developmental and immune system suppression, cancer, and death. As a result of regulations intended to reduce human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptible crops. Aflatoxin contamination occurs when specific fungi in the genus Aspergillus infect crops. Many industries frequently affected by aflatoxin contamination know from experience and anecdote that fluctuations in climate impact the extent of contamination. Climate influences contamination, in part, by direct effects on the causative fungi. As climate shifts, so do the complex communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi. This includes changes in the quantity of aflatoxin-producers in the environment and alterations to fungal community structure. Fluctuations in climate also influence predisposition of hosts to contamination by altering crop development and by affecting insects that create wounds on which aflatoxin-producers proliferate. Aflatoxin contamination is prevalent both in warm humid climates and in irrigated hot deserts. In temperate regions, contamination may be severe during drought. The contamination process is frequently broken down into two phases with the first phase occurring on the developing crop and the second phase affecting the crop after maturation. Rain and temperature influence the phases differently with dry, hot conditions favoring the first and warm, wet conditions favoring the second. Contamination varies with climate both temporally and spatially. Geostatistics and multiple regression analyses have shed light on influences of weather on contamination. Geostatistical analyses have been used to identify recurrent contamination patterns and to match these with environmental variables. In the process environmental conditions with the greatest impact on contamination are identified. Likewise, multiple regression analyses allow ranking of

  6. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Lee, R Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E; Scully, Brian T; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-07-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed.

  7. Effect of industrial processing on the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone in corn-milling fractions.

    PubMed

    Brera, Carlo; Catano, Carla; de Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; de Giacomo, Marzia; Pannunzi, Elena; Miraglia, Marina

    2006-07-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone levels in various corn-milling fractions. Corn kernels and six derived milling fractions (germ, bran, large and small grits, flour, and animal feed flour) were sampled in an industrial plant; both conventional and organic corns were sampled. To evaluate the effect of cooking, samples of polenta were prepared starting from naturally contaminated flour. Conventional and organic lots showed mycotoxin contamination. For both lots, germ, bran, and animal feed flour showed a marked concentration factor from 239 to 911% accounting for both the low yields of the derived products and the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone contamination in the outer parts of the kernels. Conversely, a reduction factor of at least four times from raw material to finished products was observed. Polenta samples were unaffected by the cooking process, with levels of contamination similar to those of starting flour.

  8. Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a group of highly carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. These toxins have a detrimental economic impact on such industries as corn and ethanol production. They are highly regulated by the FDA and as such, a rapid, reliable method with low det...

  9. Aflatoxin contamination in foods and foodstuffs in Tokyo: 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Tabata, S; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Hashimoto, H; Iida, M; Tamura, Y; Nishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Aflatoxins were determined in 3054 samples of foods or foodstuffs, including cereals, nuts, beans, spices, dairy products, dry fruits, and edible oil. Samples were collected in Tokyo from 1986 to 1990. Aflatoxins were found in rice products, adlay, corn, crude sugar, peanut products, pistachio nuts, brazil nuts, sesame products, butter beans, white pepper, red pepper, paprika, nutmeg, and mixed spices. The highest incidence of aflatoxin contamination was observed in nutmeg (80%), and the highest level of aflatoxin B1 was observed in pistachio nuts (1382 ppb).

  10. Influence of Modified Atmosphere Storage on Aflatoxin Production in High Moisture Corn

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David M.; Jay, Edward

    1975-01-01

    Samples of freshly harvested corn and remoistened corn were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and stored for 4 weeks at about 27 C in air and three modified atmospheres. Aflatoxins and fat acidity were determined weekly. Corn stored in the modified atmospheres did not accumulate over 15 μg of aflatoxin B1 per kg and 20 μg of total aflatoxins per kg. Corn from the high CO2 treatment (61.7% CO2, 8.7% O2, and 29.6% N2) was visibly molded at 4 weeks and had a higher fat acidity than the other treatments. In the N2 (99.7% N2 and 0.3% O2) and controlled atmosphere (13.5% CO2, 0.5% O2, 84.8% N2) treatments, a fermentation-like odor was detected. When the corn was removed from the modified atmospheres it deteriorated rapidly and was soon contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:803817

  11. Integrated optic sensor for measuring aflatoxin-B1 in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiarski, Anthony A.; Busch, James R.; Brody, R. S.; Ridgway, Richard W.; Altman, Wolf P.; Golden, C.

    1996-03-01

    An integrated optic refractometer device was developed to perform a rapid one-step, homogeneous immunoassay. The device measures refractive index changes at the surface of a planar, singlemode, ion-exchange waveguide using difference interferometry. Anti-aflatoxin- B1 antibodies were attached to the waveguide surface to provide a bioselective coating for detecting and quantifying the aflatoxin-B1 antigen level in a sample. The detection limit of this small antigen must be determined using a competitive assay format. To determine feasibility of the competitive assay, we determined the biosensor response to a larger molecular weight competing antigen, namely HRP-labeled aflatoxin-B1. This labeled antigen will compete with unlabeled aflatoxin for binding sites on the sensor surface. Increased sample aflatoxin levels will result in a decreased time-dependent phase change of the helium-neon laser light beam. Phase change data were determined for various concentration levels of HRP-labeled aflatoxin- B1 antigen. The assay measurements were made over a 5-minute time period. Results indicated that a competitive assay is feasible. Future assay efforts should be able to demonstrate measurement of aflatoxin-B levels found in contaminated corn samples.

  12. Aflatoxin detection in whole corn kernels using hyperspectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Chen, Xue-Wen

    2004-03-01

    Hyperspectral (HS) data for the inspection of whole corn kernels for aflatoxin is considered. The high-dimensionality of HS data requires feature extraction or selection for good classifier generalization. For fast and inexpensive data collection, only several features (λ responses) can be used. These are obtained by feature selection from the full HS response. A new high dimensionality branch and bound (HDBB) feature selection algorithm is used; it is found to be optimum, fast and very efficient. Initial results indicate that HS data is very promising for aflatoxin detection in whole kernel corn.

  13. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  14. Aflatoxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the following foods: Peanuts and peanut butter Tree nuts such as pecans Corn Wheat Oil ... foods that may contain aflatoxin. Peanuts and peanut butter are some of the most rigorously tested products ...

  15. Correlation of aflatoxin contamination with zinc content of chicken feed

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, F.T.; Hagler, W.M. Jr.; Hamilton, P.B.

    1984-03-01

    Feed samples from chicken houses in five commercial chicken operations were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and aflatoxin content. Mean aflatoxin content of these samples was 14 ppb (14 ng/g) as opposed to 1.2 ppb in samples taken when the feed was made. Aflatoxin content of the feed samples correlated significantly with Zn content but not with Mn, Fe, or Cu, all of which correlated significantly with Zn. Zn content of unamended feed (<20 ppm (20 ..mu..g/g) is normally supplemented with a mineral premix containing Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu to meet the nutrient requirements of chickens (40 ppm of Zn). The mean zinc concentration of the feed samples (117 ppm) was about threefold greater than the nutrient requirement and ranged from 58 to 162 ppm in individual samples. These field survey results parallel earlier reports of augmented production of aflatoxin in monocultures of aflatoxigenic fungi in corn and other ingredients supplemented with Zn. These results suggest that stricter control of Zn levels during manufacture could reduce aflatoxing contamination of feed consumed by chickens.

  16. Challenges facing the biological control strategy for eliminating aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition with Aspergillus flavus isolates incapable of aflatoxin production is currently the most widely used biocontrol method for reducing aflatoxin contamination of in maize and cottonseed where aflatoxin contamination is a persistent problem for human and animal health. The method involves sp...

  17. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination of medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, I; Varsavsky, E; Vedoya, G; Haidukowski, M; Frade, H; Chiale, C

    1998-06-01

    Since the consumption of aromatic and medicinal herbs has been increasing in the last years, the Argentinian Health Authorities are concerned to control the quality and security of them. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination are two parameters to be taken into account, to ensure the harmlessness of the phytomedicinal products. In 81 different samples, grouped in end products (EP), raw material (RM) and at harvest (SH), fungal flora (enumeration and identification) as well as naturalAspergillus flavus and aflatoxin occurrence were investigated. In all samples fungal counts fulfilled the international general recommendation limits (maximum 10(5) cfu/g). Predominant flora was made up by xerophilic species ofAspergillus(100%), byPeniciIlium (< 50%) and in less percentage byFusarium (5.6%). Among the Aspergilli, A.flavus was present in all the three groups of samples. Using a TLC method, 47% of A. flavus isolates were toxinogenic, producing aflatoxin B1 and B2. In herbs, 4.7% of RM samples were naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Considering the carcinogenic activity of aflatoxins it is essential to regulate them in the raw material (vegetal drug).

  18. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Zuzana; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to address the problem of rapid detection of aflatoxin in grain, particularly oilseeds, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from 2 different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to natural infestation was also assessed. A small corn plot in Baton Rouge, La., U.S.A., was used during the 2008-growing season. Two groups of 400 plants were inoculated with 2 different inocula and 1 group of 400 plants was designated as controls. Any contamination detected in the controls was attributed to natural infestation. A subset of each group was imaged with a visible near infra red (VNIR) hyperspectral system under ultra violet (UV) excitation and subsequently analyzed for aflatoxin using affinity column fluorometry. Group differences were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that when all the spectral data across all groups were averaged, any potential differences between groups (treated and untreated) were obscured. However, spectral analysis based on contaminated "hot" pixel classification showed a distinct spectral shift/separation between contaminated and clean ears with fluorescence peaks at 501 and 478 nm, respectively. All inoculated and naturally infected control ears had fluorescence peaks at 501 nm that differed from uninfected corn ears. Results from this study may be useful in evaluating rapid, noninvasive instrumentation and/or methodology for aflatoxin detection in grain.

  19. [Surveys on the possible presence of aflatoxin and ochratoxin in corn harvested in France in 1973 and 1974].

    PubMed

    Galtier, P; Jemmali, M; Larrieu, G

    1977-01-01

    0,1 and 1,9 p. 100 of French corn samples harvested in 1973 and 1974 contain respectively 4 to 42 ppb aflatoxin and 15 to 200 ppb ochratoxin A. Because the dilution of this product in the feed, such amounts could not be considered causing acute or chronic mycotoxicosis. In case of corn contamination by ochratoxin A, the analysis of technologic parameters conclude to question the drying corn with ears in cribs and the delayed drying after the reception of corn in storage corporation.

  20. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reducing Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus in corn poses significant health risks for both humans and livestock. Corn growers suffer huge economic losses due to increased aflatoxin accumulation in grain especially under drought and higher temperature stress conditions. Exploitation of host plant resi...

  1. Aflatoxin contamination of commercial cottonseed in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Garcia, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi. U.S. federal regulations limit the use of aflatoxin-contaminated cottonseed. Cottonseed with aflatoxin content of 20 ng/g or higher may not enter the profitable dairy market. Between 4,472 and 9,949 truckloads of cottonseed from 31 to 35 gins in South Texas were analyzed for aflatoxin content each year from 1997 to 2001 upon receipt at the Valley Co-op Oil Mill in Harlingen, TX. The highest levels of contamination occurred in 1999, with an average aflatoxin content of 112 ng/g and 66% of the cottonseed truckloads exceeding 20 ng/g. Years 1997 and 2000 had the lowest aflatoxin levels, averaging 24 ng/g, with the lowest incidence (16%) of the truckloads exceeding 20 ng/g in 1997. In general, aflatoxin contamination increased as the ginning season progressed. Rainfall after boll opening correlated highly with aflatoxin content, with rainfall in July explaining over 50% of the observed variability in aflatoxin content. South Texas was divided into four regions: Rio Grande Valley, Coastal Bend, Upper Coast, and Winter Garden. Geostatistical analyses revealed recurrent patterns of high and low contamination. The greatest contamination occurred from the central Coastal Bend region through the southern Upper Coast region. The Rio Grande Valley region experienced the least contamination during the study period.

  2. Aflatoxins B and g contamination and aflatoxigenic fungi in nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kiyoshi; Tomita, Tsuneyoshi; Ohzu, Yuji; Takai, Mitsuhiro; Ose, Ayaka; Kotsuka, Akiko; Ikeda, Naoko; Sakata, Junko; Kumeda, Yuko; Nakamura, Nobuya; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the distribution of aflatoxigenic fungi in 25 imported Indonesian nutmeg samples contaminated with aflatoxins Bs or Bs and Gs. The incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi in the samples contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin was significantly higher than that in the samples with low levels of the toxins(r=0.752). The aflatoxin production of isolates from the samples in cultures of YES broth was examined by means of TLC and HPLC analyses. The ability of isolates to produce aflatoxins did not necessarily correlate with the contamination levels of aflatoxin in the samples. We isolated aflatoxins B and G-producing fungi from 3 samples contaminated with the high levels of aflatoxins B and G. The aflatoxigenic isolates were identified as Aspergillus nomius and A. bombycis based on morphological characters, growth rates at 37°C and 42°C and also molecular-genetic methods. Our results indicate that these two species are mainly responsible for aflatoxin G contamination in nutmeg products.

  3. Clinical implications of food contaminated by aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Hendrickse, R G

    1991-01-01

    Aflatoxins have been incriminated, mainly on circumstantial evidence, in hepatocellular carcinoma, acute hepatic failure and Reye's syndrome, but other possible effects of continuous or intermittent dietary exposure to aflatoxins, which occurs widely in the tropics, have received little study. Over the past 10 years evidence has steadily accumulated that incriminates aflatoxins in the aetiology of kwashiorkor, a widespread and serious disorder of children in the tropics, previously believed to be caused by protein deficiency. Investigation of human breast milk, undertaken initially to elucidate the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor in breastfed infants, has revealed widespread and serious exposure to aflatoxins from this source. Extension of these studies to pregnant women, in turn, revealed widespread and serious prenatal aflatoxin exposure. In laboratory and farm animals, such exposure has serious implications for immune and hepatic functions, and is detrimental to growth and development. Recent analysis of heroin samples show that heroin addicts may also be exposed to these toxins. These findings show that human exposure to aflatoxins may begin prenatally, persist during breastfeeding, and continue into adult life. It is postulated that aflatoxins (i) play a role in the aetiology of kwashiorkor, (ii) increase neonatal susceptibility to infection and jaundice, (iii) increase childhood susceptibility to infections and malignant disease, (iv) compromise immune responses to prophylactic immunisations and (v) may play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases in heroin addicts. There are indications also that acute, fatal aflatoxin poisoning which masquerades as 'hepatitis' may occur more frequently than is currently appreciated.

  4. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and Fusarium mycotoxins (fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone) in corn from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Sardjono; Yamashita, A; Yoshizawa, T

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen corn samples collected from Indonesia were analysed for aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FM), trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZEA) using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. AF were detected in 11 (69%) samples at a mean level of 119 ng/g (maximum 487 ng/g) and FM in all of the samples at a mean level of 895 ng/g (maximum 2970 ng/g). Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and ZEA were each detected in two (12%) samples; 21 and 32 ng/g, 49 and 169 ng/g, and 11 and 12 ng/g, respectively. All of the AF-contaminated samples were co-contaminated with FM. Mycological study showed all of the AF-contaminated samples were infected with A. flavus/A. parasiticus, and the FM-contaminated samples were either infected with F. moniliforme (50%), F. proliferatum (12%), F. nygamai (6%) or F. decemcellulare (38%). Supportive mycological studies showed that Fusarium species isolated from Indonesian corn were capable of producing a mean level of 10,000 micrograms/g FM. Based on these results, the correlation between FM-producers and AF-producers on kernel infection and contamination of these mycotoxins in corn was discussed. This is the first report on the natural co-occurrence of AF and various Fusarium mycotoxins, including DON and NIV in corn from Indonesia, and also the first report on the natural occurrence of DON in corn from hot areas of Southeast Asia.

  5. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to address the aflatoxin problem in grain, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from two different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to n...

  6. Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Nakai, Viviane K.; Braghini, Raquel; Reis, Tatiana A.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB1, FB2) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated. Fusarium verticillioides was predominant in all samples. Analysis of fumonisins showed that 98% of the samples were contaminated with FB1 and 74.5% with FB1 + FB2, with toxin levels ranging from 0.015 to 9.67 μg/g for FB1 and from 0.015 to 3.16 μg/g for FB2. Twenty-one (10.5%) samples were contaminated with AFB1, seven (3.5%) with AFB2 and only one (0.5%) with AFG1 and AFG2 Co-contamination with aflatoxins and fumonisins was observed in 7% of the samples. The highest contamination of fumonisins and aflatoxins was observed in Nova Odessa (SP) and Várzea Grande (MT), respectively. The lowest contamination of these mycotoxins was found in Várzea Grande and Nova Odessa, respectively. PMID:20087478

  7. Comparison of the side-needle and knife techniques for inducing Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in corn hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin in corn grain is a problem in many areas of the world. Any combination of environmentally stressful or agronomically unfavorable conditions can increase the likelihood of Aspergillus flavus infection and production of aflatoxin in the corn grain. In the absence of a consistent natural A....

  8. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  9. Relationship between Meloidogyne arenaria and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Wilson, D. M.; Holbrook, C. C.; Maw, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Damaged and developing kernels of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are susceptible to colonization by fungi in the Aspergillus flavus group which, under certain conditions, produces aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our objective was to determine whether infection of peanut roots and pods by Meloidogyne arenaria increases aflatoxin contamination of the kernels when peanut is subjected to drought stress. The experiment was a completely randomized 2-x-2 factorial with 6 replicates/treatment. The treatment factors were nematodes (plus and minus M. arenaria) and fungus (plus and minus A. flavus inoculum). The experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in microplots under an automatic rain-out shelter. In treatments where A. flavus inoculum was added, aflatoxin concentrations were high (> 1,000 ppb) and not affected by nematode infection; in treatments without added fungal inoculum, aflatoxin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in kernels from nematode-infected plants (1,190 ppb) than in kernels from uninfected plants (79 ppb). There was also an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.83 in 2001, r² = 0.43 in 2002; P ≤ 0.04). Colonization of kernels by A. flavus increased with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.18; P = 0.04) in 2001 but not in 2002. Root-knot nematodes may have a greater role in enhancing aflatoxin contamination of peanut when conditions are not optimal for growth and aflatoxin production by fungi in the A. flavus group. PMID:19262803

  10. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption.

  11. Biological control of aflatoxin is effective and economical in Mississippi field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of corn is a major grain quality issue and can be a major economic limiting factor to Mississippi corn farmers. Biological control products based on aflatoxin non-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus are commercially available to prevent the contamination of corn with afl...

  12. Blocking aflatoxins in corn by using non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 500 previously reported mycotoxins. However, only a few have been identified as important for food safety, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), trichothecenes, zearalenone, ochratoxins, and patulin. Mycotoxins contaminate plant materials, causing acute and ch...

  13. Selection of Aspergillus flavus isolates for biological control of aflatoxins in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus is responsible for producing carcinogenic mycotoxins, the aflatoxins, on corn (maize) and other crops. An additional harmful toxin, cyclopiazonic acid, is produced by some isolates of A. flavus. Several A. flavus strains that do not produce one or both of these mycoto...

  14. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...

  15. Handling and aflatoxin contamination of white maize in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, M; Lacey, J

    1997-01-01

    Projects funded by International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and the European Commission have enabled the examination of more than 3000 samples of maize collected from all regions of Costa Rica at different stages, from the growing crop through storage to final sale, and at different water contents. Contamination with Aspergillus flavus was frequent and about 80% of samples contained more than 20 ng aflatoxins g(-1) grain. Average contamination with aflatoxins in the Brunca Region was > 274 ng g(-1) while that in other regions was < 70 ng g(-1). Except in Brunca region, where it averaged 376 ng g(-1), contamination of grain from commercial sources was slightly less than of that from farms (< or = 15 ng g(-1)). It appeared that samples kept on the cob after harvest contained almost no aflatoxin while shelled samples were frequently highly contaminated. Experiments were therefore done in Brunca and Huetar Atlantic Regions, utilising 34 experimental maize crops to study in detail the development of A. flavus and aflatoxin from before harvest, through postharvest treatment before drying and through storage for six months. A. flavus was isolated more frequently from maize shelled immediately after harvest than from that kept on the cob until it could be dried, and from more samples from the Brunca Region than from the Huetar Atlantic Region. Samples harvested with > or = 18% water content often contains > 70% of grains infected with A. flavus but sometimes there were few grains infected. As found in the initial survey, more aflatoxin contamination developed in shelled maize than in that handled on the cob during the period from harvesting to drying, especially if the delay was more than 5 days, and more in Brunca than in Huetar. Shelled grain contained 400-800 ng aflatoxin g(-1) in Brunca but < 100 ng g(-1) in Huetar while grain kept on the cob contained < 30 ng g(-1), even with > 18% water content. Incidence of Fusarium spp. exceeded 50% except where A

  16. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument...

  17. Analysis of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of aflatoxins extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings wer...

  18. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  19. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  20. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  1. Combining genomic approaches to understand genetic control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination in peanut is more prevalent under rainfed conditions making produce unfit for human and animal consumption, affecting the international trade adversely. Although the losses in yield and quality due to aflatoxin contamination is higher than realized, there are limited resistan...

  2. Association between surrogate traits of drought tolerance and aflatoxin contamination in peanut cultivars under terminal drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal drought induces pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC). Drought resistance traits are promising as indirect selection tools for improving resistance to PAC. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of terminal drought on Aspergillus invasion and aflatoxin contamination ...

  3. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  4. Assessment of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination of Maize in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutiga, S K; Hoffmann, V; Harvey, J W; Milgroom, M G; Nelson, R J

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a survey of aflatoxin and fumonisin in maize in western Kenya. In a regional survey of aflatoxin conducted in 2009 across three agroecological zones within three administrative regions, milled maize samples were collected from 985 patrons of 26 hammer mills. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 49% of samples and was above the regulatory (10 ppb) in 15% of the samples overall; 65% of samples from a drought-prone area were over the limit. In a detailed survey in Bungoma County, we investigated aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in four popular maize varieties at harvest and after 2 and 4 months of storage. We collected whole-grain samples from farmers' storage sheds and milled samples from patrons of local mills. Mean aflatoxin contamination was identical for storage sheds and mills at 2.3 ppb. In all, 41% of the samples from mills had detectable aflatoxin, with 4% over the regulatory limit, whereas 87% had detectable fumonisin, with 50% over the regulatory limit (1 ppm). Mean contamination levels did not change during storage. Maize varieties differed in fumonisin contamination, with the most popular varieties vulnerable to both mycotoxins and weevils, which are potential factors in exacerbating mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxin surveillance is important not just in areas known previously for aflatoxin contamination and acute poisoning but also is needed in all maize-producing regions.

  5. Integration of fluorescence and reflectance visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images for detection of aflatoxins in corn kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products has been an important and long-standing problem around the world. Produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus, aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic. This study investigated the integration of fluorescence and reflectance visibl...

  6. Association between aflatoxin contamination and N2 fixation in peanut under drought conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traits related to nitrogen fixation may be used as indirect selection criteria for aflatoxin resistance in peanut. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between N2 fixation traits and aflatoxin contamination in peanut under different drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes we...

  7. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…

  8. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution.

  9. Correlation between aflatoxin contamination and various USDA grade categories of shelled almonds.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andy; Birmingham, Tim; Adams, Julie; Jacobs, Merle; Gray, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The California almond industry is interested in determining if there is a correlation between aflatoxin contamination and almonds classified into various U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grades. A 12 000 g sample was taken from each of 50 lots of shelled almonds. The almonds in each sample were then partitioned into five USDA grades: high quality (HQ), insect damage (ID), mold damage (MOD), mechanical damage (MED), and other defects (OD). Across all 50 samples, kernels in the HQ grade accounted for 83.7% of the kernel mass and 3.2% of the aflatoxin mass. Conversely, kernels in the remaining four damage grades (ID, MOD, MED, and OD) accounted for 16.3% of the kernel mass and 96.8% of the aflatoxin mass. ID kernels had the highest risk for aflatoxin contamination. Almonds in the ID grade accounted for 76.3% of the total aflatoxin mass and 7.2% of the kernel mass. Regression equations were developed to predict the aflatoxin concentration in each 12 000 g sample by measuring the aflatoxin mass in one or more of the four damage grades. Regression equations demonstrated that aflatoxin mass only in the insect damaged kernels was also an effective way to predict the aflatoxin concentration in each 12 000 g sample.

  10. Relationships between in vivo and in vitro aflatoxin production: reliable prediction of fungal ability to contaminate maize with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Probst, Claudia; Cotty, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic mycotoxins frequently produced by Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of maize with aflatoxins imposes both economic and health burdens in many regions. Identification of the most important etiologic agents of contamination is complicated by mixed infections and varying aflatoxin-producing potential of fungal species and individuals. In order to know the potential importance of an isolate to cause a contamination event, the ability of the isolate to produce aflatoxins on the living host must be determined. Aflatoxin production in vitro (synthetic and natural media) was contrasted with in vivo (viable maize kernels) in order to determine ability of in vitro techniques to predict the relative importance of causal agents to maize contamination events. Several media types and fermentation techniques (aerated, non-aerated, fermentation volume) were compared. There was no correlation between aflatoxin production in viable maize and production in any of the tested liquid fermentation media using any of the fermentation techniques. Isolates that produced aflatoxins on viable maize frequently failed to produce detectable (limit of detection=1ppb) aflatoxin concentrations in synthetic media. Aflatoxin production on autoclaved maize kernels was highly correlated with production on viable maize kernels. The results have important implications for researchers seeking to either identify causal agents of contamination events or characterize atoxigenic isolates for biological control.

  11. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  12. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  13. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  14. Detection of aflatoxin-contaminated grain by three granivorous bird species.

    PubMed

    Perez, M; Henke, S E; Fedynich, A M

    2001-04-01

    Supplemental feeding of game species and the use of backyard feeders to attract avian wildlife are common practices throughout the United States. However, these activities may expose wildlife to aflatoxins. We tested the hypothesis that wild birds would avoid consuming aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Individual northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), and green jays (Cyanocorax yncas) were presented with feeders that had four compartments, which contained milo that was contaminated with aflatoxin levels of 0, 100, 500, and 1,000 microg/kg, respectively. Feed remaining was weighed at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hr after the initiation of the trial. White-winged doves and northern bobwhites did not avoid contaminated feed. However, green jays selected against aflatoxin-tainted grain. Because white-winged doves and northern bobwhites did not avoid contaminated feed, the risk of exposure to this potentially hazardous toxin exists for these species.

  15. [Applications of molecular biology techniques for the control of aflatoxin contamination].

    PubMed

    Sanchis, V

    1993-02-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by species of Aspergillus flavus group. These toxins have received increased attention from the food industry and the general public because they shown a high toxicity against humans and animal. Different methods are applying to control the aflatoxin contamination. But these conventional methods do not seem to resolve the problem. So, new methods using techniques in biotechnology are now being developed: a) Inhibit the biosynthetic and secretory process responsible for aflatoxin contamination. b) Using biocompetitive agents that replace aflatoxigenic strains with non aflatoxigenic strains in the field. c) Using genetic engineering techniques to incorporate antifungal genes into specific plant species.

  16. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue.

  17. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Busman, Mark; Liu, Jihong; Zhong, Hongjian; Bobell, John R; Maragos, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionisation coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings were optimised to obtain sensitive and accurate determination of aflatoxin AFB1. 84:16 acetonitrile water extracts of corn were analysed by DART-MS. The lowest calibration level (LCL) for aflatoxin AFB1 was 4 μg kg⁻¹. Quantitative analysis was performed with the use of matrix-matched standards employing the ¹³C-labelled internal standard for AFB1. DART-MS of spiked corn extracts gave linear response in the range 4-1000 μg kg⁻¹. Good recoveries (94-110%) and repeatabilities (RSD = 0.7-6.9%) were obtained at spiking levels of 20 and 100 μg kg⁻¹ with the use of an isotope dilution technique. Trueness of data obtained for AFB1 in maize by DART-MS was demonstrated by analysis of corn certified reference materials.

  18. Reduction of aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisins in corn by biocontrol strains of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of field studies in corn (maize) evaluated the ability of non-aflatoxigenic biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus to reduce, through competitive exclusion, production in kernels of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) by A. flavus and fumonisins by Fusarium verticillioides. The abili...

  19. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water.

    PubMed

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-10-23

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.

  20. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    PubMed Central

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  1. Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Mbuge, Duncan O; Negrini, Renata; Nyakundi, Livine O; Kuate, Serge P; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Muiru, William M; Torto, Baldwyn; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.

  2. Fungal Biodeterioration, Aflatoxin Contamination, and Nutrient Value of "Suya Spices".

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeniyi, Mary Adejoke; Asemoloye, Michael Dare

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to analyze the nutrient values, examine the biodeteriorating fungi biota, and analyze the mycotoxin contents of "Suya spices." Fungi with highest percentage occurrence on all the samples are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, yeast, and Trichoderma koningii. Nutrient composition of the samples is significantly different statistically (P < 0.05) with high protein (9.53% to 13.17%), fiber (9.27 to 13.17%), carbohydrate (46.27% to 50.90%), and ash (8.47% to 9.70%) contents but low moisture (9.03% to 9.47%) and fat (9.77% to 13.53%) contents. Aflatoxin analysis of the samples revealed that they all contain aflatoxin in varying amount but no detectible aflatoxin content in the control. 59.54% of the detected aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 with highest recorded in Agbowo, Mokola, and Sango samples (i.e., 28.03, 22.44, and 13.8 μg/kg, resp.). 4.78% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin B2 which is only found in Sango and Mokola samples (3.59 and 2.6 μg/kg, resp.). 32.76% of aflatoxin is aflatoxin G1 with the highest found in Agbowo and Mokola samples (i.e., 18.63 and 10.41 μg/kg, resp.). 2.93% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin G2 which is only detected in Sango and Agbowo samples (i.e., 1.19 and 2.65 μg/kg, resp.).

  3. Aflatoxin contamination in soybeans: role of proteinase inhibitors, zinc availability, and seed coat integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Stössel, P

    1986-01-01

    Soybean trypsin inhibitors are thought to ward off pathogens. Studies with aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, frequent soybean contaminants, revealed that trypsin inhibitors do not affect the growth of these fungi and aflatoxin production. Further, the availability of zinc, an essential mineral for aflatoxin synthesis that was thought to explain increased aflatoxin accumulation in cooked compared with raw soybeans, was shown to decrease upon cooking. Seed coat integrity, ensuring limited access and a low moisture content, is responsible for the slow colonization of the seed by A. flavus. Images PMID:3089160

  4. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  5. Hyperspectral image classification and development of fluorescence index for single corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  6. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  7. Aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin contamination of pistachio nuts in orchards.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, N F; Buchanan, J R; Fortlage, R J

    1976-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. versicolor were both shown to be weak pathogens of developing pistachio fruits, producing aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations approached those reported in cereal and legume seeds. Fungus lesions on the first hulls were followed by invasion of seeds despite the sclerified shell. Infections and mycotoxins present before harvest would presumably lead to further build-up after harvest if drying was slow or storage was under high humidity. PMID:823868

  8. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  9. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in crops: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a diverse assemblage of strains that include aflatoxin-producing and non-toxigenic strains with cosmopolitan distribution. The most promising strategy currently being used to reduce preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxin is to introduce non-aflatoxin (biocontrol) A. flavus into the crop environment. Whether or not introduction of biocontrol strains into agricultural fields is enough to reduce aflatoxin contamination to levels required for acceptance of the contaminated food as fit for consumption is still unknown. There is no question that biocontrol strains are able to reduce the size of the populations of aflatoxin-producing strains but the available data suggests that at most only a four- to five-fold reduction in aflatoxin contamination is achieved. There are many challenges facing this strategy that are both short term and long term. First, the population biology of A. flavus is not well understood due in part to A. flavus’s diversity, its ability to form heterokaryotic reproductive forms, and its unknown ability to survive for prolonged periods after application. Second, biocontrol strains must be selected that are suitable for the environment, the type of crop, and the soil into which they will be introduced. Third, there is a need to guard against inadvertent introduction of A. flavus strains that could impose an additional burden on food safety and food quality, and fourth, with global warming and resultant changes in the soil nutrients and concomitant microbiome populations, the biocontrol strategy must be sufficiently flexible to adapt to such changes. Understanding genetic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for developing a robust biocontrol strategy and it is unlikely that a “one size fits all” strategy will work for preharvest aflatoxin reduction. PMID:24575088

  10. Aflatoxin contamination of pearl millet during field and storage conditions with reference to stage of grain maturation and insect damage.

    PubMed

    Raghavender, C R; Reddy, B N; Shobharani, G

    2007-12-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in five varieties of pearl millet (ICMH-451, ICMP-50I, ICTP-8203, WCC-75 and ICMV-155) was studied from field and storage conditions in three districts of Andhra Pradesh State, India and the inter-relationships between various parameters such as stage of grain maturation in the field and insect pest infestation in storage in relation to aflatoxin production were evaluated. Aflatoxin contamination was more frequent in the seed samples collected from the fields during rainy season than winter season. All major aflatoxins were isolated from one or the other varieties of pearl millet, whereas aflatoxin G2 was not commonly observed in the seed samples collected during winter. Among all the varieties tested, ICMH-451 was vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination whereas ICMV-155 was the least susceptible variety. The higher amount of aflatoxins was observed in the matured seed samples followed by pre-matured and milky stage. Among all the toxins reported in the field, aflatoxin B1 was found in higher concentration (185 (μg/kg) followed by B2 (105 μg/kg). The four major types of aflatoxins with higher levels (35, 40, 140, 190 μg/kg of G1, G2, B2, B1 were reported in the rainy season seed samples after six months of storage, whereas aflatoxin G1 was not observed in any variety of stored seed sample from winter. Statistical analysis revealed that the aflatoxin incidence in relation to different parameters studied was significantly different for each factor. The relationship between aflatoxin contamination and insect damaged-grain clearly indicated that the seed samples with 16-40% of insect damage contained higher amounts of aflatoxins (758 μg/kg).

  11. Assessment of AflatoxinM1 Contamination in UHT Flavored Milk Samples in Karaj, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mashak, Zohreh; Jafari Sohi, Hadi; Heshmati, Ali; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 30 UHT flavored milk samples in Karaj, Alborz province, Iran. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to analyze AFM1 in the samples. The results showed that aflatoxin M1 was detected in all the UHT flavored milk samples, the AFM1 concentration ranged from 0.015 to 0.14 µg/L. Also, 10 samples (33.3%) were contaminated with more than 0.05 µg/L of European Union regulations for aflatoxin M1. Wherease, according to the proposed Iranian national standard and FDA (0.5 µg/L), none of the samples has not been contaminated more than the maximum AFM1 concentrations threshold. This is the first report discovering the fact that UHT flavored milk is an important contributor to the dietary intake of AFM1 in Iran. PMID:27980575

  12. One- and two-photon induced fluorescence spectroscopy enabling the detection of localized aflatoxin contamination in individual maize kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeesters, L.; Meulebroeck, W.; Raeymaekers, S.; Thienpont, H.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of carcinogenic aflatoxins in food and feed products is a major worldwide problem. To date, the aflatoxin contamination can only be detected by the use of destructive sample-based chemical analyses. Therefore, we developed an optical setup able to detect the localized aflatoxin contamination in individual maize kernels, on the basis of one- and two- photon induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Our developed optical configuration comprises a tunable titanium-sapphire laser (710nm-830nm) in combination with second harmonic wavelength generation (355nm-415nm), enabling the measurement of both one- and two-photon induced fluorescence spectra. Moreover, an accurate scanning of the kernel's surface was induced by the use of automated translation stages, allowing to study the localized maize contamination. First, the operation of the setup is validated by the characterization of pure aflatoxin B1 powder. Second, the fluorescence spectra of healthy (< 1ppb aflatoxin B1) and contaminated maize kernels (>70ppb aflatoxin B1) were measured, after excitation with 365nm, 730nm, 750nm and 780nm. For both the one- and two- photon induced fluorescence processes, the presence of the aflatoxin inside the contaminated maize kernels influenced the intrinsic fluorescence signals. Based on the fluorescence spectrum between 400nm and 550nm, we defined a detection criterion to identify the contaminated maize kernels. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the localized contamination level, indicating both contaminated maize kernels with a high contamination level in a limited surface area (as small as 1mm2) as with a lower contamination spread over a large surface area (up to 20mm2). As a result, our developed measurement methodology allows the identification of the localized aflatoxin contamination, paving the way to the non-destructive, real-time and high-sensitive industrial scanning-based detection of aflatoxins in food products.

  13. Association between physiological traits for drought tolerance and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes under terminal drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal drought induces preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) in peanut. Drought resistance traits are promising as indirect selection tools for improving resistance to PAC. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of terminal drought on PAC and to investigate the associations...

  14. Developing maize germplasm lines with multiple insect and disease resistance and low aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield and quality losses caused BY insects, diseases, and mycotoxin contaminations are the critical impediments for maize production under warm climate. In order to develop maize germplasm lines with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of 13 reciprocal breeding cro...

  15. Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed moldy peanut meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Li, Xiaoying; Shi, Huiqin; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 for the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Six replicates of ten broilers each were assigned to one of seven dietary treatments, which were labeled C0 (basal diet); M0 (basal diet containing moldy peanut meal); C500 and C1000 (C0+500 or 1000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations, composed mainly of ANSB060); and M500, M1000 and M2000 (M0+500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations). The concentrations of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in the moldy diets (M0, M500, M100 and M2000) fluctuated around 70.7±1.3, 11.0±1.5, 6.5±0.8 and 2.0±0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the M0 diet caused a significant decrease in average daily weight gain and increased feed requirements, with a gain ratio increasing from d 8 to 42, deterioration in meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers' livers as compared with the C0 diet. The addition of ANSB060 to the aflatoxin-contaminated diets offset these negative effects, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect on growth performance and meat quality while reducing the amount of aflatoxin residues in the livers of broilers fed naturally moldy peanut meal.

  16. Sensitive Quantification of Aflatoxin B1 in Animal Feeds, Corn Feed Grain, and Yellow Corn Meal Using Immunomagnetic Bead-Based Recovery and Real-Time Immunoquantitative-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Dinesh; Muriana, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR) assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2), horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40) extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be <20 μg/kg. The RT iq-PCR assay exhibited high antigen hook effect in samples containing aflatoxin levels higher than the quantification limits (0.1–10 μg/kg), addressed by comparing the quantification results of undiluted and diluted extracts. In testing the reliability of the immuno-PCR assay, samples were spiked with 200 μg/kg of aflatoxin B1, but the recovery of spiked aflatoxin was found to be poor. Considering the significance of determining trace levels of aflatoxins and their serious implications for animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup. PMID:25474493

  17. Occurrence of aflatoxins in human foodstuffs in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Loetter, L.H.; Kroehm, H.J.

    1988-02-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of Aspergillus spp and have been reported as contaminants in a number of foodstuffs, namely corn, rice, peanuts, and cereals. In the Republic of South Africa, aflatoxin levels in human foodstuffs are limited to a maximum of 10 ..mu..g/kg for the total and 5 ..mu..g/kg for aflatoxin B/sub 1/. During 1985 and 1986, samples of sorghum beer, sorghum cereal, peanuts, peanut butter and maize meal were purchased from supermarkets in Johannesburg and analyzed for aflatoxins. A total of 414 samples were analyzed during the survey. In 1985, roughly a third of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with no levels in excess of the legal limit. In 1986 the percentage of contaminated samples rose significantly, but the levels of contamination remained low, with only one sample exceeding the legal maximum.

  18. Aflatoxin contamination in food and body fluids in relation to malnutrition and cancer status in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchana, Angele N; Moundipa, Paul F; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  20. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure. PMID:27066906

  1. Breeding aflatoxin resistant maize lines using recent advances in technologies-a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus infection of corn is a significant and chronic threat to corn being used as food or feed. Contamination of crops at levels of 20 ppb or higher (as regulated by the FDA) by this toxin and potent carcinogen makes the crop unsalable. This review focu...

  2. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  3. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive. PMID:28025501

  4. Gene Expression Profiles in Developing Corn Kernels in Response to Drought Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest aflatoxin contamination of corn is aggravated by abiotic stress and the hot and humid weather patterns along with suboptimal summer rainfall favor the development. Drought stress is a major factor known to contribute to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. The gene expression studies were ...

  5. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  6. Evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin contamination in kernels of maize genotypes using a GFP-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of resistance or susceptibility of corn inbreds to infection by Aspergillus flavus was evaluated by a kernel screening assay. A GFP-expressing strain of A. flavus was used to accomplish this study to measure fungal spread and aflatoxin levels in real time. Among the four inbreds tested, ...

  7. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  8. RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and Points to a Potential Susceptibility Factor

    PubMed Central

    Clevenger, Josh; Marasigan, Kathleen; Liakos, Vasileios; Sobolev, Victor; Vellidis, George; Holbrook, Corley; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and breeding for PAC resistance has been slow. It has been shown that aflatoxin production can be induced by applying drought stress as peanut seeds mature. We have implemented an automated rainout shelter that controls temperature and moisture in the root and peg zone to induce aflatoxin production. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), seeds meeting the following conditions were selected: infected with Aspergillus flavus and contaminated with aflatoxin; and not contaminated with aflatoxin. RNA sequencing analysis revealed groups of genes that describe the transcriptional state of contaminated vs. uncontaminated seed. These data suggest that fatty acid biosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling are altered in contaminated seeds and point to a potential susceptibility factor, ABR1, as a repressor of ABA signaling that may play a role in permitting PAC. PMID:27827875

  9. Characteristics of in-shell Brazil nuts and their relationship to aflatoxin contamination: criteria for sorting.

    PubMed

    De Mello, Fernanda Robert; Scussel, Vildes Maria

    2007-10-31

    External characteristics of in-shell Brazil nuts were evaluated for dimensions (length and face width), weight, chromaticity, and shell thickness. The internal characteristics evaluated were moisture content (mc), aflatoxin contamination (analyzed by LC-MS/MS), and shell/nut ratio. According to their length, Brazil nuts were classified in three groups: I, II, and III, corresponding to large, medium, and small sizes, respectively. It was possible to establish the following parameters as standards for normal/healthy nuts: length (53.2, 43.9, and 36.6 mm), weight (12.9, 8.8, and 6.3 g), and shell chromaticity components (L*, 38.3, 39.5, and 41.6; a*, 8.0, 7.9, and 7.8; and b*, 17.6, 18.0, and 18.7), for the three groups, respectively. The mean of shell thicknesses were 1.92 and 2.68 mm taken from each face and nut top. The nuts, classified as small (Group III), presented aflatoxin B1 contamination at a level of 5.62 microg/kg. The Groups shell/nut ratios were 1.2, 1.2, and 1.3 for normal whole and healthy nuts. No aflatoxin was detected in Groups I and II. The data obtained from the Brazil nut measured characteristics can help to distinguish healthy/safe and deteriorated nuts and will be useful for Brazil nut sorting and machine development.

  10. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

  11. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  12. Mitigation of aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels is related to the metabolic alternation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental factors have been shown to be linked to exacerbated infection of maize kernels by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Kernel resistance to aflatoxin contamination is associated with kernel water content and relative humidity during in vitro assays examining aflat...

  13. Mycotoxin contamination of commercially important agricultural commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal toxins, called aflatoxins and other mold toxins, are a serious problem in US agricultural commodities. Due to aflatoxins resilience to industrial processes contaminated crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts) cannot be used. The loss of these commodities results in serious economic impa...

  14. Isolation and identification of fungi from a meju contaminated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yu Jung; Chung, Soo Hyun; Lee, Hyo Ku; Chun, Hyang Sook; Hong, Seung Beom

    2012-12-01

    A home-made meju sample contaminated naturally with aflatoxins was used for isolation of fungal strains. Overall, 230 fungal isolates were obtained on dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar plates. Morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of a partial beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA were used for the identification of the isolates. The fungal isolates were divided into 7 genera: Aspergillus, Eurotium, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Mucor, Lichtheimia, and Curvularia. Three strains from 56 isolates of the A. oryzae/flavus group were found to be aflatoxigenic A. flavus, by the presence of the aflatoxin biosynthesis genes and confirmatory aflatoxin production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The predominant isolate from DRBC plates was A. oryzae (42 strains, 36.2%), whereas that from DG18 was A. candidus (61 strains, 53.5%). Out of the 230 isolates, the most common species was A. candidus (34.3%) followed by A. oryzae (22.2%), Mucor circinelloides (13.0%), P. polonicum (10.0%), A. tubingensis (4.8%), and L. ramosa (3.5%). A. flavus and E. chevalieri presented occurrence levels of 2.2%, respectively. The remaining isolates of A. unguis, P. oxalicum, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum, A. acidus, E. rubrum, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus, and C. inaequalis had lower occurrence levels of < 2.0%.

  15. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    PubMed

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  16. Environmentally friendly and cost-efficient analysis of aflatoxins in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extraction procedure adds a significant cost to the overall expense of aflatoxin analysis in agricultural commodities. An inexpensive and low-waste extraction method using a household espresso coffee maker was tested. This appliance was used for the high-temperature /high-pressure extraction of ...

  17. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  18. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  19. [REDUCTION OF THE CONTENT OF AFLATOXIN-FORMING FUNGI IN CONTAMINATED GRAINS BY METHODS OF HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Shentsova, E S; Lytkina, L I; Shevtsov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic fungi affecting grain and products of its processing, under certain conditions, are capable of producing over 100 mycotoxins, some of which are carcinogenic. Mycotoxins are falled to the most dangerous contaminants of food and compound animal feedstuff, they possess toxicity, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The most toxic and dangerous carcinogens are aflatoxins which affect on virtually all cells of the body of the human and agricultural animals, provoking the occurrence of diseases--aflatoxicoses. Aflatoxins give rise to encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of internal organs. The World Health Organization mentions aflatoxins as a cause of the origin of cancer. Currently in Russia there is a real danger of the negative impact of mycotoxins on farm animals in feeding grain affected by aflatoxins. The gain in the number of aflatoxicoses is a serious hygienic problem. This is related with the wide spread of producers of aflatoxins in nature and also with the intensive trade of grain and products of its processing between countries, a lack of control over their content. Detoxification of the affected products is an actual task, because its use causes irreparable harm to human health andfarm animals. Currently there are known several ways of inactivation of aflatoxins in the grain, based on the use of hydrothermal treatment. IR heat treatment, ultraviolet irradiation and extrusion were established to be the most rational approaches, providing the reduction offungi in the grain of aflatoxin-forming fungi by 80 ... 100%, aflatoxin B1--by the 76... 100% and a decrease in the degree of toxicity by 2.3 times. There are presented experimental data of various ways of disinfecting grain and appropriateness of their application in practice.

  20. Genome Sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a Strain That Causes Aflatoxin Contamination of Food and Feed.

    PubMed

    Nierman, William C; Yu, Jiujiang; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie D; Losada, Liliana; Cleveland, Thomas E; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Bennett, Joan W; Dean, Ralph; Payne, Gary A

    2015-04-16

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised human patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain NRRL 3357.

  1. Genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a strain that causes aflatoxin contamination of food and feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immune compromised human patients. Here we report th...

  2. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins and as a result, threaten human health, food security, and farmers’ income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the...

  3. Survey of aflatoxins in Kashkineh: A traditional Iranian food

    PubMed Central

    Mardani, M; Rezapour, S; Rezapour, P

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that can contaminate human and animal foods, including corn, wheat, rice, peanuts, and many other crops resulting in the illness or death of human and animal consumers. The aim of this study was to detect aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and total aflatoxin in Kashkineh, a traditional Iranian food. Materials and Methods This survey was conducted to detect aflatoxins on 41 samples of Kashkineh. The samples were randomly collected from traditional bazaars and supermarkets of Khorramabad city of Iran. The presence and quantity of aflatoxins was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The average concentrations of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 in all samples and in a mixed sample of all samples were not detectable (ND). The only sample that showed aflatoxin contamination was sample number 29 of which the AFB1 concentration was 0.64 ng/g. Conclusion Although some people believe Kashkineh is carcinogenic due to toxins, this study showed kashkineh is not contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:22347598

  4. Differences detected in vivo between samples of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following decontamination by two ammonia-based processes.

    PubMed

    Neal, G E; Judah, D J; Carthew, P; Verma, A; Latour, I; Weir, L; Coker, R D; Nagler, M J; Hoogenboom, L A

    2001-02-01

    A sample of peanut meal, highly contaminated with aflatoxins, has been subjected to decontamination by two commercial ammonia-based processes. The original contaminated and the two decontaminated meals were fed to rats for 90 days. No lesions associated with aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis were detected histologically following feeding with the two detoxified meals. There were, however, clear differences between the two meals in respect of growth rates of the rats. In addition, feeding one of the detoxified meals resulted in hepatic abnormalities detected using novel immunohistochemical reagents. Differences between the two detoxified meals were also indicated by the results of studies using meals 'spiked' with [14C]-aflatoxin B1 prior to being subjected to the detoxification processes. The meals differed in the bioavailability of the label. It was concluded that peanut meal where an initial, unacceptable level of contamination with aflatoxins had been reduced by two ammonia-based processes to comparable, acceptable levels, may still have different effects in vivo when incorporated into animal diets.

  5. Identification of Aspergillus flavus isolates as potential biocontrol agents of aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    PubMed

    Rosada, L J; Sant'anna, J R; Franco, C C S; Esquissato, G N M; Santos, P A S R; Yajima, J P R S; Ferreira, F D; Machinski, M; Corrêa, B; Castro-Prado, M A A

    2013-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus, a haploid organism found worldwide in a variety of crops, including maize, cottonseed, almond, pistachio, and peanut, causes substantial and recurrent worldwide economic liabilities. This filamentous fungus produces aflatoxins (AFLs) B1 and B2, which are among the most carcinogenic compounds from nature, acutely hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive. Recent efforts to reduce AFL contamination in crops have focused on the use of nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains as biological control agents. Such agents are applied to soil to competitively exclude native AFL strains from crops and thereby reduce AFL contamination. Because the possibility of genetic recombination in A. flavus could influence the stability of biocontrol strains with the production of novel AFL phenotypes, this article assesses the diversity of vegetative compatibility reactions in isolates of A. flavus to identify heterokaryon self-incompatible (HSI) strains among nonaflatoxigenic isolates, which would be used as biological controls of AFL contamination in crops. Nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants were recovered from 25 A. flavus isolates, and based on vegetative complementation between nit mutants and on the microscopic examination of the number of hyphal fusions, five nonaflatoxigenic (6, 7, 9 to 11) and two nontoxigenic (8 and 12) isolates of A. flavus were phenotypically characterized as HSI. Because the number of hyphal fusions is reduced in HSI strains, impairing both heterokaryon formation and the genetic exchanges with aflatoxigenic strains, the HSI isolates characterized here, especially isolates 8 and 12, are potential agents for reducing AFL contamination in crops.

  6. Efficacy of Pichia anomala WLR-076 to control aflatoxin on corn in Texas, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiments were conducted at three Texas Agricultural Experiment Stations on yellow corn hybrids to test the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala WRL-076. There were five replicates per treatment arranged in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were: (1) P. anomala WLR-076 applied ...

  7. Fumonisin mycotoxin contamination of corn-based foods consumed by potentially pregnant women in Southern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Fumonisins are Fusarium mold mycotoxins that contaminate corn and corn food products and interfere with animal folic acid metabolism. Consumption of fumonisin-contaminated staple foods is associated with increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). We evaluated a sample of locally availa...

  8. Additional potassium did not decrease aflatoxin or fumonisin nor increase corn yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) aids in maintaining the water status of corn (Zea mays L) and helps plants to resist infection by some fungal pathogens. Two experiments involving muriate of potash fertilizer treatments of 0 lbs/A K2O, 60 lbs/A K2O, 120 lbs/A K2O, or a split application of 60 lbs/A K2O pre-plant follo...

  9. Effect of planting density, irrigation regimes, and maize hybrids with varying ear size on yield, and aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (maize, Zea mays L.) hybrids expressing the flexibility trait in ear size (number of kernels per ear) are marketed for ability to give higher yields under adverse conditions. Altered kernel number is associated with altered number of silk, a major route for infection of kernels by aflatoxin-pr...

  10. Surveys of aflatoxin B1 contamination of retail Turkish foods and of products intended for export between 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Ulca, P; Evcimen, M K; Senyuva, H Z

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2009 to determine the aflatoxin B1 content of 3345 commercial Turkish foodstuffs supplied by producers for testing for their own purposes or for export certification. To simplify the reporting of data, foods were categorized as: 1, high sugar products with nuts; 2, nuts and seeds; 3, spices; 4, grain; 5, cocoa products; 6, dried fruit and vegetables; 7, processed cereal products; 8, tea; and 9, baby food and infant formula. Aflatoxin analysis was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up, with a recoveries ranging from 91% to 99%, depending on the matrix. Of the 3345 samples analysed, 94% contained aflatoxin B1 below the European Union limit of 2 µg kg(-1), which applies to nuts, dried fruit, and cereals products. The 6% of the 206 contaminated samples were mainly nuts and spices. For pistachios, 24%, 38%, and 42% of the totals of 207, 182, and 24 samples tested for 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively, were above 2 µg kg(-1), with 50 samples containing aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 10 to 477 µg kg(-1).

  11. Fungal Biodeterioration, Aflatoxin Contamination, and Nutrient Value of “Suya Spices”

    PubMed Central

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeniyi, Mary Adejoke; Asemoloye, Michael Dare

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to analyze the nutrient values, examine the biodeteriorating fungi biota, and analyze the mycotoxin contents of “Suya spices.” Fungi with highest percentage occurrence on all the samples are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, yeast, and Trichoderma koningii. Nutrient composition of the samples is significantly different statistically (P < 0.05) with high protein (9.53% to 13.17%), fiber (9.27 to 13.17%), carbohydrate (46.27% to 50.90%), and ash (8.47% to 9.70%) contents but low moisture (9.03% to 9.47%) and fat (9.77% to 13.53%) contents. Aflatoxin analysis of the samples revealed that they all contain aflatoxin in varying amount but no detectible aflatoxin content in the control. 59.54% of the detected aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 with highest recorded in Agbowo, Mokola, and Sango samples (i.e., 28.03, 22.44, and 13.8 μg/kg, resp.). 4.78% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin B2 which is only found in Sango and Mokola samples (3.59 and 2.6 μg/kg, resp.). 32.76% of aflatoxin is aflatoxin G1 with the highest found in Agbowo and Mokola samples (i.e., 18.63 and 10.41 μg/kg, resp.). 2.93% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin G2 which is only detected in Sango and Agbowo samples (i.e., 1.19 and 2.65 μg/kg, resp.). PMID:27092289

  12. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  13. Incidence and Level of Aflatoxins Contamination in Medicinal Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Deuk; Yu, In Sil; Jung, Kweon

    2014-01-01

    During 2011~2013, a total of 729 samples for 19 types of medicinal plant were collected from Seoulyekryungsi in Seoul, Korea, and investigated for the presence of aflatoxins. The samples were analyzed using immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column derivatization. Aflatoxins were found in 124 out of the 729 analyzed samples: 65 containing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 24 with aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), 15 with aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and 20 samples with aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The ranges for positive samples were 0.1~404.7 µg/kg for AFB1, 0.1~10.0 µg/kg for AFB2, 0.1~635.3 µg/kg for AFG1, 0.1~182.5 µg/kg for AFG2, and 0.1~1,043.9 µg/kg for total aflatoxins. Most of the medicinal plant samples (721, 98.9%) were below legal limits, but 8 samples exceeded the legal limits of 10 and 15 µg/kg established by the Korean standard for AFB1 and total aflatoxins (the sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), respectively. PMID:25606005

  14. Mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts sold at markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Mngqawa, Pamella; Rheeder, John P; Teffo, Snow L; Katerere, David R

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In this survey, the mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa, was assessed. Twenty peanut samples were purchased randomly at informal markets in the two cities and analysed for mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) using standard methods. The results indicated that 95% of the Kinshasa samples and 100% of the Pretoria samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi in the ranges 20-49,000 and 40-21,000 CFU/g, respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the Kinshasa samples and 35% of the Pretoria samples exceeded the maximum limits of AFB1 as set by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Residents of both cities are at a high risk of aflatoxin exposure despite their apparent cultural, socio-economic, geographic and climatic differences. Further work needs to be done to understand the supply chains of peanut trade in informal markets of the two countries so that interventions are well targeted on a regional rather than a national level.

  15. Revising the role of pH and thermal treatments in aflatoxin content reduction during the tortilla and deep frying processes.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Guzmán-Ortiz, M; Ramírez-Wong, B

    2001-06-01

    Naturally aflatoxin-contaminated corn (Zea mays L.) was made into tortillas, tortilla chips, and corn chips by the traditional and commercial alkaline cooking processes. The traditional nixtamalization (alkaline-cooking) process involved cooking and steeping the corn, whereas the commercial nixtamalization process only steeps the corn in a hot alkaline solution (initially boiling). A pilot plant that includes the cooker, stone grinder, celorio cutter, and oven was used for the experiments. The traditional process eliminated 51.7, 84.5, and 78.8% of the aflatoxins content in tortilla, tortilla chips, and corn chips, respectively. The commercial process was less effective: it removed 29.5, 71.2, and 71.2 of the aflatoxin in the same products. Intermediate and final products did not reach a high enough pH to allow permanent aflatoxin reduction during thermal processing. The cooking or steeping liquor (nejayote) is the only component of the system with a sufficiently high pH (10.2-10.7) to allow modification and detoxification of aflatoxins present in the corn grain. The importance of removal of tip, pericarp, and germ during nixtamalization for aflatoxin reduction in tortilla is evident.

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Aspergillus flavus Vegetative Compatibility Group to Which a Biological Control Agent That Limits Aflatoxin Contamination in U.S. Crops Belongs.

    PubMed

    Grubisha, Lisa C; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Some filamentous fungi in Aspergillus section Flavi produce carcinogenic secondary compounds called aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination is routinely managed in commercial agriculture with strains of Aspergillus flavus that do not produce aflatoxins. These non-aflatoxin-producing strains competitively exclude aflatoxin producers and reshape fungal communities so that strains with the aflatoxin-producing phenotype are less frequent. This study evaluated the genetic variation within naturally occurring atoxigenic A. flavus strains from the endemic vegetative compatibility group (VCG) YV36. AF36 is a strain of VCG YV36 and was the first fungus used in agriculture for aflatoxin management. Genetic analyses based on mating-type loci, 21 microsatellite loci, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the aflC gene were applied to a set of 237 YV36 isolates collected from 1990 through 2005 from desert legumes and untreated fields and from fields previously treated with AF36 across the southern United States. One haplotype dominated across time and space. No recombination with strains belonging to VCGs other than YV36 was detected. All YV36 isolates carried the SNP in aflC that prevents aflatoxin biosynthesis and the mat1-2 idiomorph at the mating-type locus. These results suggest that VCG YV36 has a clonal population structure maintained across both time and space. These results demonstrate the genetic stability of atoxigenic strains belonging to a broadly distributed endemic VCG in both untreated populations and populations where the short-term frequency of VCG YV36 has increased due to applications of a strain used to competitively exclude aflatoxin producers. This work supports the hypothesis that strains of this VCG are not involved in routine genetic exchange with aflatoxin-producing strains.

  17. Genetic Analysis of the Aspergillus flavus Vegetative Compatibility Group to Which a Biological Control Agent That Limits Aflatoxin Contamination in U.S. Crops Belongs

    PubMed Central

    Cotty, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Some filamentous fungi in Aspergillus section Flavi produce carcinogenic secondary compounds called aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination is routinely managed in commercial agriculture with strains of Aspergillus flavus that do not produce aflatoxins. These non-aflatoxin-producing strains competitively exclude aflatoxin producers and reshape fungal communities so that strains with the aflatoxin-producing phenotype are less frequent. This study evaluated the genetic variation within naturally occurring atoxigenic A. flavus strains from the endemic vegetative compatibility group (VCG) YV36. AF36 is a strain of VCG YV36 and was the first fungus used in agriculture for aflatoxin management. Genetic analyses based on mating-type loci, 21 microsatellite loci, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the aflC gene were applied to a set of 237 YV36 isolates collected from 1990 through 2005 from desert legumes and untreated fields and from fields previously treated with AF36 across the southern United States. One haplotype dominated across time and space. No recombination with strains belonging to VCGs other than YV36 was detected. All YV36 isolates carried the SNP in aflC that prevents aflatoxin biosynthesis and the mat1-2 idiomorph at the mating-type locus. These results suggest that VCG YV36 has a clonal population structure maintained across both time and space. These results demonstrate the genetic stability of atoxigenic strains belonging to a broadly distributed endemic VCG in both untreated populations and populations where the short-term frequency of VCG YV36 has increased due to applications of a strain used to competitively exclude aflatoxin producers. This work supports the hypothesis that strains of this VCG are not involved in routine genetic exchange with aflatoxin-producing strains. PMID:26092465

  18. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  19. Seasonal patterns of aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurised milk from different areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suriyasathaporn, Witaya; Nakprasert, Watinee

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels were determined in pasteurised milk from five commercial trademarks produced in different areas in Thailand. One hundred and twenty milk samples were collected from local markets in Chiang Mai province, Thailand, to evaluate AFM1 concentrations using immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The overall median AFM1 level was 0.023 µg L(-1) ranging from 0.004 to 0.293 µg L(-1). All trademarks had average AFM1 concentrations lower than 0.05 µg L(-1), with those in Trademarks 3 to 5 being higher than Trademarks 1 and 2 (P < 0.01). All trademarks had different seasonal patterns of AFM1, even though operating in the same area. However, only Trademark 3 showed significant differences of AFM1 levels between seasons. The results suggested that farm management factors, rather than environment factors, were likely to be the main cause of AFM1 contamination in dairy products.

  20. Probiotic preparation reduces the faecal water genotoxicity in chickens fed with aflatoxin B1 contaminated fodder.

    PubMed

    Slizewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Libudzisz, Zdzislawa; Blasiak, Janusz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a probiotic preparation on the genotoxicity of faecal water of broiler chickens fed with a fodder contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) at 1 or 5mg per kg. Human blood lymphocytes were exposed to chicken's faecal water samples and DNA damage was measured using the comet assay. Genotoxicity of faecal water did not depend on the AFB(1) concentration in the fodder. The mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tail of the comets, for chickens fed with fodder with AFB(1) at 1 mg/kg was 16.80±0.66, at 5 mg/kg - 16.73±1.51 and in the controls - 12.79±0.66. The supplementation of fodder with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 10.02±0.39 for 1 mg/kg AFB(1) and to 11.89±0.72 for 5 mg/kg.

  1. Production of aflatoxin byAspergillus parasiticus and its control.

    PubMed

    Emara, H A

    1997-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the production of aflatoxin byAspergillus parasiticus and to find out the possible ways to control it. Of 40 food samples collected from Abha region, Saudi Arabia, only 25% were contaminated with aflatoxins. Oil-rich commodities had the highly contaminated commodities by fungi and aflatoxins while spices were free from aflatoxins.Bacillus megatertum andB cereus were suitable for microbiological assay of aflatoxins. Czapek's-Dox medium was found a suitable medium for isolation of fungi from food samples. The optimal pH for the growth ofA. parasiticus and its productivity of aflatoxin B1 was found at 6.0, while the best incubation conditions were found at 30°C for 10 days. D-glucose was the best carbon source for fungal growth, as well as aflatoxin production. Corn steep liquor, yeast extract and peptone were the best nitrogen sources for both fungal growth and toxin production (NH4)2HPO4 (1.55 gL(-1)) and NaNO2 (1.6 gL(-1)) reduced fungal growth and toxin production with 37.7% and 85%, respectively. Of ten amino acids tested, asparagine was the best for aflatoxin B1 production. Zn(2+) and Co(2+) supported significantly both fungal growth, as well as, aflatoxin B1 production at the different tested concentrations. Zn(2+) was effective when added toA. parasiticus growth medium at the first two days of the culture age. The other tested metal ions expressed variable effects depending on the type of ion and its concentration. Water activity (aw) was an important factor controlling the growth ofA. parasiticus and toxin production. The minimum aw for the fungal growth was 0.8 on both coffee beans and rice grains, while aw of 0.70 caused complete inhibition for the growth and aflatoxin B1 production. H2O2 is a potent inhibitor for growth ofA. parasiticus and its productivity of toxins. NaHCO3 and C6H5COONa converted aflatoxin B1 to water-soluble form which returned to aflatoxin B1 by acidity. Black pepper, ciliated heath

  2. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  3. Effects on aflatoxin M1 residues in milk by addition of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to aflatoxin-contaminated diets of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R B; Phillips, T D; Ellis, J A; Kubena, L F; Huff, W E; Petersen, H D

    1991-09-01

    Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), an anticaking agent for agricultural feeds, was added to aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated diets of 3 lactating dairy cows and evaluated for its potential to reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. During phase I, cows were fed alternating diets that consisted of 200 micrograms of AF/kg of feed for 7 days, 0.5% HSCAS plus 200 micrograms of AF/kg of feed for 7 days, and feed with the HSCAS removed for a final 7 days. The AFM1 milk concentrations from the intervals with HSCAS added to diets were compared with those times when HSCAS was absent. The presence of 0.5% HSCAS in feed containing 200 micrograms of AF/kg reduced AFM1 secretion into the milk by an average of 0.44 micrograms/L (from pretreatment of 1.85 micrograms/L to 1.41 micrograms/L with HSCAS, a 24% reduction). Following a 10-day period of noncontaminated feed consumption and no AFM1 residues in the milk, phase II of the study was begun. The same experimental design as phase I was used, but the dosages of HSCAS and AF were changed to 1.0% and 100 micrograms/kg of feed, respectively. The addition of 1.0% HSCAS in feed containing 100 micrograms of AF/kg decreased AFM1 content in the milk by an average of 0.40 micrograms/L (from a pretreatment of 0.91 micrograms/L to 0.51 micrograms/L when HSCAS was present, a 44% reduction). These findings suggest that HSCAS, a high-affinity sorbent compound for AF in vitro, is capable of reducing the secretion of AFM1 into milk.

  4. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety. PMID:27929386

  5. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety.

  6. Survey of aflatoxin concentrations in wild bird seed purchased in Texas.

    PubMed

    Henke, S E; Gallardo, V C; Martinez, B; Balley, R

    2001-10-01

    The use of backyard feeders to attract avian wildlife is a common practice throughout the United States. However, feeding wildlife may create a problem due to aflatoxin, a harmful fungal metabolite, which can affect wildlife that are fed contaminated grain. Our study was initiated to determine if songbirds were being exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feed throughout Texas. Bags of wild bird seed (n = 142) were purchased from grain cooperatives, grocery stores, and pet shops located in the panhandle, central, south, east, and west regions of Texas during spring and summer 1999. Aflatoxin concentrations in bird seed ranged from non-detectable to 2,780 micrograms/kg. Overall, 17% of samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 100 micrograms/kg, of which 83% contained corn as an ingredient. Retail establishment effects were noted in the southern and western regions of Texas, with average concentrations of aflatoxin greater from bags of bird seed purchased from grain cooperatives, followed by pet shops, then grocery stores. Regional differences in aflatoxin levels were not apparent from bags of seed purchased at pet shops: however, regional differences were noted in aflatoxin levels from seeds obtained at grocery stores and grain cooperatives. Average aflatoxin concentration from seed purchased at grocery stores was greatest in the panhandle region, followed by the remaining regions. Within grain cooperatives, the panhandle, south, and west regions of Texas exhibited higher levels of aflatoxin-contaminated bird seed than cooperatives within the east and central regions of Texas. Granivorous songbirds in Texas are exposed to aflatoxins at backyard feeders, which may be a significant morbidity and mortality factor.

  7. Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production as influenced by total lipid content during growth and development of cottonseed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects several food and feed crops such as corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nut crops and contaminates the seed with carcinogenic aflatoxins. These susceptible crops contain rich reserves of lipids and fatty acids. The nature of relationship between lipids and the ability of the f...

  8. Evaluation of particulate air samplers for airborne aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Silas, J.C.; Harrison, M.A.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Five air samplers (Millipore, all-glass impinger, centrifugal, Andersen, and absorbent cotton) were evaluated for their ability to collect airborne grain particles contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Corn dust containing 100 micrograms aflatoxin B1/g was aerosolized within a containment system. Each device sampled 100 I air, thus exchanging the air in the chamber two times. Aflatoxin B1 was extracted from all sampling matrices and was detected and quantitated with thin-layer chromatography and scanning fluorodensitometry. The highest efficiency was obtained with the Millipore sampler, while the efficiencies of the centrifugal and the cotton samplers were almost identical. Efficiency of an Andersen was less, with no toxin recovered from an all-glass impinger. Measurement of particle size was accomplished with the Andersen sampler.

  9. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Tansini, G; Sigolo, S; Filippi, L; Laporta, M; Piva, G

    2009-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat AFB(1)-feedstuffs, they metabolise the toxin and excrete AFM(1) in milk. To control AFM(1) in foods it is necessary to reduce AFB(1) contamination of feeds for dairy cattle by preventing fungal growth and AFB(1) formation in agricultural commodities intended for animal use. Corn and corn-based products are one of the most contaminated feedstuffs; therefore risk factor analysis of AFB(1) contamination in corn is necessary to evaluate risk of AFM(1) contamination in milk and milk products. During the corn silage production, the aflatoxins production is mostly influenced by: harvest time; fertilization; irrigation; pest control; silage moisture; and storage practices. Due to the lower moisture at harvest and to the conservation methods, the corn grain is mostly exposed to the contamination by Aspergillus species. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the probability of this contaminant through choice of: hybrids; seeding time and density; suitable ploughing and fertirrigation; and chemical or biological control. Grains harvested with the lowest possible moisture and conservation moisture close to or less than 14% are necessary to reduce contamination risks, as is maintaining mass to homogeneous moisture. Kernel mechanical damage, grain cleaning practices and conservation temperature are also factors which need to be carefully controlled.

  10. Utilizing fluorescence hyperspectral imaging to differentiate corn inoculated with toxigenic and atoxigenic fungal strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2012-05-01

    Naturally occurring Aspergillus flavus strains can be either toxigenic or atoxigenic, indicating their ability to produce aflatoxin or not, under specific conditions. Corn contaminated with toxigenic strains of A. flavus can result in great losses to the agricultural industry and pose threats to public health. Past research showed that fluorescence hyperspectral imaging could be a potential tool for rapid and non-invasive detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn. The objective of the current study was to assess, with the use of a hyperspectral sensor, the difference in fluorescence emission between corn kernels inoculated with toxigenic and atoxigenic inoculums of A. flavus. Corn ears were inoculated with AF13, a toxigenic strain of A. flavus, and AF38, an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus, at dough stage of development and harvested 8 weeks after inoculation. After harvest, single corn kernels were divided into three groups prior to imaging: control, adjacent, and glowing. Both sides of the kernel, germplasm and endosperm, were imaged separately using a fluorescence hyperspectral imaging system. It was found that the classification accuracies of the three manually designated groups were not promising. However, the separation of corn kernels based on different fungal inoculums yielded better results. The best result was achieved with the germplasm side of the corn kernels. Results are expected to enhance the potential of fluorescence hyperspectral imaging for the detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn.

  11. Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro ecological zones of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamala, Analice; Kimanya, Martin; Haesaert, Geert; Tiisekwa, Bendantuguka; Madege, Richard; Degraeve, Szanne; Cyprian, Cypriana; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of a total of 120 farmers, 40 from each of the three studied agro-ecological zones of Tanzania, to determine local post-harvest management practices associated with aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FB) contamination of maize. Data on practices (collected using a structured questionnaire) and maize samples were obtained from each of the 120 farmers. FB and AF contamination in the samples were analysed by HPLC. A total of 45% and 85% of maize samples were positive for AF and FB respectively, with levels ranging from 0.1 to 269 μg kg(-1) for AF and from 49 to 18 273 μg kg(-1) for FBs. Significant differences in contamination level were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. Farmers in the three agro-ecological zones practised similar practices in varying degrees. Drying, sorting and protecting maize against insect infestation are practices that showed significant association with AF or FB contamination of maize. Drying maize on mat/raised platform, sorting (damaged, discoloured and moulded grains) and application of synthetic insecticides during storage are practices that were associated with less contamination of maize with AF and FB. The results can be used to advise on effective post-harvest strategies for prevention of AF and FB contamination of maize in rural Tanzania.

  12. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in feed from Puglia and Basilicata regions (Italy): 5 years monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Vita, V; Clausi, M T; Franchino, C; De Pace, R

    2016-11-01

    During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3.6 μg/kg and 31.0 ± 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Mean AFB1 levels in samples contaminated but compliant with the limits ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 μg/kg. Considering the great importance of climate conditions in mycotoxins production, during crops production and during the critical phases of materials storage and/or transport, to better understand the variability in contamination levels, the analytical results were reviewed in term of temperature and relative environmental humidity in the sampling areas. Correlations between aflatoxin B1 levels in feed and these climate factors might explain seasonal and annual variations in contamination levels. The data from the present study provide useful suggestions for the organization of targeted monitoring plans and the protection of consumers, as well as for improvement in the quality standards of zootechnological activities and feed industry.

  13. Leaf content, seed moisture and module storage time of seed cotton influence cotton fiber quality and aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf content, seed moisture and module storage time of seed cotton influence cotton fiber quality and aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in South Texas. Crop Science ... Cotton is the most important natural fiber used to produce apparel, home furnishing, and industrial products. The quality of th...

  14. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with clay-based binders on biochemical and histopathological changes in organs of turkey fed with aflatoxin-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Lala, A O; Ajayi, O L; Oso, A O; Ajao, M O; Oni, O O; Okwelum, N; Idowu, O M O

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with molecular or nano-clay binders on biochemical and histopathological examination of organs of turkeys fed diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Two hundred and sixteen unsexed 1-day-old British United Turkeys were randomly allotted to nine diets in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of diets supplemented with no toxin binder, molecular toxin binder (MTB) and nano-clay toxin binder, each contaminated with 0, 60 and 110 ppb aflatoxin B1 respectively. There were three replicates per treatment with eight turkeys per replicate. Biochemical analyses, organ weights and histopathological changes of some organs were examined at the end of the study which lasted for 84 days. Turkeys fed diets supplemented with molecular and nano-binders showed higher (p < 0.001) total serum protein, reduced (p < 0.001) serum uric acid and GGT concentration values when compared with those fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets supplemented with no binder. Turkeys fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets supplemented with no binder had increased (p < 0.001) AST and ALT concentration when compared with other treatments. The heaviest (p < 0.001) liver and intestinal weight was noticed with turkeys fed diets supplemented with no binder and contaminated with 110 ppb aflatoxin B1 . Pathologically, there was no visible morphological alteration noticed in all turkeys fed uncontaminated diets and nano-clay-supplemented group. Hepatic paleness, hepatomegaly and yellowish discolouration of the liver were observed with turkeys fed diets containing no binder but contaminated with 60 and 110 ppb aflatoxin B1. Intestinal histopathological changes such as goblet cell hyperplasia, villous atrophy and diffuse lymphocytic enteritis were more prominent in turkeys fed diets containing no toxin binder and MTB. In conclusion, there were improved biochemical parameters and reduced deleterious effects of aflatoxin B1 in turkeys fed diet

  16. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  17. Reducing bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol fermentations by ozone treatment of uncooked corn mash.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mary L; Koziel, Jacek A; Jane, Jay-lin; Pometto, Anthony L

    2015-06-03

    Ozonation of uncooked corn mash from the POET BPX process was investigated as a potential disinfection method for reducing bacterial contamination prior to ethanol fermentation. Corn mash (200 g) was prepared from POET ground corn and POET corn slurry and was ozonated in 250 mL polypropylene bottles. Lactic and acetic acid levels were monitored daily during the fermentation of ozonated, aerated, and nontreated corn mash samples to evaluate bacterial activity. Glycerol and ethanol contents of fermentation samples were checked daily to assess yeast activity. No yeast supplementation, no addition of other antimicrobial agents (such as antibiotics), and spiking with a common lactic acid bacterium found in corn ethanol plants, Lactobacillus plantarum, amplified the treatment effects. The laboratory-scale ozone dosages ranged from 26-188 mg/L, with very low estimated costs of $0.0008-0.006/gal ($0.21-1.6/m(3)) of ethanol. Ozonation was found to decrease the initial pH of ground corn mash samples, which could reduce the sulfuric acid required to adjust the pH prior to ethanol fermentation. Lactic and acetic acid levels tended to be lower for samples subjected to increasing ozone dosages, indicating less bacterial activity. The lower ozone dosages in the range applied achieved higher ethanol yields. Preliminary experiments on ozonating POET corn slurry at low ozone dosages were not as effective as using POET ground corn, possibly because corn slurry samples contained recycled antimicrobials from the backset. The data suggest additional dissolved and suspended organic materials from the backset consumed the ozone or shielded the bacteria.

  18. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  19. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  20. A Simple and Rapid ELISA for Detecting Aflatoxin Contamination in Corn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weck, Robert; Van Putte, Robb

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to use biotechnology to investigate a serious agricultural problem. The exercise presented here provides an inexpensive way to introduce students to ELISA techniques in an economically and agriculturally important context.

  1. Selective principal component regression analysis of fluorescence hyperspectral image to assess aflatoxin contamination in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective principal component regression analysis (SPCR) uses a subset of the original image bands for principal component transformation and regression. For optimal band selection before the transformation, this paper used genetic algorithms (GA). In this case, the GA process used the regression co...

  2. Assessment of mycotoxin risk on corn in the Philippines under current and future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvacion, Arnold R; Pangga, Ireneo B; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the risk of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisins) contamination on corn in the Philippines under current and projected climate change conditions using fuzzy logic methodology based on the published range of temperature and rainfall conditions that favor mycotoxin development. Based on the analysis, projected climatic change will reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the country due to increased rainfall. In the case of fumonisin contamination, most parts of the country are at a very high risk both under current conditions and the projected climate change conditions.

  3. Detecting corn inoculated with toxigenic and atoxigenic fungal strains with fluorescence hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring Aspergillus flavus strains can be either toxigenic or atoxigenic, indicating their ability to produce aflatoxin or not, under specific conditions. Corn contaminated with toxigenic strains of A. flavus can result in great losses to the agricultural industry and pose threats to pub...

  4. Managing and Monitoring of Aspergillus flavus in Corn Using Bioplastic-based Formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of bioplastic-based formulations for delivering a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus and for monitoring Aspergilli with the final objective of controlling aflatoxin contamination in corn. Field application of inoculated bioplastic granules show...

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma and food contamination: aflatoxins and ochratoxin A as a great prompter.

    PubMed

    Felizardo, Raphael J F; Câmara, Niels O S

    2013-06-28

    Prolonged exposure to mycotoxins in the diet is related to cancer, among other diseases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 70%-90% of primary liver cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Secondary metabolites, like aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA), produced by some fungi species stocked in an inappropriate manner are considered an important way to increase HCC incidence. Future epidemiologic studies of HCC should focus on good practices in food preparation, food storage and the consumption of OTA-containing foods.

  6. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Atehnkeng, Joseph; Donner, Matthias; Ojiambo, Peter S; Ikotun, Babatunde; Augusto, Joao; Cotty, Peter J; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2016-01-01

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers' income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin contamination in grain by > 96%. A total of 25 VCGs were inferred from the collected isolates based on complementation tests involving nitrate non-utilizing (nit(-)) mutants. To determine genetic diversity and distribution of VCGs across agro-ecological zones, 832 nit(-) mutants from 52 locations in 11 administrative districts were paired with one self-complementary nitrate auxotroph tester-pair for each VCG. Atoxigenic VCGs accounted for 81.1% of the 153 positive complementations recorded. Genetic diversity of VCGs was highest in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone (H = 2.61) compared with the southern Guinea savannah (H = 1.90) and northern Guinea savannah (H = 0.94) zones. Genetic richness (H = 2.60) and evenness (E5  = 0.96) of VCGs were high across all agro-ecological zones. Ten VCGs (40%) had members restricted to the original location of isolation, whereas 15 VCGs (60%) had members located between the original source of isolation and a distance

  7. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples.

  8. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Sarah E.; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894

  9. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers

    PubMed Central

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M.; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  10. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    PubMed

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  11. Dietary supplementation with whey protein and ginseng extract counteracts oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Hassan, Aziza M; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2011-07-14

    Aflatoxins (AF) are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens and aflatoxin-B1 (AFB(1)) is classified as a group-1 carcinogen. Since the ingestion of aflatoxins-contaminated food is associated with several liver diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AF-induced damage in rats can be counteracted by feeding with whey-protein concentrates (WPC) and Korean ginseng extract (KGE). Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight equal groups and treated daily for 30 days as follows: a control group (fed an AF-free diet), a group fed ad libitum an AF-contaminated diet (2.5mg/kg diet), a group treated orally with WPC (0.5ml/rat/day), a group treated orally with KGE (20mg/kg body weight), a group treated orally with WPC+KGE, and three groups that were fed the AF-contaminated diet and were treated orally with WPC, KGE or WPC+KGE, respectively. Throughout the experimental period, animals received WPC or KGE during the consumption of their respective diet. Bone-marrow micronucleus formation, DNA fragmentation, fatty-acid synthesis (FAS) and phospholipid-hydroperoxide-glutathione-peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA expression, and oxidative stress were assayed in liver and testis. The results indicated that ingestion of aflatoxin resulted in a significant increase in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (Mn-NCE) in bone marrow, DNA fragmentation, FAS mRNA expression and lipid peroxidation in both organs, and a significant decrease in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes/micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio in bone marrow, PHGPx gene expression and GSH in liver and testis. Treatments with WPC and/or KGE had a significant effect on Mn-NCE or the PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow. However, KGE or KGE+WPC increased PHGPx gene expression and GSH in testis accompanied with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation in liver and testis and FAS-mRNA expression in liver. WPC, KGE or WPC+KGE treatments combined with exposure

  12. Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, Nawal K; Gupta, Rajesh

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Aegle marmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component.

  13. Efficacy of sodium bentonite as a detoxifier of broiler feed contaminated with aflatoxin and fumonisin.

    PubMed

    Miazzo, R; Peralta, M F; Magnoli, C; Salvano, M; Ferrero, S; Chiacchiera, S M; Carvalho, E C Q; Rosa, C A R; Dalcero, A

    2005-01-01

    Sodium bentonite (SB) was evaluated for its ability to reduce the deleterious effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler diets. It was incorporated into the diets (0.3%) containing 2.5 mg/kg AFB1, 200 mg/kg FB1, or a combination of 2.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 200 mg/kg FB1. Aflatoxin B1 significantly diminished body weight gain, whereas FB1 or the combination of FB1 and SB had no effect. Addition of SB in the diets significantly diminished the inhibitory effects of dietary AFB1. Feeding AFB1 alone caused significant increases in the relative weights of most observed organs. Feeding FB1 alone did not alter relative weights of any organs. In the combined diet (AFB1 plus FB1) relative weights of the liver, kidney, gizzard, and spleen were increased. Addition of SB to the diet containing AFB1 diminished the relative weights of liver, kidney, and spleen. Addition of SB to diets containing AFB1 and FB1 only decreased liver weights. In relation to the control, lower serum levels of total protein, albumin, and globulins were observed for all AFB, containing diets without SB addition, whereas all other treatments were not altered. Livers of birds fed diets containing AFB1 and a combination of AFB1 and FB1 were enlarged, yellowish, friable, and had rounded borders. The histopathology of them, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showed multifocal and varied cytoplasmatic vacuolization with perilobular location. Incorporation of SB reduced the incidence and severity of the hepatic histopathology changes associated with aflatoxicosis.

  14. Mycotoxin contamination in corn smut (Ustilago maydis) galls in the field and in the commercial food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis, causal agent of common smut disease, produces galls that are used as food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to determine mycotoxin levels in common smut galls (CSGs) collected from the field at corn ear ...

  15. The inhibitory effect of Bacillus megaterium on aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid biosynthetic pathway gene expression in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Yu, Jiujiang; Shan, Shihua; Li, Qiyu; Li, Qianting; Guan, Bin; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the major moulds that colonize peanut in the field and during storage. The impact to human and animal health, and to the economy in agriculture and commerce, is significant since this mold produces the most potent known natural toxins, aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, and teratogenic. A strain of marine Bacillus megaterium isolated from the Yellow Sea of East China was evaluated for its effect in inhibiting aflatoxin formation in A. flavus through down-regulating aflatoxin pathway gene expression as demonstrated by gene chip analysis. Aflatoxin accumulation in potato dextrose broth liquid medium and liquid minimal medium was almost totally (more than 98 %) inhibited by co-cultivation with B. megaterium. Growth was also reduced. Using expression studies, we identified the fungal genes down-regulated by co-cultivation with B. megaterium across the entire fungal genome and specifically within the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster (aflF, aflT, aflS, aflJ, aflL, aflX). Modulating the expression of these genes could be used for controlling aflatoxin contamination in crops such as corn, cotton, and peanut. Importantly, the expression of the regulatory gene aflS was significantly down-regulated during co-cultivation. We present a model showing a hypothesis of the regulatory mechanism of aflatoxin production suppression by AflS and AflR through B. megaterium co-cultivation.

  16. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  17. Phytoremediation of lead using corn in contaminated agricultural land—an in situ study and benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Lin, Yung-Cheng; Lin, Sheng-Chien; Chen, Kuo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly and economically feasible remediation technology for mitigating soil contamination in agricultural lands. However, phytoremediation can be a slow process, and for highly contaminated soils this approach would require hundreds to thousands of years to meet soil environmental quality standards. Such a long period of phytoremediation is relatively unfeasible without economic revenue from crop production. This study involves growth of corn in plots of lead-contaminated agricultural land with Pb concentrations of about 6000 mg/kg. Our results showed that Bright Jean No. 7 corn was highly tolerant to lead, as evidenced by minimal effects on its growth and biomass production. Annually, each hectare of corn could produce up to 93.4 tons of dry matter and removed up to 7.2 kg of lead. The corn biomass grown on such contaminated fields could be used as a bioenergy fuel, and each hectare of corn biomass could produce 1545 GJ of thermal energy every year, which is equivalent to the heat from combustion of 57 tons of hard coal. The lead content in the corn kernel was less than the EU standard limit for animal consumption. Each hectare could produce approximately 25 tons of corn grains for animal feed per year, and the remaining parts of the plant could be used as the bioenergy fuel to generate heat energy equivalent to 40 tons of hard coal.

  18. Risks of ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated groundnuts in Benin: scale measurements, beliefs, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Jolly, C M; Bayard, B; Vodouhe, S

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluates farmers' beliefs and perceived risks of aflatoxin (AF) on the consumption, production, and marketing of groundnuts. A survey was conducted with 181 farmers in Benin to assess their beliefs of AF effects on the marketing of groundnuts, and finally human and animal health. Awareness and action factors were also evaluated. Relationships of the belief and action factors with socioeconomic variables were evaluated using multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) models within a socioeconomic framework using a health belief model (HBM). The results indicate that the scale of the various constructs is reliable and the validity conforms to expectations. The unifactorial models developed in this study provide a satisfactory fit with NFl, CFI, and GFI exceeding 0.90. The results reveal that gender, age, and years of experience in farming significantly impact farmers' action regarding the reduction of AF in groundnut production and marketing. Male farmers are more likely to be aware of AF problems in groundnuts and feel more susceptible to the problems than their female counterparts. Gender and education seem to be dominating factors in the perception of barriers to mitigating the effects of AF, and male and older farmers are more likely to perceive the benefits of producing and marketing good quality groundnuts.

  19. Review of the decontamination of aflatoxins by ammoniation: current status and regulation.

    PubMed

    Park, D L; Lee, L S; Price, R L; Pohland, A E

    1988-01-01

    Ammoniation of corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and meals to alter the toxic and carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin contamination has been the subject of intense research effort by scientists in various government agencies and universities, both in the United States and abroad. Results of these studies have been well documented over the last 20 years. Engineers have devised workable systems of treatment of whole seeds, kernels, or meals; chemists have identified and characterized products formed from the reaction of aflatoxin B1 with ammonia with and without a meal matrix; biochemists have studied the biological effects of these compounds in model systems; and nutritionists have studied animal responses to rations containing ammoniated or non-ammoniated components. This review describes these studies. Results demonstrate overwhelming support for the efficacy and safety of ammoniation as a practical solution to aflatoxin detoxification in animal feeds.

  20. Mycotoxin contamination of animal feedingstuff: detoxification by gamma-irradiation and reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A concentrations.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Vita; Pitonzo, Rosa; Cicero, Nicola; D'Oca, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites identified in many agricultural products screened for toxigenic moulds. They have been reported to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic and dermatitic to a wide range of organisms. With the increasing stringent regulations for mycotoxins imposed by importing countries such as those of the European Union, many cereals that are not safe for human consumption are used in formulations intended for animal feed. Gamma-rays are reported in the scientific literature to destroy ochratoxin A and aflatoxin in food crops and feed. The present study provides preliminary data for establishing the effect of dose of gamma-irradiation, ranging from 0 to 15 kGy, on aflatoxins and ochratoxin A reduction in commercial animal feed. The mycotoxin levels were determined by means of immunoaffinity clean-up (IAC) and HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The maximum reductions found at 15 kGy were 23.9%, 18.2%, 11.0%, 21.1% and 13.6% for ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B₁, aflatoxin B₂, aflatoxin G₁ and aflatoxin G₂, respectively. Results showed that the gamma-rays even at 15 kGy were not effective in the complete destruction of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in the tested feed.

  1. Effect of essential oils on the growth of Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in corn.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, Pascal; Gbenou, Joachim D; Gnonlonfin, Benoit; Hell, Kerstin; Marasas, Walter F O; Wingfield, Michael J

    2004-11-03

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from local plants in Benin, western Africa, and oil from seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Fumonisin in corn was quantified using a fluorometer and the Vicam method. Oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum gratissimum were the most effective in vitro, completely inhibiting the growth of F. verticillioides at lower concentrations over 21 days of incubation. These oils reduced the incidence of F. verticillioides in corn and totally inhibited fungal growth at concentrations of 8, 6.4, and 4.8 microL/g, respectively, over 21 days. At the concentration of 4.8 microL/g, these oils did not affect significantly fumonisin production. However, a marked reduction of fumonisin level was observed in corn stored in closed conditions. The oils adversely affected kernel germination at 4.8 microL/g and therefore cannot be recommended for controlling F. verticillioides on stored corn used as seeds, when used at this concentration. The oil of neem seeds showed no inhibitory effect but rather accelerated the growth of F. verticillioides.

  2. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) identifies candidate gene signatures in response to aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites and potent carcinogen produced from asexual fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. U.S. federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20...

  4. Manual sorting to eliminate aflatoxin from peanuts.

    PubMed

    Galvez, F C F; Francisco, M L D L; Villarino, B J; Lustre, A O; Resurreccion, A V A

    2003-10-01

    A manual sorting procedure was developed to eliminate aflatoxin contamination from peanuts. The efficiency of the sorting process in eliminating aflatoxin-contaminated kernels from lots of raw peanuts was verified. The blanching of 20 kg of peanuts at 140 degrees C for 25 min in preheated roasters facilitated the manual sorting of aflatoxin-contaminated kernels after deskinning. The manual sorting of raw materials with initially high aflatoxin contents (300 ppb) resulted in aflatoxin-free peanuts (i.e., peanuts in which no aflatoxin was detected). Verification procedures showed that the sorted sound peanuts contained no aflatoxin or contained low levels (<15 ppb) of aflatoxin. The results obtained confirmed that the sorting process was effective in separating contaminated peanuts whether or nor contamination was extensive. At the commercial level, when roasters were not preheated, the dry blanching of 50 kg of peanuts for 45 to 55 min facilitated the proper deskinning and subsequent manual sorting of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut kernels from sound kernels.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) decontamination kinetics in lactating goats (Capra hircus) following a contaminated corn silage exposure.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Agnès; Rychen, Guido; Marchand, Philippe; Toussaint, Hervé; Le Bizec, Bruno; Feidt, Cyril

    2013-07-24

    This study aimed to determine the kinetics of contamination and decontamination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in milk of lactating goats. Four goats were fed during 39 days with corn silage collected in an area accidentally contaminated and then with uncontaminated silage during 20 days. Concentrations of DL-PCBs + PCDD/Fs in milk exceeded rapidly (<15 days) the European limit value and approached steady state after 5 weeks. The decontamination kinetics in milk included first a rapid elimination phase (<10 days) followed by a slower elimination phase of 33, 51, and 59 days for DL-PCBs, NDL-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs, respectively. Therefore, in lactating goats, PCBs and PCDD/Fs contaminated forage raises concerns in terms of food safety. The study also indicates that a decontamination process of lactating animals remains feasible; 20 days was considered to be sufficient to obtain a DL-PCBs + PCDD/Fs level in milk below the regulatory value.

  6. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer's health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B), 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G), and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic). Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg. PMID:22666128

  7. Contaminant occurrence, identification and control in a pilot-scale corn fiber to ethanol conversion process.

    PubMed

    Schell, Daniel J; Dowe, Nancy; Ibsen, Kelly N; Riley, Cynthia J; Ruth, Mark F; Lumpkin, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    While interest in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks is increasing, there is still relatively little pilot-plant data and operating experience available for this emerging industry. A series of batch and continuous fermentation runs were performed in a pilot-plant, some lasting up to six weeks, in which corn fiber-derived sugars were fermented to ethanol using glucose-fermenting and recombinant glucose/xylose-fermenting yeasts. However, contamination by Lactobacillus bacteria was a common occurrence during these runs. These contaminating microorganisms were found to readily consume arabinose, a sugar not utilized by the yeast, producing acetic and lactic acids that had a detrimental effect on fermentation performance. The infections were ultimately controlled with the antibiotic virginiamycin, but routine use of antibiotics is cost prohibitive. The severity of the problem encountered during this work is probably due to use of a highly contaminated feedstock. Lignocellulosic conversion facilities will not employ aseptic designs. Instead, techniques similar to those employed in the corn-based fuel ethanol industry to control infections will be used. Effective control may also be possible by using fermentative microorganisms that consume all biomass-derived sugars.

  8. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, DD; Zaini, F

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual’s health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran’s position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  9. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    PubMed Central

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  10. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Zearalenone and Ochratoxin A in Naturally Contaminated Corn and Corn Quality Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaohu; Qi, Lijun; Liu, Yuntao; Wang, Ren; Yang, Dan; Li, Ke; Wang, Li; Li, Yanan; Zhang, Yuwei; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are secondary toxic metabolites widely present in grains and grain products. In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on ZEN and OTA in corn and the quality of irradiated corn were investigated. Results indicated that EBI significantly affected ZEN and OTA. The degradation rates of ZEN and OTA at 10 kGy in solution were 65.6% and 75.2%, respectively. The initial amounts significantly affected the degradation rate. ZEN and OTA in corn were decreased by the irradiation dose, and their degradation rates at 50 kGy were 71.1% and 67.9%, respectively. ZEN and OTA were more easily degraded in corn kernel than in corn flour. Moisture content (MC) played a vital role in ZEN and OTA degradation. High MC was attributed to high ZEN and OTA degradation. The quality of irradiated corn was evaluated on the basis of irradiation dose. L* value changed, but this change was not significant (p > 0.05). By contrast, a* and b* decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with irradiation dose. The fatty acid value increased significantly. The pasting properties, including peak, trough, breakdown, and final and setback viscosities, were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) by irradiation. Our study verified that EBI could effectively degrade ZEN and OTA in corn. Irradiation could also affect corn quality. PMID:28264463

  11. Distribution of fumonisins in food and feed products prepared from contaminated corn.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G A; Richard, J L; Eckhoff, S R

    1996-01-01

    The fate and distribution of the fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) were determined in products obtained from naturally contaminated corn used for ethanol fermentation and wet milling operations. Fumonisins are stable to the conditions used in ethanol fermentations and tend to concentrate in the distillers dried grain, a fraction generally used for animal feed. No toxin was found in the ethanol. Starch from wet milling of corn, naturally contaminated at 13.9 micrograms fumonisin B1/g, was free of detectable toxin. The other fractions contained fumonisins at the following levels: gluten (5.1-5.8 micrograms FB1/g, 4.7-4.9 micrograms FB2/g); fiber (2.7-5.7 micrograms FB1/g, 2.1-3.1 micrograms FB2/g); and germ (1.3-3.1 micrograms FB1/g, 0.7-1.6 micrograms FB2/g). The steep water and process water contained 22% of the recoverable fumonisins. A combination of analytical methodologies was required to determine fumonisins in the different products from the wet milling process.

  12. Removal of Anthracene and Fluoranthene by Waxy Corn, Long Bean and Okra in Lead-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Chouychai, Waraporn; Lee, Hung

    2015-09-01

    The ability of waxy corn, long bean and okra to remove two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil containing 0.63 mg Pb kg(-1) dry soil was assessed. The presence of Pb did not reduce the ability of these plants to remove the PAHs from soil. About 49 % of anthracene and 77 % of fluoranthene were removed from Pb-spiked or non-spiked soil, respectively, after 30 days. Among the plants, okra was the most efficient at removing anthracene and fluoranthene in the presence or absence of Pb in soil after 30 days. Pb did not affect fluoranthene removal, but stimulated the removal of anthracene, by long bean, waxy corn and okra. However, growth of long bean and waxy corn was poor in Pb-spiked soil and waxy corn plants died around 22 days after transplantation. The results show some promise in using plants to remove PAHs from soil which is also co-contaminated with Pb.

  13. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Shantha, T.; Murthy, V.S.

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  14. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  15. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  16. Developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and cottonseed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At this time, no “magic bullet” for solving the aflatoxin contamination problem in maize and cottonseed has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contaminatio...

  17. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  18. Limited survey for the occurrence of aflatoxins in cereals and poultry feeds from Rabat, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zinedine, A; Juan, C; Soriano, J M; Moltó, J C; Idrissi, L; Mañes, J

    2007-04-01

    Fifty eight (58) samples of cereals for human consumption (20 corn flour, 17 wheat flour) and poultry feeds (n=21) purchased from popular markets of Rabat in Morocco were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) by HPLC with immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and fluorimetric detection. The incidence of AF in corn, wheat flour and poultry feeds was about 80, 17.6 and 66.6% respectively. High contamination levels were found in corn and poultry feeds samples. Levels of contamination of analyzed samples with AFB1 ranged from 0.23 to 11.2, 0.03 to 0.15 and 0.05 to 5.38 ng/g for corn, wheat and poultry feeds respectively. Results showed also that the contamination of 10% of samples of corn was higher than the limit set by EU regulations for AFB1 and total AF. This is the first report on the determination of AF in corn, wheat and poultry feeds from Morocco by HPLC and IAC.

  19. Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.

  20. Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-08-15

    The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) producing strains of A. flavus were recorded from the samples. Eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugenol (14.05%) were the major components of 32 constituents identified from the Piper betle EO through GC and GC-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. betle EO was found 0.7 microl/ml against A.flavus. The EO reduced AFB(1) production in a dose dependent manner and completely inhibited at 0.6 microl/ml. This is the first report on efficacy of P. betle EO as aflatoxin suppressor. EO also exhibited strong antioxidant potential as its IC(50) value (3.6 microg/ml) was close to that of ascorbic acid (3.2 microg/ml) and lower than that of the synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytouene (BHT) (7.4 microg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (4.5 microg/ml). P. betle EO thus exhibited special merits possessing antifungal, aflatoxin suppressive and antioxidant characters which are desirable for an ideal preservative. Hence, its application as a plant based food additive in protection and enhancement of shelf life of edible commodities during storage and processing is strongly recommended in view of the toxicological implications by synthetic preservatives.

  1. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.

  2. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Esha; Kent, Angela D; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2013-05-01

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification steps in the laboratory. Fermentations with hydrolysates prepared in the laboratory were compared with plant hydrolysates for final ethanol concentrations and total yeast counts. Fermentation controls were prepared using hydrolysates (plant and laboratory) that were not inoculated with yeast. Hydrolysates prepared in the laboratory resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations (15.8 % v/v) than plant hydrolysate (13.4 % v/v). Uninoculated controls resulted in ethanol production from both laboratory (12.2 % v/v) and plant hydrolysates (13.7 % v/v), indicating the presence of a contaminating microorganism. Yeast colony counts on cycloheximide and virginiamycin plates confirmed the presence of a contaminant. DNA sequencing and fingerprinting studies also indicated a number of dissimilar communities in samples obtained from fermentors, coolers, saccharification tanks, and thin stillage.

  3. Europium Nanospheres-Based Time-Resolved Fluorescence for Rapid and Ultrasensitive Determination of Total Aflatoxin in Feed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2015-12-02

    Immunochromatographic (IC) assays are considered suitable diagnostic tools for the determination of mycotoxins. A europium nanospheres-based time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (Eu-Nano-TRFIA), based on a monoclonal antibody and a portable TRFIA reader, was developed to determine total aflatoxin (including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) levels in feed samples. Under optimized conditions, the Eu-Nano-TRFIA method detected total aflatoxin within 12 min. It showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.985), LOD of 0.16 μg/kg, a wide dynamic range of 0.48-30.0 μg/kg, recovery rates of 83.9-113.9%, and coefficients of variation (CVs) of 3.5-8.8%. In the 397 samples from company and livestock farms throughout China, the detection rate was 78.3%, concentrations were 0.50-145.30 μg/kg, the highest total aflatoxin content was found in cottonseed meal, and corn was found to be the most commonly contaminated feed. This method could be a powerful alternative for the rapid and ultrasensitive determination of total aflatoxin in quality control and meet the required Chinese maximum residue limits.

  4. Dose-dependent lipid peroxidation induction on ex vivo intestine tracts exposed to chyme samples from fumonisins contaminated corn samples.

    PubMed

    Garbetta, A; Debellis, L; De Girolamo, A; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Minervini, F

    2015-08-01

    Fumonisins (FBs), Fusarium mycotoxins common food contaminant, are a potent inducer of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in intestinal cells. In order to verify this toxic effect in intestine tract, the aim was to assess lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde MDA increased levels) on intestine rat samples exposed to chyme samples from in vitro digestion of FBs contaminated corn samples. Naturally (9.61±3.2 μg/gr), artificially (726±94 μg/gr) and spiked corn samples at EU permitted FBs levels were digested and added to luminal side of Ussing chamber for 120 min. Fumonisins-free corn sample was used as control. The MDA increase was observed just in 83% of intestine samples exposed at EU FBs levels and the digestion process seems to reduce this incidence (50% of samples). Malondialdehyde levels were FBs dose- and subject-related and ranged from 0.07±0.01 to 3.59±0.6 nmol/mg. Highest incidence and MDA % increment (I) were found when intestine tracts were exposed to chymes from artificially corn sample. The induction of lipid peroxidation induced by FBs could be due to interactions between FBs and intestinal membranes, with consequent modifications in membrane permeability and oxygen diffusion-concentration, as suggested by other authors.

  5. Is it possible to control fumonisin contamination in maize kernels by using genotypes resistant to the Mediterranean corn borer?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Insect activity has long been associated with Fusarium infection. The objectives of the current study were 1) to estimate the impact of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, damage on fumonisin contamination in the maize kernel by comparing fumonisin contamination under infestation and protected conditions, and 2) to measure the potential use of genotypes resistant to this borer as controlling factors of fumonisin contamination. Genotypes with increased kernel damage by borers tended to increase fumonisin accumulation under infestation conditions. In particular environments, other factors influenced fumonisin contamination more than damage by borers. When ear damage by borers is significant, maize resistance to ear damage could contribute to the reduction of fumonisin contamination in the kernels. Genotype such as EP42 x EP77 that combines low ear damage by borers and low fumonisin level across environments is a good choice to control fumonisin contamination. The use of an applicable methodology to identify Mediterranean corn borer-resistant genotypes to ear attack under artificial infestations might be a promising approach.

  6. Aflatoxin levels in raw and processed hazelnuts in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, C; Ilyasoğlu, H; Cavrar, S

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin levels in hazelnut samples obtained from exporter companies were monitored over a 3-year period. A total of 3188 samples of raw and processed hazelnuts were analysed using an HPLC method. The total aflatoxin content of the contaminated samples was in the range of 0.02-78.98 µg kg(-1) for hazelnut kernels, 0.07-43.59 µg kg(-1) for roasted hazelnut kernels, 0.02-39.17 µg kg(-1) for roasted sliced hazelnut kernels, and 0.02-11.20 µg kg(-1) for hazelnut purees, respectively, showing that the variations of aflatoxin contamination were very high. The results of aflatoxin analysis revealed that the aflatoxin contamination in the hazelnut samples was at a tolerable level. A total of 3147 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, although below the legal limits. However, the aflatoxin contents of 41 samples exceeded the legal limits. Therefore, aflatoxin contents of hazelnuts should be monitored regularly to minimise the risk of aflatoxin hazard, and pre- and post-harvest strategies should be developed to prevent aflatoxin formation.

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phytoextraction by corn (Zea mays) of lead-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hovsepyan, A; Greipsson, S

    2004-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in lead (Pb) uptake by corn (Zea mays) grown in soil supplemented with Pb was examined. Plants were subjected to four Pb levels: 0 (control); 10 (low); 100 (medium); and 500 mg L(-1) (high). At each Pb level, plants were grown in soil without and with fungicide (benomyl) (20 mg kg(-1)) to suppress AMF activity. Benomyl significantly reduced AMF colonization at high. medium, and zero Pb exposures. Benomyl application resulted in significantly lower concentrations of phosphorus in leaves at low and medium Pb exposures. The benomyl-treated plants had higher Pb and manganese concentrations in leaves than plants not treated with benomyl. In addition, benomyl-treated plants had generally lower concentrations of zinc and copper in leaves than plants not treated with benomyl. These results suggest that the role of AMF in heavy metal uptake is metal specific. Based on this work, the use of benomyl on soils contaminated with Pb can be recommended in phytoextraction.

  8. Linking Air Land & Water to Examine the Vulnerability of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Increased Corn Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. Thi...

  9. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in maize of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin and ochratoxin levels were determined in maize samples collected from store houses of 15 districts belonging to three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. Toxins were extracted by Aflaochra immunoaffinity columns and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean moisture content of maize kernels was recorded above the safe storage level of 15%. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 and B2 contamination was found in 97.3% and 78.9% of the collected samples, respectively. Aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2 and ochratoxin A were not detected in any sample. Among positive samples, 77.3% contained aflatoxin B1 and 28% aflatoxin B2, exceeding the legal limits as set by the European Union (EU) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). It was concluded that a significant number of samples contained aflatoxin B1 and B2 above the legal limits.

  10. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  11. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  12. The first report of A. novoparasiticus, A. arachidicola and A. pseudocaelatus in Brazilian corn kernels.

    PubMed

    Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2017-02-21

    Maize is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated throughout the world, mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. It is highly susceptible to mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. In this study, we assessed freshly harvested corn produced in Brazil for aflatoxin contamination and the presence of Aspergillus. B type aflatoxins (AFB1+AFB2) were detected in 56% of 16 grain samples, while G type aflatoxins (AFG1+AFG2) were detected in 25%. Of the total number of grains (n=1920) evaluated for the presence of fungi species, 4.7% were infected with Aspergillus species, 74.5% and 16.7% respectively with Fusarium and Penicillium species and 4.1% with other fungi genera. In total, 89 Aspergillus isolates were identified, most (86 isolates) characterized as belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi, and the remainder to Aspergillus section Cremei (2 isolates) and Aspergillus section Terrei (1 isolate). All the isolates of section Flavi were subjected to molecular analysis. They were found to belong to six species, including Aspergillus novoparasiticus, Aspergillus arachidicola and Aspergillus pseudocaelatus, all aflatoxins B and G producing species, which are herein described for the first time infecting corn kernels.

  13. Relationships among ensiling, nutritional, fermentative, microbiological traits and contamination in corn silages addressed with partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Gallo, A; Bassi, D; Esposito, R; Moschini, M; Cocconcelli, P S; Masoero, F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to reduce the predictor dimensionality and to develop a model able to forecast contamination in corn silages. A survey on 33 dairy farms was performed, and samples from core, lateral, and apical parts of the feed-out face of corn silage bunkers were analyzed for chemical, biological (digestible and indigestible NDF), fermentative (pH, ammonia nitrogen, lactic acid, VFA, and ethanol), and microbiological (yeasts and molds) traits. Corn silage samples were analyzed for cell and spore counts by adoption of a molecular DNA-based method. A partial least squares (PLS) regression with a leave-one-out cross-validation method was used to reduce the dimensionality of the original predictors ( = 30) by projecting the independent variables into latent constructs. In a first step of the model development, the importance of independent variables in predicting contamination was assessed by plotting factor loadings of both dependent and independent variables on the first 2 components and by verifying for each predictor the variable influence on projection values adopting the Wold's criterion as well as the entity of standardized regression coefficients. Three ensiling characteristics (bunker type, presence of lateral wrap plastic film, and penetration resistance as a measurement of the ensiled mass density), a chemical trait (DM), 9 characterizations of the fermentative profile (pH, ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, ethanol, and lactic acid), and 2 microbiological traits (yeasts and molds) were retained as important terms in the PLS model. Three reduced-variable PLS (rPLS) regressions-the first based on ensiling, chemical, fermentative, and microbiological retained important variables (rPLSecfm); the second based on chemical, fermentative, and microbiological retained important traits (rPLScfm); and the last based on only chemical and fermentative retained important variables (r

  14. Inhibition of the Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination on Pistachio Nut by Fengycin and Surfactin-Producing Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Mohsen; Shi, Zhi-Qi; Ahmadzadeh, Masoud; Hu, Liang-Bin; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A. flavus. Mass spectrometric analysis of the both antifungal fractions revealed a high similarity between these anti-A. flavus compounds and cyclic-lipopeptides of surfactin, and fengycin families. Coproduction of surfactin and fengycin acted in a synergistic manner and consequently caused a strong antifungal activity against A. flavus R5. There was a positive significant correlation between the reduction of A. flavus growth and the reduction of AFB1 contamination on pistachio nut by UTBSP1. The results indicated that fengycin and surfactin-producing B. subtilis UTBSP1 can potentially reduce A. flavus growth and AFB1 content in pistachio nut. PMID:27298596

  15. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  16. Effects of lipoic acid on immune function, the antioxidant defense system, and inflammation-related genes expression of broiler chickens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-04-02

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.

  17. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  18. Potential of lactic acid bacteria in aflatoxin risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Sara H; Joutsjoki, Vesa; Korhonen, Hannu J

    2015-08-17

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Consumption of contaminated food and feed can cause a severe health risk to humans and animals. A novel biological method could reduce the health risks of aflatoxins through inhibiting mold growth and binding aflatoxins. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in fermented food production. LAB are known to inhibit mold growth and, to some extent, to bind aflatoxins in different matrices. Reduced mold growth and aflatoxin production may be caused by competition for nutrients between bacterial cells and fungi. Most likely, binding of aflatoxins depends on environmental conditions and is strain-specific. Killed bacteria cells possess consistently better binding abilities for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) than viable cells. Lactobacilli especially are relatively well studied and provide noticeable possibilities in binding of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in food. It seems that binding is reversible and that bound aflatoxins are released later on (Haskard et al., 2001; Peltonen et al., 2001). This literature review suggests that novel biological methods, such as lactic acid bacteria, show potential in mitigating toxic effects of aflatoxins in food and feed.

  19. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices. [Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-07-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the sample in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample components undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. Additional studies have provided a more thorough understanding of solvent related non-exclusion effects on size exclusion gels. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. The analytical method has also proven useful in the analysis of contaminated corn and peanut meal samples. 42 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Identification of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectral features for detection of Aspergillus flavus infection in corn.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S H; Schudy, R B; Wheeler, B C; Wicklow, D T; Greene, R V

    1997-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus and other pathogenic fungi display typical infrared spectra which differ significantly from spectra of substrate materials such as corn. On this basis, specific spectral features have been identified which permit detection of fungal infection on the surface of corn kernels by photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy. In a blind study, ten corn kernels showing bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) in the germ or endosperm and ten BGYF-negative kernels were correctly classified as infected or not infected by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Earlier studies have shown that BGYF-positive kernels contain the bulk of the aflatoxin contaminating grain at harvest. Ten major spectral features, identified by visual inspection of the photoacoustic spectra of A. flavus mycelium grown in culture versus uninfected corn, were interpreted and assigned by theoretical comparisons of the relative chemical compositions of fungi and corn. The spectral features can be built into either empirical or knowledge-based computer models (expert systems) for automatic infrared detection and segregation of grains or kernels containing aflatoxin from the food and feed supply.

  1. Suppression of spore germination and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus during and after exposure to high levels of phosphine.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, L; Salvat, A E; Faifer, G C; Godoy, H M

    1999-01-01

    Agar cultures of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 were exposed to phosphine (PH3), in levels ranging from 0 to 2000 ppm (vol/vol). It was found that with PH3 concentrations of 400 ppm or higher the growth of the fungus was totally arrested. When PH3 was vented and the agar plates were exposed to open air, 100% of the initial CFU developed into fully grown colonies after PH3 levels below 300 ppm, but at higher PH3 concentrations only 50% of the colonies developed. The same strain of A. parasiticus was inoculated into high moisture corn under conditions highly favorable for aflatoxin production, and it was exposed to a range of PH3 levels. After exposure to 500 ppm PH3, both fungal growth and aflatoxin synthesis resumed shortly after elimination of the toxic gas, but after exposure to PH3 levels of 1000 ppm and higher, the physical appearance of the contaminated corn was remarkably changed, showing reduced mycelial growth and almost complete absence of green pigmentation. In addition, aflatoxin synthesis was totally absent for the remainder of the experiment (20 days). These results strongly suggest that exposure to PH3 levels of 1000 ppm or higher could bring about persistent metabolic changes in surviving Aspergillus organisms.

  2. Ear Rot, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Fungal Biomass in Maize after Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fries, occurs naturally in maize (Zea mays L.). Aflatoxin is a potent human carcinogen and is toxic to livestock, pets, and wildlife. When contaminated with aflatoxin, the value of maize grain is markedly reduced. Eight germplasm l...

  3. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene cluster in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the primary causal agent of food and feed contamination with the toxic fungal metabolites aflatoxins. Aflatoxin-producing potential of A. flavus is known to vary among isolates. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered together and the order of genes within th...

  4. Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn.

    PubMed

    Astoreca, Andrea; Vaamonde, Graciela; Dalcero, Ana; Marin, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were i) to determine the effects of the interactions of water activity, temperature and incubation time on the co-production of AFB1 and CPA by isolates of Aspergillus flavus with different profile of mycotoxin production and ii) to identify the aW and temperature limiting conditions for the production of both mycotoxins. Fungi used in this study were selected because they belonged to different chemotypes: chemotype I (AFB1+/CPA+), III (AFB1+/CPA-) and IV (AFB1-/CPA+), respectively. Two culture media were used; Czapek yeast agar (CYA) and corn extract agar (CEM), at different incubated temperatures (10-40 °C) and aW levels (0.80-0.98). AFB1 and CPA production were analyzed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation. Significant differences were observed with respect to mycotoxin production depending on the media evaluated. The AFB1 production occurred more favorably on CYA while the highest CPA concentrations were recorded on CEM. Within the range of aW evaluated in this study, 0.83 was the limiting level for both toxins production. The optimum conditions for AFB1 production occurred at 0.96 aW and 30 °C after 21 days of incubation, regardless of the media and isolate. Although different amounts of toxins were produced in each medium, the limiting and optimum conditions for their production were similar in both. No differences in the response of the three isolates to the abiotic factors discussed were observed despite belonging to different chemotypes. The determination of the thresholds of mycotoxins co-production, especially in the case of data obtained with the corn extract medium can be useful to avoid the conditions conducive to co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in corn.

  5. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  6. Interaction of Wild Strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 and Aflatoxin Production †

    PubMed Central

    Martins, H. Marina; Almeida, Inês; Marques, Marta; Bernardo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some competent mould strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. These compounds have been extensively studied with regards to their toxicity for animals and humans; they are able to induce liver cancer and may cause a wide range of adverse effects in living organisms. Aflatoxins are found as natural contaminants of food and feed; the main line of the strategy to control them is based on the prevention of the mould growth in raw vegetable or during its storage and monitoring of each crop batch. Mould growth is conditioned by many ecological factors, including biotic ones. Hazard characterization models for aflatoxins in crops must take into consideration biotic interactions between moulds and their potential effects on growth development. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the biotic interaction of 14 different wild strains of Aspergilla (different species), with a competent strain (Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517) using an in vitro production model. The laboratory model used was a natural matrix (humidified cracked corn), on which each wild strain challenged the aflatoxin production of a producer strain. Cultures were incubated at 28°C for 12 days and sampled at the 8th and 12th. Aflatoxin detection and quantification was performed by HPLC using a procedure with a MRPL = 1 μg/kg. Results of those interactive cultures revealed both synergic and antagonistic effects on aflatoxin biosynthesis. Productivity increases were particularly evident on the 8th day of incubation with wild strains of A. flavipes (+ 70.4 %), A. versicolor (+ 54.9 %) and A. flavus 3 (+ 62.6 %). Antagonistic effects were found with A. niger (− 69.5%), A. fumigatus (− 47.6 %) and A. terreus (− 47.6 %) on the 12th day. The increased effects were more evident on the 8th of incubation and the decreases were more patent on the 12th day. Results show that the development of Aspergilla strains concomitantly with

  7. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  8. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

  9. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

  10. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  11. Patulin & ergosterol: new quality parameters together with aflatoxins in hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Otağ, Mustafa; Kadakal, Çetin

    2014-05-01

    Hazelnuts of three different categories, mouldy, hidden mould and sound (undamaged), were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from five hazelnut processing plants located in a major hazelnut producing area in the Black Sea region in Turkey. All aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sound hazelnuts were contaminated with trace or zero amounts of aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts were contaminated with high (246-510ppb; 141-422ppb) aflatoxin levels, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 content was significantly correlated with the patulin and ergosterol contents in mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts. However, there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts.

  12. Aflatoxin, Aspergillus, Maize, and the Relevance to Alternative Fuels (or Aflatoxin: What is It, Can We Get Rid of It, and Should the Ethanol Industry Care?)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contamination of agricultural commodities by Aspergillus flavus and its subsequent production of aflatoxin is a well known problem. The resulting aflatoxin contamination if undetected results in fatal health issues for both man and animals. To prevent these effects regulatory limits on aflatox...

  13. Statistical analysis of corn consumption for improved mycotoxin exposure estimates for the population of Veracruz City.

    PubMed

    Wall-Martínez, H A; Ramírez-Martínez, A; Wesolek, N; Brabet, C; Rodríguez-Jimenes, G C; García-Alvarado, M A; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; Robles-Olvera, V J; Roudot, A C

    2017-03-06

    Corn consumption was evaluated in the population of Veracruz City through two different dietary intake questionnaires. The selection of 300 sampling locations was completely random. The population was segregated into gender and age categories. A daily consumption questionnaire was used to determine the consumption of corn tortillas and a frequency questionnaire to determine the consumption of other corn products. A book of photographs was used to adjust criteria on the size of the portions of corn products and a probability distribution was built of the weight and content of corn for tortillas. Probability density functions (PDF) were used to describe the consumption of each corn product. Males and those between 14 and 65 years old have the highest consumption of tortillas. Tortillas, antojitos, tacos and chilaquiles are the products that provide the largest amount of corn to the Veracruz people's diet. Even though these products are nixtamalizated, there is evidence that after a thermo-alkaline process some contaminants such as mycotoxins (like aflatoxin, which is a mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic toxin) could be present in high concentrations. These results highlight the need to characterize the consumption of one of the main foods included in dietary staple in Mexico as a first step for a probabilistic risk assessment.

  14. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ji, Cheng; Li, Xiaoying; Jia, Ru; Xi, Lin; Zhang, Jianyun; Ma, Qiugang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related. PMID:26308053

  15. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ji, Cheng; Li, Xiaoying; Jia, Ru; Xi, Lin; Zhang, Jianyun; Ma, Qiugang

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Wheat Silos in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    NAMJOO, Mohadeseh; SALAMAT, Faezeh; RAJABLI, Niloofar; HAJIHOSEEINI, Reza; NIKNEJAD, Farhad; KOHSAR, Faramarz; JOSHAGHANI, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. Methods: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province. First, aflatoxins were isolated using immunoaffinity chromatography. Then the aflatoxin concentrations were determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and fluorescence detector. Results: Ten out of 34 samples (29.4% of samples) were contaminated by aflatoxins.No concentration was found above permitted aflatoxin levels in Iran (15 ng/g). In one sample (2.9%), aflatoxin B1 was seen over the permissible limits in Iran. The highest level found in samples for total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 were 7.08 ng/g, 6.91 ng/g, 0.29 ng/g, 1.37 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, respectively. No correlation was found between humidity levels in wheat samples contained aflatoxin and wheat samples without aflatoxin. Conclusion: Despite the total aflatoxins determined in samples were below the permissible limits in Iran, the 29% aflatoxin contamination rate can negatively affect health factors and it should not be neglected. So, it is predictable that if the storage duration of samples increases, the aflatoxin contamination levels will increase. PMID:27516997

  17. Effect of pressure cooking on aflatoxin B1 in rice.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Kim, Young-Bae

    2006-03-22

    The effect of pressure cooking on aflatoxin residues in polished rice was conducted to determine reduction of aflatoxin and mutagenic potentials. Three rice lots consisting of naturally contaminated, A. parasiticus-infested, and aflatoxin-spiked rice were steamed by ordinary and pressure cookers after they were washed with water. They were chemically analyzed for aflatoxins using a silica solid phase extraction tube and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection (FD), and the presence of aflatoxin residues was confirmed using HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS). An in vitro mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 was employed to verify the results based on chemical analyses. The aflatoxin loss (78-88%) was notable after pressure cooking, and the reduction of aflatoxin-induced mutagenic potential (68-78%) was in good agreement with the HPLC results. It can be concluded that Koreans are safe from the aflatoxin-related risk if a pressure cooker is employed for cooking rice. The average Korean daily intake of aflatoxin through the consumption of staple rice would fall to 0.15 ng/kg bw/day, which would not exceed the established tolerable daily intake (0.40 ng/kg bw/day).

  18. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics. PMID:27128939

  19. Chemical inactivation of aflatoxins in peanut protein ingredients.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, K R

    1992-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts has posed a threat to the peanut industry in utilizing peanuts as a source of a low-cost protein ingredient for food and feed. Although the best approach to containing the aflatoxin problem in peanuts is prevention, it appears that chemical inactivation of aflatoxin in contaminated raw material provides the best means to salvaging the contaminated material. Several chemical reagents have been investigated for their efficacy in destroying aflatoxins present in raw peanuts and defatted peanut meal. Using certain oxidizing agents such as NaOCl, H2O2, and benzoyl peroxide; bases such as ammonia, methylamine, and calcium hydroxide; and aldehydes such as formaldehyde, contaminated raw peanuts or defatted peanut meal have been demonstrated to yield peanut meals, protein isolates, and concentrates having trace amounts or nondetectable levels of aflatoxins. Processing conditions for inactivating aflatoxins using these chemicals were investigated. The chemical treatments had little effect on the physiochemical properties of the detoxified protein product. The advantages and disadvantages of using these chemicals for inactivation of aflatoxins are discussed.

  20. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-11-13

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.

  1. Effects of fumonisin-contaminated corn screenings on growth and health of feeder calves.

    PubMed

    Osweiler, G D; Kehrli, M E; Stabel, J R; Thurston, J R; Ross, P F; Wilson, T M

    1993-02-01

    Fumonisins are myocotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, common molds of corn in North America. The toxin is at especially high concentrations in corn screenings. Fumonisins are toxic to swine and horses, but effects of these toxins in cattle have not been evaluated. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects in cattle of feeding fumonisins at levels known to be toxic to swine and horses. A total of 18 crossbred feeder calves were fed diets containing fumonisins at 15, 31, or 148 micrograms/g for 31 d. Feed consumption, weight gain, complete blood count, serum clinical chemistries, and an immune function profile were done on d -3, 4, 10, 17 and 31 relative to the start of fumonisin feeding. There was no treatment-related effect on feed intake or weight gain, but feed containing 148 micrograms/g of fumonisins seemed to be less palatable than other feeds. Significant increases in serum aspartate amino transferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and cholesterol occurred from d 10 through 31. Mild microscopic liver lesions were present in two calves fed at the highest fumonisin level. Lymphocyte blastogenesis was significantly impaired at the end of the feeding period in the group given the highest dose. Other measures of immune function were not affected significantly. Fumonisins are capable of causing changes in liver function and in some measures of immune function. However, cattle seem to be relatively less susceptible to fumonisins present naturally in grains than either swine or horses.

  2. Diversity of aflatoxin-producing fungi and their impact on food safety in sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxins are important sources of revenue and daily nourishment in many portions of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, reports have associated aflatoxins with diminished human health and export opportunities in many African Nations. Aflatoxins are highly carcinog...

  3. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: Effects of sample size and accetp/reject limit on reducing risk of misclassifying lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC) began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in alm...

  4. Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, U.D.; Govindarajan, P.; Dave, P.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 was studied by using gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate 50 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of 5% hydrogen peroxide, and 400 krad was required for total degradation of 100 micrograms of aflatoxin in the same system. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Ames microsomal mutagenicity test showed loss of aflatoxin activity. This method of detoxification also reduces the toxin levels effectively in artificially contaminated groundnuts.

  5. Identification of genomic region controlling resistance to aflatoxin contamination in a peanut recombinant inbred line population (Tifrunner XGT-C20)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut, limited genetic variation for disease resistance is available in breeding programs necessitating the identification of stable resistance sources for use in cultivar development. ‘Tifrunner’ is a runner cultivar while ‘GT-C20’ is a Spanish-type breeding line with resistance to aflatoxin co...

  6. The effect of NovaSil dietary supplementation on the growth and health performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed aflatoxin-B1 contaminated feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of NovaSil (NS) clay to sorb and mitigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Growth performance, specific innate immunological function, intestinal microbial community, and histology were evaluate...

  7. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kashif, Aiza; Kanwal, Kinza; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg) and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked) was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity. PMID:27781067

  8. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production.

  9. Chronic aflatoxin exposure in children living in Bhaktapur, Nepal: Extension of the MAL-ED study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are toxic chemicals produced by molds. The molds that produce these two toxic chemicals are commonly found in corn and their co-occurence in corn has been demonstrated in many surveys. This study was conducted because it is suspected that exposure to eith...

  10. Transfer of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 from naturally contaminated raw materials to beer during an industrial brewing process.

    PubMed

    Pietri, A; Bertuzzi, T; Agosti, B; Donadini, G

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the fate of aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) naturally occurring in raw materials (maize grit and malted barley) during four industrial brewing processes. The aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) level in raw materials varied from 0.31 to 14.85 microg kg(-1), while the fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) level (only in maize grit) varied from 1146 to 3194 microg kg(-1). The concentration in finished beer ranged from 0.0015 to 0.022 microg l(-1) for AFB(1) and from 37 to 89 microg l(-1) for FB(1); the other aflatoxins and fumonisin B(2) were not found in beer samples. The average percentage of toxins recovered in finished beer, referring to the amounts contained in raw materials, were 1.5% +/- 0.8% for AFB(1) and 50.7% +/- 4.7% for FB(1). These results were mainly due to the different solubility of the two mycotoxins during the mashing process. If raw materials comply with the limits fixed by European Commission Regulations, the contribution of a moderate daily consumption of beer to AFB(1) and FB(1) intake does not contribute significantly to the exposure of the consumer.

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia: Estimation of average daily intake by babies.

    PubMed

    Radonić, Jelena R; Kocić Tanackov, Sunčica D; Mihajlović, Ivana J; Grujić, Zorica S; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana B; Škrinjar, Marija M; Turk Sekulić, Maja M

    2017-01-02

    The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The estimated daily intake of AFM1 through breastfeeding was calculated for the colostrum samples using an average intake of 60 mL/kg body weight (b.w.)/day on the third day of lactation. All breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery and 36.4% of colostrum samples were contaminated with AFM1. The greatest percentage of contaminated colostrum (85%) and all samples of breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery had AFM1 concentration above maximum allowable concentration according to the Regulation on health safety of dietetic products. The mean daily intake of AFM1 in colostrum was 2.65 ng/kg bw/day. Results of our study indicate the high risk of infants' exposure, who are at the early stage of development and vulnerable to toxic contaminants.

  12. Aflatoxin B1 in common Egyptian foods.

    PubMed

    Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S

    1996-01-01

    Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia.

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F.; Gomes, Tatiana C. B.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Oliveira, Marize S.; Ferreira, Marli B.; Gomes, Mateus B.; Paschoal, Fabiano N.; von S. Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A.; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1 respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  14. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone.

  15. Aflatoxin variability in pistachios.

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, N E; Rodriguez, S B

    1996-01-01

    Pistachio fruit components, including hulls (mesocarps and epicarps), seed coats (testas), and kernels (seeds), all contribute to variable aflatoxin content in pistachios. Fresh pistachio kernels were individually inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and incubated 7 or 10 days. Hulled, shelled kernels were either left intact or wounded prior to inoculation. Wounded kernels, with or without the seed coat, were readily colonized by A. flavus and after 10 days of incubation contained 37 times more aflatoxin than similarly treated unwounded kernels. The aflatoxin levels in the individual wounded pistachios were highly variable. Neither fungal colonization nor aflatoxin was detected in intact kernels without seed coats. Intact kernels with seed coats had limited fungal colonization and low aflatoxin concentrations compared with their wounded counterparts. Despite substantial fungal colonization of wounded hulls, aflatoxin was not detected in hulls. Aflatoxin levels were significantly lower in wounded kernels with hulls than in kernels of hulled pistachios. Both the seed coat and a water-soluble extract of hulls suppressed aflatoxin production by A. flavus. PMID:8919781

  16. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  17. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B₁-lysine albumin biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Groopman, John D; Egner, Patricia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illustrates exposure over the first 1000 days of life.

  18. Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation of fumonsin- contaminated corn grits protects against nephrotoxicity and disrupted sphingolipid metabolism in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. They are found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common fumonisin, causes animal diseases and, although its impact on human health is unclear, evidence suggests that it is a risk factor ...

  19. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B1 and G1 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Mohamed F.; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) were detected. The prevalence of AFB1 was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG1 was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB1 between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer. PMID:27869706

  20. Differential accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in maize lines with contrasting drought tolerance and aflatoxin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abiotic stresses such as drought stress can exacerbate aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels. Previous studies showed that maize lines resistance to aflatoxin contamination tend to exhibit enhanced drought tolerance and accumulate lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species...

  1. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection.

  2. The potential role of oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus survivability and aflatoxin biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed occurs due to growth of Aspergillus flavus. This poses a serious health risk because of aflatoxin’s toxic and carcinogenic properties which negatively impact human and livestock health. Colonization and subsequent aflatoxin production by A. flavus is typicall...

  3. Aflatoxin production and environmental oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus: Implications forhost resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contamination of maize kernel tissues with aflatoxin is of major concern in global food production, particularly in developing countries. Resistance to aflatoxin is negatively influenced by environmental stress, namely drought stress. Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to accumul...

  4. Sexuality generates diversity in the aflatoxin gene cluster: evidence on a global scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aflatoxins also account for considerable health risks, even in countries where food contamination is regulated. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of af...

  5. Introduction to the Toxin Reviews Special Issue "Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and Biological Control"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of Toxin Reviews, “Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, CPA and Biological Control of Aflatoxin", is different from previous publications because it focuses on solving the problem of mycotoxin contamination through the use of biological control strains of Aspergillus, which is applicable to th...

  6. Using Genome-Wide Associations to Identify Metabolic Pathways Involved in Maize Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that can contaminate grain infected with the fungus Aspergillus flavus. However, resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize is a complex trait with low heritability. Here, two complementary analyses were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved. T...

  7. Genome wide association mapping of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with sign...

  8. Formation of Aspergillus flavus sclerotia on corn grown under different drought stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in corn, peanuts, tree nuts, cottonseed, spices and other crops. Many countries have strict limits on the amount of aflatoxins permitted in human commodities and animal feed. Sclerotia produced by A. flavus serve several f...

  9. Aflatoxin metabolism in humans: detection of metabolites and nucleic acid adducts in urine by affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Groopman, J.D.; Donahue, P.R.; Zhu, J.Q.; Chen, J.S.; Wogan, G.N.

    1985-10-01

    A high-affinity IgM monoclonal antibody specific for aflatoxins was covalently bound to Sepharose 4B and used as a preparative column to isolate aflatoxin derivatives from the urine of people and experimental animals who had been exposed to the carcinogen environmentally or under laboratory conditions. Aflatoxin levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography after elution from the affinity column. In studies on rats injected with ( UC)aflatoxin B1, the authors identified the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct, 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), and the oxidative metabolites M1 and P1 as the major aflatoxin species present in the urine. When this methodology was applied to human urine samples obtained from people from the Guangxi Province of China exposed to aflatoxin B1 through dietary contamination, the aflatoxin metabolites detected were also AFB1-N7-Gua and aflatoxins M1 and P1. Therefore, affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody represents a useful and rapid technique with which to isolate this carcinogen and its metabolites in biochemical epidemiology and for subsequent quantitative measurements, providing exposure information that can be used for risk assessment.

  10. Aflatoxin in detannin coffee and tea and its destruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, H A H

    2002-05-01

    The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.

  11. Behavior of sup 14 C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making

    SciTech Connect

    Fremy, J.M.; Roiland, J.C.; Gaymard, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with {sup 14}C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  12. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  13. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa.

  14. Simple, rapid, and inexpensive cleanup method for quantitation of aflatoxins in important agricultural products by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S

    2007-03-21

    A chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted from a ground sample with MeOH/H2O (80:20, v/v), and after a cleanup step on a minicolumn packed with Florisil, aflatoxins were quantified by HPLC equipped with a C18 column, a photochemical reactor, and a fluorescence detector. Water/MeOH (63:37, v/v) served as the mobile phase. Recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 from peanuts spiked at 5, 1.7, 5, and 1.7 ng/g were 89.5+/-2.2, 94.7+/-2.5, 90.4+/-1.0, and 98.2+/-1.1, respectively (mean+/-SD, %, n=3). Similar recoveries, precision, and accuracy were achieved for corn, brown and white rice, cottonseed, almonds, Brazil nuts, pistachios, walnuts, and hazelnuts. The quantitation limits for aflatoxins in peanuts were 50 pg/g for aflatoxin B1 and 17 pg/g for aflatoxin B2. The minimal cost of the minicolumn allows for substantial savings compared with available commercial aflatoxin cleanup devices.

  15. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in corn silage experimentally contaminated at ensiling, at silo opening, or after aerobic exposure, and protective effect of various bacterial inoculants.

    PubMed

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (10⁵ CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (10⁶ CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain.

  16. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    PubMed Central

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  17. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  18. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    DOE PAGES

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; ...

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics duringmore » the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial

  19. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; Donald, Jr., Charles; Shabani, Mahboubeh; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Mcgee, Mick; La Reau, Alex; Klinger, Grace E.; Li, Sheena; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Bates, Donna M.; Cavalier, Dave; Eilert, Dustin; Oates, Lawrence G.; Sanford, Gregg; Sato, Trey K.; Dale, Bruce; Landick, Robert; Piotrowski, Jeff; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Zhang, Yaoping

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics during the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial performance in

  20. [The aflatoxins and liver cancer in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    1992-05-01

    The AFB1 intake and the AFM1 excretion of 81 households in 10 villages, Guanxi were investigated using the ELISA method. The results showed that there was positive correlation between PLC mortality and AFB1 intake from corn and peanut oil, but not from rice. The results of stepwise regression showed that main factors were AFB1 intake of males, AFM1 excretion of females and consumption of corn. The results showed that aflatoxins were correlated with mortality rates of liver cancer. Further investigation needs to be carried out in case-control and cohort studies.

  1. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  2. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  3. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 during the fermentation of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-06-28

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.

  4. Effect of aluminosilicates and bentonite on aflatoxin-induced developmental toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Nada, S A; Amra, H A

    1999-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that aflatoxin is a potent developmental toxin in animals. Previous research has demonstrated that a phyllosilicate clay, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS or Novasil), tightly binds and immobilizes aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and markedly reduces the bioavailability and toxicity of aflatoxin. Our objective in this study was to utilize the pregnant rat as an in vivo model to compare the potential of HSCAS and bentonite to prevent the developmental toxicity of aflatoxin. Aluminosilicates (HSCAS) and bentonite were added to the diet at a level of 0.5% (w/w) and fed to the pregnant rat throughout pregnancy (i.e. days 0-20). Test animals were fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet (2.5 mg kg(-1) diet) with or without sorbents during gestation days 6-15. Evaluations of toxicity were performed on day 20. These included maternal (mortality, body weights, feed intake and litter weights), developmental (embryonic resorptions and fetal body weights) and biochemical (ALT, AST and AP) evaluations. Sorbents alone were not toxic and aflatoxin alone resulted in significant maternal and developmental toxicity. Animals treated with phyllosilicate (plus aflatoxin) were comparable to controls following evaluations for resorptions, live fetuses and fetal body weights, as well as biochemical parameters. While bentonite plus aflatoxin resulted in significant reduction in fetal body weight, none of the fetuses from HSCAS or bentonite plus aflatoxin-treated groups had any gross, internal soft tissue or major skeletal malformations.

  5. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: uncertainty associated with sampling, sample preparation, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Yilmaz, Aysun; Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Giesbrecht, Francis

    2006-01-01

    The variability associated with the aflatoxin test procedure used to estimate aflatoxin levels in bulk shipments of hazelnuts was investigated. Sixteen 10 kg samples of shelled hazelnuts were taken from each of 20 lots that were suspected of aflatoxin contamination. The total variance associated with testing shelled hazelnuts was estimated and partitioned into sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variance components. Each variance component increased as aflatoxin concentration (either B1 or total) increased. With the use of regression analysis, mathematical expressions were developed to model the relationship between aflatoxin concentration and the total, sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variances. The expressions for these relationships were used to estimate the variance for any sample size, subsample size, and number of analyses for a specific aflatoxin concentration. The sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variances associated with estimating aflatoxin in a hazelnut lot at a total aflatoxin level of 10 ng/g and using a 10 kg sample, a 50 g subsample, dry comminution with a Robot Coupe mill, and a high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method are 174.40, 0.74, and 0.27, respectively. The sampling, sample preparation, and analytical steps of the aflatoxin test procedure accounted for 99.4, 0.4, and 0.2% of the total variability, respectively.

  6. Production of Aflatoxin on Rice

    PubMed Central

    Shotwell, Odette L.; Hesseltine, C. W.; Stubblefield, R. D.; Sorenson, W. G.

    1966-01-01

    A method has been developed for the production of aflatoxin by growing Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 2999 on the solid substrate rice. Optimal yields, more than 1 mg of aflatoxin B1 per g of starting material, were obtained in 5 days at 28 C. A crude product containing aflatoxins was isolated by chloroform extraction and precipitation with hexane from concentrated solutions. The crude product consisted of 50% aflatoxin in the following ratio: B1-B2-G1-G2, 100:0.15:0.22:0.02. Aflatoxin B1 was separated from almost all the impurities and from the other aflatoxins by chromatography on silica gel with 1% ethyl alcohol in chloroform. Analytically pure aflatoxin B1 was recrystallized from chloroform-hexane mixtures. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5970829

  7. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  8. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. PMID:26797635

  9. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    PubMed

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-19

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  10. Aflatoxin decomposition in various soils

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J.S.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of aflatoxin in the soil environment could potentially result in a number of adverse environmental consequences. To determine the persistence of aflatoxin in soil, /sup 14/C-labeled aflatoxin B1, was added to silt loam, sandy loam, and silty clay loam soils and the subsequent release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was determined. After 120 days of incubation, 8.1% of the original aflatoxin added to the silt loam soil was released as CO/sub 2/. Aflatoxin decomposition in the sandy loam soil proceeded more quickly than the other two soils for the first 20 days of incubation. After this time, the decomposition rate declined and by the end of the study, 4.9% of the aflatoxin was released as CO/sub 2/. Aflatoxin decomposition proceeded most slowly in the silty clay loam soil. Only 1.4% of aflatoxin added to the soil was released as CO/sub 2/ after 120 days incubation. To determine whether aflatoxin was bound to the silty clay loam soil, aflatoxin B1 was added to this soil and incubated for 20 days. The soil was periodically extracted and the aflatoxin species present were determined using thin layer chromatographic (TLC) procedures. After one day of incubation, the degradation products, aflatoxins B2 and G2, were observed. It was also found that much of the aflatoxin extracted from the soil was not mobile with the TLC solvent system used. This indicated that a conjugate may have formed and thus may be responsible for the lack of aflatoxin decomposition.

  11. Fluorometric assay for aflatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1984-11-01

    The method that is now widely adopted by the government laboratories for the assay of individual aflatoxin components (B/sub 1/, B/sub 2/, G/sub 1/, and G/sub 2/) utilizes a TLC technique. The extraction and clean-up steps of this technique were further researched but the method is still time consuming. It is, therefore, very important to develop a rapid and accurate assay technique for aflatoxins. The current research proposes a technique which utilizes a Turner Fluorometer.

  12. A rapid, sensitive and economic method for the detection, quantification and confirmation of aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Majerus, P; Zakaria, Z

    1992-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and economic method for the detection, quantification and confirmation of aflatoxins is described. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, are extracted by methanol/water (85 + 15) and partitioned into methylene dichloride. The methylene dichloride solution is cleaned up on a polypropylene column, filled with 0.5 g silica gel 60. The aflatoxins are eluted with chloroform-acetone (90:10) and are detected using bidirectional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with aluminium silica gel foil. The mean recovery of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn samples was 73, 78, 80, and 64%, respectively; the limit of detection was 0.5 micrograms/kg. The results can also be confirmed by derivative formation using trifluoroacetic acid on the TLC plate. The method has been applied to a wide range of foods with good results.

  13. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: effect of sample size and accept/reject limit on reducing the risk of misclassifying lots.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Yilmaz, Aysun; Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Giesbrecht, Francis G

    2007-01-01

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts. Studies were developed to measure the uncertainty and distribution among replicated sample aflatoxin test results taken from aflatoxin-contaminated treenut lots. The uncertainty and distribution information is used to develop a model that can evaluate the performance (risk of misclassifying lots) of aflatoxin sampling plan designs for treenuts. Once the performance of aflatoxin sampling plans can be predicted, they can be designed to reduce the risks of misclassifying lots traded in either the domestic or export markets. A method was developed to evaluate the performance of sampling plans designed to detect aflatoxin in hazelnuts lots. Twenty hazelnut lots with varying levels of contamination were sampled according to an experimental protocol where 16 test samples were taken from each lot. The observed aflatoxin distribution among the 16 aflatoxin sample test results was compared to lognormal, compound gamma, and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution was selected to model aflatoxin distribution among sample test results because it gave acceptable fits to observed distributions among sample test results taken from a wide range of lot concentrations. Using the negative binomial distribution, computer models were developed to calculate operating characteristic curves for specific aflatoxin sampling plan designs. The effect of sample size and accept/reject limits on the chances of rejecting good lots (sellers' risk) and accepting bad lots (buyers' risk) was demonstrated for various sampling plan designs.

  14. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  15. Aflatoxins and food pathogens: impact of biologically active aflatoxins and their control strategies.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Sharanaiah; Manukumar, Honnayakanahalli Marichenne Gowda; Chandrasekhar, Bhadvelu; Shivakumara, Prahlad; Shiva Kumar, Jayanna; Raghava, Sri; Avinash, Prakasha; Shirin, Marahel; Bharathi, Tumkur R; Rajini, Sollepura B; Nandhini, Murali; Vinaya Rani, Govinda Gowda; Shobha, Mohankumar; Prakash, Harishchandra S

    2016-11-18

    Globally disease outbreaks as a result of the consumption of contaminated food and feedstuffs are a regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms, particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties that are referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in humans and animals. Moreover, poor conditions of storage and a deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue. For that reason, mycotoxin-related illness of nutrition represents a major health hazard for local populations. Government policies should make regulations aiming to avoid the entry of aflatoxins into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by regulatory authorities. There is the need for attention from farmers, scientists, government and collaborative minds throughout the country to ensure aflatoxin-free food. The present review is informative not only for health-conscious consumers, but also for relevant authorities with respect to paving the way for future research aiming to fill the existing gaps in our knowledge with regard to mycotoxins and food security. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. RNAi control of aflatoxins in peanut plants, a multifactorial system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut plants is a multifactorial and hyper variable system. The use of RNAi biotechnology to silence single genes in plants has inherently high-variability among transgenic events. Also the level of expression of small interfe...

  17. Aflatoxin resistance in maize: what have we learned lately?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain is a huge economic and health problem, causing death and increased disease burden in much of the developing world and income loss in the developed world. Despite the gravity of the problem, deployable solutions are still being sought. In the past 15 years, much...

  18. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  19. Heritability of, and genetoypic correlations between, aflatoxin traits and physiological traits for drought tolerance under end of season drought of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More rapid progress in breeding peanut for reduced aflatoxin contamination should be achieved with a better understanding of the inheritance of aflatoxin traits and physiological traits that are associated with reduced contamination. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of...

  20. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  1. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in filter paper and rough rice by using pulsed light irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rough rice is susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins, which are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. To develop aflatoxin degradation technology for rice with the use of pulsed light (PL) treatment, the objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflat...

  2. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

  3. Evaluation of the expression genes associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus colonization and aflatoxin production in different maize lines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic toxic compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus during infection of crops including maize (Zea mays L.). Contamination of maize with aflatoxin is exacerbated by late season drought stress. Previous studies have implicated numerous resistance-associated proteins (RAPs) that...

  4. Identification of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and yield potential in maize hybrids in the Southeast Regional Aflatoxin Trials (SERAT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins pose a serious health hazard to humans and livestock, requiring significant economic cost in identifying and disposing of contaminated grain. Since 2003, a multi-environmental trial of public breeding maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids across multiple programs in the southeastern United States h...

  5. Aflatoxins: A Global Concern for Food Safety, Human Health and Their Management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Mahato, Dipendra K.; Kamle, Madhu; Mohanta, Tapan K.; Kang, Sang G.

    2017-01-01

    The aflatoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus spp., are widely spread in nature and have severely contaminated food supplies of humans and animals, resulting in health hazards and even death. Therefore, there is great demand for aflatoxins research to develop suitable methods for their quantification, precise detection and control to ensure the safety of consumers’ health. Here, the chemistry and biosynthesis process of the mycotoxins is discussed in brief along with their occurrence, and the health hazards to humans and livestock. This review focuses on resources, production, detection and control measures of aflatoxins to ensure food and feed safety. The review is informative for health-conscious consumers and research experts in the fields. Furthermore, providing knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity will help in ensure food safety and meet the future demands of the increasing population by decreasing the incidence of outbreaks due to aflatoxins. PMID:28144235

  6. Aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in liver of mice and its mitigation by black tea extract.

    PubMed

    Jha, Anamika; Shah, Komal; Verma, Ramtej J

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin belongs to the class of naturally occurring mycotoxins, food contaminants having potent carcinogenicity. We have evaluated the ameliorative role of black tea extract on aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the liver of albino male mice. Adult male mice were orally administered with 750 and 1500 pg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil/kg b.w./day for 30 days. Oral administration of aflatoxin caused, as compared with controls, significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein and glycogen contents; however, cholesterol content and phsphorylase activity were significantly increased. Black tea is one of the most potent antioxidants containing numerous bioactive phytonurtients having therapeutic applications. Aflatoxin-induced changes in the liver of mice were significantly ameliorated on co-treatment of black tea extract (2% infusion in water).

  7. Determination of aflatoxin risk components for in-shell Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Vargas, E A; dos Santos, E A; Whitaker, T B; Slate, A B

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted on the risk from aflatoxins associated with the kernels and shells of Brazil nuts. Samples were collected from processing plants in Amazonia, Brazil. A total of 54 test samples (40 kg) were taken from 13 in-shell Brazil nut lots ready for market. Each in-shell sample was shelled and the kernels and shells were sorted in five fractions: good kernels, rotten kernels, good shells with kernel residue, good shells without kernel residue, and rotten shells, and analysed for aflatoxins. The kernel:shell ratio mass (w/w) was 50.2/49.8%. The Brazil nut shell was found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Rotten nuts were found to be a high-risk fraction for aflatoxin in in-shell Brazil nut lots. Rotten nuts contributed only 4.2% of the sample mass (kg), but contributed 76.6% of the total aflatoxin mass (µg) in the in-shell test sample. The highest correlations were found between the aflatoxin concentration in in-shell Brazil nuts samples and the aflatoxin concentration in all defective fractions (R(2)=0.97). The aflatoxin mass of all defective fractions (R(2)=0.90) as well as that of the rotten nut (R(2)=0.88) were also strongly correlated with the aflatoxin concentration of the in-shell test samples. Process factors of 0.17, 0.16 and 0.24 were respectively calculated to estimate the aflatoxin concentration in the good kernels (edible) and good nuts by measuring the aflatoxin concentration in the in-shell test sample and in all kernels, respectively.

  8. Sampling almonds for aflatoxin, part I: estimation of uncertainty associated with sampling, sample preparation, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Jacobs, Merle; Hurley, J Michael; Adams, Julie G; Giesbrecht, Francis G

    2006-01-01

    Domestic and international regulatory limits have been established for aflatoxin in almonds and other tree nuts. It is difficult to obtain an accurate and precise estimate of the true aflatoxin concentration in a bulk lot because of the uncertainty associated with the sampling, sample preparation, and analytical steps of the aflatoxin test procedure. To evaluate the performance of aflatoxin sampling plans, the uncertainty associated with sampling lots of shelled almonds for aflatoxin was investigated. Twenty lots of shelled almonds were sampled for aflatoxin contamination. The total variance associated with measuring B1 and total aflatoxins in bulk almond lots was estimated and partitioned into sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variance components. All variances were found to increase with an increase in aflatoxin concentration (both B1 and total). By using regression analysis, mathematical expressions were developed to predict the relationship between each variance component (total, sampling, sample preparation, and analysis variances) and aflatoxin concentration. Variance estimates were the same for B1 and total aflatoxins. The mathematical relationships can be used to estimate each variance for a given sample size, subsample size, and number of analyses other than that measured in the study. When a lot with total aflatoxins at 15 ng/g was tested by using a 10 kg sample, a vertical cutter mixer type of mill, a 100 g subsample, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the sampling, sample preparation, analytical, and total variances (coefficient of variation, CV) were 394.7 (CV, 132.4%), 14.7 (CV, 25.5%), 0.8 (CV, 6.1%), and 410.2 (CV, 135.0%), respectively. The percentages of the total variance associated with sampling, sample preparation, and analytical steps were 96.2, 3.6, and 0.2, respectively.

  9. Determination of aflatoxins in botanical roots by a modification of AOAC Official Method 991.31: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Carol M; Trucksess, Mary W

    2010-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 991.31 for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs; sum of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) in corn, raw peanuts, and peanut butter by using immunoaffinity column cleanup with LC has been modified and applied to the determination of AFs in botanical roots. The modifications were necessary to improve the performance of the method for matrixes beyond corn and peanuts. The extraction solvent was changed from a mixture of methanol and water to acetonitrile and water. The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of this method were determined. Replicates of 10 test portions of each powdered root (black cohosh, echinacea, ginger, ginseng, kava kava, and valerian) at each spiking level (AFs at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 ng/g) were analyzed on 3 separate days. Test portions were extracted with acetonitrile-water (84 + 16, v/v), and the extracts were centrifuged, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline, filtered, and applied to an immunoaffinity column containing antibodies specific for AFs. After the column was washed with water, the toxins were eluted from the column with methanol and quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. All test materials except kava kava were found to contain AF at < 0.1 ng/g. Kava kava was naturally contaminated with AFs at 0.5 ng/g. Average within-day and between-days recoveries of AFs from botanical roots ranged from 88 to 112 and from 86 to 118%, respectively. Total RSD values for within-day and between-days repeatability ranged from 1.4 to 15.9%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes examined. The modified AOAC Official Method 991.31 was found to be applicable to an analysis of the six botanical roots.

  10. Survey of fungal counts and natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Malaysian starch-based foods.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N; Nawawi, A; Othman, I

    1998-01-01

    In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous rice grains had total fungal counts below 10(3) cfu/g sample, while among the positive rice flour, glutinous rice flour and corn flour samples, the highest total fungal count was more than 10(3) but less than 10(4) cfu/g sample respectively. However, in wheat flour samples total fungal count ranged from 10(2) cfu/g sample to slightly more than 10(4) cfu/g sample. Aflatoxigenic colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (20%), followed by ordinary rice grains (4%), glutinous rice grains (4%) and glutinous rice flour (2%). No aflatoxigenic colonies were isolated from rice flour and corn flour samples. Screening of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 using reversed-phase HPLC were carried out on 84 samples of ordinary rice grains and 83 samples of wheat flour. Two point four percent (2.4%) of ordinary rice grains were positive for aflatoxin G1 and 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G2. All the positive samples were collected from private homes at concentrations ranging from 3.69-77.50 micrograms/kg. One point two percent (1.2%) of wheat flour samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 25.62 micrograms/kg, 4.8% were positive for aflatoxin B2 at concentrations ranging from 11.25-252.50 micrograms/kg, 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G1 at concentrations ranging from 25.00-289.38 micrograms/kg and 13.25% were positive for aflatoxin G2 at concentrations ranging from 16.25-436.25 micrograms/kg. Similarly, positive wheat flour samples were mostly collected from private homes.

  11. Assessment of hot peppers for aflatoxin and mold proliferation during storage.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Qumer; Amjad, Muhammad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ariño, Agustin

    2011-05-01

    Aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation in three hot pepper hybrids (Sky Red, Maha, and Wonder King) were studied during 5 months of storage at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C) and under different packaging conditions (low-density polyethylene bags and jute bags). The presence of aflatoxins in hot pepper samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a UV-Vis detector. Sampling for analysis of aflatoxins, total mold counts, and Aspergillus counts was carried out at 0, 50, 100, and 150 days of storage. Hot peppers packed in jute bags were more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination than those packed in polyethylene bags; aflatoxin concentrations were 75% higher in peppers stored in jute bags. The effect of storage temperature resulted in aflatoxin concentrations that were 61% higher in hot peppers stored at 25 and 30°C than in those stored at 20°C. Of the three pepper hybrids, Wonder King was more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, with a maximum of 1.50 μg/kg when packed in jute bags and stored at 25°C for 150 days. However, no sample exceeded the maximum permitted level for total aflatoxins in spices established by European Union regulations (10 μg/kg). Total mold counts and Aspergillus counts increased with storage duration, but all counts were significantly lower in peppers stored in polyethylene bags. A gradual increase in temperature during prolonged storage of hot peppers in combination with aeration may be the main reasons for increases in fungal biomass and Aspergillus proliferation with the subsequent aflatoxin production.

  12. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  13. Aflatoxins in Turkish dried figs intended for export to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Senyuva, H Z; Gilbert, J; Ulken, U

    2007-04-01

    Dried figs for export from Turkey from crop years 2003 through 2006 were tested for aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. For export to the European Union, consignments of 0.5 to 10 tonnes of dried figs were sampled according to European Commission regulations, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine concentrations of aflatoxins Bl, B2, G1, and G2. For each consignment of dried figs, a 30-kg sample (comprising 100 subsamples) was divided into three 10-kg subsamples, which were separately blended and analyzed with HPLC. This monitoring effort was conducted for figs from 2003, 2004, 2005, and up to June 2006, for a total of 10,396 30-kg samples (28,489 analyses). The incidence of contamination with aflatoxin B1 at higher than 2 ng/g was on average 0.6, 2.0, 4.0, and 2.4% for 2003, 2004, 2005, and up to June 2006, respectively, whereas contamination with total aflatoxins at higher than 4 ng/g was 2.6, 3.0, 5.1, and 2.7%. There was significant variability in contamination between replicate 1-kg samples, indicating small numbers of individual contaminated figs were probably responsible. There were also substantial differences in the relative proportions of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 among samples, suggesting different contributing fungal sources.

  14. Aflatoxin in Raw and Salt-Roasted Nuts (Pistachios, Peanuts and Walnuts) Sold in Markets of Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Ashrafnejad, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Sargheini, Nafiseh; Mahdavi, Reza; Farshchian, Mohammadreza; Mahluji, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nuts are one of the main consumed snacks worldwide and also have an important role among Iranian's food habits. Natural contamination of nuts with aflatoxin is unavoidable and causes a special challenge for nuts safety and quality. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to study the aflatoxin contamination in commercially-available nuts (pistachio, walnut and peanut) in the markets of Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: Sixty two samples of 50 g salt-roasted peanuts and pistachios and 109 samples of 50 g pure pistachios, walnuts and peanuts were collected from different areas of local markets. After the initial preparations, ELISA test was performed for Aflatoxin measurement. Results: Result showed that walnut (90%) and pure pistachio (2.3%) were the most and least contaminated samples, respectively. Mean aflatoxin contamination in the salt-roasted samples (19.88 ± 19.41 µg/kg) was significantly higher than the pure ones (6.51 ± 9.4 µg/kg) (P < 0.001). Respectively, 58.6%, 48.4% and 47.6% of salt-roasted pistachios, salt-roasted peanuts and walnut samples had aflatoxin contamination, which were more than the maximum tolerated level of Iran (MTL, 15 ppb). Conclusions: It was concluded that aflatoxin content of nuts should be monitored regularly to minimize the risk of aflatoxin hazard and ensure the food safety and quality. PMID:25147653

  15. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-09

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination.

  16. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin. 983.4 Section 983.4 Agriculture Regulations... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.4 Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is one of a group of mycotoxins produced by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring...

  17. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin. 983.4 Section 983.4 Agriculture Regulations... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.4 Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is one of a group of mycotoxins produced by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring...

  18. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin. 983.4 Section 983.4 Agriculture Regulations... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.4 Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is one of a group of mycotoxins produced by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring...

  19. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  20. [Determination of aflatoxins in cheeses].

    PubMed

    Bartos, J; Matyás, Z

    1979-03-01

    To investigate cheeses for the presence of aflatoxins we chose the very sensitive method of Tuinstra and Bronsgeest (1975) used for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk. The method was slightly modified and the presence of aflatoxins was determined in 54 samples of different cheeses. Aflatoxin M1 was found out in 24% of the investigated samples. Most of positive samples were found among the soft cheeses (53.8 3/4), then in processed cheeses (13.6%) and in hard cheeses (12.5%). Aflatoxin M1 was not found in the group of mouldy cheeses and Olomouc cake cheeses, which were investigated in a smaller range. Positive findings did not exceed concentrations of 10 ng per kg, i.e. they did not even reach the value of permissible concentration as proposed in the Czech Socialist Republic for foods (5 microgram per kg).

  1. A probabilistic modeling approach to assess human inhalation exposure risks to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    To assess how the human lung exposure to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) during on-farm activities including swine feeding, storage bin cleaning, corn harvest, and grain elevator loading/unloading, we present a probabilistic risk model, appraised with empirical data. The model integrates probabilistic exposure profiles from a compartmental lung model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing AFB 1 cytotoxicity for inhibition response in human bronchial epithelial cells, to quantitatively estimate the inhalation exposure risks. The risk assessment results implicate that exposure to airborne AFB 1 may pose no significance to corn harvest and grain elevator loading/unloading activities, yet a relatively high risk for swine feeding and storage bin cleaning. Applying a joint probability function method based on exceedence profiles, we estimate that a potential high risk for the bronchial region (inhibition=56.69% with 95% confidence interval (CI): 35.05-72.87%) and bronchiolar region (inhibition=44.93% with 95% CI: 21.61 - 66.78%) is alarming during swine feeding activity. We parameterized the proposed predictive model that should encourage a risk-management framework for discussion of carcinogenic risk in occupational settings where inhalation of AFB 1-contaminated dust occurs.

  2. Development and optimization of a multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of three mycotoxins in corn, rice and peanut.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqiang; Chen, Qian; Han, Miaomiao; Zhou, Jinyu; Gong, Lu; Niu, Yiming; Zhang, Yuan; He, Lidong; Zhang, Liying

    2016-12-15

    A multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is developed for the simultaneous on-site determination of three mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A) in corn, rice and peanut. By systematically optimizing the preparation of antibody-gold nanoparticle conjugates, the size of gold nanoparticle and the position of capture antigen, the developed LFA can obtain a visual detection limit of 10μg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 50μg/kg for zearalenone and 15μg/kg for ochratoxin A. For quantitative analysis, the limits of detection were 0.10-0.13μg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 0.42-0.46μg/kg for zearalenone, and 0.19-0.24μg/kg for ochratoxin A, which were far below the regulatory limits set by the European Commission. At the spiked concentrations of 0.5-10.0μg/kg, the mean recoveries of the three mycotoxins ranged from 86.2 to 114.5% with coefficients of variation less than 16.7%. These results demonstrated that the developed immunoassay can be used for routine monitoring of mycotoxin contamination.

  3. Monitoring of aflatoxin G1, B1, G2, and B2 occurrence in some samples of walnut.

    PubMed

    Habibipour, Reza; Tamandegani, Parisa Rahimi; Farmany, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    This research was conducted to monitor the aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of walnut in the Hamedan province. For this purpose, 40 samples were analyzed. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, yeast, and some different bacteria were isolated from walnuts. Aspergillus is the most frequent genus. Aspergillus flavus was predominantly isolated. HPLC was used for evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of walnut samples. Aflatoxins G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates. AFG1 and AFB1 were being predominant at concentration ranges of 1.7-18.2 and 0-8.2 ngg(-1), respectively. Highest levels were found in one sample that was highly contaminated with Aspergillus flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus. Methyl beta cyclodextrin also was performed for detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus isolates. The results showed that only 31.6% (p < 0.05) of A. flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxin. A significant difference was shown between shielded and unshielded walnut in aflatoxin contamination. The content of aflatoxin in most of the walnut samples did not reach to maximum tolerable limit for aflatoxin B1 in EU standard (p > 0.05). Thus, systematic and continues monitoring of walnuts is recommended.

  4. Heavy metal contamination of arable soil and corn plant in the vicinity of a zinc smelting factory and stabilization by liming.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Oh; Gutierrez, Jessie; Yun, Sung Wook; Lee, Yong Bok; Yu, Chan; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-02-01

    The heavy metal contamination in soils and cultivated corn plants affected by zinc smelting activities in the vicinity of a zinc smelting factory in Korea was studied. Soils and corn plants were sampled at the harvesting stage and analyzed for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentration, as well as Cd and Zn fraction and other chemical properties of soils. Cd and Zn were highly accumulated in the surface soils (0-20 cm), at levels higher than the Korean warning criteria (Cd, 1.5; Zn, 300 mg kg(-1)), with corresponding mean values of 1.7 and 407 mg kg(-1), respectively, but these metals decreased significantly with increasing soil depth and distance from the factory, implying that contaminants may come from the factory through aerosol dynamics (Hong et al., Kor J Environ Agr 26(3):204-209, 2007a; Environ Contam Toxicol 52:496-502, 2007b) and not from geological sources. The leaf part had higher Cd and Zn concentrations, with values of 9.5 and 1733 mg kg(-1), compared to the stem (1.6 and 547 mg kg(-1)) and grain (0.18 and 61 mg kg(-1)) parts, respectively. Cd and Zn were higher in the oxidizable fraction, at 38.5% and 46.9% of the total Cd (2.6 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (407 mg kg(-1)), but the exchangeable + acidic fraction of Cd and Zn as the bioavailable phases was low, 0.2 and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. To study the reduction of plant Cd and Zn uptake by liming, radish (Raphanus sativa L.) was cultivated in one representative field among the sites investigated, and Ca(OH)(2) was applied at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mg ha(-1). Plant Cd and Zn concentrations and NH(4)OAc extractable Cd and Zn concentrations of soil decreased significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) rate, since it markedly increases the cation exchange capacity of soil induced by increased pH. As a result, liming in this kind of soil could be an effective countermeasure in reducing the phytoextractability of Cd and Zn.

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxins M(1) and M(2) in milk commercialized in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garrido, N S; Iha, M H; Santos Ortolani, M R; Duarte Fávaro, R M

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat foodstuffs containing aflatoxins B(1) and B(2), these toxins are metabolized and excreted as aflatoxin M(1) and M(2) in milk. The aim was to determine the incidence of these aflatoxins in commercial milk collected from supermarkets in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, and consisting of 60 ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk samples and 79 pasteurized milk samples. The milk samples were analysed according to method 986.16 of AOAC International. None of the milk samples analysed were contaminated with aflatoxin M(2), and aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 29 (20.9%) of samples in the range 50-240 ng l(-1). The results show that despite a high occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in commercial pasteurized and UHT milk sold in Ribeirão Preto in 1999 and 2000, the contamination level of these toxins could not be considered a serious public health problem according to MERCOSUR Technical Regulations. However, levels in 20.9% of the milk samples exceeded the concentration of 50 ng l(-1) permitted by the European Union. Although it is not necessary to continue monitoring the incidence and levels of aflatoxins M(1) and M(2) in milk samples, surveillance could be appropriate.

  6. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  7. Present and future directions of translational research on aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma. A review.

    PubMed

    Wogan, Gerald N; Kensler, Thomas W; Groopman, John D

    2012-01-01

    The aflatoxins were discovered in toxic peanut meal causing "turkey X" disease, which killed large numbers of turkey poults, ducklings and chicks in the UK in the early 1960s. Extracts of toxic feed induced the symptoms in experimental animals, and purified metabolites with properties identical to aflatoxins B(1) and G(1) (AFB(1) and AFG(1)) were isolated from Aspergillus flavus cultures. Structure elucidation of aflatoxin B(1) was accomplished and confirmed by total synthesis in 1963. AFB(1) is a potent liver carcinogen in rodents, non-human primates, fish and birds, operating through a genotoxic mechanism involving metabolic activation to an epoxide, formation of DNA adducts and, in humans, modification of the p53 gene. Aflatoxins are unique among environmental carcinogens, in that elucidation of their mechanisms of action combined with molecular epidemiology provides a foundation for quantitative risk assessment; extensive evidence confirms that contamination of the food supply by AFB(1) puts an exposed population at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Molecular biomarkers to quantify aflatoxin exposure in individuals were essential to link aflatoxin exposure with liver cancer risk. Biomarkers were validated in populations with high HCC incidence in China and The Gambia, West Africa; urinary AFB(1)-N (7)-Guanine excretion was linearly related to aflatoxin intake, and levels of aflatoxin-serum albumin adducts also reflected aflatoxin intake. Two major cohort studies employing aflatoxin biomarkers identified their causative role in HCC etiology. Results of a study in Shanghai men strongly support a causal relationship between HCC risk and the presence of biomarkers for aflatoxin and HBV infection, and also show that the two risk factors act synergistically. Subsequent cohort studies in Taiwan confirm these results. IARC classified aflatoxin as a Group 1 human carcinogen in 1993, based on sufficient evidence in humans and experimental

  8. Stability of aflatoxins in solution.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A

    2012-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  9. Aflatoxin binders II: reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Duarte E; Hagler, Winston M; Blackwelder, John T; Eve, Julie A; Hopkins, Brinton A; Anderson, Kevin L; Jones, Frank T; Whitlow, Lon W

    2004-02-01

    Sequestering agents bind dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and reduce absorption from an animal's gastrointestinal tract. As a result, they protect an animal from the toxic effects of AFB1 and reduce transfer of the metabolite, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), into milk. Three experiments, using late-lactation Holstein cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed, were conducted to evaluate several potential sequestering agents for their abilities to prevent or reduce the transmission of AFM1 into milk. Six agents previously tested in our laboratory for AFB1 binding in vitro were evaluated in these experiments. These were: SA-20, an activated carbon (AC-A); Astra-Ben-20, a sodium bentonite (AB-20); MTB-100, an esterified glucomannan (MTB-100); Red Crown, a calcium bentonite (RC); Flow Guard, a sodium bentonite (FG); and Mycrosorb, a sodium bentonite (MS). Five of the six sequestering agents significantly (P < 0.01) reduced AFM1 contamination of milk (AB-20, 61%; FG, 65%; MS, 50%; MTB-100, 59%; and RC, 31%); whereas, AC-A, activated carbon, had no effect on AFM1 transmission at 0.25% of feed. By the first milking (1 day after cows consumed contaminated feed), AFM1 appeared in milk, then reached maximum levels after three days, and was absent from milk within four days after AFB1 was removed from the feed. Sodium bentonites at 1.2% of feed showed good potential as AFB1 binders; MTB-100, a yeast cell wall product, was equally effective at 0.05% in feed. Potential AFB1 binding agents should be evaluated experimentally to demonstrate efficacy. Our data show that sequestering agents can reduce AFM1 in milk of cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed.

  10. Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo, Robert M; Imungi, Jasper K; Muiru, William M; Lamuka, Peter O; Njage, Patrick M Kamau

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in Kibwezi District of Makueni County in Eastern Kenya and analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The samples were quantitatively analysed for aflatoxin contamination using HPLC. The uncertainty and variability in dietary exposure was quantitatively modelled in Ms Excel using Monte Carlo simulation in @Risk software. Aflatoxins were found in 45% of maize kernels at between 18 and 480 μg kg⁻¹, 20% of muthokoi at between 12 and 123 μg kg⁻¹, and 35% of maize meal at between 6 and 30 μg kg⁻¹. The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹ respectively. The results showed that the amount and frequency of consumption of the three foods is the more important contributing factor than the mean aflatoxin concentration levels, to the risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins.

  11. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Arias, Renée S; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S

    2015-12-21

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events, as these usually produce few seeds, and traditional methods of large field experiments under aflatoxin-conducive conditions were not an option. In the field, the probability of finding naturally contaminated seeds is often 1/100 to 1/1,000. In addition, aflatoxin contamination is not uniformly distributed. Our method uses few seeds per transgenic event, with small pieces processed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or small RNA sequencing, and for analysis of aflatoxin accumulation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). RNAi-expressing peanut lines 288-72 and 288-74, showed up to 100% reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in aflatoxin B1 and B2 compared to the control that accumulated up to 14,000 ng · g(-1) of aflatoxin B1 when inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. As reference, the maximum total of aflatoxins allowable for human consumption in the United States is 20 ng · g(-1). This protocol describes the application of RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in transgenic peanut seeds and methods for its evaluation. We believe that its application in breeding of peanut and other crops will bring rapid advancement in this important area of science, medicine and human nutrition, and will significantly contribute to the international effort to control aflatoxins, and potentially other

  12. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Renée S.; Dang, Phat M.; Sobolev, Victor S.

    2015-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events, as these usually produce few seeds, and traditional methods of large field experiments under aflatoxin-conducive conditions were not an option. In the field, the probability of finding naturally contaminated seeds is often 1/100 to 1/1,000. In addition, aflatoxin contamination is not uniformly distributed. Our method uses few seeds per transgenic event, with small pieces processed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or small RNA sequencing, and for analysis of aflatoxin accumulation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). RNAi-expressing peanut lines 288-72 and 288-74, showed up to 100% reduction (p≤0.01) in aflatoxin B1 and B2 compared to the control that accumulated up to 14,000 ng.g-1 of aflatoxin B1 when inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. As reference, the maximum total of aflatoxins allowable for human consumption in the United States is 20 ng.g-1. This protocol describes the application of RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in transgenic peanut seeds and methods for its evaluation. We believe that its application in breeding of peanut and other crops will bring rapid advancement in this important area of science, medicine and human nutrition, and will significantly contribute to the international effort to control aflatoxins, and potentially other mycotoxins in major

  13. Autoxidated linolenic acid inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via oxylipin species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shijuan; Liang, Yating; Zhang, Jindan; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species are among the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds in nature. Although it has been known for a long time that seeds with high oil content are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis remains controversial. Here we demonstrate in A. flavus that both the saturated stearic acid (C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (C18:3) promoted aflatoxin production, while C18:3, but not C18:0, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis after exposure to air for several hours. Further experiments showed that autoxidated C18:3 promoted mycelial growth, sporulation, and kojic acid production, but inhibited the expression of genes in the AF biosynthetic gene cluster. Mass spectrometry analyses of autoxidated C18:3 fractions that were able to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis led to the identification of multiple oxylipin species. These results may help to clarify the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and may explain why controversial results have been obtained for fatty acids in the past.

  14. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  15. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    PubMed

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins.

  16. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  17. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  18. Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.

  19. Boric acid: a potential chemoprotective agent against aflatoxin b1 toxicity in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent pulmonary and hepatic carcinogen. Since the eradication of Aflatoxin B1 contamination in agricultural products has been difficult, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boric acid is the major component of industry and its antioxidant role has recently been reported. The present study assessed, for the first time, the effectiveness of boric acid following exposure to Aflatoxin B1 on human whole blood cultures. The biochemical characterizations of glutathione and some enzymes have been carried out in erythrocytes. Alterations in malondialdehyde level were determined as an index of oxidative stress. The sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests were performed to assess DNA damages in lymphocytes. Aflatoxin B1 treatment significantly reduced the activities of antioxidants by increasing malondialdehyde level (30.53 and 51.43%) of blood, whereas, the boric acid led to an increased resistance of DNA to oxidative damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in comparison with control values (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the support of boric acid was especially useful in Aflatoxin-toxicated blood. Thus the risk on tissue targeting of Aflatoxin B1 could be reduced ensuring early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:20431944

  20. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Mohanamba, T.; Kumari, L. Rathna

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06). Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48) and feed ingredients (49) samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits. PMID:27047050

  1. Development of Methods for Determination of Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijuan; Chen, Min; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-09

    Aflatoxins can cause damage to the health of humans and animals. Several institutions around the world have established regulations to limit the levels of aflatoxins in food, and numerous analytical methods have been extensively developed for aflatoxin determination. This review covers the currently used analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in different food matrices, which includes sampling and sample preparation, sample pretreatment methods including extraction methods and purification methods of aflatoxin extracts, separation and determination methods. Validation for analysis of aflatoxins and safety considerations and precautions when doing the experiments are also discussed.

  2. Effectiveness of pulsed light treatment for degradation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in rough rice and rice bran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins primarily accumulate in the hull and bran layers of rough rice making these by-products of rice milling unsuitable for animal feed or human consumption. Contaminated rough rice is also a potential source of aflatoxin exposure to workers handling the grain during post-harvest storage and p...

  3. RNAi silencing of the 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor protein in maize and its effect on host resistance against Aspergillus flavus infection/aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the major crops susceptible to Aspergillus flavus Link ex. Fries infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Previous studies found the expression of an antifungal 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) was associated with maize aflatoxin resistance. To further investigate...

  4. RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in peanut: Method to analyze mycotoxin production and transgene expression in the peanut/Aspergillus pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accu...

  5. New Perspectives for the Application of Bioplastic Materials in the Biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus in Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolities produced by certain filamentous fungi that can contaminate a large variety of agricultural commodities before and after harvest. Among different mycotoxins, aflatoxins and especially aflatoxin B1 are of particular concern because they are potent natural carcino...

  6. [Aflatoxins in food: tests of decontamination of peanut cakes by ionizing treatment].

    PubMed

    Diop, Y M; Ndiaye, B; Diouf, A; Fall, M; Thiam, A; Ciss, M; Hasselmann, C; Ba, D

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of ionising treatment for decontaminating peanut cakes was tested. The influence of cakes water content and the effect of ionisation dose rate were studied. The results obtained after a reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of B1, B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxins have revealed an important contamination of the peanut cakes (up to 1000 ppb of total aflatoxin's contents). After ionising treatment at 25 kGy, the aflatoxins degradation in peanut cake's was less important in dried samples (about 5-10% at 0.55 water activity: aw) than in the humid ones (40-60% degradation at 0.95 water activity). At this dose, any indicative difference of the degradation rate of aflatoxins, with regard to the ionising process was observed. The efficacy of ionising treatment for decontaminating peanut cakes could probably be improved, however the economic interest of such process as alternative of the treatment with ammonia is questionable.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw bulk milk from French dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Boudra, H; Barnouin, J; Dragacci, S; Morgavi, D P

    2007-07-01

    Mycotoxins in milk are a public health concern and have to be regularly monitored. A survey on the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in raw bulk milk was conducted in 2003 in the northwest of France, the main French milk-producing basin. Randomly selected farms (n = 132) were characterized by a diet based on corn silage and containing a large proportion of on-farm produced cereals, feeding sources that are frequently contaminated by mycotoxins. Farms were surveyed twice in winter and in summer. At each sampling time, a trained surveyor completed a questionnaire recording farm management procedures and production traits. The AFM1 was found in 3 out of 264 samples but at levels (26 ng/L or less) that are below the European legislation limit of 50 ng/L. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 6 other samples. The OTA was detected in 3 samples also at low levels, 5 to 8 ng/L. Farms that tested positive to the presence of mycotoxins, 12 in total including 6 farms that had traces of AFM1, differed from negative farms by a more extensive use of total mixed rations, 58 vs. 27%. In addition, the positive farms tended to have lower milk yields. Although the incidence of milk contamination with AFM1 and OTA at the farm level was low during the period studied, production and management data from the surveyed farms suggest a link between feeding management practices and mycotoxin contamination.

  8. [Adsorption of aflatoxin on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Jia; Kang, Fu-Xing; Gao, Yan-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of a typical biogenic toxin aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids (M(r) < 3 500) was investigated. The montmorillonite rapidly adsorbed the aflatoxin B1 until amounting to the maximal capacity, and then the adsorbed aflatoxin B1 slowly released into solution and reached the sorption equilibrium state after 12 h. The sorption isotherm of aflatoxin B1 by montmorillonite could be well described by Langmiur model, while the sorption isotherm by humic acid-modified montmorillonite was well fitted by using the Freundlich model. The modification of the montmorillonite with humic acids obviously enhanced its adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1, and the amounts of aflatoxin adsorbed by modified montmorillonite were obviously higher than those by montmorillonite. The sorption enhancement by humic acid modification was attributed to (1) the enlarged adsorption sites which owed to the surface collapse of crystal layers induced by organic acids, and (2) the binding of aflatoxin with the humic acid sorbed on mineral surface. In addition, the adsorption amounts of aflatoxin by montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite increased with the increase of pH values in solution, and more significant enhancement was observed for the latter than the former, which attributed to the release of humic acids from the modified montmorillonite with the high pH values in solution. This indicates that increasing the pH values resulted in the enhanced hydrophilic property and the release of the organic acids presented in modified montmorillonite, and more sorption sites were available for aflatoxin on the modified montmorillonite. Results of this work would strengthen our understanding of the behavior and fate of biological contaminants in the environment.

  9. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method Specific for the Detection of G-Group Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-12-28

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G₁ and G₂. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G₁ and G₂, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B₁, B₂, or M₁. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ were 17.18 ng·mL(-1) and 19.75 ng·mL(-1), respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL(-1). To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B₁-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi.

  10. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Q. H.; Yang, Z. B.; Yang, W. R.; Li, Z.; Zhang, G. G.; Jiang, S. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  11. Cytotoxicity of aflatoxin on red blood corpuscles

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.J.; Raval, P.J. )

    1991-09-01

    The exact mechanism of aflatoxin action is not clearly understood. In the present investigation the authors report morphological aberrations and increased rate of hemolysis caused by aflatoxins in vitro.

  12. [Application and improvement of aflatoxin analysis in foods using a multifunctional column and HPLC].

    PubMed

    Goda, Y; Akiyama, H; Otsuki, T; Fujii, A; Toyoda, M

    2001-02-01

    In an earlier report, we developed a rapid, sensitive and clean method consisting of non-chloroform extraction, clean-up on a commercial multifunctional cartridge column and HPLC with fluorescence detection for the analyses of aflatoxins. In this report, we applied this method to analyze aflatoxins in nuts, giant corn, cereals, spice and black teas. The method was effective for macadamia nuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, brazil nuts, giant corn, rice, wheat and buckwheat, and the recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 spiked in them at the level of 10 ng/g were 85-106%. However, in the chromatograms of spices and black tea, many background peaks were observed. Therefore, we added a purification step with an affinity column to the clean-up of these samples with the multifunctional cartridge column. After the additional purification, most of the background peaks were gone. The recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2 and G1 spiked at the level of 10 ng/g were 71-112% except for the case of B2 in white pepper (48%). The recoveries of G2 were 49-95%.

  13. Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2.

    PubMed

    Bianco, G; Russo, R; Marzocco, S; Velotto, S; Autore, G; Severino, L

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are natural contaminants frequently found both in food and feed. Many of them exert immunomodulatory properties in mammals; therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate immune-effects of AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2, alone and differently combined, in J774A.1 murine macrophages. MTT assay showed that AFB1, alone and combined with AFB2, possess antiproliferative activity only at the highest concentration; such effect was not shown by their hydroxylated metabolites, AFM1 and AFM2, respectively. However, the immunotoxic effects of the aflatoxins evaluated in the current study may be due to the inhibition of production of active oxygen metabolites such as NO. Cytofluorimetric assay in macrophages exposed to aflatoxins (10-100 μM) revealed that their cytoxicity is not related to apoptotic pathways. Nevertheless, a significant increase of the S phase cell population accompanied by a decrease in G0/G1 phase cell population was observed after AFB1 treatment. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that aflatoxins could compromise the macrophages functions; in particular, co-exposure to AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2 may exert interactions which can significantly affect immunoreactivity.

  14. Immunochemical assessment of mycotoxins in 1989 grain foods: evidence for deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Abouzied, M M; Azcona, J I; Braselton, W E; Pestka, J J

    1991-01-01

    To assess the potential for mycotoxin contamination of the human food supply following the 1988 U.S. drought, 92 grain food samples were purchased from retail outlets in the summer of 1989 and surveyed for aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol (DON [vomitoxin]) by monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only one sample (buckwheat flour) was found to contain aflatoxin B1 (12 ng/g), whereas zearalenone was found in 26% of the samples at a mean concentration of 19 ng/g. In contrast, the DON ELISA was positive in 50% of the samples at a detection level of 1.0 micrograms/g. Between 63 and 88% of corn cereals, wheat flour/muffin mixes, rice cereals, and corn meal/muffin mixes yielded positive results for DON, whereas 25 to 50% of oat cereals, wheat- and oat-based cookies/crackers, corn chips, popcorn, and mixed-grain cereals were positive for DON. The mean DON content of the positive samples was 4.0 micrograms/g, and the minimum and maximum levels were 1.2 and 19 micrograms/g, respectively. When positive ELISA samples were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, a strong correlation between the two methods was found. The presence of DON in the two highest samples, corn meal and mixed-grain cereal, which contained 19 and 16 micrograms/g, respectively, was quantitatively confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that DON was present in 1989 retail food products at concentrations that exceeded those found in previous market surveys and that have been experimentally associated with impaired animal health. Images PMID:1828138

  15. Efficacy of dietary spray dried plasma protein to mitigate the negative effects on performance of pigs fed diets with corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J D; Polo, J; Kim, S W

    2014-09-01

    The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during

  16. Analysis of aflatoxins in traditional Chinese medicines: Classification of analytical method on the basis of matrix variations

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Zhang, Dan; Tan, Li-Hong; Yu, Bao; Cao, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    A classification system for analytical methods was developed for the first time to determine the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based on different matrix types using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A useful characteristic of the approach was that the TCMs could be systematically divided into four categories (i.e., volatile oils, proteins, polysaccharides and fatty oils) depending on the matrix types. The approach concluded that different types of TCMs required different optimal sample preparation procedures. Based on the optimized analytical conditions, the limits of detection and quantification, average recoveries and linearity of four aflatoxins were determined and conformed to research limits. Of 22 TCMs samples, 14 samples were contaminated with at least one type aflatoxin at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 7.5 μg/kg, and the average contents of aflatoxins were significantly different for the different matrix types. Moreover, we found a potential link between the contamination levels of aflatoxins and matrix types. TCMs containing fatty oils were the most susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins and followed by TCMs containing polysaccharides and proteins; TCMs containing abundant amounts of volatile oils were less prone to contamination. PMID:27488017

  17. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  18. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  19. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  20. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  1. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  2. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  3. Aspergillus flavus: The Major Producer of Aflatoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin i...

  4. Immuno Affinity SELEX for Simple, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Aptamer Enrichment and Identification against Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Setlem, Keerthana; Mondal, Bhairab; Ramlal, Shylaja; Kingston, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that contaminate food and agro commodities, leading to acute and chronic health conditions in human and animals. In the present work, an attempt was made to generate high-affinity single stranded DNA aptamers that specifically bind to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by a modified Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure with the aid of Immunoaffinity columns. Ten rounds of SELEX and alternating three counter SELEX rounds with a cocktail of related and other mycotoxins were performed to enhance the specificity. Resultant 105 aptamers were clustered into 12 groups according to their primary sequence homology. Candidates with lowest Gibbs free energy (dG value) and unique stem loop structures were selected for further characterization. Aptamers, AFLA5, AFLA53, and AFLA71 exhibiting lower Kd values (50.45 ± 11.06, 48.29 ± 9.45, and 85.02 ± 25.74 nM) were chosen for development of ELONA and determination of purification ability of toxin. The detection limit (LOD) of AFLA5 and AFLA71 was 20 and 40 ng/ml, respectively. HPLC analysis implied that selected aptamers were able to recover and quantify 82.2 to 96.21% (LOQ – 53.74 ng) and 78.3 to 94.22% (LOQ – 66.75 ng) of AFB1 from spiked corn samples, respectively. These findings indicate, immunoaffinity based SELEX can pave an alternative approach to screen aptamers against mycotoxin detection and purification. PMID:27990137

  5. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A.; Pereyra, Carina M.; Cavaglieri, Lilia R.; Ruiz, Francisco; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana M.; Barberis, Isabel L.

    2011-01-01

    Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain) as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1) to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2) to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3) to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9 × 105 to 4.4 × 109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1) for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:21547231

  6. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    PubMed Central

    siahi Shadbad, mohammad reza; Ansarin, masoud; Tahavori, Ali; Ghaderi, Faranak; Nemati, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Method: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Result: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews) contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples. PMID:24312781

  7. The role of essential oils and the biological detoxification in the prevention of aflatoxin borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Kitic, Dusanka; Pavlovic, Dusica; Brankovic, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are an important group of microorganisms. They are studied due to their significant impact on the environment, industry and human health. In relation to biological aspects, biogeochemical cycling of elements, the world of nature would not be possible without the contribution of fungi as the primary decomposers of organic material. On the other hand, food decay by the fungi spoilage causes considerable economic losses and constitutes a health risk for consumers due to the potential of fungi to produce mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are chemically diverse secondary metabolites that can be harmful both to animal and human health. Aflatoxins, a widely studied group of toxins among mycotoxins, are mainly biosynthesized by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Therefore, the control of fungi and the production of aflatoxins, especially the most toxic aflatoxins B1 and G1, is essential and decisive. Over the last few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that plants, especially their essential oils, contain diverse bioactive components that can protect crops from becoming contaminated by different mold species, Aspergillus in particular, with an emphasis on A. flavus and A. parasiticus; as well as that, they can prevent the contamination of food produce during the processing and storage and prevent the production of aflatoxins. Plant essential oils are expected to be more advantageous than synthetic compounds because of their relatively safe status, easy decomposition, environmentally friendly and non-phytotoxic properties. This paper also presents the recent research in biological control of aflatoxin contamination.

  8. Microbe-Mediated Control of Mycotoxigenic Grain Fungi in Stored Rice with Focus on Aflatoxin Biodegradation and Biosynthesis Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mannaa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Rice contaminated with fungal species during storage is not only of poor quality and low economic value, but may also have harmful effects on human and animal health. The predominant fungal species isolated from rice grains during storage belong to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Some of these fungal species produce mycotoxins; they are responsible for adverse health effects in humans and animals, particularly Aspergillus flavus, which produces the extremely carcinogenic aflatoxins. Not surprisingly, there have been numerous attempts to devise safety procedure for the control of such harmful fungi and production of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins. This review provides information about fungal and mycotoxin contamination of stored rice grains, and microbe-based (biological) strategies to control grain fungi and mycotoxins. The latter will include information regarding attempts undertaken for mycotoxin (especially aflatoxin) bio-detoxification and microbial interference with the aflatoxin-biosynthetic pathway in the toxin-producing fungi. PMID:27433116

  9. Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, S S; El-Shayeb, N M

    1980-01-01

    The effects of black pepper, cinnamon, peppermint, cumin, ginger and clove on growth and aflatoxin formation of Aspergillus flavus were studied in rice powdercorn steep (RC) medium. The effects of the first five spices were judged to be inhibition of aflatoxin formation rather than of mycelial growth. Clove completely inhibited both mycelial growth and aflatoxin formation at a concentration above 0.1%. No aflatoxin was produced when cumin and mint levels of 5% and 10% were used. Black pepper and ginger levels of 10% decreased aflatoxin formation by 100%. Higher concentrations of cinnamon, mint, cumin and ginger stimulated mycelial growth.

  10. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  11. Key roles of vitamins A, C, and E in aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Lokman; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins (Aspergillus flavus toxins) are one of the natural toxic molecules which are produced by a group of fungi called Aspergillus. Foods and drinks contaminated with aflatoxins cause global health and environmental problems. Today in many developing countries, these toxins are leading cause of some liver cancers and serious gastrointestinal problems. Aflatoxins, which are well known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and immunosuppressive, exert inhibitory effects on biological processes including DNA synthesis, DNA-dependent RNA synthesis, DNA repair, and protein synthesis. Aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)) is the most widespread oxidative agent of the aflatoxins. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts have been reported to reduce the aflatoxins induced oxidative stress in the body. Most of these inhibitors including phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and vitamins are originally derived from plants. Among these, being essential biomolecules, vitamins are used as coenzymes in very significant biological reactions. They also function as nonenzymatic antioxidative agents protecting the cells from oxidative stress-induced toxicity and transformation. This chapter reviews the mechanism of AFB(1)-induced oxidative stress and focuses on the protective effects of vitamins A, C, and E on reducing this stress.

  12. Aflatoxin-free transgenic maize using host-induced gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Thakare, Dhiraj; Zhang, Jianwei; Wing, Rod A.; Cotty, Peter J.; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species, are a universal agricultural economic problem and a critical health issue. Despite decades of control efforts, aflatoxin contamination is responsible for a global loss of millions of tons of crops each year. We show that host-induced gene silencing is an effective method for eliminating this toxin in transgenic maize. We transformed maize plants with a kernel-specific RNA interference (RNAi) gene cassette targeting the aflC gene, which encodes an enzyme in the Aspergillus aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. After pathogen infection, aflatoxin could not be detected in kernels from these RNAi transgenic maize plants, while toxin loads reached thousands of parts per billion in nontransgenic control kernels. A comparison of transcripts in developing aflatoxin-free transgenic kernels with those from nontransgenic kernels showed no significant differences between these two groups. These results demonstrate that small interfering RNA molecules can be used to silence aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize, providing an attractive and precise engineering strategy that could also be extended to other crops to improve food security. PMID:28345051

  13. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods—traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting—were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts. PMID:28230792

  14. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying. The inhibitory activity of LAB metabolites against aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was evaluated using HPLC method. B. bifidum and L. fermentum significantly reduced aflatoxin production and growth rate of A. parasiticus in comparison with the controls (p≤0.05). LAB reduced total aflatoxins and B1, B2, G1 and G2 fractions by more than 99%. Moreover, LAB metabolites reduced the level of standard AFB1, B2, G1 and G2 from 88.8% to 99.8% (p≤0.05). Based on these findings, B. bifidum and L. fermentum are recommended as suitable biocontrol agents against the growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. PMID:28077976

  15. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  16. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-02-21

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods-traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting-were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts.

  17. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Egner, P A; Wang, J B; Zhu, Y R; Zhang, B C; Wu, Y; Zhang, Q N; Qian, G S; Kuang, S Y; Gange, S J; Jacobson, L P; Helzlsouer, K J; Bailey, G S; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W

    2001-12-04

    Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial, we tested whether chlorophyllin could alter the disposition of aflatoxin. One hundred and eighty healthy adults from Qidong were randomly assigned to ingest 100 mg of chlorophyllin or a placebo three times a day for 4 months. The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Adherence to the study protocol was outstanding, and no adverse events were reported. Aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine could be detected in 105 of 169 available samples. Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction (P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. Thus, prophylactic interventions with chlorophyllin or supplementation of diets with foods rich in chlorophylls may represent practical means to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or other environmentally induced cancers.

  18. Of sick turkeys, kwashiorkor, malaria, perinatal mortality, heroin addicts and food poisoning: research on the influence of aflatoxins on child health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Hendrickse, R G

    1997-10-01

    Similarities between the geographical and climatic prevalences of kwashiorkor and of exposure to dietary aflatoxins, and between the biochemical, metabolic and immunological derangements in kwashiorkor and those in animals exposed to aflatoxins, prompted investigation of the associations between kwashiorkor and aflatoxins. Studies in Africa in the 1980s indicated a role for these toxins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Paediatric cases of kwashiorkor are less prone to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria than normal children. In mice infected with P. berghei, aflatoxin exposure inhibits parasite growth and ameliorates morbidity. Aflatoxins occur in < or = 40% of samples of breast milk from tropical Africa, usually as low concentrations of the relatively non-toxic derivatives of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) but sometimes as high concentrations of the very toxic AFB1. This could explain kwashiorkor in breast-fed babies. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in > or = 30% of pregnancies in tropical Africa and the toxins are often in cord blood, sometimes at extremely high concentrations. Aflatoxins are now incriminated in neonatal jaundice and there is circumstantial evidence that they cause perinatal death and reduced birthweight. Aflatoxin-induced immunosuppresion may explain the aggressive behaviour of HIV infection in Africa. There are similarities between observations on HIV cases in Africa and those on heroin addicts in Europe, where 'street' heroin is frequently contaminated with aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found in 20% of random urine samples from heroin addicts in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Aflatoxins have also been incriminated in episodes of food poisoning which have been associated with serious morbidity and mortality, particularly among young children.

  19. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on preharvest invasion of peanuts by the Aspergillus flavus group and subsequent aflatoxin development.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R A; Blankenship, P D; Cole, R J; Sanders, T H

    1983-01-01

    Four soil temperature and moisture treatment regimens were imposed on Florunner peanuts 94 days after planting in experimental plots in 1980. At harvest (145 days after planting), the incidence of the Aspergillus flavus group and the aflatoxin concentration were greatest in damaged kernels. Extensive colonization of sound mature kernels (SMK) by the A. flavus group occurred with the drought stress treatment (56% kernels colonized); colonization was less in the irrigated plot (7%) and the drought stress plot with cooled soil (11%) and was intermediate in the irrigated plot with heated soil (26%). Aflatoxin was virtually absent from SMK with the last three treatments, but it was found at an average concentration of 244 ppb (ng/g) in drought-stressed SMK. Colonization of SMK by the A. flavus group and aflatoxin production were greater with hot dry conditions. Neither elevated temperature alone nor drought stress alone caused aflatoxin contamination in SMK. When the ratio of SMK colonized by A. flavus compared with A. niger was greater than 19:1, there was aflatoxin contamination, but there was none if this ratio was less than 9:1. Irrigation caused a higher incidence of A. niger than drought did. This may have prevented the aflatoxin contamination of undamaged peanuts. PMID:6402980

  20. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  1. Aflatoxin Regulations in a Network of Global Maize Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000–2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  2. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  3. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  4. Potential roles of environmental oxidative stress in aflatoxin production revealed in the Aspergillus flavus transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus infection in crops is known to be exacerbated primarily by abiotic stresses such as drought stress, and biotic stresses such as arthropod infestation. These stresses result in the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the...

  5. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  6. Efficacy of probiotic bacteria in reducing Aspergillus parasiticus aflatoxin production and hepatic cytotoxicity in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus parasiticus produces highly hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxins (AF) in grains, which are used as poultry feed ingredients. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to serious economic losses stemming from poor performance and diminished egg hatchabi...

  7. Role of metabolism and viruses in aflatoxin-induced liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Groopman, John D. . E-mail: jgroopma@jhsph.edu; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2005-08-07

    The use of biomarkers in molecular epidemiology studies for identifying stages in the progression of development of the health effects of environmental agents has the potential for providing important information for critical regulatory, clinical and public health problems. Investigations of aflatoxins probably represent one of the most extensive data sets in the field and this work may serve as a template for future studies of other environmental agents. The aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins found on foods such as corn, peanuts, various other nuts and cottonseed and they have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic in many experimental models. As a result of nearly 30 years of study, experimental data and epidemiological studies in human populations, aflatoxin B{sub 1} was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The long-term goal of the research described herein is the application of biomarkers to the development of preventative interventions for use in human populations at high-risk for cancer. Several of the aflatoxin-specific biomarkers have been validated in epidemiological studies and are now being used as intermediate biomarkers in prevention studies. The development of these aflatoxin biomarkers has been based upon the knowledge of the biochemistry and toxicology of aflatoxins gleaned from both experimental and human studies. These biomarkers have subsequently been utilized in experimental models to provide data on the modulation of these markers under different situations of disease risk. This systematic approach provides encouragement for preventive interventions and should serve as a template for the development, validation and application of other chemical-specific biomarkers to cancer or other chronic diseases.

  8. Effect of processing on the fumonisins content of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.A.; Hendrich, S.; Hopmans, E.C.

    1995-12-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are a family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, predominant corn pathogens, and are found in most corn-containing foods. The FBs are heat stable, resistant to ammoniation and, unlike most mycotoxins, are water-soluble. The levels in corn and corn-containing foods will be presented ranging from <20 ppb to >2 ppm. The effects of water washing contaminated FB-corn does not reduce the levels significantly. Fermentation of corn to ethanol does not alter FB but distillation yielded FB-free ethanol.

  9. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  10. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  11. A survey of aflatoxin in cotton seed in Iran by HPLC with on-line photochemical derivatisation and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Feizy, Javad; Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The aflatoxins content of 140 cotton seed samples were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were obtained from wholesalers in Iran between May 2010 and June 2011. Aflatoxin B₁ gave the highest incidence of contamination and was found in 129 of the 139 samples. The highest concentration of aflatoxin was 14.4 ng g⁻¹. Thirteen cotton seed samples (9.35%) were above one of the regulatory limits of the European Union (5 ng g⁻¹), but no sample was above the highest EU limit and the safety limit recommended by the FDA (20 ng g⁻¹) and regulatory limits of Iran (50 ng g⁻¹) for total aflatoxin.

  12. Diversity of aflatoxin-producing fungi and their impact on food safety in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Bandyopadhyay, R; Cotty, P J

    2014-03-17

    Crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxins are important sources of revenue and daily nourishment in many portions of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, reports have associated aflatoxins with diminished human health and export opportunities in many African Nations. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic metabolites mainly produced by members of Aspergillus sect. Flavi. The current study examined aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with maize grain intended for human consumption in 18 sub-Saharan African countries. 4469 Aspergillus sect. Flavi isolates were obtained from 339 samples. The majority (75%) of isolates belonged to the L strain morphotype of A. flavus. Minor percentages were A. tamarii (6%), A. parasiticus (1%), and isolates with S strain morphology (3%). No A. bombycis or A. nomius isolates were detected. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the nitrate reductase gene (niaD, 1.3kb) and the aflatoxin pathway transcription factor gene (aflR, 1.7kb) were used to verify isolate assignments into species and lineages. Phylogenetics resolved S strain isolates producing only B aflatoxins into two lineages fully supported by sizes of deletions in the gene region spanning the aflatoxin biosynthesis genes cypA (aflU) and norB (aflF). One lineage was the A. flavus S strain with either 0.9 or 1.5kb deletions. The second lineage, recently described from Kenya, has a 2.2kb deletion. Taxa with S strain morphology differed in distribution with strain SBG limited to West Africa and both A. minisclerotigenes and the new lineage from Kenya in Central and East Africa. African A. flavus L strain isolates formed a single clade with L strain isolates from other continents. The sampled maize frequently tested positive for aflatoxins (65%), fumonisins (81%), and deoxynivalenol (40%) indicating the presence of fungi capable of producing the respective toxins. Percentage of samples exceeding US limits for total aflatoxins (regulatory limit), fumonisins (advisory limit

  13. Determination of uptake, accumulation, and stress effects in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in single-wall carbon nanotube contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cano, Amanda M; Kohl, Kristina; Deleon, Sabrina; Payton, Paxton; Irin, Fahmida; Saed, Mohammad; Shah, Smit Alkesh; Green, Micah J; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E

    2016-06-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are projected to increase in usage across many industries. Two studies were conducted using Zea L. (corn) seeds exposed to SWNT spiked soil for 40 d. In Study 1, corn was exposed to various SWNT concentrations (0, 10, and 100 mg/kg) with different functionalities (non-functionalized, OH-functionalized, or surfactant stabilized). A microwave induced heating method was used to determine SWNTs accumulated mostly in roots (0-24 μg/g), with minimal accumulation in stems and leaves (2-10 μg/g) with a limit of detection at 0.1 μg/g. Uptake was not functional group dependent. In Study 2, corn was exposed to 10 mg/kg SWNTs (non-functionalized or COOH-functionalized) under optimally grown or water deficit conditions. Plant physiological stress was determined by the measurement of photosynthetic rate throughout Study 2. No significant differences were seen between control and SWNT treatments. Considering the amount of SWNTs accumulated in corn roots, further studies are needed to address the potential for SWNTs to enter root crop species (i.e., carrots), which could present a significant pathway for human dietary exposure.

  14. Alkaline cooking (nixtamalisation) and the reduction in the in vivo toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn in a rat feeding Bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nixtamalization is a widely used food processing method in which whole kernel corn is cooked and steeped in alkaline water. It reduces the amount of FB1 that can be detected after cooking. However, the fate of FB1 during nixtamalization is not fully understood and potentially toxic reaction produc...

  15. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

  16. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  17. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  18. The major volatile compound 2-phenylethanol from the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, inhibits growth and expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Beck, John J; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Gee, Wai

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous saprophyte that is able to produce the most potent natural carcinogenic compound known as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This toxin frequently contaminates crops including corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts causing substantial economic loss worldwide. Consequently, more than 100 countries have strict regulations limiting AFB1 in foodstuffs and feedstuffs. Plants and microbes are able to produce volatile compounds that act as a defense mechanism against other organisms. Pichia anomala strain WRL-076 is a biocontrol yeast currently being tested to reduce AF contamination of tree nuts in California. We used the SPME-GC/MS analysis and identified the major volatile compound produced by this strain to be 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). It inhibited spore germination and AF production of A. flavus. Inhibition of AF formation by 2-PE was correlated with significant down regulation of clustering AF biosynthesis genes as evidenced by several to greater than 10,000-fold decrease in gene expression. In a time-course analysis we found that 2-PE also altered the expression patterns of chromatin modifying genes, MYST1, MYST2, MYST3, gcn5, hdaA and rpdA. The biocontrol capacity of P. anomala can be attributed to the production of 2-PE, which affects spore germination, growth, toxin production, and gene expression in A. flavus.

  19. The effects of necrotic enteritis, aflatoxin B1, and virginiamycin on growth performance, necrotic enteritis lesion scores, and mortality in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Cravens, R L; Goss, G R; Chi, F; De Boer, E D; Davis, S W; Hendrix, S M; Richardson, J A; Johnston, S L

    2013-08-01

    The effects of increasing aflatoxin B1 concentration (0, 0.75, 1.5 mg/kg) on broilers with or without necrotic enteritis or virginiamycin were determined. In the 23-d study, 22 male Cobb 500 chicks per pen were allotted to 12 treatments (3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) with 8 replications. Intestines of 5 birds per pen were examined for lesions on d 21. Birds were allowed to consume feed and water ad libitum. Aflatoxin was included in the diets from d 0. All birds received a 10× dose of coccidiosis vaccine on d 10. Pens of birds where necrotic enteritis was being induced were on Clostridium perfringens pathogen (CPP) contaminated litter from d 0. Aflatoxin decreased gain and feed intake and resulted in poorer feed:gain, increased mortality, and higher lesion scores. Inducing necrotic enteritis increased lesion scores and decreased feed intake and gain. Adding virginiamycin to the diets improved gain, feed intake, feed conversion, and decreased mortality. There was a 3-way interaction (aflatoxin × virginiamycin × CPP) on gain; increasing aflatoxin decreased gain and the effects of CPP and virginiamycin were dependent on aflatoxin concentration. In the absence of aflatoxin virginiamycin increased gain but was unable to prevent the growth suppression caused by CPP. At 0.75 mg/kg of aflatoxin virginiamycin no longer increased growth in non-CPP challenged birds but was able to increase growth in CPP-challenged birds. At the 1.5 mg/kg of aflatoxin concentration, virginiamycin increased gain in non-CPP-challenged birds but challenging birds with CPP had no effect on gain. Virginiamycin improved overall feed conversion with the greatest improvement at 1.5 mg/kg (aflatoxin × virginiamycin, P < 0.05). Aflatoxin increased lesion scores in unchallenged birds but not in challenged birds (aflatoxin × CPP, P < 0.001). Aflatoxin and necrotic enteritis decrease broiler performance and interact to decrease weight gain, virginiamycin helps improve gain in challenged birds at

  20. Aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries: Geographical distribution, mechanism of action and prevention

    PubMed Central

    HAMID, ABDU SELIM; TESFAMARIAM, ISAIAS GOITOM; ZHANG, YUCHENG; ZHANG, ZHEN GUI

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most well-known primary liver malignancy worldwide. Its incidence is rising at alarming rates and has become a public concern globally. It is more frequent in developing countries than in industrialized countries with respect to geographical variation, ethnic disparities and socioeconomic status. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is among the major HCC risk factors. Aflatoxin B1, which is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, which presumptively causes cancer by inducing DNA adducts leading to genetic changes in target liver cells. AFB1 is metabolized by cytochrome-P450 enzymes to the reactive intermediate AFB1-8, 9 epoxide (AFBO) which binds to liver cell DNA, resulting in DNA adducts. DNA adducts interact with the guanine bases of liver cell DNA and cause a mutational effect in the P53 tumor suppressor gene at the codon 249 hotspot in exon 7, which may lead to HCC. Approximately 4.5 billion of the world’s population is exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated food, particularly in low-income countries. Prevention involves treating crops that are susceptible to fungal contamination, appropriate handling of foodstuffs and the use of chemopreventive intervention. Moreover, an integrated network collaboration of different sectors, including public health, agricultural departments and mass media, is required to ensure effective food regulation systems so as to minimize the contamination of food by aflatoxins. PMID:23599745

  1. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Luan, Lianjun; Cai, Zengxuan; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Yongjiang

    2010-04-07

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) was developed. The approach was characterized in details and a special focus was placed on the recovery rates of isolation procedure in different TCM matrices, i.e. rhizomes and roots, seeds, flowers, grasses and leaves. For this purpose, [(13)C(17)]-aflatoxinB1 was employed as the internal standard and a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method was developed. The observed recovery rates of the six aflatoxins ranged from 85.6% to 117.6% in different matrices. Then, the established method was successfully applied to the determination of the six aflatoxins in various TCMs. For 30 commercial samples analyzed, 16 were contaminated with aflatoxins. The mean levels (incidence) of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in positive samples were 1.40 (68.8%), 1.27 (50.0%), 0.50 (43.8%) and 0.94 (43.8%) microg kg(-1), respectively. Interestingly, aflatoxin M1 was detected in two samples with the maximal content of 0.70 microg kg(-1). No sample was contaminated with aflatoxin M2. Meanwhile, a possible association between the contamination levels and the selected herbs was clarified in the present study.

  2. Direct visual detection of aflatoxin synthesis by minicolonies of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, P A; Davis, N D; Creech, G W

    1989-01-01

    Single-spore colonies of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, grown for 4 to 5 days at 25 degrees C on a coconut extract agar containing sodium desoxycholate as a growth inhibitor, produced aflatoxin, readily detectable as blue fluorescent zones under long-wave (365 nm) UV light. Over 100 colonies per standard petri dish were scored for aflatoxin production by this procedure. Progeny from some strains remained consistently stable for toxin production after repeated subculture, whereas instability for toxin synthesis was revealed among progeny from other strains. Spore color markers were used to rule out cross-contamination in monitoring strains. A yellow-spored and nontoxigenic strain of A. flavus, reported previously to produce aflatoxin in response to cycloheximide treatment, proved to be toxin negative even after repeated exposure to cycloheximide. Extended series of progeny from another strain of A. flavus and from a strain of A. parasiticus were each compared by this plating procedure and by fluorometric analysis for aflatoxin when grown in a coconut extract broth. Both of these strains showed variation for toxin synthesis among their respective progeny, and specific progeny showed a good correlation for aflatoxin synthesis when examined by the two procedures. Images PMID:2504116

  3. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P≤0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  4. Purification of a vesicle-vacuole fraction functionally linked to aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    CHANDA, Anindya; ROZE, Ludmila; PASTOR, Alicia; FRAME, Melinda; LINZ, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Current studies in our laboratory demonstrate a functional link between vesicles, vacuoles and aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus. Under aflatoxin inducing conditions in liquid yeast-extract sucrose medium, A. parasiticus undergoes a shift from vacuole biogenesis to accumulation of an enhanced number of vesicles which exhibit significant heterogeneity in size and density. As a first step in conducting a detailed analysis of the role of these organelles in aflatoxin synthesis, we developed a novel method to purify the vesicle and vacuole fraction using protoplasts prepared from cells harvested during aflatoxin synthesis. The method includes the following steps: 1] preparation of protoplasts from mycelia grown for 36h under aflatoxin inducing conditions; 2] release of vesicles and vacuoles from purified protoplasts in the presence of Triton X-100; and 3] fractionation of the vesicles and vacuoles using a “one-step high density cushion”. The vesicle-vacuole fraction showed a 35 fold enrichment in alpha-mannosidase activity (vacuole marker) and non-detectable succinate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities (mitochondrial and cytoplasmic markers, respectively). Confocal laser scanning microscopy with the vacuole dyes MDY-64 and CMAC demonstrated that the fraction contained pure vesicles and vacuoles and was devoid of membranous debris. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that no mitochondria or unbroken protoplasts contaminated the purified fraction. The purified organelles exhibited significant size heterogeneity with a range of sizes similar to that observed in whole cells and protoplasts. PMID:19358865

  5. Workgroup Report: Public Health Strategies for Reducing Aflatoxin Exposure in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Strosnider, Heather; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Banziger, Marianne; Bhat, Ramesh V.; Breiman, Robert; Brune, Marie-Noel; DeCock, Kevin; Dilley, Abby; Groopman, John; Hell, Kerstin; Henry, Sara H.; Jeffers, Daniel; Jolly, Curtis; Jolly, Pauline; Kibata, Gilbert N.; Lewis, Lauren; Liu, Xiumei; Luber, George; McCoy, Leslie; Mensah, Patience; Miraglia, Marina; Misore, Ambrose; Njapau, Henry; Ong, Choon-Nam; Onsongo, Mary T.K.; Page, Samuel W.; Park, Douglas; Patel, Manish; Phillips, Timothy; Pineiro, Maya; Pronczuk, Jenny; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Rubin, Carol; Sabino, Myrna; Schaafsma, Arthur; Shephard, Gordon; Stroka, Joerg; Wild, Christopher; Williams, Jonathan T.; Wilson, David

    2006-01-01

    Consecutive outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 caused > 150 deaths. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization convened a workgroup of international experts and health officials in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2005. After discussions concerning what is known about aflatoxins, the workgroup identified gaps in current knowledge about acute and chronic human health effects of aflatoxins, surveillance and food monitoring, analytic methods, and the efficacy of intervention strategies. The workgroup also identified public health strategies that could be integrated with current agricultural approaches to resolve gaps in current knowledge and ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food in the developing world. Four issues that warrant immediate attention were identified: a) quantify the human health impacts and the burden of disease due to aflatoxin exposure; b) compile an inventory, evaluate the efficacy, and disseminate results of ongoing intervention strategies; c) develop and augment the disease surveillance, food monitoring, laboratory, and public health response capacity of affected regions; and d) develop a response protocol that can be used in the event of an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis. This report expands on the workgroup’s discussions concerning aflatoxin in developing countries and summarizes the findings. PMID:17185282

  6. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in baby foods and paprika by HPLC with fluorescence detection: a single-laboratory validation study.

    PubMed

    Brera, C; Debegnach, F; De Santis, B; Pannunzi, E; Berdini, C; Prantera, E; Gregori, E; Miraglia, M

    2011-02-15

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin, the major mycotoxins of food concern are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Due to the wide range of matrices susceptible to mycotoxin contamination, the possible co-occurrence, and the very wide range of concentration, validated versatile multi-mycotoxin and multi-matrix methods are strongly requested. A reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in baby foods and paprika was set up. Three bulk samples were prepared according to commercial availability, one for paprika and for baby foods, two different bulks were set, a corn based and a multi-cereal based baby food. A single-laboratory validation was performed, for each investigated level ten analyses were performed, relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSD(r)) and recovery factors were calculated; RSD(r) values ranged from 2% to 10% for AFB(1) and from 3% to 10% for OTA, while the recovery factors ranged from 86% to 96% for AFB(1) and from 77% to 96% for OTA. The checked compliance of the RSD(r) and recovery with the values reported in the current EU Regulations confirmed the fitting for purpose of the method. Limit of detection and LoQ values of the method were respectively 0.002 and 0.020 μg/kg for AFB(1) and 0.012 and 0.080 μg/kg for OTA in baby foods; and 0.002 and 0.200 μg/kg for AFB(1) and 0.012 and 0.660 μg/kg for OTA in paprika. The current method represents a good example of the possibility of a multi-mycotoxin and/or a multi-matrix analysis depending on the laboratory research or official control purposes.

  7. Inhibitory effect of eugenol on aflatoxin B1 production in Aspergillus parasiticus by downregulating the expression of major genes in the toxin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of grains and agro-products is a serious food safety issue and a significant economic concern worldwide. In the present study, the effects of eugenol on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of some essential genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The fungus was cultured in presence of serial two-fold concentrations of eugenol (15.62-500 μg mL(-1)) for 3 days at 28 °C. Mycelia dry weight was determined as an index of fungal growth, while aflatoxin production was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes including ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR were evaluated by real-time PCR. Eugenol strongly inhibited A. parasiticus growth in the range of 19.16-95.83 % in a dose-dependent manner. Aflatoxin B1 production was also inhibited by the compound in the range of 15.07-98.0 %. The expressions of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes were significantly suppressed by eugenol at concentrations of 62.5 and 125 μg mL(-1). These results indicate that eugenol may be considered as a good candidate to control toxigenic fungal growth and the subsequent contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by carcinogenic aflatoxins.

  8. A Survey of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus sp. from Peanut Field Soils in Four Agroecological Zones of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chushu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Yang, Qingli; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus. YZR had the highest population density of Aspergillus sp. and positive rate of aflatoxin production in isolated strains (1039.3 cfu·g−1, 80.7%), the second was SEC (191.5 cfu·g−1, 48.7%), the third was YR (26.5 cfu·g−1, 22.7%), and the last was NE (2.4 cfu·g−1, 6.6%). The highest risk of AFB1 contamination on peanut was in YZR which had the largest number of AFB1 producing isolates in 1g soil, followed by SEC and YR, and the lowest was NE. The potential risk of AFB1 contamination in peanuts can increase with increasing population density and a positive rate of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in field soils, suggesting that reducing aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in field soils could prevent AFB1 contamination in peanuts. PMID:28117685

  9. Aflatoxin levels and exposure assessment of Spanish infant cereals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Raquel; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) are immunosuppressant, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic agents with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Since human exposure to aflatoxins occurs primarily by contaminated food intake, and given the greater susceptibility of infants to their adverse effects, the quantification of these mycotoxins in infant food based on cereals is of relevance. Aflatoxin levels were determined in 91 Spanish infant cereals classified in terms of non- and organically produced and several types from 10 different manufacturers, using a extraction procedure followed by inmunoaffinity column clean-up step and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD) and post-column derivatisation (Kobra Cell system). Daily aflatoxin intake was also assessed. Preliminary analysis showed a valuable incidence of detected infant cereal samples at an upper concentration level than the detection limit for total aflatoxin (66%), corresponding to a 46, 40, 34 and 11% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. Lower aflatoxin values (median, Q1, Q3) in conventional infant cereal (n = 74, AFB1: aflatoxin levels. Gluten-free and cereals with dehydrated fruits had an intermediate level and milk- or honey-based cereals and multi-cereals contained the lowest levels. With the exception of the non-compliant cocoa-based organic formulation

  10. Separation of aflatoxins from filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, I.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1982-02-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography using silianized porous silica microspheres is used to clean up an environmental sample prior to aflatoxin analysis. B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/ aflatoxins were found in an anaerobic digestor filter cake sample at concentrations of 1 ppb.

  11. Aflatoxin levels in chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in Balıkesir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydın, M; Aydın, S; Bacanlı, M; Başaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Aflatoxins, the secondary metabolites produced by species of naturally occurring Aspergilli, are commonly found in food such as cereals, dried fruits and juice, wine, beer and spices. They are hepatotoxic and are well known human carcinogens based on evidence from human studies. Aflatoxins are an environmental risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic hepatitis B-infected patients are at increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic failure and liver cancer. This study was designed to determine the serum aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2 ), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1 ) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2 ) concentrations using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in hepatitis B-infected patients with or without cirrhosis and liver cancer, alongside healthy controls in Balıkesir, Turkey. The mean AFB1 and total AF levels in patients without liver cancer and cirrhosis were significantly higher than healthy controls. The mean AFB1 and total AF levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B and HCC were significantly higher than infected patients with or without cirrhosis. These results suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis B who are exposed to AFs are at increased risk for developing HCC, which might be prevented by reducing consumption of contaminated foods.

  12. Efficacy of a Brazilian calcium montmorillonite against toxic effects of dietary aflatoxins on broilers reared to market weight.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, J C; Santurio, J M; Zanette, R A; Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Dal Pozzo, M; Alves, S H; Ferreiro, L

    2014-01-01

    1. The protective effect of a natural Brazilian calcium montmorillonite (CaMont) against aflatoxins was studied in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 1056-d-old Cobb male broilers were housed in experimental pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. Three levels of CaMont (0, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and two levels of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg) were assayed. Each treatment had 8 replicate pens of 22 broiler chickens each. 3. Of all the chickens tested in the experiment, the ones treated with aflatoxins were the most adversely affected. CaMont treatment at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 g/kg improved body weight of chickens at 42 d of age by 13.3% and 22.7%, increased daily feed intake by 9.7% and 24.7%, and improved the productive efficiency index of chickens by 53% and 66.5%, respectively. 4. Dietary CaMont positively affected parameters such as weight of liver, heart and gizzard; however, serum potassium concentration decreased by 15.3% compared with that of chickens given only the aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 5. CaMont did not cause adverse effects in chickens that did not receive aflatoxins. 6. CaMont at pH 8.5 partially reduced the toxic effects of aflatoxins in broilers when included at levels of 2.5 and 5 g/kg in the diet.

  13. A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of aflatoxins based on a VHH surrogate standard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen

    2016-09-01

    A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was developed using an anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 as surrogate standard. Anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 was generated by immunizing an alpaca with anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody 1C11. This assay was used to detect aflatoxins in agro-products after a simple extraction with 75 % methanol/H2O. Aflatoxin concentration was calculated by a two-step approach: the concentration of VHH 2-5 was first obtained by a four-parameter logistic regression from the detected absorbance value at 450 nm, and then converted to aflatoxin concentration by a linear equation. The assay exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 ng mL(-1), which is better than or comparable with conventional immunoassays. The performance of our VHH surrogate-based ELISA was further validated with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for total aflatoxins determination in 20 naturally contaminated peanut samples, displaying a good correlation (R (2) = 0.988). In conclusion, the proposed assay represents a first example applying an anti-idiotype VHH antibody as a standard surrogate in ELISA. With the advantages of high stability and ease of production, the VHH antibody-based standard surrogate can be extended in the future to immunoassays for other highly toxic compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Comparison of soil and corn kernel Aspergillus flavus populations: evidence for niche specialization.

    PubMed

    Sweany, Rebecca Ruth; Damann, Kenneth Eugene; Kaller, Michael Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus is considered a generalist-opportunistic pathogen, but studies are beginning to show that A. flavus populations have strains specific to various hosts. The research objective was to determine whether A. flavus soil populations consist of solely saprophytic strains and strains which can be facultatively parasitic on corn. A. flavus was isolated from both corn kernels and soil within 11 Louisiana fields. Sixteen vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) were identified among 255 soil isolates. Only 6 of the 16 VCGs were identified in the 612 corn isolates and 88% of corn isolates were in two VCGs, whereas only 5% of soil isolates belonged to the same two VCGs. Isolates were characterized for aflatoxin B1 production and sclerotial size. A random subset of the isolates (99 from corn and 91 from soil) were further characterized for simple-sequence repeat (SSR) haplotype and mating type. SSR polymorphisms revealed 26 haplotypes in the corn isolates and 78 in the soil isolates, and only 1 haplotype was shared between soil and corn isolates. Corn and soil populations were highly significantly different for all variables. Differences between corn and soil populations indicate that some soil isolates are not found in corn and some isolates have become specialized to infect corn. Further understanding of A. flavus virulence is important for development of resistant hybrids and for better biological control against toxigenic A. flavus.

  15. Corn insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  16. The Master Transcription Factor mtfA Governs Aflatoxin Production, Morphological Development and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhenhong; Lohmar, Jessica M.; Satterlee, Timothy; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Calvo, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus produces a variety of toxic secondary metabolites; among them, the aflatoxins (AFs) are the most well known. These compounds are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic, particularly AFB1. A. flavus is capable of colonizing a number of economically-important crops, such as corn, cotton, peanut and tree nuts, and contaminating them with AFs. Molecular genetic studies in A. flavus could identify novel gene targets for use in strategies to reduce AF contamination and its adverse impact on food and feed supplies worldwide. In the current study, we investigated the role of the master transcription factor gene mtfA in A. flavus. Our results revealed that forced overexpression of mtfA results in a drastic decrease or elimination of several secondary metabolites, among them AFB1. The reduction in AFB1 was accompanied by a decrease in aflR expression. Furthermore, mtfA also regulates development; conidiation was influenced differently by this gene depending on the type of colonized substrate. In addition to its effect on conidiation, mtfA is necessary for the normal maturation of sclerotia. Importantly, mtfA positively affects the pathogenicity of A. flavus when colonizing peanut seeds. AF production in colonized seeds was decreased in the deletion mtfA strain and particularly in the overexpression strain, where only trace amounts were detected. Interestingly, a more rapid colonization of the seed tissue occurred when mtfA was overexpressed, coinciding with an increase in lipase activity and faster maceration of the oily part of the seed. PMID:26805883

  17. Coexistence of and interaction relationships between an aflatoxin-producing fungus and a bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Quan-Hong; Zhou, Jian-Xiang; Li, Hong-Zhou; Zhi, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; He, Zhu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    The interactions between aflatoxin-producing fungi and bacteria have opened up a new avenue for identifying biological agents suitable for controlling aflatoxin contamination. In this study, we analysed the interactions between A. flavus and the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli M3 that coexist in rice that is naturally contaminated with A. flavus. Our results showed that a cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) and the metabolite bongkrekic acid of the M3 strain potently suppressed the mycelial growth and spore production, and then affected the production of aflatoxin of A. flavus. Bongkrekic acid secreted by the M3 strain exhibited higher antifungal activity than did analogues. The CCF of the M3 strain and its metabolite bongkrekic acid can inhibit the growth of A. flavus, but the metabolites of A. flavus, aflatoxins, exerted no inhibitory effect on the growth of the M3 strain. Furthermore, we determined that the M3 cells could use the dead mycelia of A. flavus as energy sources for reproduction, while A. flavus could not grow in a solution containing dead M3 cells. In summary, these results indicated that B. gladioli has a competitive advantage in survival when it coexists with its fungal partner A. flavus.

  18. Effect of temperature and water activity on gene expression and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus on almond medium.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonia; Solfrizzo, Michele; Epifani, Filomena; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2016-01-18

    Almonds are among the commodities at risk of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Temperature and water activity are the two key determinants in pre and post-harvest environments influencing both the rate of fungal spoilage and aflatoxin production. Varying the combination of these parameters can completely inhibit or fully activate the biosynthesis of aflatoxin, so it is fundamental to know which combinations can control or be conducive to aflatoxin contamination. Little information is available about the influence of these parameters on aflatoxin production on almonds. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different combinations of temperature (20 °C, 28 °C, and 37 °C) and water activity (0.90, 0.93, 0.96, 0.99 aw) on growth, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production and expression of the two regulatory genes, aflR and aflS, and two structural genes, aflD and aflO, of the aflatoxin biosynthetic cluster in A. flavus grown on an almond medium solidified with agar. Maximum accumulation of fungal biomass and AFB1 production was obtained at 28 °C and 0.96 aw; no fungal growth and AFB1 production were observed at 20 °C at the driest tested conditions (0.90 and 0.93 aw). At 20° and 37 °C AFB1 production was 70-90% lower or completely suppressed, depending on aw. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR showed that the two regulatory genes (aflR and aflS) were highly expressed at maximum (28 °C) and minimum (20 °C and 37 °C) AFB1 production. Conversely the two structural genes (aflD and aflO) were highly expressed only at maximum AFB1 production (28 °C and 0.96-0.99 aw). It seems that temperature acts as a key factor influencing aflatoxin production which is strictly correlated to the induction of expression of structural biosynthesis genes (aflD and aflO), but not to that of aflatoxin regulatory genes (aflR and aflS), whose functional products are most likely subordinated to other regulatory processes acting at post-translational level

  19. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Egal, S; Hounsa, A; Gong, Y Y; Turner, P C; Wild, C P; Hall, A J; Hell, K; Cardwell, K F

    2005-10-15

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal toxins that are carcinogenic to man and cause immunosuppression, cancer and growth reduction in animals. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 480 children (age 9 months to 5 years) across 4 agro-ecological zones (SS, NGS, SGS and CS) in Benin and Togo to identify the effect of aflatoxin exposure on child growth and assess the pattern of exposure. Prior reports on this study [Gong, Y.Y.,Cardwell, K., Hounsa, A., Egal, S., Turner, Hall, A.J., Wild, C.P., 2002. Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 325, 20-21, Gong, Y.Y., Egal, S., Hounsa, A., Turner, P.C., Hall, A.J., Cardwell, K., Wild, C.P., 2003. Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: the critical role of weaning and weaning foods. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 556-562] showed that aflatoxin exposure among these children is widespread (99%) and that growth faltering is associated with high blood aflatoxin-albumin adducts (AF-alb adducts), a measure of recent past exposure. The present report demonstrates that consumption of maize is an important source of aflatoxin exposure for the survey population. Higher AF-alb adducts were correlated with higher A. flavus (CFU) infestation of maize (p=0.006), higher aflatoxin contamination (ppb) of maize (p<0.0001) and higher consumption frequencies of maize (p=0.053). The likelihood of aflatoxin exposure from maize was particularly high in agro-ecological zones where the frequency of maize consumption (SGS and CS), the presence of aflatoxin in maize (SGS) or the presence of A. flavus on maize (NGS and SGS) was relatively high. Socio-economic background did not affect the presence of A. flavus and aflatoxin in maize, but better maternal education was associated with lower frequencies of maize consumption among children from the northernmost agro-ecological zone (SS) (p=0.001). The

  20. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detec...

  1. Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance and susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted...

  2. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize fields of Sonora Mexico at varying elevations: a three year study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize, a critical staple of billions, by Aspergillus flavus is a recurrent problem in the tropics and subtropics. Maize is produced across a broad range of elevations in the state of Sonora, Mexico. The current study evaluated the influence of elevation on the composition ...

  3. Characterization of the chitinase gene family and the effect on A. flavus and aflatoxin resistance in maize.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a crop of global importance, but is prone to contamination by aflatoxins produced by fungi in the genus Aspergillus. The development of resistant germplasm and the identification of genes contributing to resistance would aid in the reduction of the problem with a minimal need ...

  4. The master transcription factor mtfA governs aflatoxin production, morphological development, and pathogenicity in the fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus produces a variety of toxic secondary metabolites, among them the aflatoxins (AFs) are the most well-known. These compounds are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic, particularly AFB1. A. flavus is capable of colonizing economically important crops contaminating them with AFs. Molecu...

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Mycotoxins to Navel Orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa zea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins and ochratoxins, are widely distributed in nature and are frequently problematic crop contaminants that cause millions of dollars of annual losses in the United States. Insect infestations of crop plants significantly exacerbate mycotoxin contamination. Damage to a v...

  6. Effects of aflatoxin B₁, fumonisin B₁ and their mixture on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A induction.

    PubMed

    Mary, Verónica S; Valdehita, Ana; Navas, José M; Rubinstein, Héctor R; Fernández-Cruz, María L

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins widely found as cereal contaminants and their co-occurrence in corn has been associated with a high incidence of liver cancer. Both toxins are immunotoxic, with AFB1 being a procarcinogen, and its bioactivation through specific cytochrome P450 (Cyp) enzymes, such as Cyp1A, being a requirement for hepatocarcinogenic and toxic activities. This study evaluated the effects of these mycotoxins, alone or combined, on activation and expression of Cyp1A and its transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) in hepatoma cell line H4IIE and spleen mononuclear cells of rats. The results demonstrate that in H4IIE cells, AFB1 induced an increase in Cyp1A activity and cyp1A transcription, associated with an enhanced Ahr activity, which suggests that this toxin can act as an Ahr agonist. Moreover, FB1 caused a small rise in Cyp1A activity and cyp1A expression. Similarly in spleen cells, AFB1 and FB1 induced overexpression of cyp1A and ahr genes. This work shows that the response potency was significantly higher for the mixture, indicating the existence of an interaction between both toxins. This study proposes the Ahr pathway activation as a toxicity mechanism of AFB1 and FB1, and highlights that FB1 may increase AFB1 bioactivation.

  7. Novel Aflatoxin-Degrading Enzyme from Bacillus shackletonii L7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Eisa Ahmed, Mohamed Farah; Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hongping; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Food and feed contamination by aflatoxin (AF)B1 has adverse economic and health consequences. AFB1 degradation by microorganisms or microbial enzymes provides a promising preventive measure. To this end, the present study tested 43 bacterial isolates collected from maize, rice, and soil samples for AFB1-reducing activity. The higher activity was detected in isolate L7, which was identified as Bacillus shackletonii. L7 reduced AFB1, AFB2, and AFM1 levels by 92.1%, 84.1%, and 90.4%, respectively, after 72 h at 37 °C. The L7 culture supernatant degraded more AFB1 than viable cells and cell extracts; and the degradation activity was reduced from 77.9% to 15.3% in the presence of proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulphate. A thermostable enzyme purified from the boiled supernatant was designated as Bacillus aflatoxin-degrading enzyme (BADE). An overall 9.55-fold purification of BADE with a recovery of 39.92% and an activity of 3.85 × 103 U·mg−1 was obtained using chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. BADE had an estimated molecular mass of 22 kDa and exhibited the highest activity at 70 °C and pH 8.0, which was enhanced by Cu2+ and inhibited by Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Li+. BADE is the major protein involved in AFB1 detoxification. This is the first report of a BADE isolated from B. shackletonii, which has potential applications in the detoxification of aflatoxins during food and feed processing. PMID:28098812

  8. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂ in Fructus Bruceae by high-performance liquid chromatography with online postcolumn photochemical derivatization.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiliang; Zhou, Shujun; Kong, Weijun; Ma, Xiaochi; Yang, Meihua; Wan, Li; Yang, Shihai

    2014-10-01

    A simple, reliable, and highly sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 in Fructus Bruceae was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to online postcolumn photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins were first extracted by a methanol/water mixture and then cleaned up with an AflaTest™ immunoaffinity column. Different clean-up and derivatization methods were compared and optimized. The established method was extensively validated to show satisfactory performance of linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9997), recovery (74.3-100.8%), and precision (RSDs ≤ 2.8%) for the investigated aflatoxins. This proposed method was also applied to 11 F. Bruceae samples and the results showed that 10 out of 11 were contaminated with aflatoxins ranging from 0.26 to 27.52 μg/kg and the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 , the most toxic one, was as high as 91% in all the samples, highlighting the severe contamination and the necessity to set legal limits for aflatoxins in F. Bruceae.

  9. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled.

  10. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: a three year study in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Jaime, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, maize is cultivated from 0 to 2100 masl with diverse cultivation practices. This is typical of the nation. In order to design better sampling strategies across Mexico, aflatoxin-producing fungal communities associated with maize production during 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Sonora were investigated in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) at varying elevation. Fungal communities were dominated by the Aspergillus flavus L strain morphotype (46%), but variation occurred between years and among AEZ. Several atoxigenic isolates with potential to be used as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin mitigation were detected in all AEZ. The characteristics of each AEZ had minimal influences on fungal community structure and should not be a major consideration for future sampling designs for Mexico. Insights into the dynamics and stability of aflatoxin-producing fungal communities across AEZ are discussed.

  11. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Bedre, Renesh; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Mangu, Venkata Ramanarao; Sanchez Timm, Luis Eduardo; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  12. Hot Topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative impact on the dairy industry. We sought to determine the risk of including BMSB contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow ratio...

  13. Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk in lactating dairy cattle by feeding bug contaminated corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the northeastern United States, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture. BMSB is a highly polyphagous plant pest but also has potentially negative impact to dairy industry through contamination of silage and potent...

  14. The use of one- and two- photon induced fluorescence spectroscopy for the optical characterization of carcinogenic aflatoxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeesters, L.; Meulebroeck, W.; Raeymaekers, S.; Thienpont, H.

    2014-09-01

    Carcinogenic and toxic contaminants in food and feed products are nowadays mostly detected by destructive, time-consuming chemical analyses, like HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. However, as a consequence of the severe and growing regulations on food products by the European Union, there arose an increased demand for the ultra-fast, high-sensitive and non-destructive detection of contaminants in food and feed products. Therefore, we have investigated fluorescence spectroscopy for the characterization of carcinogenic aflatoxins. With the use of a tunable titanium-sapphire laser in combination with second and third harmonic wavelength generation, both one- and two-photon induced fluorescence excitation wavelengths could be generated using the same setup. We characterized and compared the one- and two-photon induced fluorescence spectra of pure aflatoxin powder, after excitation with 365nm and 730nm respectively. Moreover, we investigated the absolute fluorescence intensity as function of the excitation power density. Afterwards, we applied our characterization setup to the detection of aflatoxins in maize grains. The fluorescence spectra of both healthy and contaminated maize samples were experimentally characterized. In addition to the fluorescence spectrum of the pure aflatoxin, we observed an unwanted influence of the intrinsic fluorescence of the maize. Depending on the excitation wavelength, a varying contrast between the fluorescence spectra of the healthy and contaminated samples was obtained. After a comparison of the measured fluorescence signals, a detection criterion for the optical identification of the contaminated maize samples could be defined. As a result, this illustrates the use of fluorescence spectroscopy as a valuable tool for the non-destructive, real-time and high-sensitive detection of aflatoxins in maize.

  15. Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production by Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Susan B.; Mahoney, Noreen E.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of 12 surfactants on aflatoxin production, growth, and conidial germination by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is reported. Five nonionic surfactants, Triton X-100, Tergitol NP-7, Tergitol NP-10, polyoxyethylene (POE) 10 lauryl ether, and Latron AG-98, reduced aflatoxin production by 96 to 99% at 1% (wt/vol). Colony growth was restricted by the five nonionic surfactants at this concentration. Aflatoxin production was inhibited 31 to 53% by lower concentrations of Triton X-100 (0.001 to 0.0001%) at which colony growth was not affected. Triton X-301, a POE-derived anionic surfactant, had an effect on colony growth and aflatoxin production similar to that of the five POE-derived nonionic surfactants. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, a cationic surfactant, suppressed conidial germination at 1% (wt/vol). SDS had no effect on aflatoxin production or colony growth at 0.001%. The degree of aflatoxin inhibition by a surfactant appears to be a function of the length of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic chains of POE-derived surfactants. Images PMID:16349144

  16. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  17. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  18. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  19. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  20. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  1. Quantitative correlation of aflatoxin biomarker with dietary intake of aflatoxin in Tanzanian children.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Michael N; Kimanya, Martin E; Shirima, Candida P; Wild, Christopher P; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-08-01

    The association between aflatoxin intake from maize-based weaning food and aflatoxin albumin adducts (AF-alb) was investigated in 148 Tanzanian children aged between 12 and 22 months, at 2 visits 6 months apart. At the first visit (storage season) there was a significant correlation at the individual level between AF-alb (geometric mean 43.2 pg/mg albumin) and aflatoxin intake (geometric mean 81.7 ng/kg b.w./d) through maize-based weaning food (r = 0.51, p < 0.01). Overall, this correlation was r = 0.43 (p < 0.01). The AF-alb level in weaning-age children in Tanzania closely reflects aflatoxin intake from maize in weaning food. Exposure levels suggest children may be at risk from aflatoxin associated health effects.

  2. Aflatoxin B1 binding to sorbents in bovine ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Spotti, M; Fracchiolla, M L; Arioli, F; Caloni, F; Pompa, G

    2005-08-01

    A recent approach to the problem of contamination of agricultural products by aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is to add non-nutritional adsorbents to animal diets in order to sequester ingested aflatoxins. We conducted in vitro experiments to develop a rapid and cheap model using ruminal fluid to assess the ability of sorbent materials to bind AFB(1). Seven sorbents (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate; clinoptilolite; zeolite; two types of bentonite; sepiolite; and PHIL 75), commonly added to bovine diets were incubated in water and ruminal fluid in the presence of AFB(1). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, sepiolite and one of the bentonites bound 100% of the AFB(1) in the presence of both ruminal fluid and water; clinoptilolite bound about 80% of AFB(1) in both liquids; whereas the affinities for the mycotoxin of zeolite (50%) and the other sample of bentonite (60%) in water seem to be increased by about 40% in ruminal fluid incubations. PHIL 75 had the poorest binding ability: about 30% in water and 45% in ruminal fluid. In view of the differences in toxin binding in water and ruminal fluid, it is preferable to use the ruminal fluid model for the in vitro pre-screening of sorbent materials potentially useful as adjuvants to ruminant feeds.

  3. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  4. Rapid and simultaneous in situ assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenes using silica plate imprinting mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diogo N; Ferreira, Mônica S; Catharino, Rodrigo R

    2014-01-01

    A fast and direct combination of techniques for simultaneous mycotoxin and phytoalexin identification in peanut skin and kernel is described. Silica Plate Imprinting Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (SPILDI-MSI) is a powerful technique that exhibits great advantages, such as solvent-free and matrix-free characteristics, as well as no sample preparation or separation steps. It also permits accurate identification of mycotoxins and phytoalexins with unique fingerprint profiles in just a few seconds. Results are expressed as chemical images of the 4 identified types of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and a stilbenoid (resveratrol). Also, SPILDI-MSI allows the comparison between the spatial distribution of aflatoxins and resveratrol found in kernel and skin. This novel application has proven to be useful for instantaneous qualitative assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenoids both in the peanut skin and kernel and offers precise tracking of fungal contamination in nuts and other foodstuffs.

  5. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1.

  6. A novel mycotoxin purification system using magnetic nanoparticles for the recovery of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone from feed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Cheong-Up; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel tool for purifying two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN), in feed. This system utilized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against AFB1 and ZEN, and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Among ten MNPs with different diameters and functional groups, a 100-nm diameter MNP (fMA) conjugated to an amine group (-NH2) was found to be optimum for coupling with mAbs. The optimal mAb concentrations for coupling to the fMA along with mycotoxin purification capacities of the fMA-mAb conjugates (fMA-AFB1 and fMA-ZEN) were determined. A comparison of mean recovery rates (from corn and product X feed) between the fMA-mAb conjugates and immunoaffinity columns (IAC-AFB1 and IAC-ZEN) showed that the rate for fMA-AFB1 (90~92% and 81~88%) was higher (p > 0.05) than that of IAC-AFB1 (81~84% and 72~78%) for AFB1 (5, 10, 15 ng/mL), and the rate for fMA-ZEN (99~100% and 92~94%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of IAC-ZEN (86~88% and 81~88%) for ZEN (10, 25, 50 ng/mL) except at a concentration of 10 ng/mL, demonstrating the remarkable purification efficiency of the novel fMA-mAb method. Additionally, mycotoxin purification was much faster using our novel method (approx. 5 min) than the IAC-based technique (> 30 min). This study suggests that the novel purification system we developed would be a useful tool for monitoring and regulating mycotoxin contamination in feed, and replace IAC methods. PMID:23271177

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-05-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg.

  8. Reduction of fumonisin B1 in corn grits by twin-screw extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn and corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common, causes animal diseases and there is evidence suggesting that it increases the risk of certain cancers and birth defects in humans that are highly dependent on contaminated corn as a diet staple. There...

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, Citral, and Eugenol on Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Expression and Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dandan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Limin; Hua, Huijuan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In order to reveal the inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde, citral, and eugenol on aflatoxin biosynthesis, the expression levels of 5 key aflatoxin biosynthetic genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. Aspergillus flavus growth and AFB1 production were completely inhibited by 0.80 mmol/L of cinnamaldehyde and 2.80 mmol/L of citral. However, at lower concentration, cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L) significantly reduced AFB1 production with inhibition rate of 68.9%, 95.4%, and 41.8%, respectively, while no effect on fungal growth. Real-time PCR showed that the expressions of aflR, aflT, aflD, aflM, and aflP were down-regulated by cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L). In the presence of cinnamaldehyde, AflM was highly down-regulated (average of 5963 folds), followed by aflP, aflR, aflD, and aflT with the average folds of 55, 18, 6.5, and 5.8, respectively. With 0.80 mmol/L of eugenol, aflP was highly down-regulated (average of 2061-folds), followed by aflM, aflR, aflD, and aflT with average of 138-, 15-, 5.2-, and 4.8-folds reduction, respectively. With 0.56 mmol/L of citral, aflT was completely inhibited, followed by aflM, aflP, aflR, and aflD with average of 257-, 29-, 3.5-, and 2.5-folds reduction, respectively. These results suggest that the reduction in AFB1 production by cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral at low concentration may be due to the down-regulations of the transcription level of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungi and subsequently contamination with aflatoxins in practice.

  10. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  11. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  12. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  13. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and bacterial diversity in corn silage contaminated with the pathogen and treated with chemical or microbial additives.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Jiang, Y; Kim, D H; Cervantes, A A Pech; Arriola, K G; Vyas, D; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2017-03-01

    Inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) in feeds may prevent the transmission or cycling of the pathogen on farms. The first objective of this study was to examine if addition of propionic acid or microbial inoculants would inhibit the growth of EC during ensiling, at silo opening, or after aerobic exposure. The second objective was to examine how additives affected the bacterial community composition in corn silage. Corn forage was harvested at approximately 35% dry matter, chopped to a theoretical length of cut of 10 mm, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1 × 10(5) cfu/g of EC (ECCH); (3) EC and 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (ECLP); (4) EC and 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (ECLB); and (5) EC and 2.2 g/kg (fresh weight basis) of propionic acid, containing 99.5% of the acid (ECA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, and 120 d and analyzed for EC, pH, and organic acids. Samples from d 0 and 120 were also analyzed for chemical composition. Furthermore, samples from d 120 were analyzed for ammonia N, yeasts and molds, lactic acid bacteria, bacterial community composition, and aerobic stability. The pH of silages from all treatments decreased below 4 within 3 d of ensiling. Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts were below the detection limit in all silages after 7 d of ensiling. Treatment with L. buchneri and propionic acid resulted in fewer yeasts and greater aerobic stability compared with control, ECCH, and ECLP silages. Compared with the control, the diversity analysis revealed a less diverse bacterial community in the ECLP silage and greater abundance of Lactobacillus in the ECLP and ECA silages. The ECLB silage also contained greater abundance of Acinetobacter and Weissella than other silages. Subsamples of silages were reinoculated with 5 × 10(5) cfu/g of EC either immediately after silo opening or after 168 h of aerobic exposure

  14. Measurement of fumonisins in corn with a fiber optic fluoroimmunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Maragos, Chris M.

    1997-05-01

    A fiber-optic immunosensor was used to determine concentrations of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1(FB1) in both spiked and naturally contaminated corn samples. Samples were extracted with a mixture of methanol/water. Two methods were used to prepare the methanolic corn extracts before introduction to the immunosensor: (1) simple dilution of the methanolic corn extract; or (2) affinity column cleanup. The sensor displayed an IC50 of 70 ng FB1/mL when toxin was introduced in phosphate buffered saline. Simple dilution of methanolic corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 equivalent to 25 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 3.2 (mu) g/g corn, while affinity cleanup of corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 of 5 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 0.4 (mu) gFB1/g corn. The difference in sensitivity between the two cleanup techniques was due to concentration of fumonisins obtained from the affinity cleanup procedure. Naturally contaminated corn samples were also analyzed after either simple dilution or affinity column cleanup. For comparison the naturally contaminated corn samples were analyzed with an HPLC method after isolation of the fumonisins with strong anion exchange (SAX) solid phase extraction cartridges. The SAX/HPLC method and the immunosensor method agreed well except when large amounts of other fumonisins (i.e. fumonisin B2) were present. This was due in part to the cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody with other fumonisins. The immunosensor has the potential to screen individual corn samples for fumonisins within six minutes, and is among the fastest of the currently available FB1 detection methods.

  15. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP.

  16. Impact of opening hermetic storage bags on grain quality, fungal growth and aflatoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Timothy; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Woloshuk, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags are used by farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa for pest management of stored grains and products, including maize. These bags hermetically seal the products, preventing exchange with external moisture and gases. Biological respiration within the bags create an environment that is unsuitable for insect development and fungal growth. This study was conducted to determine the impact of routine opening of the storage bags for maize consumption on fungal growth and aflatoxin contamination. Maize with moisture contents (MC) high enough to support fungal growth (15%, 16%, 18% and 20%) was stored in PICS bags, which were opened weekly and exposed to humid conditions (85% RH) for 30 min over a period of 8 weeks and 24 weeks. Monitors indicated that oxygen defused into the open bags but did not reach equilibrium with the bottom layers of grain during the 30-min exposure period. Fungal colony forming units obtained from the grain surface increased 3-fold (at 15% MC) to 10,000-fold (at 20% MC) after 8 weeks. At both 8 weeks and 24 weeks, aflatoxin was detected in at least one bag at each grain moisture, suggesting that aflatoxin contamination spread from a planted source of A. flavus-colonized grain to non-inoculated grain. The results indicate that repeatedly breaking the hermetic seal of the PICS bags will increase fungal growth and the risk of aflatoxin contamination, especially in maize stored at high moisture content. This work also further demonstrates that maize should be properly dried prior to storage in PICS bags.

  17. Effects of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Rezaie, Sassan; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Baghdadi, Elham; Sharifynia, Somayeh; Aala, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species can contaminate a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. In recent years, research on medicinal herbs, such as Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica, have led to reduced microbial growth, and these herbs also have a particular effect on the production of aflatoxins as carcinogenic compounds. Objectives In this study, we to examine P. atlantica subsp. kurdica as a natural compound used to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and to act as an anti-mycotoxin. Materials and Methods In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica for A. parasiticus was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. The rate of aflatoxin production was determined using the HPLC technique after exposure to different concentrations (62.5 - 125 mg/mL) of the gum. The changes in expression levels of the aflR gene were analyzed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results The results showed that P. atlantica subsp. kurdica can inhibit A. parasiticus growth at a concentration of 125 mg/mL. HPLC results revealed a significant decrease in aflatoxin production with 125 mg/mL of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica, and AFL-B1 production was entirely inhibited. Based on quantitative real-time PCR results, the rate of aflR gene expression was significantly decreased after treatment with P. atlantica subsp. kurdica. Conclusions Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica has anti-toxic properties in addition to an inhibitory effect on A. parasiticus growth, and is able to decrease aflatoxin production effectively in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this herbal extract maybe considered a potential anti-mycotoxin agent in medicine or industrial agriculture. PMID:27800127

  18. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  19. Coconut as a Medium for the Experimental Production of Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Arseculeratne, S. N.; De Silva, L. M.; Wijesundera, S.; Bandunatha, C. H. S. R.

    1969-01-01

    Fresh, grated coconut has been found to be an excellent medium for aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. Under optimal conditions, yields of 8 mg of total aflatoxin per g of substrate were obtained. Continuous agitation of the growth medium under moist conditions at 24 C produced highest yields. Aflatoxin was assayed both biologically and chromatographically. The aflatoxin content of cultures varied biphasically with the duration of incubation. It is suggested that this pattern could result from the sequential operation of factors promoting aflatoxin formation on the one hand and a detoxifying mechanism on the other. Images PMID:5803632

  20. Transformation of adsorbed aflatoxin B1 on smectite at elevated temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins cause liver damage and suppress immunity. Smectites can be used to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins through adsorption. To further reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins and to eliminate the treatments of aflatoxin-loaded smectites, degrading the adsorbed aflatoxin to nontoxic or less ...

  1. Detection and detoxification of aflatoxins: prevention of aflatoxicosis and aflatoxin residues with hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T D; Clement, B A; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B

    1990-01-01

    Our recent findings demonstrate that HSCAS can prevent aflatoxicosis in chickens and swine and significantly decreases the level of aflatoxin M1 residues in the milk of lactating dairy cattle. The basic mechanism for this action appears to involve sequestration of aflatoxin in the gastrointestinal tract and chemisorption (i.e., tight binding) to HSCAS which results in a reduction in aflatoxin bioavailability. Research is in progress to elucidate the specificity of HSCAS action and to construct a series of selective chemisorbents for mycotoxin control in livestock and poultry.

  2. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E.; Phillips, I.D.

    1988-04-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B/sub 1/, B/sup 2/, G/sup 1/, and G/sup 2/, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  3. Monitoring of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Czechoslovak human sera by immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Fukal, L. ); Reisnerova, H. )

    1990-03-01

    Since a level of food contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A has been found low in Czechoslovakia, human exposure to these mycotoxins may not be negligible. However, analysis of food samples provides only indirect evidence of mycotoxin ingestion and no evidence about mycotoxin absorption. Direct evidence can only be obtained by analysis of human body fluids. Therefore, the authors decided to carry out a monitoring of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A level in human sera. In general, TLC and HPLC are most commonly used to analyze mycotoxins and its metabolites. The recent development of immunochemical techniques opens the possibility of determining individual exposure in a relatively large human population. These assays have the advantage of high specificity and sensitivity. Sample through-put is high, and the methods are technically simple and can be performed at low cost.

  4. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E. ); Phillips, T.D. )

    1988-05-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, and G{sub 2}, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  5. Occurrence of Toxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxin Potential of Aspergillus spp. Strains Associated with Subsistence Farmed Crops in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Aristil, Junior; Venturini, Giovanni; Spada, Alberto

    2017-03-14

    Subsistence farming and poor storage facilities favor toxigenic fungal contamination and mycotoxin accumulation in staple foods from tropical countries such as Haiti. The present preliminary study was designed to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic fungi in Haitian foodstuffs to define the mycotoxin risk associated with Haitian crops. The objectives of this research were to determine the distribution of toxigenic fungi in the Haitian crops maize, moringa, and peanut seeds and to screen Aspergillus section Flavi (ASF) isolates for production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 in vitro. Maize, moringa, and peanut samples were contaminated by potential toxigenic fungal taxa, mainly ASF and Fusarium spp. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. was influenced by locality and thus by farming systems, storage systems, and weather conditions. Particularly for ASF in peanut and maize samples, isolation frequencies were directly related to the growing season length. The present study represents the first report of contamination by toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin in moringa seeds, posing concerns about the safety of these seeds, which people in Haiti commonly consume. Most (80%) of the Haitian ASF strains were capable of producing aflatoxins, indicating that Haitian conditions clearly favor the colonization of toxigenic ASF strains over atoxigenic strains. ASF strains producing both aflatoxins B1 and G1 were found. Understanding the distribution of toxigenic ASF in Haitian crops and foodstuffs is important for determining accurate toxicological risks because the toxic profile of ASF is species specific. The occurrence of toxigenic fungi and the profiles of the ASF found in various crops highlight the need to prevent formation of aflatoxins in Haitian crops. This study provides relevant preliminary baseline data for guiding the development of legislation regulating the quality and safety of crops in this low-income country.

  6. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  7. Inhibition of aflatoxin production and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus by Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa essential oils.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Minooeianhaghighi, Mohammadhassan

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may control the production of aflatoxins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa on growth and aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs were determined and compared with each other. Determination of aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) was performed by immunoaffinity column extraction using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The major oil components were α-pinene (30%) in C. cyminum, pulegone (37%) in Z. clinopodioides, and trans-anthol (38.9%) in N. sativa oils. In broth microdilution method, C. cyminum oil exhibited the strongest activity (MIC(90): 1.6; MFC: 3.5 mg/mL), followed by Z. clinopodioides (MIC(90): 2.1; MFC: 5.5 mg/mL) and N. sativa (MIC(90): 2.75; MFC: 6.25 mg/mL) oils against A. parasiticus (p<0.05). Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 0.25 mg/mL of C. cyminum and Z. clinopodioides oils, of which that of C. cyminum was a stronger inhibitor. C. cyminum EO caused significant reductions in values of 94.2% for AFB(1), 100% for AFB(2), 98.9% for AFG(1), 100% for AFG(2), and 97.5% for total aflatoxin. It is concluded that the EOs of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides, and N. sativa could be used as natural inhibitors in foods at low concentrations to protect from fungal and toxin contaminations by A. parasiticus.

  8. Identification and quantification of a toxigenic and non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in contaminated maize using quantitative real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, which are produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, are toxic to humans, livestock, and pets. The value of maize (Zea mays) grain is markedly reduced when contaminated with aflatoxin. Plant resistance and biological control using non-toxin producing strains are considered effective st...

  9. Production and characterization of aflatoxin B2a antiserum.

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, P K; Lau, H P; Pestka, J J; Chu, F S

    1981-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of antiserum elicited from rabbits against aflatoxin B2a-bovine serum albumin conjugates were characterized with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxin B1 was first converted to aflatoxin B2a and then conjugated to bovine serum albumin and horseradish peroxidase by a reductive alkylation method. The antiserum was developed in New Zealand white rabbits by multiple-site injection with the aflatoxin B2a-bovine serum albumin conjugate. Antibody titers were determined by both RIA and ELISA. Competitive RIAs with various aflatoxin analogs indicated that the antiserum was most reactive with aflatoxin B1 and slightly cross-reactive with aflatoxins B2a, B2, and M1. Competitive ELISAs showed the antiserum to be equally specific for aflatoxins B2a and B12 and less reactive with aflatoxins B2 and M1. The relative sensitivities of RIA and ELISA for aflatoxin B1 quantitation were 100 and 10 pg per assay, respectively. PMID:7235694

  10. The major volatile compound 2-phenylethanol from the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala inhibits growth and expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a globally distributed fungus and an important food contaminant because it produces the most potent natural carcinogenic compound known as aflatoxin (AF) B1. The major volatile from a yeast strain, Pichia anomala WRL-076 was identified by SPEM-GC/MS analysis to be 2-phenylethan...

  11. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: A three year study in Sonora, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. Maize is cultivated from 0 to 2,100 masl under diverse growing regimes in the state of Sonora, Mexico. This is typical of the nation. In order to design sampling strat...

  12. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Negative Control (NC; 4 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.10% Biofix (Biomin Inc., Herzogenburg, Austria), 4) NC + 0.15% Cel-can (VAST Inc., Mason City, IA) and 0.50% bentonite clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( < 0.01) ADG than those fed the PC. Pigs fed Defusion Plus had improved ( < 0.03) ADG over those fed NC, whereas pigs fed Biofix or Cel-can with bentonite clay had reduced ADG ( < 0.01) compared with those fed PC. In Exp. 2, 340 pigs (11.7 ± 0.1 kg BW) were fed 1 of 8 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Low NC (1.5 mg/kg DON), 3) Low NC + 0.15% Biofix, 4) Low NC + 0.30% Biofix, 5) High NC (3.0 mg/kg DON), 6) High NC + 0.30% Biofix, 7) High NC + 0.45% Biofix, and 8) Diet 7 with 5% added water. Increasing the DON level reduced (linear; < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and pig BW, and Biofix did not improve performance. In Exp. 3, 1,008 pigs (12.5 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 6 treatments for 24 d. Diets were 1) PC ( < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion, 4) NC + 0.50% Defusion, 5) Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients, and 6) Diet 5, pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, but adding Defusion improved (linear; < 0.04) ADG and ADFI over pigs fed NC. Pelleting improved ( < 0.01) both ADG and G:F, resulting in ADG above PC pigs. In Exp. 4, 980 pigs (12.0 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 1 of 7 diets in a 28-d trial in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement. The 7 treatments were based on 3 diets fed in meal or pellet form: 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), and 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion. Treatment 7 was Diet 3 with

  16. Dissecting the various responsive modes to drought stress responses in corn with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought decreases crop yield and exacerbates Aspergillus flavus infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Deciphering crop tolerance and adaptation to drought can contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance through breeding. In order to investigate the responsive modes in co...

  17. Modelling Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxins production in pistachio nuts.

    PubMed

    Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, V

    2012-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are the main contaminants in pistachio nuts. AFs production in pistachio has been attributed to Aspergillus flavus. The aim of this study was to apply existing models to predict growth and AFs production by an A. flavus isolated from pistachios as a function of moisture content and storage temperature of pistachios in order to test their usefulness and complementarities. A full factorial design was used: the moisture content levels assayed were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and incubation temperatures were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. Both kinetic and probability models were built to predict growth of the strain under the assayed conditions. Among the assayed models, cardinal ones gave a good quality fit for radial growth rate data. Moreover, the progressive approach, which was developed based on a reduced number of experimental points led to an improved prediction in the validation step. This is quite significant as may allow for improved experimental designs, less costly than full factorial ones. Probability model proved to be concordant in 91% of the calibration set observations. Even though the validation set included conditions around the growth/no-growth interface, there was a 100% agreement in the predictions from the data set (n = 16, cut off = 0.5) after 60 days. Similarly, the probability for AF presence was rightly predicted in 89% of the cases. According to our results EC maximum aflatoxin levels would be surpassed in a period as short as 1 month if pistachio nuts reach 20 °C, unless %mc is ≤10%.

  18. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  19. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  20. Exposure of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 from Mother's Breast Milk in Ilam, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farajollah; Abdi, Soghra; Davodian, Elaham; Haghani, Karimeh; Bakhtiyari, Salar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aflatoxins as a highly toxic group of mycotoxins are present in the environment and foodstuff. These have been reported to cause serious health problems in humans. Since aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into breast milk, investigating the exposure of infants to AFM1 is of special concern. Methods In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 85 lactating mothers in Ilam province, Iran, and the levels of AFM1 were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based technique. AFM1 was detected in breast milk of all lactating women. The mean contamination level was 5.91 ± 2.031 ng/L, ranging from 2 ng/L to 10 ng/L. Results Multiple regression analysis indicated no significant associations of consumption of milk and dairy products, meat, fish, legumes, grain products, fruits, and nuts with the concentration of AFM1 in breast milk. Furthermore, no significant association was observed between AFM1 concentration and anthropometric data of infants. Conclusion In western parts of Iran, lactating mothers and their infants could be at risk of aflatoxin B1 and AFM1 exposure, respectively. Therefore, in Iran, the evaluation of AFM1 in human breast milk as a biomarker for postnatal exposure of infants to this carcinogen requires more attention in different regions and various seasons. PMID:26929911

  1. Prevention of Aflatoxin B1-Induced DNA Breaks by β-D-Glucan

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Morales-González, José Antonio; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Álvarez-González, Isela; Pérez-Pasten, Ricardo; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of naturally-occurring carcinogens that are known to contaminate different human and animal foodstuffs. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most genotoxic hepatocarcinogenic compound of all of the aflatoxins. In this report, we explore the capacity of β-d-glucan (Glu) to reduce the DNA damage induced by AFB1 in mouse hepatocytes. For this purpose, we applied the comet assay to groups of animals that were first administered Glu in three doses (100, 400 and 700 mg/kg bw, respectively) and, 20 min later, 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1. Liver cells were obtained at 4, 10 and 16 h after the chemical administration and examined. The results showed no protection of the damage induced by AFB1 with the low dose of the polysaccharide, but they did reveal antigenotoxic activity exerted by the two high doses. In addition, we induced a co-crystallization between both compounds, determined their fusion points and analyzed the molecules by UV spectroscopy. The data suggested the formation of a supramolecular complex between AFB1 and β-d-glucan. PMID:26110504

  2. [Some aspects relating to the aflatoxin generation during the self-heating of cereals].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G

    1978-01-01

    In a stored batch of grain which was already affected by mould-formation tests were carried out with the known aflatoxin producer Aspergillus flavus. A significantly lower aflatoxin production ensued if the mould growth was not connected with self-heating of the stored product. However, in conformity with increasing mould formation the germinating power was adversely affected and the significant signs (fatty acid number, reductive and none-reductive sugars) were influenced in the grain, irrelevently whether or not this led to self-heating. It appears obvious that as the self-heating increases in the stored product, the optimal temperature range favourable for the Aspergillus flavus is rapidly exceeding and this caused restriction to the aflatoxin formation. This leads to the conclusion that the contamination on the outer layer by mycotoxines is more significant on the outer layers than the more or less strong mould formation in the interior (so-called-mouldly pockets) which ensued through the self-heating fenomena.

  3. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Inês Filipa Martins; Martins, Hermínia Marina Lourdes; Santos, Sara Maria Oliveira; Freitas, Maria Suzana; da Costa, José Manuel Gaspar Nunes; d´Almeida Bernardo, Fernando Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Thesafety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2%) in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%), ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9%) with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%). Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%), ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative. PMID:22069703

  4. Mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, J A; Cuneah, O; Sulyok, M; Krska, R; Galon, N; Sharir, B; Shlosberg, A

    2013-01-01

    Silage is an important feed source for intensive dairy herds worldwide. Fungal growth and mycotoxin production before and during silage storage is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in reduced nutritional value and a possible risk factor for animal health. With this in mind, a survey was conducted to determine for the first time the occurrence of mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel. A total of 30 corn and wheat silage samples were collected from many sources and analysed using a multi-mycotoxin method based on LC-MS/MS. Most mycotoxins recorded in the present study have not been reported before in Israel. Overall, 23 mycotoxins were found in corn silage; while wheat silage showed a similar pattern of mycotoxin occurrence comprising 20 mycotoxins. The most common post-harvest mycotoxins produced by the Penicillium roqueforti complex were not found in any tested samples, indicative of high-quality preparation and use of silage. Moreover, none of the European Union-regulated mycotoxins--aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and deoxynivalenol--were found above their limits of detection (LODs). The Alternaria mycotoxins--macrosporin, tentoxin and alternariol methyl ether--were highly prevalent in both corn and wheat silage (>80%), but at low concentrations. The most prominent (>80%) Fusarium mycotoxins in corn silage were fusaric acid, fumonisins, beauvericin, monilifomin, equisetin, zearalenone and enniatins, whereas in wheat silage only beauvericin, zearalenone and enniatins occurred in more than 80% of the samples. The high prevalence and concentration of fusaric acid (mean = 765 µg kg⁻¹) in Israeli corn silage indicates that this may be the toxin of highest potential concern to dairy cow performance. However, more data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in order to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Israeli silage.

  5. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Hong

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a pretreatment technique for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), G(1), B(2), and G(2) in grains and grain products. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, and time, were identified to be acetonitrile as the extraction solvent at 80 °C with 15 min of MAE. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid and were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Sep-Pak cartridge was chosen over Oasis HLB and Bond Elut cartridges. By the use of aflatoxin M(1) as an internal standard, relative recoveries of the aflatoxins ranged from 90.7 to 105.7 % for corn and from 88.1 to 103.4 % for wheat, with relative standard deviations between 2.5 and 8.7 %. A total of 36 samples from local markets were analyzed, and aflatoxin B(1) was found to be the predominant toxin, with concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 3.41 μg/kg.

  6. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Curcuma longa L. and curcumin on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Janeiro, Vanderly; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-15

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food and commodities poses serious hazards to the health of humans and animals. Turmeric, Curcuma longa L., is a native plant of Southeast Asia and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal properties. This paper reports the antiaflatoxigenic activities of the essential oil of C. longa and curcumin. The medium tests were prepared with the oil of C. longa, and the curcumin standard at concentrations varied from 0.01% to 5.0%. All doses of the essential oil of the plant and the curcumin standard interfered with mycotoxin production. Both the essential oil and curcumin significantly inhibited the production of aflatoxins; the 0.5% level had a greater than 96% inhibitory effect. The levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production were 1.0 and 42.7 μg/mL, respectively, for the samples treated with the essential oil of C. longa L. and curcumin at a concentration of 0.5%.

  7. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Bohm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B(1) to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B(1) level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed.

  8. Theoretical characterization of aflatoxins and their phototoxic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Rita C.; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2006-05-01

    Key molecular properties are calculated for the 8 most common aflatoxins at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level. Special attention is given the possibility of aflatoxins to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is concluded that the excited triplet states of the aflatoxins have properties that make them very potent ROS generators, in addition to direct photoinduced addition reactions. The elevated toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is discussed in terms of its lower ionization potential, and the coincidence of higher lying triplet states with dominant low-lying singlet excitations, which enables rapid intersystem crossing and decay along the triplet channel to the T 1 state.

  9. PCR detection of aflatoxin producing fungi and its limitations.

    PubMed

    Levin, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    Unlike bacterial toxins that are primarily peptides and are therefore encoded by a single gene, fungal toxins such as the aflatoxins are multi-ring structures and therefore require a sequence of structural genes for their biological synthesis. There is therefore no specific PCR for any one of the four biologically produced aflatoxins. Unfortunately, the structural genes presently in use for PCR detection of aflatoxin producing fungi are also involved in the synthesis of other fungal toxins such as sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and Aspergillus nidulans and therefore lack absolute specificity for aflatoxin producing fungi (Table 1). In addition, the genomic presence of several structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis does not guarantee the production of aflatoxin by all isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The most widely used DNA target regions for discriminating Aspergillus species are those of the rDNA complex, mainly the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) and the variable regions in the 5'-end of the 28S rRNA gene. Since these sequence regions are unrelated to the structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis there successful amplification can be used for species identification but do not confirm aflatoxin production. This review therefore presents the various approaches and limitations in the use of the PCR in attempting to detect aflatoxin producing fungi.

  10. Occurrence and exposure assessment of aflatoxins in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V; Marín, S; Ramos, A J

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the exposure of Catalonian (Spain) population to AFs. Thus, two sub-objectives were considered: (1) to assess the occurrence of AFs in food marketed in Catalonia, and (2) to assess the consumption of those foods susceptible to AFs contamination by Catalonian population. AFs were analysed in a total of 603 samples considering special commodities as free-gluten, ethnic or baby foods. Analytical method consisted of an extraction and clean-up of aflatoxins step using immunoaffinity columns, and determination by HPLC with post-column photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. Food dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, administered to 1387 individuals by trained interviewers. Contamination and consumption raw datasets were combined by means of a direct method and a stochastic method, building the pseudo-parametric bootstrap confidence intervals of the main outputs. Margins of exposure (MoE) and cancer incidence were estimated for the different collectives. The highest percentages of positive samples were found in red pepper, pistachios and peanuts. Considering our results, the most exposed group was the celiac sufferer collective followed by the adolescents; however health concern should not be expected in the population groups.

  11. Microbiological and aflatoxin evaluation of Brazil nut pods and the effects of unit processing operations.

    PubMed

    Arrus, Katia; Blank, Greg; Clear, Randall; Holley, Richard A; Abramson, David

    2005-05-01

    Harvesting of Brazil nuts not only helps to preserve the Amazon rainforest but also provides income to individuals who would otherwise have little means of making a livelihood. Recently, the European Community has tightened the quality requirements for Brazil nuts, particularly with regard to aflatoxin levels and microbiological contamination. The objectives of this research were to gain a better understanding of the origin of aflatoxins on Brazil nuts and to microbiologically evaluate some of the operations involved in processing. In this regard, five Brazil nut pods were aseptically picked from trees located in each of three concessions of the Peruvian Amazon rainforest (Madre de Dios province). The exteriors of the pods and the nuts were examined for yeast and molds, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and for bacteria, including Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Brazil nuts obtained from various commercial process operations located in Peru were similarly evaluated. Exteriors of all Brazil nut pods did not contain A. parasiticus, and only pods from one concession yielded A. flavus isolates. All isolates tested were aflatoxigenic (630 to 915 ppb total aflatoxin). Coliforms, E. coli, and salmonellae were not recovered from any of the pods. Whole, in-shell nuts obtained after opening the pods yielded no A. flavus or A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins were not detected (detection limit 1.75 ppb) in any of the nuts. Whole, in-shell and shelled nuts from various process operations were all positive for A. flavus but negative for E. coli and salmonellae. Soaking of whole, in-shell nuts before cracking or shelling increased coliform numbers, whereas levels of A. flavus decreased. In order to gain a better understanding of the sanitary performance of the unit process operations, additional evaluations should be conducted on product lots processed on different days. Also, the microbiology of product processed from common lots should be followed through the

  12. Inhibitory effects of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Jaimand, Kamkar; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2008-04-30

    In an effort to screen the essential oils of some Iranian medicinal plants for novel aflatoxin (AF) inhibitors, Satureja hortensis L. was found as a potent inhibitor of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and G1(AFG1) production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Fungal growth was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Separation of the plant inhibitory substance(s) was achieved using initial fractionation of its effective part (leaf essential oil; LEO) by silica gel column chromatography and further separation by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). These substances were finally identified as carvacrol and thymol, based on the interpretation of 1H and 13C NMR spectra. Microbioassay (MBA) on cell culture microplates contained potato-dextrose broth (PDB) medium (4 days at 28 degrees C) and subsequent analysis of cultures with HPLC technique revealed that both carvacrol and thymol were able to effectively inhibit fungal growth, AFB1 and AFG1 production in a dose-dependent manner at all two-fold concentrations from 0.041 to 1.32 mM. The IC50 values for growth inhibition were calculated as 0.79 and 0.86 mM for carvacrol and thymol, while for AFB1 and AFG1, it was reported as 0.50 and 0.06 mM for carvacrol and 0.69 and 0.55 mM for thymol. The results obtained in this study clearly show a new biological activity for S. hortensis L. as strong inhibition of aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus. Carvacrol and thymol, the effective constituents of S. hortensis L., may be useful to control aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field.

  13. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  14. A portable fluorometer for the rapid screening of M1 aflatoxin in milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, C.; Mignani, A. G.; Dall'Asta, C.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.; Marchelli, R.; Pela, R.

    2006-04-01

    A compact fluorometric sensor equipped with a LED source and a high sensitivity PMT detector has been implemented for the selective detection of native fluorescence of aflatoxin AFM1 in liquid solutions. This compact and easy-to-handle device is addressed to the rapid monitoring of AFM1 in milk, enabling the detection of concentrations up to the legal limit, which is 50 ppt. The system is suitable for preliminary screening at the earlier stages of the industrial process, and makes it possible to discard contaminated milk stocks before their inclusion in the production chain.

  15. A facile method for the fabrication of magnetic molecularly imprinted stir-bars: A practical example with aflatoxins in baby foods.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Regal, Patricia; Barreiro, Rocío; Fente, Cristina A; Cepeda, Alberto

    2016-11-04

    A fast and facile method for the fabrication of magnetic molecularly imprinted stir-bars (MMIP-SB) has been developed, using a combination of imprinting technology and magnetite. Magnetite was prepared in the laboratory from the raw and embedded into molecularly imprinted polymers through a process of bulk polymerization. This novel design was applied to the analysis of aflatoxins, one of the most important groups of mycotoxins in terms of occurrence and toxicity. In the context of food safety, molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising tool to achieve selective and accessible methods of extraction for different residues and contaminants. Considering the toxicity of aflatoxins, a dummy template was preferred for the synthesis of the imprinted polymers. A rapid and affordable extraction method for isolating five different aflatoxins that may be present in food was developed. The MMIP-SB was used as a conventional stir-bar and combined with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder (infant formulas) and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in cereal-based baby foods. The results showed an average recovery of 60%, 43, 40, 44 and 39%, respectively, and RSD below 10%. These in-house prepared stir-bars featured good stirring and extraction performance, and recognition abilities, offering a good alternative to more complicated.

  16. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize land races (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before establishment of the modern state. MLRs have bee...

  17. Aflatoxin B1 Risk Management in Parmigiano Reggiano Dairy Cow Feed

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Barbara; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Biancardi, Alberto; Piazza, Pierluigi; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Tosi, Giovanni; Giacometti, Federica; Nocetti, Marco; Fustini, Mattia; Serraino, Andrea; Formigoni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in dairy cow feed and the risk management of AFB1 content in concentrates undertaken by feed industries in the Parmigiano Reggiano area. Data on aflatoxin contamination risk management applied in 29 feed industries were collected and the AFB1 content of 70 feed samples was analysed. Data were collected within the framework of a quality control programme promoted by the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium in 2013 and 2014. Audit results showed that the control procedures to prevent AFB1 contamination mainly focused on maize and its by-products. AFB1 concentration resulted lower than 5 ppb [legal European Union (EU) limit] in all samples; in one out of 70 samples, AFB1 content was 3.8 ppb and in all the other samples it was lower than 3 ppb. Results showed that AFB1 risk management applied by Italian feed industries effectively monitors AFB1 levels in feed below the EU legal limit. PMID:27800427

  18. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  19. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  20. Mycotoxin Contamination of Agricultural Products in the Southern United States and Approaches to Reducing it from Pre-harvest to Final Food Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins represent >300 fungal natural products. Some, notably aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenones, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins frequently contaminate cereal grains, causing acute and chronic illnesses in livestock and humans, including teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, endocrine disrup...